2 Timothy 1:8 Therefore do not be ashamed (2SAPS) of the testimony of our Lord or of me His prisoner, but join with me in suffering (2SAAM) for the gospel according to the power of God, (NASB: Lockman)
GWT: So never be ashamed to tell others about our Lord or be ashamed of me, his prisoner. Instead, by God's power, join me in suffering for the sake of the Good News. (GWT)
KJV: Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner: but be thou partaker of the afflictions of the gospel according to the power of God;
NLT: So you must never be ashamed to tell others about our Lord. And don't be ashamed of me, either, even though I'm in prison for Christ. With the strength God gives you, be ready to suffer with me for the proclamation of the Good News. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: So never be ashamed of bearing witness to our Lord, nor of me, his prisoner. Accept, as I do, all the hardship that faithfulness to the Gospel entails in the strength that God gives you. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: Therefore, do not begin to be ashamed of the testimony borne by our Lord, nor of me His prisoner, but be a partaker with me in my sufferings for the sake of the good news, [being a partaker of these sufferings] according to the power of God, (Eerdmans)
YLT: therefore thou mayest not be ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner, but do thou suffer evil along with the good news according to the power of God,
Therefore (oun) is a conjunction that is important to note when observing the text because it often denotes that what it introduces is the result of or an inference from what precedes and is translated as so, therefore, consequently, accordingly, then. (Click discussion of term of conclusion - always pause and ask what the author is concluding)
In this context therefore refers to the divinely bestowed gift and resources Paul has just mentioned and the result predicated on those truths. "Therefore" indicates that this instruction is based on and follows out of the preceding statement of incentive regarding the power, love and discipline God has given us…
Because of Timothy’s call, gift, and provision of power, love, and discipline, he had every reason to stand against any opponents, unashamed of the gospel, and unashamed of his imprisoned mentor.
DO NOT BE ASHAMED: me… epaiscunthes (2SAPS): (2Ti 1:12 1:16, 2:12 Ro 1:16, Mk 8:38 Lk 9:26 1Pe 4:16, 1Jn 2:28, Rev 12:11)
This is Paul's first instruction in this letter ("kindle afresh the gift" in verse 6 not an instruction but an exhortation - Paul was encouraging Timothy to stir up something he already possessed). Notice Paul's excellent example of exhorting (encouraging - impelling one toward the future) in the first 7 verses of this letter before he gives Timothy a specific instruction.
Do you encourage others before you begin to give them instructions?
Ashamed (1870) (epaischunomai from epi = upon or used to intensify the meaning of the following word + aischunomai from aischos = disfigurement & then disgrace) means to experience a painful feeling or sense of loss of status because of some particular event or activity. It describes one's consciousness of guilt or of exposure or the fear of embarrassment that one's expectations may prove false. Epaischunomai is associated with being afraid, feeling shame which prevents one from doing something, a reluctance to say or do something because of fear of humiliation, experiencing a lack of courage to stand up for something or feeling shame because of what has been done.
Epaischunomai is used 11 times in the NT in the NASB - Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26; Rom 1:16; 6:21; 2 Tim 1:8, 12, 16; Heb 2:11; 11:16. In Septuagint 3x - Ps 118:6, Job 34:19, Is 1:29
Webster adds that to be ashamed is to experience the painful emotion caused by consciousness of guilt, shortcoming, or impropriety, to experience the condition of humiliating disgrace or disrepute, or to experience something that brings censure or reproach. Another source states that ashamed is
The 1828 Webster's adds ashamed is
The aorist tense and subjunctive mood when used with a negative particle ("me" = not) conveys the idea of a prohibition designed to prevent an action from arising. It could be phrased "Don't begin to be ashamed." In other words Paul was not telling Timothy to stop being ashamed as if he already was ashamed.
Marvin Vincent writes that…
Bengel notes that
Kenneth Wuest agrees writing that…
The exhortation, “Be not ashamed,” does not mean that Timothy was ashamed. Had that been the case, Paul would have used the present imperative, which with the negative, forbids the continuance of an action already going on. Here he uses the aorist subjunctive with the negative which forbids the doing of an act not yet begun. (Wuest, K. S: Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: For the English Reader. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans) (Bolding added)
So Paul is saying do not be ashamed of the gospel of Christ. Do not yield to the temptation to become ashamed. He must not.
Paul then encourages (exhortation) Timothy with his example, explaining that of he had been appointed as a preacher and an apostle and a teacher of the gospel and that…
Paul goes on to give the example of Onesiphorus in order to encourage Timothy writing…
Paul knew there would be many challenges when Timothy preached the word not fearing men but fearing God (Pr 29:25) and that he might be tempted to feel shame for taking a bold stand. (Ps 40:9) Timothy had surely heard this admonition before, for in Paul's first missionary journey through Timothy's hometown he had declared…
Remember that at the time this letter was written being a Christian not only brought almost universal criticism but frequently persecution, imprisonment and even death.
Jesus after asking what would it profit one to gain the whole world and forfeit his soul and what would one give in exchange for their soul, then warned that…
whoever is ashamed (epaischunomai - Bible Knowledge Commentary adds "will not identify with Him or believe on Him") of Me and My words (which of course would include the Gospel) in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man will also be ashamed (epaischunomai) of him when He comes in the glory of His Father with the holy angels. (Mark 8:38)
The interpretation of this passage is radically split between those who feel Jesus is saying those who are ashamed are unbelievers and others who say they are believers who will only suffer loss of rewards. I favor the former interpretation (eg, see the preceding context - especially "forfeit his soul" - to aid your interpretation) Literally, of course, the glorified Christ cannot experience the sense of shame, but the idea at the root is the same. It will be as if he should feel himself disgraced before the Father and the holy angels in owning any fellowship with those who have been ashamed of him. Jesus gives this warning because He knows that a major deterrent against total commitment to His testimony, the gospel, is the fear of shame. It is completely irrational for a creature to be ashamed of his Creator, for a sinner to be ashamed of his Savior.
Jamieson comments on Jesus' warning writing that
The sense of shame is one of the strongest in our nature, one of the social affections founded on our love of reputation, which causes instinctive aversion to what is fitted to lower it, and was given us as a preservative from all that is properly shameful… But when Christ and “His words”—Christianity, especially in its more spiritual and uncompromising features—are unpopular, the same instinctive desire to stand well with others begets the temptation to be ashamed of Him, which only the ‘expulsive power’ of a higher affection can effectually counteract… He will render to that man his own treatment; He will disown him before the most august of all assemblies, and put him to “shame and everlasting contempt” (Daniel 12:2). “Oh shame, to be put to shame before God, Christ, and angels!” [Bengel]." (Jamieson, R., et al: A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory)
William Barclay adds that
if by our lives we disown him, even though with our lips we confess him, the day must come when he cannot do other than disown us. (Barclay, W: The Daily Study Bible Series. The Westminster Press or Logos)
Spurgeon aptly put it
You will never glory in God till first of all God has killed your glorying in yourself.
In Hebrews we read the encouraging truth that…
both He (Jesus) who sanctifies (makes men holy, initially in salvation and then daily in sanctification) and those who are (continually being) sanctified (sanctification) are all from one Father; for which reason He (Jesus) is not ashamed (epaischunomai - He blushes not to acknowledge all His true followers as His brethren) to call them brethren (to acknowledge Himself as of the same family)" (see note Hebrews 2:11)
Comment: This an amazing, encouraging truth for as Barnes notes Jesus is not ashamed "As it might be supposed that One so exalted and pure would be. It might have been anticipated that the Son of God would refuse to give the name “brethren” to those who were so humble, and sunken and degraded as those whom He came to redeem. But He is willing to be ranked with them, and to be regarded as one of their family." Augustine put it well: "God makes of sons of men sons of God, because God hath made of the Son of God the Son of man
The last NT use of epaischunomai is found in Hebrews where we read that of those who "died in faith" that
as it is, they desire (orego = stretching out after, yearning after; present tense = continually) a better country, that is a heavenly one. Therefore God is not (ouk = absolutely not) ashamed to be called their God; for He has prepared a city for them. (see note Hebrews 11:16)
As Barnes comments - "We are not to suppose that God is ever “ashamed” of anything that he does. The meaning here is, that they had acted in such a manner that it was fit that he should show toward them the character of a Benefactor, Protector, and Friend."
Paul knowing the potential cost of living out and speaking forth the gospel of Jesus Christ boldly declared to the saints at Rome…
"Thus, for my part, I am eager to preach the gospel to you also who are in Rome for I am not ashamed (epaischunomai) of the gospel (though espousing its cause subjects one to the contempt of the Jew and of the Greek, to whom the gospel is a stumbling-block and foolishness), for it is the power (inherent effective ability to accomplish the intended purpose - see study of dunamis) of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek." (see note Romans 1:16)
And Paul says that the potential to experience shame should "flee away" in light of the spirit of power, love and sound mind God has granted us in (v7). Our natural reluctance to face the onslaught of a Christ-rejecting world can be overcome by the supernatural resource of God's resurrection power which gives life and victory to our mortal bodies.
A W Tozer wrote that…
Little by little evangelical Christians these days are being brainwashed. One evidence is that increasing numbers of them are becoming ashamed to be found unequivocally on the side of truth. They say they believe but their beliefs have been so diluted as to be impossible of clear definition.
The Bible has a great deal to say about suffering and most of it is encouraging.
Samuel Johnson (1709–1784) wrote that…
Shame arises from the fear of men, conscience from the fear of God.
Suffering… is the badge of the true Christian. - Dietrich Bonhoeffer
There is a certain kind of maturity that can be attained only through the discipline of suffering. - D. A. Carson
Do not kick against suffering, for in so doing you may be fighting against God. - Spurgeon
Life without struggle and difficulty is thin and tasteless. How can a noble life be constructed if there be no difficulty to overcome, no suffering to bear? -Spurgeon
He who can touch the secret springs of the heart, apart from circumstances and conditions, has often made a man glad when he has been racked with pain, or when he has been in the depths of poverty, or when he has been suffering at the demoniacal hands of inquisitors. - Spurgeon
I believe that one of the sweetest joys under heaven comes out of the severest suffering when patience is brought into play. - Spurgeon
There is a great want about all Christians who have not suffered. Some flowers must be broken or bruised before they emit any fragrance. - Robert Murray M’Cheyne
When missionary Dan Crawford's body was found, a well worn New Testament was found in the coat pocket of that great missionary to Africa. Inside he had penned the words of a man unashamed of the testimony of His Lord
Coward and wayward and weak,
As you ponder "In what ways am I ashamed of Jesus, His Cross and His Gospel?" click the links to the hymns and spiritual songs below be overwhelmed by the love of God Who was not ashamed to send His only Son to die on a cruel, shameful Cross in our stead…
It was our sin and guilt that bruised and wounded Him.
It was our sin that brought Him down.
When we like sheep had gone astray our Shepherd came
And on His shoulders bore our shame.
Jesus, Thy blood and righteousness
To the old rugged cross I will ever be true;
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On March 28, 1997, pastor Eugenio Nij of San Raymundo, Guatemala, was arrested and imprisoned on charges of assault and attempted murder. The charges were completely false--no evidence was produced. Yet Eugenio remained in prison despite petitions signed by hundreds of townspeople. In jail Eugenio continued to minister. He told Pulse magazine: “I’ve preached thirty or forty times in the fifty days I’ve been here… I’ve also been able to comfort fellow prisoners, some of whom have confessed their crimes to me while others are innocent. There have been twenty to thirty conversions… As a minister, I find this a special experience from God.” (Today in the Word)
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Suffering for the Gospel - Early in the morning on January 23, 1999, a group of about sixty Hindu fundamentalists shattered the windows of Graham Staines’s jeep. Graham, longtime director of a leprosy mission in India, and his sons, Philip and Timothy, were participating in a Bible conference in the village Monoharpur. After breaking the windows, the fanatics poured gasoline over the vehicle and set it on fire. Graham and his sons died, though not instantly, as many heard screams coming from the blaze. Days later, Graham’s wife, Gladys, made a public statement forgiving the murderers of her husband and sons. She also expressed hope that the guilty individuals would be touched by the love of Christ. India was stunned by her spirit of forgiveness, as well as her commitment to stay on and direct the mission. Gladys has this advice for future missionaries: “Make very sure of your call from God and, once you’re sure of it, be very prepared for whatever, even if it costs your life.” The strength, love, and commitment of the Staines family teach us much about a godly response to suffering, the focus of today’s devotion.
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OF THE TESTIMONY OF OUR LORD: to marturion tou kuriou hemon: (Ps 19:7; Jn 15:27; 19:35; 1Ti 2:6; 1Jn 4:14; 1Jn 5:11,12; Rev 1:2; Rev 12:11; 19:10)
Testimony (3142) (marturion source of English "martyr") means the declaration which confirms or makes something known.
Marturion - 19x in 19v - Matt 8:4; 10:18; 24:14; Mark 1:44; 6:11; 13:9; Luke 5:14; 9:5; 21:13; Acts 4:33; 7:44; 1 Cor 1:6; 2 Cor 1:12; 2 Thess 1:10; 1 Tim 2:6; 2 Tim 1:8; Heb 3:5; Jas 5:3; Rev 15:5. NAS = testimony(19), witness(1).
Marturion refers to the firsthand authentication of a fact and provides information about a person or an event concerning which the speaker has direct knowledge. Christ made known the truth about sin, righteousness and the judgment to come and men gnashed their teeth at Him (and they will at us also!).
In the context of this epistle, this phrase, "the "testimony of our Lord" is a reference to the gospel and is used this way in the following NT passages
When will this testimony be preached in the whole world? Remembering that Scripture is always the best commentary on Scripture (Click for discussion of this principle), in the Revelation (at the midpoint of Daniel's Seventieth Week, often called the "Tribulation") John records his "testimony"…
Luke records the beginning of the spread of the gospel from the first church in Jerusalem writing that…
John records his punishment for preaching the gospel testifying…
John later describes the scene in heaven which illustrates the cost some had to pay for taking a stand and not being ashamed of the testimony of our Lord…
Prisoner (1198)(desmios from deo = to bind) is an adjective, primarily denoting binding, bound, then, as a noun, the person bound, a captive or prisoner, one who was a deprived of liberty and kept in prison or some other form of custody as a punishment for a crime, while awaiting trial, or for some other reason. Click description of ancient prisons.
Desmios - 16x in 16v - Matt 27:15f; Mark 15:6; Acts 16:25, 27; 23:18; 25:14, 27; 28:17; Eph 3:1; 4:1; 2 Tim 1:8; Philemon 1:1, 9; Heb 10:34; 13:3
Paul may be in a Roman dungeon but he is foremost the prisoner of the Lord Jesus who had sovereign control of his life. As Dwight Edwards writes, Paul's…
chains were not clamped on by an oppressive Roman government, but by the hand of a loving, faithful Father Who was working it all to Paul's ultimate good and His glory. And so Paul was able to avoid bitterness toward the Roman authorities, for he did not see them as acting on their own. He had developed 50-20 vision which Joseph describes in Ge 50:20, "but as for you, you meant evil against me; but God meant it for good. (Call to Completion) (Bolding added)
BUT JOIN WITH ME IN SUFFERING: alla sugkakopatheson (2SAAM):
Join with me in suffering (4777) (sugkakopatheo from sun = with + kakos = evil + pathos = passion) literally means to suffer hardship, evil or affliction along with someone. It means to suffer something bad or base, to suffer ill treatment along with some else. It means to undergo the same type of suffering as others do, to join with them in suffering, to assume one’s share of suffering or to suffer together.
Paul like a wartime general uses the aorist imperative which is a command calling for immediate and urgent action. "Timothy, do this now, without hesitation" is the idea.
As a side note this letter has the most commands of any pastoral epistle - 2 Timothy has 31 second person singular imperatives compared with 30 in the longer 1 Timothy and 12 in Titus.
Note the little preposition sun (Click in depth discussion) which means "with". Sun pictures an intimate union. When Timothy suffered for the gospel, Paul's heart (while he was alive) was knit with Timothy's and suffered along with him (1Cor 12:26). Then as well as today, when anyone is persecuted for the sake of His Name, Jesus is there as He explained to Saul on the Damascus Road in Acts…
Because Jesus is in covenant with those who have placed their faith in Him, He is obligated to be their avenger, which is the truth that Paul discovered on the Damascus Road. What an encouragement to Timothy and to us is this truth that Jesus is there when persecution comes and even when everyone else deserts us (cf notes (cf 2Ti 4:16; 17- notes 2Ti 4:16; 17, Hebrews 13:5, 6-note) Jesus has always "been there" for His suffering saints.
Daniel records Nebuchadnezzar's amazing vision after Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego (who refused to bow and worship the image of Nebuchadnezzar) were thrown into the midst of the furnace of blazing fire.
Although not everyone agrees that the "fourth" man in the fire was the Preincarnate Messiah, I think the evidence supports this premise. For example, the Septuagint (Greek translation of the Hebrew OT) reads "the fourth is like the Son of God". While one cannot be dogmatic, many excellent conservative commentators agree that this person was most likely the preincarnate Lord Jesus or the Angel of the LORD.
Church tradition says that most of the apostles died as martyrs. Paul is concerned that in the face of vicious, deadly opposition, Timothy might be afraid to boldly proclaim the gospel. This is not an unreasonable consideration in light of the fact that all who were in Asia turned away from Paul (in prison) and Demas deserted him (see note 2 Timothy 4:10-note)
Did Timothy keep the faith and finish his course? In the epistle to the Hebrews we read that "Timothy has been released" (see note Hebrews 13:23-note) which suggests that Timothy had endured hardship and fulfilled his ministry, unashamed of the gospel even to the point of suffering imprisonment.
This call to join with me has the ring of a teacher (Paul) calling on his disciple (Timothy) to follow in his steps. In both the secular Greek and the Jewish cultures disciples (Students of rabbis or philosophers, normally committed to memorizing and living according to their master’s teachings) were called to follow in their teachers’ steps. Ultimately both Paul and Timothy were disciples of
How incredible that Timothy and you and I have "been considered worthy to suffer shame for His name" (Acts 5:41)
Paul is inviting Timothy (& all genuine disciples of Christ) to join a not too popular club "The Pain of Shame Club". And Paul uses the Aorist imperative construction which is a command to do this now, without hesitation, even conveying a sense of urgency.
Bear evil treatment along with me Timothy, for afflictions will come upon those who preach and profess the Gospel, for even though the Gospel is a Gospel of peace, men are corrupt and depraved (see note Romans 1:28-note) and the Gospel brings a sword (Mt 10:34), division (Jn 7:43, 10:19 Mt 10:35 Lk 12:51), and trouble (Acts 16:20KJV). Tribulation arises on account of the Gospel; and this suffering should be endured patiently, and constantly, for he sake of the Gospel. Do we really understand Paul's 'invitation" in 21st Century America? Our Lord Jesus made it clear that we would have trouble. (Jn 16:33) Paul repeatedly affirmed that suffering for the gospel was the expected lot of believers (see note 2 Timothy 3:12-note). He had consistently proclaimed this truth throughout his ministry (Acts 14:21,22; 1Th 3:4; Philippians 1:29 [note], etc). Christians today must not be blind to this plain teaching of Scripture and must avoid surprise when opposition to the gospel produces a personal attack.
John R. Scott gives a modern example of one who suffered for the gospel observing that…
Am I a soldier of the cross, a follower of the Lamb?
FOR THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO THE POWER OF GOD: to euaggelio kata dunamin theou:
Spurgeon comments that…
Wuest gives these added insights on euaggelion explaining that…
Vine adds that
According to - This is the Greek preposition kata which is not out of but according to His infinite power. To illustrate the principle imagine that I am a billionaire and I give you ten dollars, I have given you out of my riches. Now on the other hand, if I give you a million dollars, I have given to you according to my riches. The first $10 gift was only a portion (and a small one at that) but the second was a proportion of my wealth. In the first gift, I would take it out of my riches, and thus would be like the wealthy Mr. Rockefeller who would give his caddy a dime after carrying his clubs for 18 holes! God is not that way and He gives "according to" His power, which is where the illustration breaks down for God's riches and power are infinite and inexhaustible. Does this truth boggle your mind even a little? It should beloved for His resources are what we now have access to!
Power (1411) (dunamis) of God enables us to suffer hardship and affliction for the gospel. God gives us in Christ Jesus and the Spirit Who indwells us. It is an inherent ability which gives us the potential to carry out whatever God calls us to do, including to suffer.
Dunamis - 119x in 115v - Matt 7:22; 11:20f, 23; 13:54, 58; 14:2; 22:29; 24:29f; 25:15; 26:64; Mark 5:30; 6:2, 5, 14; 9:1, 39; 12:24; 13:25f; 14:62; Luke 1:17, 35; 4:14, 36; 5:17; 6:19; 8:46; 9:1; 10:13, 19; 19:37; 21:26f; 22:69; 24:49; Acts 1:8; 2:22; 3:12; 4:7, 33; 6:8; 8:10, 13; 10:38; 19:11; Rom 1:4, 16, 20; 8:38; 9:17; 15:13, 19; 1 Cor 1:18, 24; 2:4f; 4:19f; 5:4; 6:14; 12:10, 28f; 14:11; 15:24, 43, 56; 2 Cor 1:8; 4:7; 6:7; 8:3; 12:9, 12; 13:4; Gal 3:5; Eph 1:19, 21; 3:7, 16, 20; Phil 3:10; Col 1:11, 29; 1 Thess 1:5; 2 Thess 1:7, 11; 2:9; 2 Tim 1:7f; 3:5; Heb 1:3; 2:4; 6:5; 7:16; 11:11, 34; 1 Pet 1:5; 3:22; 2 Pet 1:3, 16; 2:11; Rev 1:16; 3:8; 4:11; 5:12; 7:12; 11:17; 12:10; 13:2; 15:8; 17:13; 18:3; 19:1. NAS = ability(4), meaning(1), mightily(1), mighty(1), miracle(2), miracles(17), miraculous powers(3), power(83), powers(6), strength(2), wealth(1).
Dunamis conveys the idea of effective, productive energy, rather than that which is raw and unbridled. God gives every believer the same supernatural power which was manifest in Jesus’ life and which resurrected Him from the dead. We have at our "disposal" this same resurrection power beloved! And notice that it given to us "according to", which is explained below. In Acts we see the disciples manifesting this power in boldly witnessing, not fearing persecution or imprisonment. And what was their source of this power? The Holy Spirit had come upon them as Jesus had prophesied in (Acts 1:8) where He declared that they would receive
Today every believer has been baptized by (identified with) the Holy Spirit (1Corinthians 12:13) and thus he or she has access to the same power the believers in the early church had. There is no difference in the power available to us today beloved (although certain miraculous works appear to have been restricted to this unique transition time in history as outlined in the book of Acts - beloved please do not be sidetracked - the greatest miracle of a dead sinner being resurrected to newness of life is still a reality and this should be our desire and focus). Do we really believe we have access to God's supernatural power? Why then do so few of us experience this divine power? Could it be that we resist, quench and/or grieve the Spirit of God Who gives us this power? Could it be that we are not letting the Word of Christ dwell in us richly (more than a verse or two in the morning), obeying (under grace not law) that Word as directed (filled, controlled) by the Holy Spirit? Or perhaps we are like the saints at Ephesus who must have been instructed about their source of inherent spiritual power and yet Paul was still moved by the Spirit to pray for them to know this power deep within their innermost being, praying that…
Hiebert comments that…
F. B. Meyer wrote:
Warren Wiersbe writes…
Hodges rightly notes that…
Knock, Knock! - A knock came at the door of the home of a man who had a young family. When the father answered the door, he was greeted by someone he had never met—a friendly man from a nearby church who had stopped by to say hello.
His pleasant demeanor and kind words impressed the dad, and the two agreed to meet again. When they did, the visitor introduced the man to the gospel of Jesus Christ. Both he and his wife trusted Jesus as Savior.
That changed everything. The couple began attending church, and all six of their children became believers in Christ. Eventually the dad became a Sunday school teacher and a deacon.
One of this couple’s daughters grew up to attend the same Christian college I attended. That student’s name was Sue, and from the first time I saw this cute girl from Grand Rapids, I was smitten. The man who had answered the door eventually became my father-in-law. That door-to-door ambassador changed not just one man, but an entire family—and the results continue to reverberate.
Paul encouraged us, "Let your speech always be with grace, seasoned with salt, that you may know how you ought to answer each one" (Col. 4:6).
Whose life, whose future, will you impact? — Dave Branon
Lord, lay some soul upon my heart,
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