Amplified: Finally, all [of you] should be of one and the same mind (united in spirit), sympathizing [with one another], loving [each other] as brethren [of one household], compassionate and courteous (tenderhearted and humble). (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
ICB: Finally, all of you should live together in peace. Try to understand each other. Love each other as brothers. Be kind and humble. (ICB: Nelson)
NLT: Finally, all of you should be of one mind, full of sympathy toward each other, loving one another with tender hearts and humble minds. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: To sum up, you should all be of one mind living like brothers with true love and sympathy for each other, generous and courteous at all times. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: Now, to come to a conclusion. Be all of you like-minded. Be sympathetic. Have a brotherly affection for one another. Be tender-hearted. Be humble-minded, (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: And finally, being all of one mind, having fellow-feeling, loving as brethren, compassionate, courteous,
|TO SUM UP: To de telos : or "finally" as in most of the other translations.
Sum up (5056) (telos from tello = to set out for a definite point or goal) refers to the culmination or the outcome of a growth or development representing an attained objective.
Telos is never used in NT as a chronological end, as if something simply stops. Instead, telos refers to a consummation, a goal achieved, a result attained, or a realization. In the present context telos does not indicate the conclusion of the letter, but the conclusion of the exhortations in this section. In context this appears to be Peter’s conclusion to the topic submission, which he introduced in 1Pe 2:13 (see note)
These five virtues are to be normative qualities in the lives of the people of God, reflecting the attitude and example of Christ. Remember the context: The advice offered is for believers facing persecution. Just as the whole of the Law is summed up in love (Ro 13:8; 9; 10- see notes Ro 13:8; 9; 10), so the whole of human relationships is fulfilled in love. This applies to every Christian and to every area of life. Note that Peter deals not so much with the AUTHORITIES but with those under authority.
LET ALL BE HARMONIOUS (same mind, like–minded) : pantes homophrones: (Acts 2:1; 4:32; Ro 12:16; 15:5; 1Cor 1:10; Php 3:16)
More literally “all likeminded”. Compare Paul's exhortation to the saints at Rome…
Spurgeon writes -
Harmonious (3675) (homophron from homós = one and same + phren = mind, understanding) literally of one and the same mind, like-minded, having a common mindset but not necessarily all the same tastes or gifts or habits. The idea is that they are to possess the same thoughts and assessments of the essentials of life -- God, salvation, virtue.
Compare a similar word homothumadon used by Luke primarily in Acts to describe the early Church! (See Acts 1:14, 2:1, 2:46, 4:24, 5:12, 7:57, 8:6, 12:20, 15:25, 18:12, 19:29, Ro15:6)
Peter is not referring to minute details (like the color of the pew cushions!) but is referring to a unity on the major and important points of Christian doctrine and practice that should be maintained among members of the Body of Christ.
Wuest says harmonious…
That harmonious "one mind" should be the mind of Christ as Paul explained to the believers at Philippi…
Later in this same letter to the Philippians Paul wrote
Although the context of this passage is different than Peter's, the principle is true that God is willing to show the truth to those who are willing to follow it. A personal humility, willingness and openness to God to reveal the correct attitude one should have will tend to produce harmony in the local body.
Application: Beloved, are you open to God showing you whether your attitude or action contributes to or detracts from the harmony in your local body, in your family, in your marriage, in your workplace, etc?
All Christians are to be examples and purveyors of peace and unity, not disruption and disharmony.
Peter is saying in essence, "You brothers join hands together." The chain is only as strong as its weakest link.
A phrase that is appropriate in this context is
Unity does not mean uniformity but it does mean cooperation in the midst of diversity. The members of the body work together in unity, even though they are all different. Christians may differ on how things are to be done, but they must agree on what is to be done and why.
A man criticized D. L. Moody’s methods of evangelism, and Moody said
The man confessed that he had none to which Moody quickly replied…
Whatever methods we may use, we must seek to honor Christ, win the lost, and build the church. Some methods are definitely not scriptural, but there is plenty of room for variety in the church. How would you describe your church… harmonious? Are you contributing to the harmony of your local body or are you marked by discord in attitude and action?
Think about your church as a "symphony orchestra" that the world is watching and listening to. Is you church "music" concordant or cacophonous?
A W Tozer…
J H Jowett…
SYMPATHETIC: sumpatheis: (Zech 7:9; Mt 18:33; Lk 10:33; Ro 12:15; 1Cor 12:26; Jas 2:13; 3:17)
Sympathy (4835) (sumpathes from sun = with, implies a close, intimate association + páthos = suffering, misfortune <> compare sumpascho = suffer together with) describes a sincere feeling for and with the needs of others.
Sympathy is a feeling for or a capacity for sharing in the interests of another. The sympathetic individual manifests an affinity, association, or relationship with others such that whatever affects one similarly affects the other. Sympathy often suggests a tender concern and can also imply a power to enter into another’s emotional experience of any sort.
Sympathy is feeling what others feel so that you can respond with sensitivity to the need. It's the picture of suffering with another by entering into and sharing their feelings rather than simply by having compassion on them from a distance.
People who have true sympathy generally do not say, "I know how you feel." Because since they know how you feel, they also know how unhelpful it is to hear someone say, "I know how you feel."
True sympathy is usually a fairly quiet, time-intensive, presence-intensive way of being, feeling what others feel so that you can respond with sensitivity to the need.
Remember people usually don't care to know how much you know until they know how much you care.
Wuest explains that sympathy…
Tragically, too often the church is one of the cruelest places on earth in many situations.
Writing to Romans who he had just urged to present their bodies to God as living sacrifices (see note Romans 12:1), Paul made this presentation practical encouraging the believers to…
J H Jowett…
BROTHERLY: philadelphoi: (1Peter 1:22; 2:17; Ro 12:10; Heb 13:1; 2Pe 1:7; 1Jn 3:14,18,19)
Philadelphos is an adjective which conveys the idea “Be loving brethren,” or “Be brethren who are loving.” The word here does not refer to the love that God produces in our hearts as one of the fruits of the Spirit. It is that human affection and fondness for one another as brother Christians which Peter spoke of in the first occurrence of the word “love” in chapter 1 writing to the born again ones…
Don't view each other as strangers, or as mere acquaintances, or as distant relatives. View each other as close family for after all we now all possess the same "Father". Family can have some pretty serious squabbles and exchange some very harsh words, but only in the rarest cases does the family break up over it. Mutual love is one of the strongest "arguments" for the Christian faith.
In Romans 12 Paul also instructed the believers to…
The writer of Hebrews exhorted his readers to…
John explained how important is the manifestation of love for one's brethren writing that…
The idea expressed by John could be summarized -
Know love, know God.
Jesus related agape love with being "friends" (philos, the root of the word "brotherly") declaring
And then Jesus added that
We therefore should have a new motivation for being brethren who are loving.
F B Meyer asks…
KINDHEARTED: eusplagchnoi: (Ps 103:13; Pr 28:8; Mt 18:33; Jas 5:11)
Spurgeon writes -
Kindhearted (2155) (eusplagchnos [word study] [only other NT use = Ep 4:32 - see above] from eú = well + splagchnon = bowel = the viscera, an oriental metaphor for the seat of the tender affections and of human emotions and one of strongest Greek words to express compassionate love) means tender–hearted or full of compassion.
Tender–hearted has the idea of being compassionate, and reflects a feeling deep in the bowels, or stomach, a gnawing psychosomatic pain due to empathy for someone’s need.
F B Meyer asks…
Eusplagchnos is not a word about conduct but about your insides -- literally, your innards, your belly. The literal translation of the Greek means "feel generous in your belly". Be well-disposed to each other in your deeps. It's exactly the opposite of hypocrisy that acts tender and feels malice.
The idea is to have a tenderness of heart toward others. Being tender hearted means you have truly understood forgiveness. If you are not forgiving, you will have great difficulty with submission. Don't say you "Can't" forgive and forget, but tell the truth that you "Won't".
In the Roman Empire, eusplagchnos was not a quality that was admired; but the Christian message changed all of that.
Wuest adds a note that helps understand the historical context of eusplagchnos, writing that…
J H Jowett…
AND HUMBLE IN SPIRIT: tapeinophrones: (Acts 27:3; 28:7; Ep 4:31,32; 5:1,2; Php 4:8,9; Col 3:12)
Here is the "secret" of how one partakes of grace as Peter alludes to later…
The KJV which is translated from the Textus Receptus has the Greek word "philophrones" (from phílos = a friend + phronéo = to think, have a mindset) which means friendly, courteous, benign. NKJV translates it "courteous". Most scholars favor the Nestle-Aland manuscript which has tapeinophrones.
Humble of spirit (tapeinophron from tapeinos = humble + phren = think) (See related word tapeinophrosune) means thinking lowly, esteeming ourselves small. Inasmuch as we are small compared to God, this is the correct estimate of ourselves. In the NT this word describes a quality of voluntary submission and unselfishness, humility or self-effacement and is the opposite of arrogance and pride.
Humility was not thought of very highly in the ancient world (pun intended) and in fact was even considered to be a vice by the pagan moralists. Christ and Christianity elevated humility to the supreme virtue - the antidote for the self-love that poisons relationships.
Humility is not thinking poorly of oneself. Rather, it is having the proper estimate of oneself in the will of God. The person with humility thinks of others first and not of himself.
Humility, when it becomes self-conscious, ceases to have any value
It is not just that we are to act the role of a servant, but that inside, with all authenticity, we are to have a lowly spirit. We feel that we are utterly dependent on God for life and breath and intelligence and emotional stability and faith and safety and the use of our senses; and we feel utterly fragile and vulnerable in ourselves. On top of that we feel sinful and unworthy as we look at ourselves apart from the free grace of God. And this grace makes us wonder-struck that we are loved, not pushy and self-assertive.
Did you observe something that all five of those words have in common? They are all descriptions of what we are on the inside, not primarily how we act. A common mindset, sympathetic in feeling, a family love, kindly disposed in the depths of our innards, humble in spirit. That's an unusual human being. This is why Peter's call to us is not possible without a new birth and a new heart, one that now has the potential of being controlled by the Holy Spirit and life out these inner attitudes supernaturally. Be wary of trying to live out these attitudes in your own strength, because it is not possible.
J H Jowett…
F B Meyer (Our Daily Walk) - CHRISTIAN COURTESY - "Finally, be ye all of one mind, having compassion one of another, love as brethren, be pitiful, be courteous."-- 1Pe 3:8.
A Father's Blessing - A man who was grieving the death of his father said, "I am crying not only for my father, but for me. His death means that I'll never hear the words I always wanted to hear from him: that he was proud of me, proud of the family I've raised and the life I've lived."
Our children need to know we care,
Overcoming Envy - With tongue in cheek, someone has defined happiness as "an agreeable sensation arising from contemplating the misery of another."
From seeds of envy in the heart
Moody Artwork - British and American computer scientists have created artwork that changes according to how the viewer feels. The computer program analyzes the position and shape of the mouth, the angle of the brows, the openness of the eyes, and five other facial features to determine the viewer’s emotional state. The artwork then alters, based on the viewer’s mood. If joy is seen on the face, the artwork will show up in bright colors. If there’s a scowl, the image will become dark and somber.
Our moods can also affect the people around us—our family, friends, co-workers, and acquaintances. Our life touches people, whether for good or bad. Each person is responsible for his or her own reaction to us, of course. Yet the way we behave makes a difference in others’ lives.
The apostle Peter encouraged us to have compassion for others, to love, to be tenderhearted and courteous, and not to return evil for evil but rather blessing (1 Peter 3:8-9). Following his instructions may be difficult for us on a day when we feel cranky. By depending on the Holy Spirit, we can have a positive impact on everyone we meet—even if all we do is smile or listen.
Let’s paint our world in bright colors today.— Anne Cetas (Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved)
My life will touch a dozen lives
Amplified: Never return evil for evil or insult for insult (scolding, tongue-lashing, berating), but on the contrary blessing [praying for their welfare, happiness, and protection, and truly pitying and loving them]. For know that to this you have been called, that you may yourselves inherit a blessing [from God—that you may obtain a blessing as heirs, bringing welfare and happiness and protection]. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: Not rendering evil for evil, or railing for railing: but contrariwise blessing; knowing that ye are thereunto called, that ye should inherit a blessing.
NLT: Don't repay evil for evil. Don't retaliate when people say unkind things about you. Instead, pay them back with a blessing. That is what God wants you to do, and he will bless you for it. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: Never pay back a bad turn with a bad turn or an insult with another insult, but on the contrary pay back with good. For this is your calling - to do good and one day to inherit all the goodness of God. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: not giving back evil in exchange for evil, or verbal abuse in exchange for verbal abuse, but instead, on the contrary, be constantly blessing, since for this very purpose you were called, that you might inherit a blessing. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: not giving back evil for evil, or railing for railing, and on the contrary, blessing, having known that to this ye were called, that a blessing ye may inherit;
|NOT RETURNING EVIL FOR EVIL: me apodidontes (PAPMPN) kakon anti kakou: (1Peter 2:20, 21, 23; Pr 17:13; 20:22; Mt 5:39,44; Lk 6:27, 28, 29; Ro 12:14,17,19, 20, 21; 1Cor 4:12,13; Eph 4:32; 1Th 5:15)
Returning (591) (apodidomi from apó = from + didomi = give) means to pay or give back, implying a debt. This word carries the idea of obligation and responsibility for something that is not optional. The prefixed preposition apo (off, away from) makes the verb mean “to give off” from one’s self. To give back or pay back or to do something necessary in fulfillment of an obligation or expectation.
Retaliation was strongly condemned by Jesus in His sermon on the mount…
As God’s loving children, we must do more than give “an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth”, which is the basis for justice. We must operate on the basis of mercy, for that is the way God deals with us.
Paul also strongly discouraged retaliation writing…
For (anti) here means "in return for".
Evil (2556) (kakos) is a word which basically, denotes a lack of something. Evil, bad, destructive, damaging, unjust
Don't let your flesh rise up and try to "get even"… this is good advice but necessitates guarding one's heart and being alert so that you remain under the control of the Spirit (see note Ephesians 5:18) Beware of your fallen flesh, for it will always try to defend itself and use "righteous indignation" as justification. Instead remember the "example" of Jesus Who…
This principle is not just a NT truth but was also taught in the Old Testament..
This admonition must have meant much to Peter, because he once tried to fight Christ’s enemies with a sword (see Lu 22:47-53).
What a wonderful encouragement this should be to Spirit indwelt persons, for if the coming of the promised Spirit can change Peter's heart, He can effect similar change in our heart and our response to unfair treatment. What a difference a day (Pentecost) makes. Before it was Peter's power but afterward when Peter and the Apostles were persecuted, they depended on prayer and Spirit power, not their wisdom or strength (Acts 4:23ff).
Spurgeon writes regarding returning evil -
J H Jowett…
OR INSULT FOR INSULT: e loidorian anti loidorias:
Insult (3059) (loidoria from loidoreo [word study] from loidoros = reviling, railing, one who reviles as in 1Cor 5:11) describes verbal abuse, reproach and/or vilification. Reviling implies a scurrilous, abusive attack prompted by anger or hatred. Railing (against) means scolding someone using harsh, insolent, or abusive language.
Neither evil deeds nor insulting words should be a Christian's response.
The Living Bible picks up the sense in modern slang
Our fallen flesh wants to snap back when confronted (whether the accusation is justified but especially when it is not justified).
Have you been "snappy" lately? Confess, repent and be filled with the Spirit, some aspects of His fruit being gentleness and patience and self control!
Peter's point as he goes on is if you desire to enjoy life and have good days, you need to control your tongue as David taught in Psalm 34:12, 13, 14. Furthermore this behavior with positively or adversely affect the "efficacy" of your prayers (1Peter 3:12-note, cp 1Peter 3:7-note).
So watch out trying to retaliate "tit for tat"… it may be the world's way but it is not a Spirit-controlled believer's way. Turn your eyes on Jesus' example (see note 1Peter 2:23-note) and cry out for grace to make it (He 4:16-note, He 2:18-note), for the sake of righteousness and for the sake of His name.
F B Meyer asks…
J H Jowett…
BUT GIVING A BLESSING (continually speaking well of) INSTEAD: tounantion de eulogountes (PAPMPN):
Giving a blessing (2127) (eulogeo from eu = good + lógos = word) when used by men toward men it means to speak well of with praise and thanksgiving (English "eulogize"). It means to invoke God’s blessing upon them.
Eulogeo is in the present tense indicating we are to continually eulogize others (not while dead but alive) but not patronizing. How could we bless them? praying for their welfare, protection, truly pitying and loving them.
We must always be reminded of our calling as Christians, for this will help us love our enemies and do them good when they treat us badly. We are called to “inherit a blessing.” The persecutions we experience on earth today only add to our blessed inheritance of glory in heaven someday (Matthew 5:10; 11; 12-see notes Mt 5:10; 11; 12).
Wayne Barber explains that eulogeo…
means to speak good things about this person. Now careful, don’t jump ahead with surface interpretation. You may be thinking, "Now wait a minute! Do you mean when somebody, even in the body of Christ, treats me like dirt, I am supposed to say something good about them? That is a lie." Yeah, it sure is. And God is not telling you to lie about them. What does it mean to bless somebody, to speak well of somebody?
You have to read the whole verse. He says, "bless and curse not." The word "curse" means to wish evil upon someone. That is what it means to curse them. It means to say, "Oh, I hope he gets his. I hope this happens in his life," wishing evil upon them. Instead, wish that good things could come upon them. Speak that which is good. Don’t lie about them because they are mean people, but speak good. Wish that which is good to come upon them. Now that is the way you treat those in the body of Christ who bring great grief and pain in your Christian walk. You are seeking to walk surrendered to Christ and they treat you as if you are dirt. You don’t wish evil upon them.
Now you know, if you didn’t understand Romans 1-11, you can’t understand this. In Romans 8 we know why we can do this… Because God is causing all things, even those people who bring us grief, to work together for good to those that love God, to those who are called according to His purpose. You see, you have got to have the first 11 chapters of Romans to even begin to understand chapters 12 through 16. Everything in chapters 12 through 16 hinges on what we have already studied in Romans. God is in charge. He even uses the persecution. To do what? To drive us to the end of ourselves. Why? Because Ro 8:29 (note) says that we might be conformed into the image of Christ Jesus. So the pain and all the things that we go through in this quarry, in this school, in this workshop down here on this earth are all tools that God is using to chip off and to hone and to make us into the image of His Son, Jesus Christ. It drives us to the end of ourselves where we learn to decrease and then He is able to increase in our life. That is what life is all about.
So as a believer, when it comes, back off and say,
You don’t wish evil upon them. As a matter of fact, it is by the grace of God that you are not like they are. So speak well of them. Speak good of them. That is the response of a person whose love is without hypocrisy. Because you have got the bigger picture, you can see far beyond the pain and what the individual is doing to you in your life.
It is the saddest thing in the world when people live with bitterness inside them. Hebrews says,
Do you know where it comes from? It comes from not being surrendered. It comes from not understanding that only when you are surrendered, this is your logical, reasonable spiritual service of worship. When you make this offering of yourself to God, God can transform you, renew your mind and you are going to think differently from that point on. But a person not willing to live that way is a person who has put himself, his sinful body, right back up under bondage, the same bondage that God has freed him from. He lives in misery, bound to something that he should never be bound to. So, the response. (from sermon Romans 12:14-17 Responsibilities Under Grace 7)
FOR YOU WERE CALLED FOR THE VERY PURPOSE THAT YOU MIGHT INHERIT A BLESSING: hoti eis touto eklethete (2PAPI) hina eulogian kleronomesete (2PAPS): (1Pe 2:21; 5:10; Ro 8:28,30) (Mt 19:29; 25:34; Mk 10:17; Lk 10:25; 18:18)
You were called - See notes on the called
Literally it reads “into this you were called in order that you may inherit a blessing.”
The called are those who have been summoned by God… called…
Were called - The aorist tense defines this calling as a historical event, an action that has been completed. God called us. The theologians refer to this an "effectual" call.
Called (2564) (kaleo) means to speak to another in order to bring them nearer, either physically or in a personal relationship. Called is in the passive voice which indicates the call is external and clearly presupposes God as the One initiating the action of calling us.
Kaleo can refer to an invitation, but in this context conveys the idea of an effectual call and emphasizes God's sovereign work. God has invited us into His family and given us the privilege of inheriting a blessing.
G H Trever has a succinct summation of the Biblical doctrine of calling…
That (hina) introduces a purpose clause, in this case the purpose of our calling! Do we really appreciate this truth!
Inherit (2816) (kleronomeo from kleros = First a pebble, piece of wood used in casting lots as in Acts 1:26 then the allotted portion or inheritance, and so a lot, heritage, inheritance + nemomai = to possess; see Kleronomos) means to receive a lot or share of an inheritance, inherit a portion of property or receive a possession as gift from someone who has died.
Kleronomeo means "to receive the portion assigned to one, receive an allotted portion, receive as one's own or as a possession; to become partaker of, to obtain" (Thayer)
Inherit - To take by descent from an ancestor; to take by succession, as the representative of the former possessor; to receive, as a right or title descendible by law from an ancestor at his decease. To receive by nature from a progenitor. To possess; to enjoy; to take as a possession, by gift or divine appropriation; as, to inherit everlasting life; to inherit the promises. (Noah Webster 1828 ed)
In the NT kleronomeo is used to describe inheriting
In classic Greek the root word kleros…
Vine summarizes these uses…
Kleronomeo - 18x in 17v - Mt 5:5; 19:29; 25:34; Mk 10:17; Luke 10:25; 18:18; 1 Cor 6:9f; 15:50; Gal 4:30; 5:21; Heb 1:4, 14; 6:12; 12:17; 1 Pet 3:9; Rev 21:7
Matthew 5:5-note "Blessed are the gentle, for they shall inherit the earth.
Matthew 19:29 "And everyone who has left houses or brothers or sisters or father or mother or children or farms for My name's sake, will receive many times as much, and will inherit eternal life.
Matthew 25:34 "Then the King will say to those on His right, 'Come, you who are blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world.
Mark 10:17 As He was setting out on a journey, a man ran up to Him and knelt before Him, and asked Him, "Good Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?"
Comment: This question (and the following two passages) reflects a "works" mentality. What work can I do to gain eternal life and entrance into the Kingdom of God. Every cult and every religion (including as in this context, Judaism) other than Christianity, asks and answers this question by prescribing human works of various kinds, in lieu of the only "work" which is acceptable to God which of course is faith (cp Jn 6:29, Ep 2:8, 9-note).
Luke 10:25 And a lawyer stood up and put Him to the test, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?"
Luke 18:18 A ruler questioned Him, saying, "Good Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?"
1 Corinthians 6:9 Or do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived; neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor homosexuals, 10 nor thieves, nor the covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor swindlers, will inherit the kingdom of God.
1 Corinthians 15:50 Now I say this, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable.
Galatians 4:30 But what does the Scripture say? "CAST OUT THE BONDWOMAN AND HER SON, FOR THE SON OF THE BONDWOMAN SHALL NOT BE AN HEIR WITH THE SON OF THE FREE WOMAN."
Galatians 5:21-note envying, drunkenness, carousing, and things like these, of which I forewarn you, just as I have forewarned you, that those who practice such things will not inherit the kingdom of God.
Vine comments: In the present passage, and indeed throughout the epistle, the idea of the inheritance is always of something given in grace and received apart from works, see Gal 3:18 and Gal 4:7; in fact the meaning "a" ( = birthright, that into the possession of which one enters in virtue of sonship, not because of a price paid or of a task accomplished, is said to be inherited) is appropriated to spiritual uses. No man could qualify himself to inherit the kingdom of God, however assiduously he might practice the virtues to which these vices are opposed. On the other hand, the practice of the vices is presumptive evidence of the absence of that new birth which is the sole qualification for heirship. On this point the words of the Lord are explicit, “Not every one that saith unto Me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the Kingdom of Heaven; but He that doeth the will of My Father, which is in Heaven,” . (Vine, W. Collected writings of W. E. Vine. Nashville: Thomas Nelson or Logos)
Hebrews 1:4-note having become as much better than the angels, as He has inherited a more excellent name than they.
Hebrews 1:14-note Are they not all ministering spirits, sent out to render service for the sake of those who will inherit salvation?
Hebrews 6:12-note so that you will not be sluggish, but imitators of those who through faith and patience inherit the promises.
Hebrews 12:17-note For you know that even afterwards, when he desired to inherit the blessing, he was rejected, for he found no place for repentance, though he sought for it with tears.
1 Peter 3:9-note not returning evil for evil or insult for insult, but giving a blessing instead; for you were called for the very purpose that you might inherit a blessing.
Revelation 21:7-note "He who overcomes will inherit these things, and I will be his God and he will be My son.
Kleronomeo - 134x in non-apocryphal Septuagint (LXX)- Ge 15:3, 4, 7f; 21:10; 22:17; 24:60; 28:4; 47:27; Ex 23:30; Lev 20:24; Nu 14:24, 31; 18:20, 23, 24; 21:35; 26:53, 55; 27:11; 32:19; 33:54; 34:17; 35:8; Deut 1:8, 21, 39; 2:9, 24, 31; 3:12; 4:1, 5, 14, 22, 26, 38, 47; 5:33; 6:1, 18; 7:1; 8:1; 9:1, 4, 5, 6, 23; 10:11; 11:8, 10, 11, 23, 29, 31; 12:2, 29; 16:20; 17:14; 20:16; 21:1; 23:20; 28:21, 63; 30:5, 16, 18; 31:13; 32:47; 33:23; Josh 1:15; 12:7; 14:2; 16:4; 17:6, 14; 18:2f; 19:9; 22:9; 24:4; Jdg 1:18, 19, 20; 3:13; 11:2, 21, 23, 24; 18:9; 1 Kgs 21:15, 16, 18, 19; 2Ki 17:24; 1 Chr 28:8; Ezra 9:11; Neh 9:15, 22, 23, 25; Ps 5:1; 25:13; 37:9, 11, 22, 29; 44:3; 69:35; 83:12; 105:44; 119:111; Pr 3:35; 11:29; 13:22; Isa 14:21; 17:14; 34:17; 49:8; 53:12; 54:3; 57:13; 58:11; 60:21; 61:7; 63:18; 65:9; Ezek 35:10; 36:12; Hos 9:6; Obad 1:20; Zeph 2:9; Zech 9:4.
Note the prominent Septuagint usage of kleronomeo in the latter portion of Isaiah which describes Israel's restoration and the complete fulfillment of God's covenant with Abraham - at this time, in the future Millennium, Israel will obtain the full inheritance promised to Abraham. For example…
Isaiah 60:21 Then (this time phrase describes the Millennium) all your people will be righteous (cp "all Israel will be saved" Ro 11:26-note); They will possess the land (promised to Abraham - Ge 15:18, 17:8) forever, The branch of My planting (cp Is 61:3), The work of My hands, That I may be glorified (cp Is 43:21, 44:23).
Isaiah 61:7 Instead of your shame you will have a double portion, And instead of humiliation they will shout for joy over their portion. Therefore they will possess a double portion in their land, Everlasting joy will be theirs.
Isaiah 65:9 “I will bring forth offspring from Jacob, And an heir of My mountains from Judah; Even My chosen ones shall inherit it, And My servants will dwell there.
(Compare) Psalm 69:35 For God will save Zion and build the cities of Judah, that they may dwell there and possess it.
Frank Hirsch sums up the Biblical concept of inheritance…
INHERITANCE - in-her'-i-tans (nahalah, "something inherited," "occupancy," "heirloom," "estate," "portion"): The word is used in its widest application in the Old Testament Scriptures, referring not only to an estate received by a child from its parents, but also to the land received by the children of Israel as a gift from Yahweh. And in the figurative and poetical sense, the expression is applied to the kingdom of God as represented in the consecrated lives of His followers. In a similar sense, the Psalmist is represented as speaking of the Lord as the portion of his inheritance. In addition to the above word, the King James Version translations as inheritance, morashah, "a possession," "heritage" (Dt 33:4; Ezek 33:24); yerushshah, "something occupied," "a patrimony," "possession" (Jdg 21:17); cheleq, "smoothness," "allotment" (Ps 16:5); kleronomeo, "to inherit" (Mt 5:5, etc.); Kleronomos, "heir" (Mt 21:38, etc.); kleronomia, "heirship," "patrimony, "possession"; or kleros, "an acquisition" "portion," "heritage," from kleroo, "to assign," "to allot," "to obtain an inheritance" (Mt 21:38; Lk 12:13; Acts 7:5; 20:32; 26:18; Gal 3:18; Ep 1:11,Ep 1:14,Ep 1:18; Ep 5:5; Col 1:12; Col 3:24; He 1:4; He 9:15; He 11:8; 1Pe1:4). (Inheritance) (See well done article on Inheritance in Baker's Evangelical Dictionary)
The believer has a high and holy calling as evidenced by the words of Jesus and Paul.
Blessing (2129) (eulogia from eú = good, well + lógos = word; English = eulogy = a commendatory formal statement) is literally a good word, good speaking, fine speech or praise. Eulogia is the act of speaking favorably (cp Rev 5:12, 13, 7:12).
Eulogia can speak of favor or benefit bestowed by God (cp He 12:17, Lxx uses - Ge 49:25, Ex 32:29, Lev 25:41, He 6:7, Ep 1:3, Ro 15:29) or bestowed by people (cp 2Co 9:5, 6)
Eulogia is used once with the negative connotation of flattering speech (false eloquence - well chosen words but untrue words!) (Ro 16:18-note)
Blessing (Webster, 1828) = a wish of happiness pronounced; A solemn prophetic benediction, in which happiness is desired, invoked or foretold. Any means of happiness; a gift, benefit or advantage; that which promotes temporal prosperity and welfare, or secures immortal felicity. A benediction (something that promotes goodness or well-being).
William Brown discusses blessing noting that…
Peter uses eulogia to motivate his readers reminding them that they have are to conduct themselves as those to whom will be bestowed a benefit (a blessing). Peter is saying they are to bless others so that God Himself might bless them. Remember that the reason they are reviling the believers is because of their walk, for light always exposes darkness! And darkness always hates the light! (see Jn 3:19, 20, 21) In spite of this intractable, inevitable (and uncomfortable) enmity (Why? see Ge 3:15, cp the "two families" on earth today = 1Jn 3:8, Jn 8:44), believers are still called to speak words that are beautiful and edifying (not because the recipient "deserves" such, but because we are to be imitators of our Father in heaven and His Son's example on earth, cp Ep 5:1, 2-note)
Eulogia - 16x in 15v -
Romans 15:29-note I know that when I come to you, I will come in the fullness of the blessing of Christ.
Comment: Here eulogia speaks of the sum of the favor shown by God to man in Christ.
Romans 16:18-note For such men are slaves, not of our Lord Christ but of their own appetites; and by their smooth and flattering speech they deceive the hearts of the unsuspecting.
Comment: "Eulogia, which usually signifies “blessing,” here indicates a fine style of utterance with the appearance of reasonableness" (Vine)
1 Corinthians 10:16 Is not the cup of blessing which we bless a sharing in the blood of Christ? Is not the bread which we break a sharing in the body of Christ?
Vincent comments: "Literally, the blessing: the cup over which the familiar formula of blessing is pronounced. Hence the Holy Supper was often styled Eulogia (Blessing). It is the same as eucharistia (thanksgiving), applied as the designation of the Lord’s Supper: Eucharist.
2 Corinthians 9:5 So I thought it necessary to urge the brethren that they would go on ahead to you and arrange beforehand your previously promised bountiful gift, so that the same would be ready as a bountiful gift and not affected by covetousness (i.e., a gift given grudgingly or under compulsion). 6 Now this I say, he who sows sparingly will also reap sparingly, and he who sows bountifully will also reap bountifully (cp Pr11:24, 25; 19:17; 22:8, 9 Lk 6:38, Gal 6:7 Jesus words in Acts 20:35)
Comment: Eulogia is used in the sense of bounty only here in the NT. Bounty is something that is given generously. It reflects liberality in giving.
Webster (1828) on bounty = Liberality in bestowing gifts and favors; generosity; munificence. The word includes the gift or favor and the kindness of disposition with which it is bestowed; or a favor bestowed with a benevolent disposition. This distinguishes it from a mere gift. It is also observed by Johnson, that it differs from charity, as a present from an alms, in not being bestowed upon persons absolutely necessitous. This is often the case; but bounty includes charity, as the genus comprehends the species; charity however does not necessarily include bounty, for charity or an alms may be given with reluctance.
Galatians 3:14 in order that in Christ Jesus the blessing of Abraham might come to the Gentiles, so that we would receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.
Ephesians 1:3-note Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ,
Hebrews 6:7-note For ground that drinks the rain which often falls on it and brings forth vegetation useful to those for whose sake it is also tilled, receives a blessing from God;
Hebrews 12:17-note For you know that even afterwards, when he desired to inherit the blessing, he was rejected, for he found no place for repentance, though he sought for it with tears. (See the related uses of eulogia in the Septuagint in Ge 27:12, 35, 36, 38, 41)
James 3:10 from the same mouth come both blessing and cursing. My brethren, these things ought not to be this way.
1 Peter 3:9-note not returning evil for evil or insult for insult, but giving a blessing instead; for you were called for the very purpose that you might inherit a blessing.
Revelation 5:12-note saying with a loud voice, "Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power and riches and wisdom and might and honor and glory and blessing." 13-note And every created thing which is in heaven and on the earth and under the earth and on the sea, and all things in them, I heard saying, "To Him who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb, be blessing and honor and glory and dominion forever and ever."
Revelation 7:12-note saying, "Amen, blessing and glory and wisdom and thanksgiving and honor and power and might, be to our God forever and ever. Amen."
Eulogia - 63x in the non-apocryphal Septuagint (LXX) - Ge 27:12, 35, 36, 38, 41; 28:4; 33:11; 39:5; 49:25, 26, 28; Exod 32:29; Lev 25:21; Num 23:11; Deut 11:26f, 29; 12:15; 16:17; 23:5; 28:2, 8; 30:1, 19; 33:1, 13, 23; Josh 8:30; 15:19; 24:10; Judg 1:15; 1 Sam 25:27; 2 Sam 7:29; 2 Kgs 5:15; 18:31; 1 Chr 5:1,2; 2 Chr 20:26; Neh 9:5; 13:2; Job 29:13; Ps 3:8; 21:3, 6; 24:5; 37:26; 84:6; 109:17; 129:8; 133:3; Pr 10:6, 22; 11:26; 24:25; Isa 27:9; 44:3; 65:8; Ezek 34:26; 44:30; Joel 2:14; Zech 8:13; Mal 2:2; 3:10.
Eulogia and its derivatives are used in the Septuagint to translate barak (H1288) which is the most common OT word for bless.
Below are some interesting OT uses of eulogia…
Amplified: For let him who wants to enjoy life and see good days [good—whether apparent or not] keep his tongue free from evil and his lips from guile (treachery, deceit). (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: For he that will love life, and see good days, let him refrain his tongue from evil, and his lips that they speak no guile:
NLT: For the Scriptures say, "If you want a happy life and good days, keep your tongue from speaking evil, and keep your lips from telling lies. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: For: 'He who would love life and see good days, let him refrain his tongue from evil, and his lips from speaking guile: (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: For he who desires to be loving life and to see good days, let him stop the natural tendency of his tongue from evil, and the natural tendency of his lips to the end that they speak no craftiness, (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: for `he who is willing to love life, and to see good days, let him guard his tongue from evil, and his lips--not to speak guile;
|FOR THE ONE WHO DESIRES LIFE, TO LOVE AND SEE GOOD DAYS: o gar thelon (PAPMSN) zoen agapan (PAN) kai idein (AAN) hemeras agaqas: (Ps 34:12, 13, 14, 15, 16) (love: Dt 32:47; Job 2:4; Pr 3:2,18; 4:22; 8:35; Mt 19:17; Mk 8:35; Jn 12:25) 1Peter 3:10, 11, 12 essentially from Ps 34:12, 13, 14, 15, 16,17. (Job 7:7,8; 9:25; 33:28; Ps 27:13; 49:19; 106:5; Eccl 2:3; Mt 13:16,17)
For (gar) (see note on value of pausing to ponder this term of explanation) expresses the reason for the good conduct Peter has just called for in his readers. It was Peter's practice to support his arguments, and thus he quotes from the Old Testament, specifically from Psalm 34:12-16, with its picture of the man whom God receives and the man whom God rejects. Peter thus supports his exhortation in the preceding two verses that believers must have a right response to hostility. Furthermore, Peter justifies his call to the way of life described in 1Peter 3:9 by pointing out that such a life leads to divine blessing.
Here in 1Peter 3:10 Peter begins with quotes from Psalm 34:12-13…
Psalm 34:12 Who is the man who desires life, and loves length of days that he may see good? 13 Keep your tongue from evil, and your lips from speaking deceit.
The one who desires life - literally, “he who is wishing or desiring to be loving life.” The idea is, “he who is loving life and wishes to continue to do so.”
Desires (2309) (thelo) speaks of a desire that comes from one’s emotions and represents an active decision of the will (implying volition and purpose). Thelo is a conscious willing and denotes a more active resolution urging one on to action. Thelo is a predetermined and focused will that one sets to do. The present tense indicates this is to be one's continual action.
Loves (25) (agapao - see related study of noun agape) expresses the purest, noblest form of love, which is volitionally driven and is not motivated by superficial appearance, emotional attraction, or sentimental relationship. It is an intense feeling of affection and indicates a direction of one's will and the finding joy in something, in this context, in life.
To love life speaks of a love awakened by a sense of the value of life which causes one to prize it, recognizing its preciousness.
Life (2222)(zoe) describes the absolute fullness of life, real and genuine. The one who conducts himself or herself as Peter exhorts, will find life to be most gratifying. Non-believers think they are enjoying life, but in the absence of new life in Christ they lack the capacity to do so. As a believer, haven't you found yourself giving glory to your Father as you watched a gorgeous sunset or saw the roaring of the waves of the sea? That is real life. To have the privilege to give praise to Him Who Alone is the Give of every good thing and every perfect gift. Unbelievers, no matter how rich or how powerful, lack this God given capacity to enjoy life as the Creator created it to be enjoyed. Are you enjoying today? Remember that this is the day the LORD hath made. Rejoice and be glad in it and enjoy the new life He has given us in Christ Jesus! Remember Jesus declared…
Regarding the phrase love life J Vernon McGee observes that…
See (3708) (horao) describes not merely the act of seeing, but also actual perception of object
Good (18) (agathos) means intrinsically good, inherently good in quality but with the idea of good which is also profitable, useful, benefiting others, benevolent (marked by or disposed to doing good). Agathos is that which is good in its character, beneficial in its effects and/or useful in its action. Agathos describes that which is perfect, producing pleasure, satisfaction, and a sense of well-being. In the present context it means good in the sense of “happy, prosperous”.
MacDonald explains that…
MUST KEEP HIS TONGUE FROM EVIL AND HIS LIPS FROM SPEAKING DECEIT: pausato (3SAAM) ten glossan apo kakou kai cheile tou me lalesai (AAN) dolon: (Jas 1:26; 3:1-10) (1Pe 2:1,22; Jn 1:47; Rev 14:5)
Related Resource: Evil Speaking by A W Pink
A controlled tongue is a secret to a long and happy life. Peter employed apt scriptural confirmation of his exhortation in v9, by quoting from Ps. 34:12-16. The believer has been granted the legacy to enjoy his life (Jn 10:10). In this section, Peter gave straightforward advice on how to experience that rich joy and fullness of life, even in the midst of a hostile environment. Loving life is an act of the will: “He who wills to love life.” It is an attitude of faith that sees the best in every situation. It is the opposite of the pessimistic attitude expressed in Ec 2:17: We can decide to endure life and make it a burden, escape life as though we were running from a battle, or enjoy life because we know God is in control. Peter was not suggesting some kind of unrealistic psychological gymnastics that refused to face facts. Rather, he was urging his readers to take a positive approach to life and by faith make the most of every situation.
Must keep… from (3973) (pauo [word study]) means to cease or cause to cease from an activity in which one is engaged. It means to make one stop. To restrain, refrain, quit, desist. To come to an end. Pauo speaks of a natural tendency towards that from which the abstention exhorted is to take place. The idea here is “Let him stop the tendency of his tongue from evil.”
Tongue (1100) (glossa) is literally the tongue but as used in this context represents a spoken language.
George Sweeting speaking of the power of the tongue wrote…
Evil (2556) (kakos) speaks of lack of goodness, of a bad nature, not such as it ought to be and defines one who is evil in himself, wicked, vicious, bad in heart, conduct, and character and, as such, gets others in trouble. Kakos is found from Homer on in a large variety of associations and means bad in the sense of lacking something, always in contrast to agathos which is good. Kakos means bad, destructive, damaging, unjust. Kakos basically, denotes a lack of something which is not as it ought to be. It describes one who is evil in himself and, as such, gets others in trouble.
Trench says that the related word kakia is
that peculiar form of evil which manifests itself in a malignant interpretation of the actions of others, an attributing of them all to the worst motive
When kakos controls the tongue it results in speech which is malicious, degrading and shaming to the person spoken of.
Lips (5491) (cheilos) means the physical part of the mouth or can refer to language or dialect in some contexts.
Spurgeon writes regarding not speaking deceit -
Deceit (1388) (dolos which is derived from dello = to bait) literally refers to a fishhook, trap, or trick all of which are various forms of deception. Dolos is a deliberate attempt to mislead, trick, snare or "bait" (baiting the trap in attempt to "catch" the unwary victim) other people by telling lies. It is a desire to gain advantage or preserve position by deceiving others. A modern term in advertising is called "bait and switch" where the unwary consumer is lured in by what looks like an price too good to be true!
Larry Richards explains that dolos…
In Psalm 141 David prays…
This is a good prayer to utter (maybe even daily). How well Peter knew the sad consequences of hasty speech!
Vance Havner once said…
F B Meyer - THE GRACE OF CHRISTIAN SPEECH - "He that will love life, and see good days, let him refrain his tongue from evil, and his lips that they speak no guile."-- 1Pe 3:10. "Let your speech be alway with grace, seasoned with salt." -- Col 4:6.
THE IDEAL of Christian speech is given in the Apostle's words to the Colossians. Our speech should be always gracious; and grace stands for mercifulness, charity, the willingness to put the best constructions upon the words and actions of another. It is a great help in dealing with envy, jealousy, or unkind feeling to compel our lips to speak as Christ would have them. If you are jealous of another, the temptation is to say unkind or depreciating things, but if we live in the power of the Holy Spirit, He will enable us to check such words and replace them by those that suggest kindly consideration on the part of ourselves and others. Endeavour to say all the good that can be said, and none of the evil. It is remarkable that when we make the effort to speak kindly on behalf of those against whom we feel exasperated, the whole inward temper changes and takes on the tone of our voice.
There should be salt in our speech--purity, antiseptic, and sparkling like the Book of Proverbs. A playful wit, a bright repartee, are not inconsistent with the Apostle's standard, but whenever we mix in conversation with people, they should be aware of an element in us which makes it impossible for them to indulge in ill-natured gossip or coarse jokes.
We must continue in prayer that God would open to us doors of utterance, so that we may speak of the hidden beauty and glory of our Saviour. Sometimes, also, when we are hard pressed to know how to answer difficult questions, it is given to us in that same hour how we ought to speak, and we find that the Holy Spirit has found an utterance by our lips (Luk12:12; 1Pe3:15).
It is recorded of our Lord that during His trial He spoke not a word to Pilate or Herod, but as soon as He reached the Cross, He poured out His heart as their Intercessor, saying: "Father, forgive them: for they know not what they do!" Speak more to God than to men who may be reviling and threatening you. It is blessed to realize that He is able to guard the door of our lips, for probably there is no part of our nature that stands more in need of His keeping power.
PRAYER Live in us, Blessed Lord, by Thy Holy Spirit, that our lives may be gospels of helpfulness and blessedness. May all foolish talking and covetousness, bitterness, wrath, and anger be put away from us, with all malice. AMEN. September 23 (F B Meyer. Our Daily Walk)
Amplified: Let him turn away from wickedness and shun it, and let him do right. Let him search for peace (harmony; undisturbedness from fears, agitating passions, and moral conflicts) and seek it eagerly. [Do not merely desire peaceful relations with God, with your fellowmen, and with yourself, but pursue, go after them!] (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: Let him eschew evil, and do good; let him seek peace, and ensue it.
NLT: Turn away from evil and do good. Work hard at living in peace with others. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: let him turn away from evil and do good; let him seek peace and pursue it. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: but let him rather at once and once for all turn away from evil and let him do good. Let him seek peace and pursue it, (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: let him turn aside from evil, and do good, let him seek peace and pursue it
|AND LET HIM TURN AWAY FROM (bend away from, avoid, shun) EVIL AND DO GOOD: ekklinato (3SAAM) de apo kakou kai poiesato (3SAAM) agathon: (Job 1:1; 2:3; 28:28; Ps 34:14; 37:27; Pr 3:7; 16:6,17; Isa 1:16,17; Mt 6:13; Jn 17:15) (Ps 125:4; Mt 5:45; Mk 14:7; Lk 6:9,35; Ro 7:19,21; Gal 6:10; 1 Ti 6:18; Heb 13:16; Jas 4:17; 3Jn 1:11)
Psalm 34:14 Depart from evil, and do good. Seek peace, and pursue it.
KJV translation is picturesque here = "eschew evil" = avoid it because you despise and loathe it. It is not enough for us to avoid sin because sin is wrong; we ought to shun it because we hate it! Lord, give me a holy hatred of all that is unholy. Amen.
Turn away (1578)(ekklino [word study] from ek = out, out from + klíno = incline, bend, turn aside or away) basically means to lean in the wrong direction, to bend out of the regular line, to bend away, to lean out from. It means to stir clear of, stay away from, avoid. It means to turn aside or deviate from the right way or course (exemplified by the use in the Septuagint of Malachi 2:8, Deut 5:32). Ekklino is in the aorist imperative a command to carry this order out now and to not delay. Bend aside from the path at the approach of evil is the idea. Let's face it evil is all around us and in fact is on the rise in post-Christian America, to this command is very practical. Have you been "bending away" from evil or been attracted toward it?
Ekklino was used to describe a soldier’s running the wrong way or deserting. Another secular use describes staying clear of prickly shrubs. Hippocrates used this word to describe a dislocation.
Vincent writes that turn is a Greek word that…
J Vernon McGee comments that…
Evil (kakos) - see the note on kakos in the previous verse.
Do (4160)(poieo) means to bring to pass, to perform, to commit. Again Peter uses the aorist imperative commanding his readers to carry this out now and effectively (This command can sometimes convey a sense of urgency). Don't delay to do good if and when it is in your power to do so.
Good (18) (agathos [word study]) (click related topic of good deeds) is that which is good in its character, beneficial in its effects and/or useful in its action. Agathos is used in the New Testament to describe spiritual and moral excellence.
In a parallel passage Paul warns his readers…
HE MUST SEEK PEACE AND PURSUE IT: zetesato (3SAAM) eirenen kai dioxato (3SAAM) auten: (Ps 120:6,7; Mt 5:9; Lk 1:79; Ro 5:1; 8:6; 12:18; 14:17,19; Gal 5:22; Col 3:15; Heb 12:14; Jas 3:17,18)
The implication is that "peace" is "illusive". It's not automatic. Most of us who have been married 40 years or longer (our 40th wedding anniversary was on August 30, 2009), can appreciate the wisdom of Peter's commands to active seeking/pursuing of peace. One of these "intense" verbs would have sufficed, but two together places great emphasis on the necessity of Spirit enabled effort in this area.
TLB translation is interesting
Note that both of the following verbs are both in the aorist imperative which calls for an urgent, effective response. Carry out these actions now and without delay.
Seek (2212) (zeteo) means to try to learn where something is or try to find as a searching for what is lost. It means to attempt to learn by careful investigation and describes a desire to have or experience something. Peter is saying one needs to exert significant effort to obtain peace. Peter a Jew would have been familiar the teaching of the Jewish rabbis who placed great emphasis on the active (rather than passive) pursuit of peace.
Peace (1515)(eirene [word study] from verb eiro = to join or bind together that which has been separated) literally pictures the binding or joining together again of that which had been separated or divided and thus setting at one again, a meaning convey by the common expression of one “having it all together”. It follows that peace is the opposite of division or dissension. Peace as a state of concord and harmony is the opposite of war. Peace was used as a greeting or farewell corresponding to the Hebrew word shalom - "peace to you". Eirene can convey the sense of an inner rest, well being and harmony. The ultimate peace is the state of reconciliation with God, effected by placing one's faith in the gospel. In eschatology, peace is prophesied to be an essential characteristic of the Messianic kingdom (Acts 10:36).
Peace is a condition of freedom from disturbance, whether outwardly, as of a nation from war or enemies or inwardly, as in the current context, within the soul. Peace implies health, well-being, and prosperity.
Make it the habit of your life to seek hard after peace with men and holiness before God, the holiness He desires and which He alone can work in us as we work out our salvation in fear and trembling.
Those who pursue peace seek to forgive and to forget and to be kind and to be thoughtful and be able to help others and be able to pray for their enemies!
Pursue (1377) (dioko [word study] from dío = pursue, prosecute, persecute) means to follow or press hard after, literally to pursue as one does a fleeing enemy. It means to chase, harass, vex and pressure and was used for chasing down criminals. Dioko speaks of an intensity of effort leading to a pursue with earnestness and diligence in order to lay hold of. It means to follow or pursue with earnestness and diligence in order to go after with the desire of obtaining.
In addition to doing good, on the positive side, we are to pursue or run after peace. Such a person can be happy because as the next verse teaches God’s eye is on him for protection, God’s ear is open to his prayer.
If we go out and seek trouble, we will find it; but if we seek peace, we can find it as well. This does not mean “peace at any price,” because righteousness must always be the basis for peace (Jas 3:13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18). It simply means that a Christian exercises moderation as he relates to people and does not create problems because he wants to have his own way. Sometimes it is not possible! See Ro 14:19 where we are also admonished to work hard to achieve peace. It does not come automatically.
MacDonald adds that…
Peter quoted these statements from Ps 34:12, 13, 14, 15, so it would be profitable to read the entire psalm. It describes what God means by “good days.” They are not necessarily days free from problems, for the psalmist wrote about fears (Ps 34:4), troubles (Ps 34:6, 17), afflictions (Ps 34:19), and even a broken heart (Ps 34:18). A “good day” for the believer who “loves life” is not one in which he is pampered and sheltered, but one in which he experiences God’s help and blessing because of life’s problems and trials. It is a day in which he magnifies the Lord (Ps 34:1, 2, 3), experiences answers to prayer (Ps 34:4, 5, 6, 7), tastes the goodness of God (Ps 34:8), and senses the nearness of God (Ps 34:18). The next time you think you are having a “bad day,” and you hate life, read Ps 34 and you may discover you are really having a “good day” to the glory of God!
|Greek: hoti ophthalmoi kuriou epi dikaious kai ota autou eis deesin auton, prosopon de kuriou epi poiountas (PAPMPA) kaka.
Amplified: For the eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous (those who are upright and in right standing with God), and His ears are attentive to their prayer. But the face of the Lord is against those who practice evil [to oppose them, to frustrate, and defeat them]. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: For the eyes of the Lord are over the righteous, and his ears are open unto their prayers: but the face of the Lord is against them that do evil.
NLT: The eyes of the Lord watch over those who do right, and his ears are open to their prayers. But the Lord turns his face against those who do evil."
Suffering for Doing Good (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: For the eyes of the Lord are on the righteous, and his ears are open to their prayers; but the face of the Lord is against those who do evil'. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: because the Lord’s eyes are directed in a favorable attitude towards the righteous, and His ears are inclined unto their petitions, but the Lord’s face is against those who practice evil things. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: because the eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous, and His ears--to their supplication, and the face of the Lord is upon those doing evil;
|FOR THE EYES OF THE LORD ARE UPON THE RIGHTEOUS AND HIS EARS ATTEND TO THEIR PRAYER: hoti ophthalmoi kuriou epi dikaious kai ota autou eis deesin auton: (Dt 11:12; 2Chr 16:9; Ps 11:4; Pr 15:3; Zech 4:10) (2Chr 7:15; Ps 65:2; Pr 15:8,29; Jn 9:31; Jas 5:16)
For (hoti) - see note on value of pausing to ponder this term of explanation.
Psalm 34:15 The eyes of the LORD are toward the righteous, and His ears are open to their cry.
The righteous (1342) (dikaios [word study] from dike = right, just) defines that which is in accordance with high standards of rectitude. It is that which is in right relation to another and so in reference to persons defines the one who is morally and ethically righteous, upright or just. From a legal viewpoint dikaios refers to one who is law-abiding (doing all that law or justice requires), honest and good in behavior and from a religious viewpoint one who is rightly related to God. In simple terms this trait describes being in accordance with what God requires. The righteous man does what he ought. He is the person who conforms to the standard, will or character of God.
The one who habitually (not perfectly) does what is right is righteous (dikaios). A righteous character expresses itself in righteous conduct. If a man knows God, he will obey God. A man cannot claim genuine salvation if he is habitually living in sin. On the other hand, a man can only practice genuine righteousness because he possesses the nature of the One Who is righteous. Notice that the practice of righteousness is not what makes the individual “righteous” (dikaios), but reveals the inner nature of the one who is practicing righteousness. One practices righteousness because of his righteous character.
And Peter has just described the fruits of righteous conduct in the preceding verses (really going all the way back to chapter 2 beginning at 1Pe 2:11-note)
Attend to (eis) is a preposition denoting motion toward.
Prayer (1162) (deesis [word study]) refers to urgent requests or supplications to meet a need and are exclusively addressed to God. Deesis in the New Testament always carries the idea of genuine entreaty and supplication before God. It implies of need and a petition for its supply. Deesis prayers arise from a realization or sense of one's need (which reflects a humble heart) and a willingness to make a petition to God the Giver of every good gift to supply the need.
Deesis - 18x in 16v - Luke 1:13; 2:37; 5:33; Rom 10:1; 2 Cor 1:11; 9:14; Eph 6:18; Phil 1:4, 19; 4:6; 1 Tim 2:1; 5:5; 2 Tim 1:3; Heb 5:7; Jas 5:16; 1 Pet 3:12. NAS = entreaties(2), petition(3), prayer(6), prayers(6), supplication(1).
Puritan Thomas Brooks…
BUT THE FACE OF THE LORD IS AGAINST THOSE WHO DO EVIL: prosopon de kuriou epi poiountas (PAPMPA) kaka: (Lev 17:10; 20:3,6; 26:17; Ps 80:16; Jer 21:10; Ezekiel 15:7):
Psalm 34:16 The face of the LORD is against evildoers, to cut off the memory of them from the earth.
Face (4383) (prosopon from prós = toward + ops = the eye or face) literally means toward the face or eye of and so in front of Jehovah the Living God.
The psalmist writes…
Spurgeon writes regarding the face of the Lord is against -
Doing good (1Pe 3:11-note) is one of the best ways to not be doing evil. Note that the verb do (poieo) in the phrase do evil is in the present tense which indicating that the general direction of one's lifestyle and conduct is toward that which is evil. While doing good per se does not save a person, such a lifestyle is fruit that is in keeping with genuine repentance and belief, and which thus supports that this person has a new heart and generally desires to please God their Father. If doing evil is the habitual practice in a person's life, it points to who their father truly is (cp Jn 8:44).
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Ours is an era of glaring inequities, and the forces of wickedness seem destined to prevail. But let us not forget that "the face of the Lord is against them that do evil." A time of settlement is coming. God sees all that rears its head in defiance of Him and knows those who live unrighteously. However, "He will not always chide; neither will he keep his anger forever" (Ps. 103:9 - see C H Spurgeon's comment). While this is the age of grace in which He still bids the sinner to repent and accept His offer of pardon, it will not always be true. Judgment is coming!
You will note in checking our Scripture reading that the major portion of it is a quotation from Psalm 34. Man's heart does not change from age to age. The Psalmist had observed in his day just what the apostle was now seeing. The unbridled rebellion of the human heart runs wild, and havoc is the result in every area of conduct. Man is always trying to implement his own schemes and exclude his Creator. As a result, failure will again be written over the futile efforts of the human race to attain peace and happiness.
Out of the midst of this corrupt civilization God is calling a people for His name. And for these regenerated ones there is the promise, "The eyes of the Lord are over the righteous, and his ears are open unto their prayers." As the old spiritual says, "He hears all you say; He sees all you do. My Lord is writin' all the time."
Friend, be certain you are on the Lord's side, and that you are daily conscious of an all-seeing God. (Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved)
Jehovah's eyes are on the just,
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The following comforting comments were found in a clipping sent to us by an interested reader: "A child in Burma was permitted by his parents to go to a mission school in order that he might learn to read. By and by they found he was losing faith in the idols. This made them feel very sad. So the father took the lad to one of the gayest of the temples where the fragrance of incense filled the air. There he showed him the glittering images covered with gold and silver ornaments and surrounded by flowers and candles. `Here,' said the father, 'is a god you can see! The Christians cannot show you their God.' `Yes,' said the child, `we can see your god, but he cannot see us. We cannot see the Christian's God, but He sees us all the time!' Was not this child wise in choosing the God from whom even the thoughts of the heart cannot be hidden?"
Sweet thought! We have a Friend above,
It is comforting to know that He who "guides us with His eye" sees tomorrow clearer than we see today!— H G Bosch Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved)
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Today in the Word In a classic case of knowing versus doing, a recent survey published in the Journal of Health Education reported that only eight percent of 100 people polled met the so-called ""Five-A-Day"" goal, the recommendation to eat five servings of fruits and vegetables each day to maintain good health. The researchers pointed out that despite the widespread knowledge that eating fruits and vegetables is important, there is a great gap between what people know and what they actually do.
Every sincere Christian understands that gap. When it comes to godly living, most of us know far more than we do. Today's reading gives us more of the meat-and-potatoes (or we should say, fruits-and-vegetables) exhortations that form the basics of the Christian life. But Peter also gives us encouragement to act on what we know.
Having just dealt with husbands and wives, the apostle now draws the circle as wide as he can by aiming his words at all Christians. But one thing that does not change is his theme of the way believers should respond to ill treatment.
Although Peter does not mention Jesus by name until 1Pe 3:15, it's obvious that He is our best example when it comes to returning good for evil. Peter has already said that Jesus did not retaliate when He was slandered (1Peter 2:23).
Jesus is also our example when it comes to love for one another as brothers and sisters in His body. In verse 9 of today's reading we can hear echoes of the Beatitude concerning the blessing of being ill-treated for Christ (Mt. 5:11, 12).
This is Peter's encouragement for us to be eager to do good. Even if our good results in suffering, we receive a blessing from God. And since life deals out some measure of suffering to everyone, it is better to suffer for doing good (v. 17) than for doing wrong.
TODAY ALONG THE WAY - One way you can be prepared to give an answer for your hope is by thinking through and organizing your personal testimony.
One simple outline you can use is to think about what your life was like before you met Christ, what He did for you in salvation, and how your life has been different since you have known Him. (Copyright Moody Bible Institute. Used by permission. All rights reserved)