Amplified: To you then who believe (who adhere to, trust in, and rely on Him) is the preciousness; but for those who disbelieve [it is true], The [very] Stone which the builders rejected has become the main Cornerstone, (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: Unto you therefore which believe He is precious: but unto them which be disobedient, the Stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the Head of the corner,
NLT: Yes, he is very precious to you who believe. But for those who reject him, "The stone that was rejected by the builders has now become the cornerstone." (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: It is you who believe in him that he is "precious", but to those who disobey God, it is true that: 'The stone which the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone'. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: For you therefore who are believers is the honor and the preciousness [of the Living Stone], but to those who are disbelievers, the Stone which the builders repudiated after they had tested Him for the purpose of approving Him, finding Him to be that which did not meet their specifications, this Stone became a Head Cornerstone, (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: to you, then, who are believing is the preciousness; and to the unbelieving, a stone that the builders disapproved of, this one did become for the head of a corner,
THIS PRECIOUS VALUE, THEN, IS FOR YOU WHO BELIEVE: humin oun e time tois pisteuousin (PAPMPD): (1Pe 1:8; Song 5:9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16; Hag 2:7; Mt 13:44, 45, 46; Jn 4:42; 6:68,69; Phil 3:7, 8, 9, 10) (Isa 28:5; Lk 2:32) (Spurgeon's Devotional)
Spurgeon - He is preciousness, He is an honor, He is everything that is glorious to you. You can never think highly enough of Him, or speak well enough concerning Him. All the world beside may disallow Him, but unto you He is precious.
J B Taylor explains that "In its original context this reflected the Psalmist’s own jubilation at his vindication over the enemies who had rejected him, but in its liturgical setting in the Feast of Tabernacles the psalm came to refer more to national than to personal deliverance. In rabbinical exegesis it was accorded a Messianic interpretation and this prepared the way for its use by Christ of himself in Mt 21:42; Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17. (Wood, D. R. W.. New Bible Dictionary InterVarsity Press)
The Precious value (5092) (time from tío = pay honor, respect) refers to the worth or merit of some object. It is the amount at which something is valued!
The Greek word time is used 41 times in the NT - Matt. 27:6, 9; Jn. 4:44; Acts 4:34; 5:2f; 7:16; 19:19; 28:10; Rom. 2:7, 10; 9:21; 12:10; 13:7; 1 Co. 6:20; 7:23; 12:23f; Col. 2:23; 1 Thess. 4:4; 1 Tim. 1:17; 5:17; 6:1, 16; 2 Tim. 2:20f; Heb. 2:7, 9; 3:3; 5:4; 1 Pet. 1:7; 2:7; 3:7; 2 Pet. 1:17; Rev. 4:9, 11; 5:12f; 7:12; 21:26
Notice that precious (time) is a favorite word of Peter. He also uses the related derivative adjective entimos (1784) two times (Click), this word pertaining to that which is highly regarded because of status or to that which is esteemed as of considerable worth and thus valuable or precious.
The Greek word time reflects a manifestation of esteem (the regard with which one is held), honor, reverence. Time is a valuing by which the price is fixed or an estimation of the value of a thing. In the present context, time is descriptive of the inestimable, infinite worth of Christ our Rock.
In this passage Peter contrasts the significance of the Living Stone to believers with what this same Living Stone becomes to unbelievers who refuse to allow Him to become precious to them (by believing in Him).
G Campbell Morgan comments that...
Spurgeon comments that...
Believe (4100) (pisteuo from pistis; pistos; related studies the faith, the obedience of faith) means to consider something to be true and therefore worthy of one’s trust. To accept as true, genuine, or real. To have a firm conviction as to the goodness, efficacy, or ability of something or someone. To consider to be true. To accept the word or evidence of.
Peter uses pisteuo in the present tense which describes this belief as one's practice.
Vincent notes that pisteuo "means to persuade, to cause belief, to induce one to do something by persuading, and so runs into the meaning of to obey, properly as the result of persuasion
In secular Greek literature, as well as in the New Testament, pisteuo (pistis, pistos) has a basic meaning of an intellectual assent or a belief that something is true. Michel says that this use arose during the Hellenistic period. During the struggle with skepticism and atheism, it acquired the sense of conviction concerning the existence and activity of the Greek gods. Thayer calls this the intransitive use of the word which conveys the idea of to be sure or be persuaded that something is a fact. This kind of faith does not require any action on the part of the believer but only an intellectual acceptance. As discussed below, James used this type of faith as an example of a dead faith stating that "The devils also believe, and tremble" (James 2:19).
The other secular Greek meaning that is the more common use in the New Testament is the transitive or active use which means to "put faith in" or "rely upon" someone or something. Sometimes it has even stronger meaning: "To entrust something to another." In classical usage it denoted conduct that honored a previous agreement, such as the honoring of a truce between opposing armies (Iliad 2.124). The meaning of entrusting something to someone is found in Xenophon (Memorabilia 4.4.17). An example of this use in the New Testament is 2 Timothy 1:12. Paul said
Pisteuo means to entrust oneself to an entity in complete confidence. To believe in with the implication of total commitment to the one who is trusted. As discussed below Christ is the object of this type of faith that relies on His power and nearness to help, in addition to being convinced that His revelations or disclosures are true.
The noun pistis and the verb pisteuo, mean an adherence to, committal to, faith in, reliance upon, trust in a person or an object, to be persuaded of or convinced of something, to place one's confidence in, to trust.
Pisteuo can also mean to be confident about or to be firmly persuaded as to something, and so Paul writes...
As noted above, pisteuo can refer to an heart belief (saving faith, genuine belief that leads to salvation, this believing involves not only the consent of the mind, but an act of the heart and will of the subject) or an intellectual belief (mental assent, "head" knowledge, not associated with bringing salvation if it is by itself), both uses demonstrated by Jesus statement in John 11,
Pisteuo is found 24 times in the Septuagint (LXX) and the first use by Moses is one of the most important uses of pisteuo in all of Scripture...
As alluded to above, Biblical faith or believing is not synonymous with mental assent alone, which is not genuine (saving) faith. For example, the apostle John distinguishes two types of believing using the verb pisteuo, one of which is only a superficial profession...
In another example of believing that falls short of genuine saving belief John records that when Jesus spoke to the Jews "who had believed (pisteuo) Him" (John 8:31) but as their subsequent actions demonstrated their belief was not genuine for Jesus accused them declaring "you are seeking to kill Me" (John 8:40) and after several heated exchanges, these same "believing" Jews "fulfilled prophecy" and indeed sought to kill Jesus, picking
Wuest writes that when pisteuo refers "to the faith which a lost sinner must place in the Lord Jesus in order to be saved, they include the following ideas; the act of considering the Lord Jesus worthy of trust as to His character and motives, the act of placing confidence in His ability to do just what He says He will do, the act of entrusting the salvation of his soul into the hands of the Lord Jesus, the act of committing the work of saving his soul to the care of the Lord. This means a definite taking of one’s self out of one’s own keeping and entrusting one’s self into the keeping of the Lord Jesus. (Wuest, K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans)
Nelson's New Illustrated Bible Dictionary says that "A belief that saves is one that rests in the finished work of Christ; it trusts God alone for salvation (John 3:16). Believers are those who have trusted God with their will as well as their mind (see notes Romans 1:16; Romans 3:22; 1Thessalonians 1:7). (Youngblood, R. F., Bruce, F. F., Harrison, R. K., & Thomas Nelson Publishers. Nelson's New Illustrated Bible Dictionary)
Larry Richards has an excellent discussion on believing writing that...
J. B. Lightfoot discusses the concept of faith in his commentary on Galatians. He notes that in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, the definition of the word for faith "hovers between two meanings: trustfulness, the frame of mind which relies on another; and trustworthiness, the frame of mind which can be relied upon...the senses will at times be so blended together that they can only be separated by some arbitrary distinction. The loss in grammatical precision is often more than compensated by the gain in theological depth...They who have faith in God are steadfast and immovable in the path of duty.
Faith, like grace, is not static. Saving faith is more than just understanding the facts and mentally acquiescing. It is inseparable from repentance, surrender, and a supernatural longing to obey. None of those responses can be classified exclusively as a human work, any more than believing itself is solely a human effort.
Faith is manifest by not believing in spite of evidence but obeying in spite of consequence. John uses pisteuo to demonstrate the relationship between genuine faith and obedience writing...
Charles Swindoll commenting on faith and obedience in John 3:36 concludes that "In John 3:36 the one who "believes in the Son has eternal life" as a present possession. But the one who "does not obey the Son shall not see life." To disbelieve Christ is to disobey Him. And logically, to believe in Christ is to obey Him. As I have noted elsewhere, "This verse clearly indicates that belief is not a matter of passive opinion, but decisive and obedient action." (quoting J. Carl Laney)...Tragically many people are convinced that it doesn't really matter what you believe, so long as you are sincere. This reminds me of a Peanuts cartoon in which Charlie Brown is returning from a disastrous baseball game. The caption read, "174 to nothing! How could we lose when we were so sincere?" The reality is, Charlie Brown, that it takes more than sincerity to win the game of life. Many people are sincere about their beliefs, but they are sincerely wrong!" (Swindoll, C. R., & Zuck, R. B. Understanding Christian Theology.: Thomas Nelson Publishers) (This book is recommended if you are looking for a very readable, non-compromising work on "systematic theology". Wayne Grudem's work noted above is comparable.)
Subjectively faith is firm persuasion, conviction, belief in the truth, veracity, reality or faithfulness (though rare). Objectively faith is that which is believed (usually designated as "the faith"), doctrine, the received articles of faith. Click separate study of "the faith (pistis)"
True faith is not based on empirical evidence but on divine assurance.
When missionary John Paton was translating the Scripture for the South Sea islanders, he was unable to find a word in their vocabulary for the concept of believing, trusting, or having faith. He had no idea how he would convey that to them. One day while he was in his hut translating, a native came running up the stairs into Paton's study and flopped in a chair, exhausted. He said to Paton, "It's so good to rest my whole weight in this chair." John Paton had his word: Faith is resting your whole weight on God. That word went into the translation of their New Testament and helped bring that civilization of natives to Christ. Believing is putting your whole weight on God. If God said it, then it's true, and we're to believe it.
Nothing before, nothing behind,
As the great British preacher C H Spurgeon said...
The great Baptist preacher Adrian Rogers "A faith that hasn't been tested can't be trusted.
Corrie ten Boom "Faith sees the invisible, believes the unbelievable, and receives the impossible.
Faith, mighty faith, the promise sees,
The great American evangelist, D L Moody - I prayed for faith and thought that some day faith would come down and strike me like lightning. But faith did not seem to come. One day I read in the tenth chapter of Romans, "Faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the Word of God." I had up to this time closed my Bible and prayed for faith. I now opened my Bible and began to study, and faith has been growing ever since.
BUT FOR THOSE WHO (continually, habitually, as their life long habitual practice) DISBELIEVE: apistousin (PAPMPD) de: (1Peter 2:8; Acts 26:19; Ro 10:21; 15:31; Titus 3:3; Heb 4:11; 11:31)
But (de) - (See discussion of term of contrast) What a woeful (woe filled) contrast! The preciousness of belief stands in stark contrast to the danger of disbelief! One is reminded of Jonathan Edward's sermon where he describes the treacherous fate of sinners barely held as it were from the eternal fires of hell by only the web of a spider - oh, woe filled disbelief! It behooves both saints (that we would be swift and bold to proclaim the gospel while there is yet light of day) and sinners (that they might rightly fear and flee to find refuge in the Rock of Salvation while there is yet breath in their lungs) to be reminded of the destiny and dreadful doom of disbelief by reading this short an excerpt from Edward's awful (awe filled) sermon...
Those who disbelieve - Such as the unbelieving Jewish leaders. They examined Jesus even acknowledging that He had the "trappings" and works of divinity but they refused to accept Him as the long awaited Messiah, the Corner Stone. Why? Because Jesus did not fit with their preconceived ideas of what the Messiah should be like. And because they were rebellious and did not want to submit their will to the will of God. And so they made (like all unregenerate men do) the volitional choice, the definitive decision to reject Him as Savior and Lord. And when that happens in one's heart and mind, there is simply no other "way of escape" from the wrath to come! (cp Hebrews 2:2-note, Hebrews 2:3-note)
THE DANGER OF
Disbelieve (569) (apisteo from a = without + pistos = believing, faithful) means literally without believing. They refuse to believe and thus are unfaithful. To disbelieve, to doubt or not to acknowledge. To betray a trust. Unbelief is a failure to respond to God with trust (pistis) and at heart shows, not doubt, but rejection.
Vine feels that "disbelieve” is the best rendering, implying that the unbeliever has had a full opportunity of believing and has rejected it (Vine, W E: Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words. 1996. Nelson)
Apisteo is in the present tense which indicates that this is their lifestyle. In other words the way they carry on their life is in continual disbelief which is manifest by their continual disobedience to God's Truth (compare "belief/obedience" with "disbelief/disobedience" in Heb 3:18, 19-note). Their lips may profess Christ as Savior, but their life proclaims the undeniable reality of their disbelief. Do not be deceived but remember Jesus' sobering warning noting especially His "numerical" description of "not everyone...many" - Mt 7:21-note, Mt 7:22, 23 (where "does" [v21] and "practice" [v23] are both present tense = one's general lifestyle, the "direction" of their life!)-note. (cp Titus 1:16-note) Someone may say they know Jesus but the more important question is "Does Jesus truly know them"? In other words, do they merely have a profession or truly have a possession (of Christ and eternal life)? Do they possess...genuine belief or genuine disbelief...heaven or hell? The question than is "If you say you believe in Jesus, has this belief made a real change in your life? Are you a new creation in Christ (2Co 5:17-note), with new tastes, new desires, new interests, etc? And note well "new creation" does not mean perfection in this life but it does connote at least a general change in direction! To manifest a life of continual disbelief is a "direction" that will inevitably lead one to eternal separation from "the presence of the Lord [kurios] and from the glory of His power" (read 2Th 1:6, 7, 8, 9, 10).
Apisteo is used 6 times in the NAS: (Mark 16:11, Mark 16:16, Luke 24:11, 41 - these all refer to disbelieving Christ's resurrection. Apisteo is used to describe the Jews who are listening to Paul's testimony of Christ in Acts 28:24. See notes on the other two uses in Ro 3:3-note, 2Ti 2:13-note)
Apisteo is translated disbelieve, not believe or faithless. Apisteo is not found in the non-apocryphal Septuagint (LXX).
In this verse Peter uses apisteo to describe those who disbelieve and thus those who have rejected the Stone, Christ Jesus.
It is interesting to note that the Greek Textus Receptus (Greek manuscript used to translate the King James Version) does not use apisteo here in verse 7 (as does the Nestle-Aland which is the Greek manuscript which is the source of the translation) but instead uses apeitheo which it renders "disobedient". The meaning of these two verbs is similar as one can discern from comparing the preceding word study of apisteo with the study of apeitheo below.
Disobedient (KJV) (544) (apeitheo from a = without + peítho = persuade) literally describes one who refuses to be persuaded and who disbelieves willfully and perversely. Apeitheo in the present context means that these individuals possess an attitude of unbelief because they deliberately disobey, consciously resist and rebel against authority and finally manifest an obstinate rejection of the will (truth) of God. The present tense indicates that this is their lifestyle or their habitual practice. They live in continual disobedience to the Almighty, Holy God. To be sure, we all disobey from time to time. That is not what Peter is referring to here. Instead he is describing the individual with an unregenerate heart who habitually, continually disobeys (as a lifestyle) what he or she knows to be the truth.
Unbelievers were constantly rejecting, ridiculing, mocking, abusing, threatening, and persecuting him—even while he was sharing the glorious news of eternal life with them.
Marvin Vincent in discussing apeitheo in John 3:36 writes that..
Peter also uses apeitheo in the verse below (1Peter 2:8-note), in 1Peter 3:1 (see note), in 1Peter 3:20 (note) and in 1Peter 4:17 (note) where the renders it disobedient., in each of these verses except 1 Peter 4:17) where it is rendered "do not obey".
Peter quotes the Septuagint (LXX) of Psalm 118:22 [lithon on apedokimasan (3PAAI) oi oikodomountes (PAPMPD) houtos egenethe (3SAPI) eis kephalen gonias]
Spurgeon - Here Peter quotes from Psalm 118:22. What reverence these inspired men had for the inspired Book! The Spirit of God could have spoken fresh words if he had pleased, but, as if he meant to honor above everything else the Book which he had himself inspired, he “moved” Peter to quote the ancient prophet and psalmist in confirmation of what he was writing. (1 Peter 2 Commentary)
C H Spurgeon commenting on Psalm 118:22 writes the following note...
Builders (3618)(oikodomeo from oikos = dwelling + doma = building [of a house] from demo = to build) means literally to build, construct or erect a dwelling. Oikodomeo is used here as a metaphor meaning to build up, establish, confirm, edify.
Rejected (593) (apodokimazo from apo = from + dokimazo = to prove) means to reject as the result of examination and testing of one’s qualification for an office. Later it came to mean to put out of office or place, to reject, disapprove, refuse. The aorist tense describes their rejection as effective - as a past completed action.
Apodokimazo is used 9 times in the NT - Matt. 21:42; Mk. 8:31; 12:10; Lk. 9:22; 17:25; 20:17; Heb. 12:17; 1Pet. 2:4, 7
Wuest writes that apodokimazo "refers to the act of putting someone or something to the test for the purpose of putting one’s approval upon that person and thus receiving him, this act of testing being carried to the point where no further testing is needed, with the result that one comes to the settled conclusion that the one tested does not meet the requirements of the test and is therefore disapproved, repudiated. This Living Stone in the Person of God the Son became incarnate, lived for thirty-three years in the midst of Israel, offered Himself as its Messiah, was examined by official Israel for the purpose of approving Him as its Messiah, and then repudiated because He was not what official Israel wanted in a Messiah. What a commentary on the totally depraved condition of man’s heart. (Wuest, K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans)
The paradoxical picture is that the perfect Lamb of God, the Creator of the Universe, was rejected by His creation, men who had carefully evaluated the perfect God Man and found Him not "passing their test"! What a striking contrast with scene John witnessed in heaven...
When the Jewish leaders looked at the Stone (Christ) Who "invaded" their religious world, He was not wanted, did not fit in with their theological plans and was useless and unfit for what they were building.
Men by their Adamic nature are rebels to the core and thus continue to reject Jesus for much the same reason -- they want to build their own "castles" the way they want (Pr 14:12, 16:25) doing what is right in their own eyes, living unrestrained by His call to holiness and godliness made available through His indwelling Spirit: (cp Jdg 21:25-note, Pr 29:18-note).
Steven Cole rightly reminds us that as we speak forth the Gospel to the lost world...
THIS BECAME THE VERY CORNER STONE: houtos egenethe (3SAPI) eis kephalen gonias: (Ps 118:22,23; Mt 21:42; Mk 12:10,11; Lk 20:17; Acts 4:11,12) (Zech 4:7; Col 2:10)
Became (1096) (ginomai) means to come into existence.
The very corner - This literally reads the head of the corner.
Very (2776) (kephale, English = cephalic) refers literally to the head (of a body) and figuratively to describe persons of superior rank or high status (1Cor 11:3), things that are uppermost, such as the capstone of a building (Mt 21:42) or a leading city or capital city (Acts 16:12).
Kephale is used figuratively to refer to Christ as head of the Church, His Body.
Corner stone (1137) (gonia) refers literally to an angle, a corner (point where lines, edges or sides converge, a corner of a building and figuratively refers to the four "corners" of the earth in the Revelation, referring to the four directional extremities of the earth. A corner is defined as the place of intersection of two streets or roads, an apropos definition when one thinks of Christ Who is all and in all! The derivative word akrogoniaios (cornerstone, capstone) is used by Peter in 1Peter 2:6 (note).
Gonia is modified by the word kephale (translated head, chief or very) in 4 of the NT uses all of which represent a quotation from Psalm 118:22 and all of which refer to Christ. The phrase kephale gonias (chief corner) is a Hebraism which refers to the final stone in the building (according to the TDNT). The unique stone of the pinnacle corner is Christ Himself, Who is also the temple's foundation. He is both underneath all, upholding us, and above all, crowning us as our glorious Head.
Cornerstone in its literal usage most often referred to the large stone placed in the foundation at the main corner of a building. In biblical times, buildings were often made of cut, squared stone. By uniting two intersecting walls, a cornerstone helped align the whole building and tie it together. In addition the cornerstone occasionally referred to the top or final stone of a building (capstone). Regardless of which meaning one prefers, the important point is that Jesus is both the Foundation Stone and the Capstone! Anyone who believes in Jesus will come to experience that He is the Solid Rock on which they can build their life in this present age and the one to come and forever. Amen!
My Hope Is Built|
Amplified: And, A Stone that will cause stumbling and a Rock that will give [men] offense; they stumble because they disobey and disbelieve [God’s] Word, as those [who reject Him] were destined (appointed) to do. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence, even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed.
NLT: And the Scriptures also say, "He is the stone that makes people stumble, the rock that will make them fall." They stumble because they do not listen to God's word or obey it, and so they meet the fate that has been planned for them. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: And he is, to them, 'a stone of stumbling and a rock of offence'. Yes, they stumble at the Word of God for in their hearts they are unwilling to obey it - which makes stumbling a foregone conclusion. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: and an obstacle stone against which one cuts, and a rock which trips one, even to those who because they are non-persuasible, stumble up against the Word, to which [action of stumbling] they were indeed appointed. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: and a stone of stumbling and a rock of offence -- who are stumbling at the word, being unbelieving, -- to which also they were set;
AND A STONE OF STUMBLING: kai lithos proskommatos: (Isa 8:14; 57:14; Lk 2:34; Ro 9:32,33; 1Cor 1:23; 2Cor 2:16)
A Stone of stumbling - A stone that people could trip over as they traveled down a road, in the case of rejecters, a "road" which would lead to eternal death, the most horrible aspect of which is separation from the presence of God Himself (2Th 1:7, 8, 9, 10)!
Stone (3037)(lithos) is literally a fragment of a rock - for building (Mt 24:2), sealing Christ's tomb (Mt 27:60), for engraved writing (2Co 3:7), of precious stones (Re 4:3) and as in this passage figuratively used to describe Christ (cp Mt21:42), as well as His believers (1Pe 2:5).
Peter identifies the Messiah, the Christ, as the Living Stone (1Pe 2:4-note), the Corner Stone (1Pe 2:6-note), the Rejected Stone (1Pe 2:7-note), and the Stumbling Stone (1Pe 2:8-note). Note also Da 2:34 and Jer 13:16, Re 2:14 (note). Zechariah 12:3
The Jewish interpretive principle gezerah shavah, which linked texts that had a common key word, makes it natural for Peter to cite Ps 118:22 and Isa 8:14.
Stumbling (4348) (proskomma from prós = to, against + kópto = cut, strike) can describe literal or figurative stumbling. It is something a person trips over. Thus proskomma can be an obstacle in the way which if one strikes his foot against he stumbles or falls or figuratively it can describe that over which a soul stumbles i.e. by which is caused to sin or which causes an occasion of apostasy. It is also used figuratively, to describe a cause of falling or an occasion of sinning (Ro 14:13-note, Ro 14:20-note; 1 Cor. 8:9; Septuagint - LXX = Ex. 23:33; 34:12).
Barclay writes that "proskomma, means 'a barrier', 'a hindrance', 'a road-block'. It is the word that would be used for a tree that has been felled and laid across a road to block it. We must never do or allow anything which would be a road-block on the way to goodness. (Daily Study Bible - 1 Peter 2 Commentary)
The TDNT summarizes the meanings of proskomma...
Proskomma refers to an obstacle against which one dashes his foot and is akin to proskopto “to cause to stumble”. The combination of líthos = stone with proskomma refers to a stumbling block.
In Romans 14:13 and Romans 14:20 “a stumbling block” speaks of the spiritual hindrance to another caused by a selfish use of liberty or alternatively our tendency to set up a list of do's and don'ts. Either way could cause the other person to stub his spiritual toe!.
Proskomma is used most often by Paul -- in a context of our "Christian liberties" or "freedom in Christ" (Ro 14:13-note, Ro 14:20-note 1Co 8:9) and three times (including the use in this verse) referring to the Messiah as a major stumbling block for the Jews (Ro 9:32, 33-note).
AND A ROCK OF OFFENSE: kai petra skandalou:
Rock (4073) (petra feminine form of the masculine noun petros) refers to a massive rock, a large expanse of bedrock or a great outcropping of rock. Vine distinguishes petra as a "mass of rock" from the masculine petros which refers to a detached stone or boulder, including a stone that might be thrown or easily moved. Jesus uses petra to refer to rocky soil in Luke 8:6, 13.
NIDNTT writes that in classical Greek...
One of the more controversial uses of petra is found in Jesus' declaration to Peter...