The first missionary
journey had been about five years before the events of this chapter and
Paul was eager to follow up the work of the Lord among these churches
founded five years before.
In Derbe Paul
had great success on his first missionary journey (Acts 14:20-21).
In Lystra, a
crowd had tried to honor Paul and Barnabas as pagan gods on the first
missionary journey (Acts 14:8-20) and then they stoned him (Acts 14:19)!
- Timothy was probably a convert of Paul's from his previous missionary
trip to Derbe and Lystra (1Ti 1:2 "to Timothy, my true child in the faith:
Grace, mercy and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.").
His mother and grandmother had trained him well in the Jewish Scriptures
2 Timothy 1:5;
and evidently all three had accepted Christ. Timothy was no doubt aware of
Paul's miraculous restoration after his stoning (Acts 14:20 "But while the
disciples stood around him, he arose and entered the city. And the next
day he went away with Barnabas to Derbe."), and was ready and willing to
go with Paul when asked. Since his father was a Greek (Christian or not is
not known), he had never been circumcised, and Paul deemed it expedient
though not required to have this done before taking him into the
synagogues, to avoid giving unnecessary offense to the Jews.
Disciple (mathetes from manthano = intentional
learning by inquiry and observation) is a person who learns from another
by instruction, whether formal or informal. A disciple is an adherent who
accepts instruction given to him and makes it his rule of conduct.
A believer (pistos
from peítho = to
persuade) is something or someone who is worthy of faith or keeps promises
and is applied to God, humans, His Word, etc
a nice summary (expanded in the discussion that follows) of the meaning of
pistos, faithful, writing that it is used
(1), of one who shows Himself faithful
in the discharge of a duty or the administration of a trust (Mt
24:45). Hence, trustworthy (see
2 Ti 2:2).
Of things that can be relied upon (see
2 Ti 2:11).
(2) Confiding; trusting; a believer (Gal
Acts 16:1; 2Cor 6:15; 1Ti 5:16)" (Word
Studies in the New Testament)
Webster says that
means firm in adherence to whatever one owes allegiance and implies
unswerving adherence to a person or thing or to the oath or promise by
which a tie was contracted.
used in two senses in the NT
1) An active
meaning = trusting or believing
This is the less
frequent usage. This sense speaks of a sinner exercising faith in the Lord
Jesus. In the first NT use in this sense, Jesus "said to Thomas,
Reach here your finger, and see My
hands; and reach here your hand, and put it into My side; and be not
unbelieving, but believing. (Jn
let those who have believers (pistos)
as their masters not be disrespectful to them because they are brethren,
but let them serve them all the more, because those who partake of the
benefit are believers (pistos) and beloved. Teach and preach
these principles. (1Ti
is used in this active sense to refer to the faith which a lost sinner
must place in the Lord Jesus in order to be saved, it includes the
following ideas -- the act of considering the Lord Jesus worthy of trust
as to His character and motives, the act of placing confidence in His
ability to do just what He says He will do, the act of entrusting the
salvation of his soul into the hands of the Lord Jesus, the act of
committing the work of saving his soul to the care of the Lord. This means
a definite taking of one’s self out of one’s own keeping and entrusting
one’s self into the keeping of the Lord Jesus. Thus Paul says
So then those
who are of faith are blessed with Abraham, the
records that Paul
came also to Derbe and to Lystra. And
behold, a certain disciple was there, named Timothy, the son of a Jewish
woman who was a believer, but his father was a Greek. (Acts
Note also that with
regard to believers, they are spoken of sometimes in the Active
sense (as believers) and sometimes in the Passive (as faithful).
The New Testament
concept of faith includes three main elements, mutually connected
and requisite, though according to circumstances sometimes one and
sometimes another may be more prominent
(1) a fully convinced acknowledgement
of the revelation of grace;
(2) a self-surrendering fellowship
(3) a fully assured and unswerving
trust (and with this at the same time hope) in the God of salvation or in
Christ. (Modified from Cremer)
Well spoken of
(matureo) refers to a human declaration of ascertainable facts
based on firsthand knowledge or experience and in the present context
refers to a good report or having a good reputation.
This verb is used of
Jesus in Luke...
And all were speaking well of
Him, and wondering at the gracious words which were falling from His lips;
and they were saying, "Is this not Joseph's son?" (Luke 4:22)
It is also used of
those who would lead in the church...
But select from among you, brethren,
seven men of good reputation, full of the Spirit and of wisdom,
whom we may put in charge of this task. (Acts 6:3)
- (see study of noun
The Jerusalem council had declared that circumcision was not necessary for
salvation or for acceptance into the Christian church (See Acts 15 where
Pharisees felt circumcision was necessary but the council concluded it was
not), but because of Timothy's Jewish background it seemed expedient in
his case in order to enlarge his local usefulness even as Paul declared in
his letter to Corinth...
To the weak I became weak, that I might
win the weak; I have become all things to all men, that I may by all means
save some. And I do all things for the sake of the gospel, that I may
become a fellow partaker of it. (1Cor 9:22-23)
In Acts 15, the
Jerusalem council had declared that circumcision was not necessary for
salvation (Acts 15:19), but because of Timothy's part-Jewish background
Paul felt it was expedient in order to enlarge his usefulness in
Nowhere does Luke state that Paul circumcised Timothy in order that he be
saved, but simply because of the Jews who were in those parts. It is
a wise spiritual leader who knows how and when to apply the principles of
the Word of God, when to stand firm and when to yield.
In the case of
Gentile Titus, Paul insisted that he not be circumcised because the
Judaizers insisted on circumcision as necessary for salvation, a false
doctrine to which Paul would not acquiesce. Paul writes...
But not even Titus who was with me,
though he was a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised. But it was because
of the false brethren who had sneaked in to spy out our liberty which we
have in Christ Jesus, in order to bring us into bondage. But we did not
yield in subjection to them for even an hour, so that the truth of the
gospel might remain with you. (Galatians 2:3-5).
Circumcision was the sine qua non of
Judaism. Had Timothy not been circumcised, the Jews would have assumed he
was renouncing his Jewish heritage and choosing to live as a Gentile.
Paul's circumcision of Timothy had nothing to do with salvation; he did it
for expediency's sake, to avoid placing an unnecessary stumbling block in
the way of Jewish evangelism. Timothys circumcision granted him full
access to the synagogues he would visit with Paul and Silas...From Paul's
actions concerning his two companions an important principle becomes
evident. Missionaries must be sensitive to the unique characteristics of
the cultures in which they work. As Paul did in circumcising Timothy, they
should avoid giving any unnecessary offense. But like Paul in refusing to
circumcise Titus, they must not compromise any of the timeless truths of
J: Acts 1-12; Acts
13-28 Moody Press or
By Jewish law Timothy was a Jew,
because he was the son of Jewish mother, but because he was uncircumcised
he was technically an apostate Jew. If Paul wished to maintain his links
with the synagogue, he could not be seen to countenance apostasy. (Bruce)
decrees - What decrees? The decrees which had been drawn up by
the apostles and elders at Jerusalem which can be summarized (1) that
salvation is by faith alone (God cleansed the Gentiles "hearts by faith."
Acts 15:9) and does require circumcision or law-keeping, (2) that sexual
immorality was forbidden for all believers for all time and (3) that meats
offered to idols, from animals that had been strangled, and blood were all
forbidden as food, not as matters essential to salvation, but to
facilitate fellowship between Jewish and Gentile believers. Some of these
instructions were revised 1 Cor. 8-10; 1 Ti 4:4, 5).
(ekklesia from ek = out + kaleo = call) is literally
the "called-out ones". Greeks used ekklesia for an assembly of
citizens "called out" to transact city business. The church is not an
organization but a living organism, Christ's body, composed of individual
members (believers) joined together and in and through which Christ, the
Head works, carries out His purposes and lives. These churches were
composed of men and women who had received and believed the gospel Paul
and Barnabas had proclaimed on the First Missionary Journey.
= solid, stable.
Stereoo is used 3 times in the NT all in Acts ( Acts 3:7, 3:16, 16:5)
means literally to make strong, stable, firm and figuratively to solidify,
confirm or establish in the faith (cf see note
The faith speaking of the Christian profession, the faith
from perissós = abundant)
means caused to superabound, to overflow, to be in affluence, to excel or
to be in abundance with the implication of being considerably more than
what would be expected.
carries the idea of exceeding the requirements, of overflowing or
overdoing. It means to exceed a fixed number of measure, to be left over
and above a certain number or measure. It means to have or to be more than
enough, to be extremely rich or abundant. To exceed or remain over (as
used in loaves left over after feeding the 5000 [Mt 14:20]! When Jesus
supplies there is more than enough so that some is even left over! How
quick we are to forget this basic principle!) The idea is to overflow like
a river out of its banks!
Perisseuo is used 3 times in Paul's first letter
to the Thessalonians and in two instances is translated "excel" (see notes
) referring not so much to growth in numbers but in their walk of faith
Number (arithmos) The result was fruit from the witness of
the believers so that the churches increased in number daily. We see a
similar principle in Acts 2...
(The church was) praising God, and
having favor with all the people. And the Lord was adding to their number
day by day those who were being saved. (Acts 2:47).
strong (Biblically sound) churches will naturally increase in number
daily, without relying on carnal, seeker oriented or manipulative ways.
Sound expository preaching that matures believers in solid food (see note
will build a strong church and God will add His people to an edifying,
equipping body of believers.
from kólos = docked, lopped, clipped, kolazo = curtail)
means to cut off, to cut short, to weaken and generally to hinder, to
prevent, to check, to restrain or to forbid by word or act. The idea is to
cause something not to happen. To hinder means to make slow or difficult
the progress of something by interfering in some way with the activity or
progress thereof. In short koluo means to make it difficult for
someone to do something or for something to happen.
At times the Spirit
says no so He can lead us to a greater ministry for Jesus. How He
forbade Paul, Silas and Timothy is not specifically stated.
In Asia - Asia was an
important region and there would later be churches in such cities as
Ephesus, Smyrna, Philadelphia, Laodicea, Colossae, Sardis, Pergamum, and
Thyatira but for now Paul was forbidden to speak there.
F B Meyer
Each believer has an appointed place in
the great army of God. It is indicated by the voice of God, and by the
circumstances of our life; and it should be jealously retained. Repeatedly
the Apostle bade his converts abide in the calling wherein they were
called. Yours may be towards the bleak north of difficulty, or the warm
south of privilege — in the home, the country parish, or the difficult
foreign post. But, on the whole, you should stay where you are; unless the
Captain of our salvation moves you by some unmistakable indication of his
will. The apostle Paul ever lived in such dependence on the Holy Spirit
for guidance, and for the unfolding of the Divine purpose, that from some
apparently trivial circumstance he would “gather” the movements of the
pillar of cloud by day, and of fire by night. And interval there was none
between his apprehension of the Divine purpose and his endeavor to strike
his tent and follow wherever it might lead (Acts 16:6–7). (Meyer, F. B.
Our Daily Homily)
The Spirit of
Jesus did not permit them - Paul, beautifully responsive to the Holy
Spirit, is willing to lay down his will and plans for the direction that
the Holy Spirit brings. Paul is being guided by hindrance. The Holy Spirit
guides as much by the closing of doors as He does by the opening of doors.
Acts 16:6-7 both clearly demonstrate the superintendence and guidance of
the Holy Spirit in missionary strategy.
Charles Ryrie writes that...
Asia needed the Gospel, but this was
not God's time. Need did not constitute their call. They had just come
from the east; they had been forbidden to go south or north, but they did
not presume that the Lord was leading them to the west --they waited His
specific directions. Logic alone is not the basis for a call.
Discerning God's Will - move ahead and allow Him to close doors
until the right opportunity presents itself.
The Lord's calling may become evident in different ways. One key principle
is indicated here in the calling of Paul to Macedonia in Greece. Paul was
already active, trying to preach in the province of Asia, then in
Bithynia. He was not waiting idly at home, hoping to receive a call. The
Holy Spirit in some very clear way closed the first two doors, but then
opened another by this special vision. It is sobering to think that if
Paul had not been redirected to Philippi and Greece, he might never have
gone into Europe and Christianity might have remained primarily an Asian
religion. But God had other purposes.
summarizes how the early believers discerned the will of God and His
1. Through the Scriptures.
2. Through visions and prophecies.
3. Through circumstances.
4. Through the advice and initiative of other Christians.
5. Through direct communication, possibly in an inward, subjective manner.
W & Farstad, A. Believer's Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson or
1. Surrender your
I seek at the
beginning to get my heart into such a state that it has no will of its own
in regard to a given matter. Nine-tenths of the trouble with people
generally is just here. Nine-tenths of the difficulties are overcome when
our hearts are ready to do the Lord's will, whatever it may be. When one
is truly in this state it is usually but a little way to the knowledge of
what His will is.
2. Do not depend on feelings.
Having done this, I
do not leave the result to feeling or simple impression. If so, I make
myself liable to great elusions.
3. Seek, the Spirit's will through God's Word.
I seek the will of
the Spirit of God through, or in connection with, the Word of God. The
Spirit and the Word must be combined. If I look to the Spirit alone
without the Word, I lay myself open to great delusion also. If the Holy
Ghost guides us at all, He will do it according to the Scriptures and
never contrary to them.
4. Note providential circumstances.
Next I take into
account providential circumstances. These often plainly indicate God's
will in connection with His Word and Spirit.
I ask God in prayer
to reveal His will to me aright.
><> ><> ><>
F B Meyer - THE
GUIDANCE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT Acts 16:7-10.
THE SPIRIT of Jesus often shuts doors
in the long corridors of life. We pass along, trying one after another,
but find that they are all locked, in order that we may enter the one that
He has opened for us (Rev 3:7-8). Sometimes in following the Spirit's
guidance we seem to come to a blank wall. The little missionary band found
themselves facing the sea. They had not contemplated crossing to Europe,
but there seemed no other course open. They walked to and fro on the
sea-wall or landing-stage, looking over the restless waves, and noticing
the strange costumes of sailors and travellers who had gathered in the
thriving sea-port, which bore the name famous to all the world for the
Siege of Troy.
It was with such thoughts in his heart
that St. Paul slept that night in his humble lodging, and in his dreams, a
man from Macedonia, like one he had seen on the quay, stood and beckoned
to him (Acts 16:10, R.V.).
Where it is possible for the judgment
to arrive at a right conclusion, on the suggestions that may be supplied
by the Divine Spirit, we are left to think out the problems of our career.
Within your reach are the materials needed for formulating a correct
judgment; use them, balance the pros and cons, and looking up to God to
prevent you from making a mistake, act. When once you have come to a
decision, in faith and prayer, go forward, not doubting or looking back.
A small door may lead to a vast
opportunity. St. Paul might have been discouraged by his reception in
Europe. He looked for the man whom he had seen in the vision, but the only
trace they could find of the worship of God was the gathering together of
a few women. How startled they must have been by the sudden appearance of
these missionaries, but a mighty work for God began in the life of at
least one of them "whose heart the Lord opened." Let us not despise the
smallest opening, for we can never tell into what a wide place it may
PRAYER - O God, since we know not what a day may bring forth, but only
that the hour for serving Thee is always present, may we wake to the
instant claims of Thy holy Will; not waiting for to-morrow, but yielding
today. Consecrate with Thy presence the way our feet may go; and the
humblest work will shine, and the roughest places be made plain. AMEN.
(Our Daily Walk)
F. B. Meyer
in his book Paul A Servant of Jesus Christ writes...
It is interesting to study the method
of his guidance as it was extended towards these early heralds of the
Cross. It consisted largely in prohibitions, when they attempted to take
another course than the right. When they would turn to the left, to Asia,
He stayed them; and when they sought to turn to the right, to Bithynia,
again He stayed them. He shut all the doors along their route, and bolted
them; so that they had no alternative but to go straight forward. In the
absence of any prohibition, they were left to gather that they were
treading the prepared path for which they had been created in Christ
Whenever you are doubtful as to your
course, submit your judgment absolutely to the Spirit of God, and ask Him
to shut against you every door but the right one. Say, "Blessed Spirit, I
cast on Thee the entire responsibility of closing against my steps any and
every course which is not of God. Let me hear thy voice behind me whenever
I turn to the right hand or the left. Put thine arrest on me. Do not
In the meanwhile, continue along the
path which you have been already treading. It lies in front of you; pursue
it. Abide in the calling in which you were called. Keep on as you are,
unless you are clearly told to do something else. Expect to have as clear
a door out as you had in; and if there is no indication to the contrary,
consider the absence of indication to be the indication of God's will that
you are on his track.
The Spirit of Jesus waits to be to you,
O pilgrim, what He was to Paul. Only be careful to obey his least
prohibitions, and where, after believing prayer, there are no apparent
hindrances, believe that you are on the way everlasting, and go forward
with enlarged heart. "Teach me to do thy will, for Thou art my God: thy
Spirit is good, lead me into the land of uprightness." Do not be surprised
if the answer comes in closed doors. But when doors are shut right and
left, an open road is sure to lead to Troas. There Luke awaits, and
visions will point the way, where vast opportunities stand open, and
faithful friends are waiting.
Although the man
of Macedonia represented all the culture, intelligence, religion, and
achievements of Greek civilization, he was spiritually bankrupt. Here the
Gospel turns to Europe. So after two "no's", then a "go".
Guzik writes that...
God still calls people to the mission
field. Perhaps many today will encounter a "Macedonia man" who will call
them out to the mission field. Would to God that those who hear a
"Macedonian man" today will respond the way Paul and his team responded!
from boé = a cry,
exclamation + theo = to run)
for study on
means to run on hearing a cry, to give assistance.
means to succor (KJV says God "is able to succour them that are
tempted" - see note
which is a word you may not be too familiar with, but which means
literally to run to or run to support hence, to help or relieve when in
difficulty, want or distress; to assist and deliver from suffering; as, to
succor a besieged city; to succor prisoners. (succor is derived from Latin
succurrere = to run up, run to help, from sub- = up + currere to run).
The greatest help we
can bring anyone is the life-changing gospel of Jesus Christ! It is good
for us to bring help (social, medical needs, etc) but without the life
changing gospel of Christ, what help of eternal value have you given them?
George MacDonald wrote that...
Nothing makes a man strong like a call
><> ><> ><>
Our Daily Bread -
THE MAN FROM MACEDONIA - Acts 16:9
When the apostle Paul saw in a vision the man from Macedonia, it changed
the history of the world. Heeding the man's plea to "come over to
Macedonia," Paul altered his plans. It was in Macedonia he led Lydia to
the Lord, and it was there that the evangelization of the Western world
All Christians should be on the lookout for "the man from Macedonia." That
man or woman may be well-educated, or have no education at all. He may
drive an expensive car, or he may be poor and eke out a living ransacking
garbage cans. He may live next door, down the street, or across the sea.
He may speak a different language. But wherever you find him, and whatever
his situation, he has one pressing need -- to know Jesus Christ as his
Sometimes that need is expressed as a cry for help. At other times it is
veiled in bitter hostility to the Savior and the gospel. Many times his
sins and errors and crimes announce this desperate condition. Yet despite
the thousand different ways he voices that need, the plea is always the
same: "Come over...and help us" (Acts 16:9).
Sooner or later someone will call out to you for help. Will you be quick
to answer?-- Haddon W. Robinson
O stir me, O stir me,
Lord, till all my heart
Is filled with compassion for those who are lost,
Until Your compelling love drives me to pray
And follow Your leading, not counting the cost.-- Anon
If you've accepted
Christ's invitation to come,
have you obeyed his commission to go?
><> ><> ><>
The first use here
of we in the narrative, instead of "they," seems to indicate that
Luke, the author of the book of Acts, joined the missionary party at Troas.
Then after Paul and Silas and Timothy left Philippi, Luke changed the
from we to they in Acts 17:1, which suggests
that he remained behind in Philippi to watch over the infant church after
God wanted Paul and his team to go to Troas and pick up a doctor named
Luke. If God wouldn't have said "no" to Paul two times, we might not have
a gospel and a Book of Acts written by Luke!
It was some six to
seven years later when Luke rejoined Paul...
But these had gone on ahead and were
waiting for us at Troas. (Acts 20:5 )
Finally, in the
third we section, Luke is with Paul has they sail for Italy ...
And when it was decided that we
should sail for Italy, they proceeded to deliver Paul and some other
prisoners to a centurion of the Augustan cohort named Julius. (Acts 27:1)
from sun = union + bibazo = to force) means to cause to come
together, to bring together, to join together. It is used more literally
and in a physical sense in (see notes
How did the facts
"come together" and allow them to arrive at a conclusion? Two "no's" plus
one "vision" added up to a directive to preach the gospel (to
"help" cf Acts 16:9)
A T Robertson
adds that sumbibazo is...
A very striking word, present active participle of sumbibazo, old verb to
make go together, to coalesce or knit together, to make this and that
agree and so to conclude. Already in Acts 9:22 of Paul’s preaching. This
word here gives a good illustration of the proper use of the reason in
connection with revelation, to decide whether it is a revelation from God,
to find out what it means for us, and to see that we obey the revelation
when understood. God had called them to preach to the Macedonians. They
had to go.
A straight course
to Samothrace - This phrase is a nautical term which means
"sailing before the wind".
They anchored for a night at Samothrace.
From the continent of Asia, to the continent of Europe. From Troas to
Neapolis, the port of Philippi was a distance of about 150 miles, and it
took them two days to make the journey. Later, the trip in the opposite
direction would take five days, apparently because of contrary winds, Luke
And we sailed from Philippi after the
days of Unleavened Bread, and came to them at Troas within five days; and
there we stayed seven days. (Acts 20:6).
The wisdom and
greatness of God's sovereign plan of salvation begins to unfold. In Paul's
mind as he traveled through Asia and tried to enter Bithynia, he sought to
reach a few of the cities in this region. On the other hand, God had a
much bigger plan for He wanted Paul to reach a continent for Jesus Christ!
Neapolis some 120 miles from Troas was the seaport for
Philippi which was located about 10 miles inland as one treks along
Via Egnatia (picture of road upon which Paul probably entered
Philippi). This paved road
extended some 530 miles from Dyrrachium (Modern day Albania) on the
Adriatic coast across Macedonia to Neapolis on the Aegean Sea,
traversing through major metropolitan centers such as Thessalonica.
Roman colony was
like a piece of Rome transplanted abroad so that those who held
citizenship in a colony enjoyed the same rights they would have had if
they had lived in Italy. Other colonies mentioned in Acts are Pisidian
Antioch, Lystra, Troas, Ptolemais, and Corinth.
Philippi was a Roman colony, which
meant that it was a "Rome away from Rome." The emperor organized
"colonies" by ordering Roman citizens, especially retired military people,
to live in selected places so there would be strong pro-Roman cities in
these strategic areas. Though living on foreign soil, the citizens were
expected to be loyal to Rome, to obey the laws of Rome, and to give honor
to the Roman emperor. In return, they were given certain political
privileges, not the least of which was exemption from taxes. This was
their reward for leaving their homes in Italy and relocating elsewhere. (Wiersbe,
W: Bible Exposition Commentary. 1989. Victor
Sabbath - (sabbaton
from shabath - H7676 = to cease from work, intermission) Jewish
Sabbath was the 7th day of week and was kept originally by a total
cessation from all labor as even the kindling of a fire, but apparently
without any public solemnities except an addition to the daily sacrifice
in the tabernacle and the changing of the shewbread (Ex 20:8, 31:13; Lv
24:8; Nu 15:32, 28:9). The custom of reading the Scriptures in public
assemblies and synagogues appears to have been introduced after the exile
(cf. Neh 8; Lu 4:16).
Christians are to do what the New Testament says. Jesus fulfilled the
ceremonial, sacrificial part of the Old Testament law when He died on the
cross (Hebrews 10). He told Peter that the dietary laws no longer applied
to the church (Acts 10). True believers keep the moral part of God’s laws
as they live by His Spirit (see notes
The sabbath was a sign between the Lord and the nation of Israel—the sign
of the Old Covenant (the Law)—that they might know He is the Lord Who
sanctifies them, sets them apart. Israel was to observe the sabbath
because it was holy, set apart, for them. The one who profaned the
sabbath, did not treat it as holy, was put to death. The sabbath, the
seventh day, was to be a day of complete rest. Israel was to keep it
throughout their generations as a perpetual covenant.
But after the captivity arose the school of the Pharisees, and by them the
attractive character of the Sabbatical observances was destroyed. In place
of the joy, they imposed upon the people the yoke of a scrupulous, slavish
sabbatarianism which made the Sabbath an END instead of a MEANS, hampered
the spirit of true worship, and laid greater stress upon a punctilious
obedience to mere human regulations than upon God's commands in the Law.
Some of the ridiculous prohibitions were as follows: walking in the grass
on the Sabbath because its bruising effect would constitute a kind of
threshing; wearing nailed shoes because they would be viewed as carrying a
burden. It was against this perversion of the commandment that the Lord
protested. He refused to sanction Pharisaical legalism and vigorously
defended His Sabbath miracles.
Jesus kept the Sabbath in the highest sense of the term. He observed every
jot and tittle of the Mosaic Law in the freedom of the spirit. He taught
us that acts of necessity and mercy are to be performed always, even on
the Sabbath, and worldly occupations are to be put as far as possible out
of our thoughts. In the Christian church the first day of the week has
been substituted for the last day as a day of worship and rest. This,
however, is in commemoration of the resurrection of Christ.
We went outside the gate to a riverside, where we were supposing that
there would be a place of prayer -
Paul normally went first to a local synagogue when he arrived in a new
city, but apparently there was none in Philippi. Ten Jewish men who were
heads of there household was required to constitute a synagogue,
suggesting that Philippi must have had a small Jewish population.
The only religious activity on the weekly Sabbath was apparently the ladies'
prayer meeting, so that was where Paul headed. This gathering became the
nucleus of the first Christian church in Europe.
Paul had seen a man in the vision at
Troas, but here he was ministering to a group of women! 'It is
better that the words of the Law be burned than be delivered to a woman!"
said the rabbis; but that was no longer Paul's philosophy. He had been
obedient and the Lord had gone before to prepare the way. (Wiersbe,
W: Bible Exposition Commentary. 1989. Victor
Had there been ten Jewish men, they
would have sufficed to constitute a synagogue. No number of women would
compensate for the absence of even one man necessary to make up the quorum
AND A CERTAIN WOMAN NAMED LYDIA: kai tis gune onomati Lydia: The
first European Christian!
She may have been
named after the land, though Lydia is a common female name. Lydia was
itself a Macedonian colony. When Paul wrote the Philippians he did not
mention Lydia who may have died meanwhile and who certainly was not Paul's
FROM THE CITY OF THYATIRA A SELLER OF PURPLE FABRICS: porphuropolis poleos Thuateiron:
(plural form like Philippi) was famous for its purple dyes as old as Homer
(Iliad) and had a guild of dyers as inscriptions show. There
was a great demand for purple fabric as it was used on the official toga
at Rome and in Roman colonies.
A WORSHIPER OF GOD: sebomene (PMPFSN) ton theon:
Like Cornelius (Acts
10:2), she was a God-fearer or Gentile but was not a full Jewish
proselyte. Nevertheless she openly worshiped with the Jews and clearly she was
WAS LISTENING: ekouen (3SIAI):
The imperfect tense
pictures her as listening,
really listening and she kept it up, listening to each of these new and
AND THE LORD OPENED HER
HEART: es o kurios dienoixen (3SAAI) ten kardian:
The Lord thoroughly,
totally opened her mind by dividing the mind was was previously closed and
causing her to understand spiritual truths otherwise hidden to the natural
mind. Lu 24:31, 45.
Repentance is a gift
to undeserving sinners granted by a merciful, kind God [Ro 2:4 Acts 5:31
This verse is clear proof of the sovereignty of God in salvation.
When Lydia heard the gospel, the Lord opened her heart and she
believed--another example where divine election and human responsibility
are naturally juxtaposed.
This is a work God must do in all who believe, because as Jesus said,
"No one can come to Me, unless the
Father who sent Me draws him; and I will raise him up on the last day.
“To open the
heart” indicates that the Lord caused her to understand (BAGD; EDNT) or
that He caused her to have an open mind w. a willingness to learn and
evaluate fairly." (New Linguistic & Exegetical Key to the Greek New
from dia = through, between, used here as an intensive +
anoigo = to open, remove that which obstructs) means to open
completely (wide, like "double folding doors"
or as when Stephen in his last moments before martyrdom saw "the heavens opened
up" Acts 7:56) and can speak of opening
to one's understanding what is otherwise hidden to their intellect. To
open the sense of Scripture and thus to explain the Scripture. To
thoroughly disclose or cause one to thoroughly understand. Albert Barnes
says dianoigo "means to explain what is concealed or obscure."
Dianoigo is one of those truly "supernatural" words, a word that
speaks of the Spirit's enabling power! It is used by Mark to describe
the miraculous giving of hearing by Jesus (Mk 7:34, 32-33). The
remainder of the NT uses are by Dr. Luke to describe the opening of the
womb (context = miraculous birth of Jesus) (Lk 2:23), the supernatural
opening of one's (spiritual) eyes ("the eyes of our heart") to recognize
the Messiah (Lk 24:31), the opening of one's mind to Scriptural truth,
explaining the truth, (and unless this occurs, we cannot truly
understand it naturally, because it is supernatural!) (Lk 24:45, cp Lk
24:32), the opening of heaven to Stephen so that he could see Jesus
(Acts 7:56), the supernatural opening of Lydia's heart to receive the
Gospel preached by Paul (Acts 16:14) We see an OT parallel when Elisha
prayed for his servant's (spiritual) eyes to be opened and given
"supernatural vision." (2Ki 6:17) Note that the idiomatic phrase "a male
that opens the womb" (Lk 2:23) speaks of the first-born male.
Dear pastor, Paul's practice necessitates that first of all we preach
and teach the Scriptures with the mindset of the Reformers - "Sola Scriptura!"
As we work through verse by verse, our "Enabler," the Holy Spirit, will
teach us as we teach others, opening individual passages and words as to
their meaning and their practical application.
Every teacher of spiritual truth must recognize that whereas he may
teach the Word of God to others and seek to help them apply it to their
lives, only God Himself can open the pupils’ spiritual eyes (the "pupils"
of the pupil, so to speak) and thus receptive to the truth. Read Mt 11:27.
Old John Trapp says "Man's heart is
naturally locked up and barricaded against God, till he, by his mighty
Spirit, make forcible entrance, beating the devil out of his trenches,
2Cor. 10:4 (cp what the devil does when the Word is sown - Lk 8:5,
Jesus had thoroughly, totally opened the minds of the two on the road to
Emmaus by ''dividing'' their mind that was was previously closed and the
Word that was previously closed and causing them to understand spiritual
truths otherwise hidden to the natural mind (Lk 24:32) and He did the same
for His disciples (Lk 24:45 ) and for Lydia's heart Acts 16:14. Paul
speaking but it was the power of Acts 1:8.
"The Bible is
divine revelation, not human discovery. Spiritual truth is a gift from
God to blinded, sinful humanity." (Utley)
dianoigo is used to describe Sheol "opening wide" it's mouth (a
dramatic picture of it being unavoidable or inescapable!) or of men
"opening wide" their mouth to speak against the Jews (Lam 2:16, 3:46),
of Ezekiel's spiritual feeding (Ezek 3:2), of "gates of rivers" opened
to flood and destroy (Nah 2:6), of God opening His eyes to smite Judah's
enemies (Zech 12:4), of a (supernatural) fountain opened "in that day"
a fountain "for sin and impurity." (Zech 13:1)
Roy Zuck -
Dianoigo means “to open,” and was the word used by our Lord when
He healed a deaf man’s ears (Mark 7:34). In a more figurative sense,
this verb is used of the opening of one’s eyes, mind, and heart so the
person may understand spiritual truths. This stresses the divine element
essential in Bible teaching. Only Christ could open the eyes of the
Emmaus disciples so they would know that He was the One with them (Luke
24:31). Only Christ could open the Scriptures to them so they would
appreciate them and know their meaning (Luke 24:32). Only Christ could
open the minds of His disciples so they could understand the Scriptures
(Luke 24:45). Only God could open the heart of Lydia, that is, “rouse in
(her) the faculty of understanding or the desire of learning.”
Every teacher of spiritual truth
must recognize that whereas he may apply the Word of God to others and
seek to help them apply it to their lives, only God Himself can make the
pupils’ hearts open or receptive to the truth.
(Bib. Sac. Vol. 122, No. 486, p 157).
A T Robertson - Opening the
Scriptures, Luke means, as made plain by the mission and message of Jesus,
the same word (dianoigō) used by him of the interpretation of the
Scriptures by Jesus (Luke 24:32) and of the opening of the mind of the
disciples also by Jesus (Luke 24:45) and of the opening of Lydia‘s heart
by the Lord (Acts 16:14). One cannot refrain from saying that such
exposition of the Scriptures as Jesus and Paul gave would lead to more
opening of mind and heart. (Acts
17 - Word Pictures in the New Testament)
was used occasionally in secular authors from Plato, et al, meaning to
open by dividing or drawing asunder (dia), to open thoroughly (what had
8x in 8v - translated in NAS - explaining(2), opened(5), opens(1).
Mark 7:34 and looking up to heaven
with a deep sigh, He said to him (to the deaf man - Mk 7:32-33), "Ephphatha!"
that is, "Be opened
(aorist active imperative)!"
Luke 2:23 (as it is written in the
Law of the Lord, "EVERY firstborn MALE THAT OPENS THE WOMB SHALL
BE CALLED HOLY TO THE LORD "),
Comment: Dianoigo is used
somewhat literally because the uterus has to "open" (the cervix has to
dilate) in order to allow passage through the birth canal for the newborn
male, specifically the firstborn male.
Luke 24:31 Then their eyes were
voice = the "divine"
passive = God did it) and they recognized Him (Ed:
Note that this is a clear reversal of their spiritual state in
Lk 24:16!; and He vanished from their sight. 32 They said to one
another, "Were not our hearts burning within us while He was speaking to
us on the road, while He was explaining (Note imperfect tense
= over and over Jesus was explaining - what a teaching session this must
have been!) the Scriptures to us?"
Luke 24:45 Then He opened (dianoigo
- aorist active indicative) their minds to understand (suniemi
= put the pieces together so to speak, make sense out of) the
Tim Keller in a sermon in 1994
spoke of the use of dianoigo to describe spiritual illumination -
The reason he does it is because we’re spiritually blind. Let’s take a
moment to define that. In Lk 24:45, it says, “Then he opened their minds
so they could understand the Scriptures.” The word opened is
significant. As you know, this was originally written in Greek. The word
opened is a translation of a particular Greek word. There were two
different Greek words that could be used here. One is anoigo. One
is dianoigo. The little word dia is the word for through. Anoigo
means to open something like a door, something that already has a latch,
something that already has a provision for opening. You use the Greek
word anoigo with a door. Dianoigo doesn’t just simply mean to open. It
means to break open. It means to bust open. It means to break in. You
wouldn’t use the word dianoigo with a door unless it was a locked door.
You use the word dianoigo with something like a mountain. “I opened the
mountain with my tunnel.” It means to break through. Two different Greek
words. Which one do you think Luke uses? You can just take a guess.
He will not talk about the human mind or the human soul like a door. He
talks about the human mind or the human soul like a mountain: layers and
layers of obstacles to the truth, impenetrable. What Luke is saying is
the natural human mind, until Jesus gets to it, is spiritually blind.
What does that mean? One illustration you can use is you think of the
eye itself. Very often, as a person gets older, something develops on
the eye called a cataract. A cataract is a clouding up or a misting up,
an opaqueness that develops where there should be transparency.
That’s a perfect analogy, a much better analogy than other kinds of
analogies to explain the human soul. God made the human soul with a
transparency. We are different than the animals. We are different than
the plants. We honor the animals, and we honor the plants as part of
God’s creation, but they’re not in the image of God. What does that
mean? They don’t have a spiritual faculty. They don’t have a capacity
for truth. They don’t have a capacity for reason. They don’t have a
capacity for a real, personal connection with Jesus, with God.
The Bible says naturally, because of sin, there is an opaqueness over
top of our soul so that it has to be broken through. Another way to put
it is we have cataracts on our soul. You can rub your eye all you want.
That will not get rid of cataracts. You can rub it and rub it and rub
it. You can wash it and wash it and wash it. That will not get rid of
cataracts. There needs to be a medical intervention. Somebody who has
skills you don’t have. There needs to be a surgeon. That’s exactly what
You think all you need is the truth. You say, “I just need somebody to
inform me. That’s all I need.” You don’t realize the depth of your
blindness. You don’t just need the light. You need eyes. You need
someone to take the opaqueness off. That’s what the surgeon does. That’s
what the medical intervention does. That’s what you need more than
anything else. You say, “What do you mean by opaqueness? What is it?”
The spiritual blindness is not a lack of reason. It’s very possible for
a person who is totally spiritually blind to read the Bible and accept
it, to say, “Yes, I see Jesus died for my sins. I think that’s great. I
like that. That’s important. I believe it.”
To be spiritually blind doesn’t mean you can’t intellectually comprehend
something from the Bible. In fact, it’s natural and normal for people,
when they become Christians, to say, “Last year I became a Christian,
but there was never a time in my life where I didn’t actually believe in
the basic propositions of the Christian faith.” It’s very typical for a
person to say, “I became a Christian last year, but there was never a
time in which I didn’t believe in the resurrection, I didn’t believe in
the crucifixion, I didn’t believe in the basic propositions of the
Christian faith.” What do they mean when they say they became a
Here’s what they mean. The opaqueness is not an inability to comprehend.
It’s not an inability to reason. It’s not a rational inability. It’s not
some kind of operation of the mind. Jean Piaget talks about the various
operations that develop as a kid gets older. You have sensorimotor
development, six stages of it. You have concrete operations and abstract
operations. He’s talking about the various sorts of mental abilities and
logical operations and transactions you do mentally. When we talk about
spiritual blindness, we’re not talking about any of that.
Spiritual blindness is not the inability to see the truth, but it’s the
inability to value it, to appreciate it. The problem with that word is,
in English, appreciate is a fairly wimpy word. There’s a song where it
says, “Heavenly Father, we appreciate you.” Have you ever sung it? It
sounds so wimpy, “We appreciate you,” but it’s not. It’s a good word,
and here’s why. I’m going to keep with it. This is the heart of what
this opaqueness is and what spiritual blindness is. The word depreciate
means something loses its value. Therefore, it loses its economic power.
It loses its clout. It loses how much it can influence.
If you get a diamond, it’s valuable. What does that mean? You can get
things done with it. There’s value to it. You have a diamond, and you
can go places. You can do things. You can get things for it. That’s
valuable. When something depreciates, it loses value. When something
appreciates, it gains value. The word appreciate, in the English
language, can also mean what increases is your realization of the value
of something, your realization of the power of something, your
realization of the influence of something.
When a person says, “I became a Christian last year, though I’ve always
believed, intellectually, in the Bible and, intellectually, in the
Christian faith. Last year, I saw.” What does she mean when she talks
like that? Here’s what she means. “I always knew Jesus died for me,”
says a new Christian. “But I never realized I need to know Jesus loves
me more than anything else in the world. I need to know that deep down
underneath it I didn’t believe I’m loved. One day, last year, I realized
what Jesus did for me is the thing I need most of all. It revolutionized
me when I realized it. When I saw the value of what he’s done for me, I
suddenly realized I don’t have to be like this. This is the root of all
That kind of language means the cataracts have come off. She saw, but
she didn’t see. Suppose I could send you back in a time machine. There’s
nothing a stock analyst would rather have than a trip back about five
years. Isn’t that right? Just go back five years, ten years, whatever.
You’re back in time now, and sit down with the Wall Street Journal. You
start to read the stock stuff. You’re sitting alongside your stock
analyst friends. Of course, they’re there from their own time, and they
don’t know what you know. They don’t know anything about the future.
You’re going down the list and, all of a sudden, you come to Microsoft.
You say, “Oh my gosh, it’s selling for that! Hmm, if I buy a thousand
shares of that, I’ll be a ‘quadrillion-zillionaire’ in seven years. I
will do everything I can. I’m going to borrow. I’m going to beg. I’m
going to do anything I can to buy everything.” You know what they don’t
know. They go down all these little lines, and one of the jumps out at
you. It says Microsoft. Why?
You can appreciate it. You know the value of it. You know the influence
of that information. There’s information on that line. Nobody else can
see what it means. Nobody else can see the significance of the
information. Nobody can see that knowing that will make all the
difference. They can’t appreciate it. They’re blind. They don’t have
eyes, but you do. What does it mean to become a Christian? It means to
look at stuff you’ve looked at for years and, suddenly, it jumps out at
You say, “What’s the matter with me? How could I have never seen the
power of this? How could I have never seen the meaning of this? How
could I have never seen the value of this?” That’s what spiritual
blindness is. I know there are people in this room who say, “Of course
I’m a Christian. I’ve always believed,” yet that’s never happened to
you. You have no idea what that experience is like. You’re spiritually
blind. You need to have someone break through. Break through, dianoigo,
Some years ago, there were two women I was counseling back in my first
church in a little town. I didn’t know much about counseling. They both
came to me within a week of each other, and they had the same problem.
They were facing a very devastating loss in their lives. They came to a
pastor. Actually, there were no counselors in town. People came to
pastors back then because there was nobody else to talk to about their
problems. They came in at various times. In both cases, I laid out a
passage of Scripture and then I gave them a book. Same passage, same
book, same basic theme.
Maybe a month later, I saw both of them. The one woman came back and
said, “Do you know what? When I began to see what God has given me, what
I have in Jesus, I began to realize if I have that, then I can bear the
loss of this.” I could see she was healing. The other woman, same age,
same situation, same Bible passage, same book. I remember she came back
and she said, “Yeah, that’s very nice. I guess I believe it. But what
good is that if I have lost the thing I’ve lost?” She was inconsolable.
She was broken, from what I can tell, permanently.
What was the difference between them? Illumination. The same truth, but
the one woman was able to appreciate the truth. She was able to see the
value of the truth. She was able to sense the power of the truth. The
other woman did not. Let me tell you what illumination means. You say,
“I want peace.” Friends, until the goodness of God is more real to you
than all of the threats around you, you will never have peace. You’ll be
worried sick. You say, “I wish I could forgive the person who’s hurt
me.” Until the forgiveness of God is more real to you than all of the
injustice that’s been done to you, you will never be able to overcome
It’s a matter of illumination. It’s a matter of appreciation of the
truth, because we’re blind. Do you want to overcome guilt? The truth of
what he’s done for you has to break through. Do you want to overcome
worry? The truth of how good he is has to break through. Do you want to
deal with boredom? The truth has to break through, and so on, and so on.
We’re blind. (Jesus As Prophet-part 2 - Understanding Jesus-Jan 16,
Acts 7:56 and he said, "Behold, I see
the heavens opened up (Note: Perfect tense = indicates
the state or condition, “standing open.” - Stephen saw the heavens
opened and they remained open! And He saw Jesus Who otherwise is
depicted as seated, instead standing to give His choice servant "praise,
glory and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ" after his momentary
trial - see 1Pe 1:6-7-note.
What a welcome home after being stoned to death!) and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of
God (cp Lk 22:69, Col 3:1-note,
Acts 16:14 A woman named Lydia, from
the city of Thyatira, a seller of purple fabrics, a worshiper of God,
was listening; and the Lord opened her heart (~ her soul) to
respond to the things spoken by Paul.
Acts 17:3 (Context - Acts
17:1-2 - "He reasoned with them from the Scriptures" -
this refers not to the NT but the
OT - could you explain Jesus to others from JUST the Old Testament?)
explaining and giving evidence that the Christ had to suffer and
rise again from the dead, and saying, "This Jesus whom I am proclaiming
to you is the Christ."
Comment: The implication of
Paul's explaining is that it was accomplished supernaturally, not
naturally, a good pattern for all who would seek to proclaim the Living
Word in power and in the Spirit (cp this "dynamic" [dunamis]
combination in 1Thes 1:5-note).
34x in 32v -
Genesis 3:5 "(Satan is speaking)
For God knows that in the day you eat from it your eyes will be
opened (Lxx = dianoigo), and you will be like God, knowing good
7 Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they knew
that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together and made
themselves loin coverings.
Exodus 13:2 "Sanctify to Me every
firstborn, the first offspring (Lxx = dianoigo - idiom [+ metra =
womb] "opening the womb" = first-born) of every womb among the sons of
Israel, both of man and beast; it belongs to Me."
12 you shall devote to the LORD the first offspring (Lxx = dianoigo
- idiom [+ metra = womb] "opening the womb" = first-born) of every womb,
and the first offspring (Lxx = dianoigo - idiom [+ metra = womb]
"opening the womb" = first-born) of every beast that you own; the
males belong to the LORD.
13 "But every first offspring (Lxx = dianoigo - idiom [+ metra =
womb] = "opening the womb" = first-born) of a donkey you shall redeem
with a lamb, but if you do not redeem it, then you shall break its neck;
and every firstborn of man among your sons you shall redeem.
15 'It came about, when Pharaoh was stubborn about letting us go, that
the LORD killed every firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn
of man and the firstborn of beast. Therefore, I sacrifice to the LORD
the males, the first offspring Lxx = dianoigo - idiom [+ metra =
womb] = "opening the womb" = first-born) of every womb, but every
firstborn of my sons I redeem.'
Exodus 34:19 "The first offspring Lxx = dianoigo - idiom [+ metra
= womb] = "opening the womb" = first-born) from every womb belongs
to Me, and all your male livestock, the first offspring from cattle and
Numbers 3:12 "Now, behold, I have taken the Levites from among the sons
of Israel instead of every firstborn, the first issue Lxx = dianoigo
- idiom [+ metra = womb] = "opening the womb" = first-born) of the
womb among the sons of Israel. So the Levites shall be Mine.
Numbers 8:16 for they are wholly given to Me from among the sons of
Israel. I have taken them for Myself instead of every first issue Lxx
= dianoigo - idiom [+ metra = womb] = "opening the womb" =
first-born) of the womb, the firstborn of all the sons of Israel.
Numbers 18:15 "Every first issue Lxx = dianoigo - idiom [+ metra
= womb] = "opening the womb" = first-born) of the womb of all
flesh, whether man or animal, which they offer to the LORD, shall be
yours; nevertheless the firstborn of man you shall surely redeem, and
the firstborn of unclean animals you shall redeem.
1 Kings 4:20 Judah and Israel were as numerous as the sand that is on
the seashore in abundance; they were eating and drinking and rejoicing.
2 Kings 6:17 Then Elisha prayed and said, "O LORD, I pray,
(Lxx = dianoigo) his eyes that he may see." And the LORD opened
(Lxx = dianoigo - Perhaps
this is a prayer we dare pray for ourselves and those for whom we are
called to intercede - that the Spirit would open eyes to see
supernaturally God's truth which is closed to natural vision!)
the servant's eyes and he saw; and behold, the mountain was full of
horses and chariots of fire all around Elisha.
20 When they had come into Samaria, Elisha said, "O LORD,
the eyes of these men, that they may see." So the LORD opened their eyes
and they saw; and behold, they were in the midst of Samaria.
Job 27:19 "He lies down rich, but never again; He opens his eyes,
and it is no longer.
Job 29:19 'My root is spread out (Lxx - dianoigo = "opened up") to the
waters, And dew lies all night on my branch.
Job 38:32 "Can you lead forth (Lxx - dianoigo = "open up")
a constellation in its season, And guide the Bear with her satellites?
Proverbs 20:13 Do not love sleep, or you will become poor; Open
your eyes, and you will be satisfied with food.
Proverbs 31:20 She extends her hand to the poor, And she stretches out
(Lxx = dianoigo = "she opens up her hands completely" - a picture of her
generosity and benevolent spirit) her hands to the needy.
26 She opens (Lxx = dianoigo) her mouth in wisdom, And the
teaching of kindness is on her tongue.
Isaiah 5:14 Therefore Sheol has enlarged its throat and opened
its mouth without measure; And Jerusalem's splendor, her multitude, her
din of revelry and the jubilant within her, descend into it.
Lamentations 2:16 All your enemies
Have opened their mouths wide against you; They hiss and gnash
their teeth. They say, "We have swallowed her up! Surely this is the day
for which we waited; We have reached it, we have seen it."
Lamentations 3:46 All our enemies have opened their mouths
Ezekiel 3:2 So I opened my mouth, and He fed me this scroll.
Ezekiel 20:26 and I pronounced them unclean because of their gifts, in
that they caused all their firstborn (Lxx = dianoigo -
idiom [+ metra = womb] "opening the womb" = first-born) to pass through
the fire so that I might make them desolate, in order that they might
know that I am the LORD."'
Ezekiel 21:22 "Into his right hand came the divination, 'Jerusalem,' to
set battering rams, to open the mouth for slaughter, to lift up
the voice with a battle cry, to set battering rams against the gates, to
cast up ramps, to build a siege wall.
Ezekiel 24:27 'On that day your mouth will be opened to him who
escaped, and you will speak and be mute no longer. Thus you will be a
sign to them, and they will know that I am the LORD.'"
Hosea 2:15 "Then I will give her her vineyards from there, And the
valley of Achor as a door of hope (Lxx uses dianoigo to translate as "to
open her understanding"). And she will sing there as in the days of her
youth, As in the day when she came up from the land of Egypt.
Nahum 2:6 The gates of the rivers are opened And the palace is
Habakkuk 3:14 You pierced with his own spears The head of his throngs.
They stormed in to scatter us; Their exultation was like those Who
devour the oppressed in secret. (Septuagint = 3:14 Thou didst cut
asunder the heads of princes with amazement, they shall tremble in it;
they shall burst [dianoigo] their bridles, they
shall be as a poor man devouring in secret.)
Zechariah 11:1 Open your doors, O Lebanon, That a fire may feed
on your cedars.
Zechariah 12:4 "In that day," declares the LORD, "I will strike every
horse with bewilderment and his rider with madness. But I will watch
over the house of Judah, while I strike every horse of the peoples with
blindness. (LXE In that day, saith the Lord Almighty, I will smite every
horse with amazement, and his rider with madness: but I will open
mine eyes upon the house of Juda, and I will smite all the horses of the
nations with blindness.)
Zechariah 13:1 "In that day a fountain will be opened
for the house of David and for the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and
TO RESPOND TO THE
THINGS SPOKEN BY PAUL: prosechein (PAN) tois laloumenois (PPPNPD) hupo tou
Respond is an
interesting Greek picture - to continually hold her mind toward. She kept
her mind centered on the things spoken by Paul whose words gripped her
Spoken is not the word for official proclamation but here pictures
a more personal conversation (rather than a sermon).
The Spirit of God used Paul as a vessel to win the heart of this woman to
Christ. It is important to note that it was the Word which brought the
sinner Lydia to the Savior Christ Jesus.
Truly, truly, I say to you, he who
hears My word, and believes Him who sent Me, has eternal life, and does
not come into judgment, but has passed out of death into life. (John 5:24)
This event in which
we see the power of God's word working in Lydia who believed is a
beautiful illustration of
An interesting observation is that here we see one solitary convert, a
woman, already a seeker after God, and a native of the very area where
they had been forbidden to preach! God's ways are so much higher than our
ways. A new era had dawned for Europe and for women in the conversion of
Lydia. PTL Who Alone can opened closed hearts.
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C H Spurgeon -
Morning and Evening - In Lydia’s conversion there are many points of
interest. It was brought about by providential circumstances. She was a
seller of purple, of the city of Thyatira, but just at the right time for
hearing Paul we find her at Philippi; providence, which is the handmaid of
grace, led her to the right spot. Again, grace was preparing her soul for
the blessing—grace preparing for grace. She did not know the Saviour, but
as a Jewess (Ed note: most commentators feel she was not Jewish but
was a Gentile seeker of God), she knew many truths which were excellent
stepping-stones to a knowledge of Jesus. Her conversion took place in the
use of the means. On the Sabbath she went when prayer was wont to be made,
and there prayer was heard. Never neglect the means of grace; God may
bless us when we are not in his house, but we have the greater reason to
hope that he will when we are in communion with his saints.
Observe the words,
“Whose heart the Lord opened.” She did not open her own heart. Her prayers
did not do it; Paul did not do it. The Lord himself must open the heart,
to receive the things which make for our peace. He alone can put the key
into the hole of the door and open it, and get admittance for himself. He
is the heart’s master as he is the heart’s maker.
The first outward
evidence of the opened heart was obedience. As soon as Lydia had believed
in Jesus, she was baptized. It is a sweet sign of a humble and broken
heart, when the child of God is willing to obey a command which is not
essential to his salvation, which is not forced upon him by a selfish fear
of condemnation, but is a simple act of obedience and of communion with
The next evidence
was love, manifesting itself in acts of grateful kindness to the apostles.
Love to the saints has ever been a mark of the true convert. Those who do
nothing for Christ or his church, give but sorry evidence of an “opened”
heart. Lord, evermore give me an opened heart. (Morning and Evening -
Evening Devotional, December 10)
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F B Meyer
writes...Acts 16:14, 27 - A
certain woman named Lydia…. The Keeper of the prison.
These are typical cases, put here in
juxtaposition for the teaching and comfort of believers in every age. Each
of them needed Christ, and each was brought into his true light; but each
came in a different way. Lydia’s heart opened as a flower beneath the
touch of the sun, so gradually and imperceptibly that it was impossible to
say the precise moment of her new life. The jailer came to Christ
suddenly, startlingly, amid the crash of an earthquake. The one was drawn
by love; the other driven by fear. A distinguished missionary says, “The
Lord awakened me with a kiss” — it was so that Lydia’s heart was won.
Another tells us that the Lord sprang on him like a lion — it was thus
with the jailer.
Lydia. — Do not always be
looking out for signs and manifestations, for marked experiences. We do
not notice the lines of longitude and latitude as we cross the ocean of
life. Without knowing it, your character may be in the process of
transfiguration. By insensible gradations the work of God may be
proceeding in your heart. The tide is rising daily by tiny wavelets that
appear to recede as fast as they advance. Do not measure progress by
experiences; only be yielded to God, and let Him do his will.
The Jailer. — Do not undervalue
the influence of fear. There are some natures that never will be awakened
unless they are startled by being brought face to face with the
consequences of sin. If men will not come by the highest motives, be
thankful that they come by any. Remember it is not belief about Christ,
about his death or resurrection, but trust in Him as a living Person, that
saves from the power and penalty of sin. “Believe in the Lord Jesus
Christ.” He is a living Person. Trust Him now. (Meyer, F. B. Our Daily
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And her household
- see similar descriptions of the household (John 4:53; Acts 11:14)
Lydia's household apparently consisted of her servants. There is no
indication that she was either married or a widow.
Note two evidences of her conversion - She boldly identified
herself with Christ by being baptized, and she insisted that the
missionaries stay at her house. Clearly Lydia was not saved by her good
works, but she was saved for good works (see note
And it happened
- More literally "And it came into being"
Wiersbe gives us a sage warning...
No sooner are lost people saved than
Satan begins to hinder the work. In this case, he used a demonized girl
who had made her masters wealthy by telling fortunes. (Wiersbe,
W: Bible Exposition Commentary. 1989. Victor
divination - is literally spirit of python.
Divination (puthon/python) in Greek mythology was the serpent that
guarded the oracle of Delphi, lived at the foot of Mt. Parnassus, and was
slain by Apollo. Later puthon/python came to designate a spirit of
divination, then also of ventriloquists, who were believed to have such a
spirit dwelling in their belly. About A.D. 50-100, Plutarch maintained
that the term puthognes applied to ventriloquists, and earlier in the LXX
those having demonic spirits were called ventriloquists (Lev. 19:31; 20:6,
27; including the witch of En Dor in 1 Sam. 28:7).
TDNT adds that...
Python/puthon is the name of the snake
that guards the Delphic oracle, and it is also used from the early
imperial period for a ventriloquist, through whom, as many think, a god is
supposed to speak, and who is thus regarded as a soothsayer. How python
comes to be equated with engastrimythos, the ventriloquist, is not
G., Friedrich, G., & Bromiley, G. W. Theological Dictionary of the New
The Most High God
- El Elyon, a name that connotes His sovereign control over all history.
El Elyon: Most High God - Sovereign Over All)
The continual harangue by the girl, referring to "the most high God,"
designed to produce ridicule and resentment against Paul, showed that her
"spirit of divination" was actually a demonic spirit. Compare the
experience of Jesus, whom they recognized as God, with such evil spirits
(Mt 8:31,32 Mk 1:24,34).
from dia = through or as intensifier + poneo = to labor from
ponos = toil or pain) means literally to labor through, to work out with
labor or to produce with labor. Figuratively, it means to feel burdened as
the result of someone’s provocative activity, be greatly disturbed, or to
be annoyed. To be grieved or to become wearied or grieved at the
continuance of anything (Acts 4:2; 16:18). The slave girl with demonic
spirit "wore Paul out".
Paul did not want either the Gospel or the name of God to be promoted by
demons. Satan is a liar and will use truth one minute but in the next
minute will speak a lie and the unsaved listener would not know the
Jesus commanded the demons not to speak of Him...
The ability to cast out demons was a special ability of Christs
and to have authority to cast out the
demons. (Mark 3:15).
But when her
masters saw that their hope of profit was gone - They did not care for
the girl but the money she brought in. This conflict between the gospel
and money comes up repeatedly in Acts (see Acts 5:1-11, 8:18-24,
In Ephesus, we see a similar conflict between Paul and the worshippers of
the false idol Artemis, as the gospel had begun to negatively impact the
sale of the lifeless shrines of Artemis. Luke records...
Acts 19:25-26 these he gathered
together with the workmen of similar trades, and said, "Men, you know that
our prosperity depends upon this business. And you see and hear that not
only in Ephesus, but in almost all of Asia, this Paul has persuaded and
turned away a considerable number of people, saying that gods made with
hands are no gods at all.
Mark 5:16-17 And those who had seen it described to them how it had
happened to the demon possessed man, and all about the swine. And they
began to entreat Him to depart from their region. (Comment: They
did not care that the man was set free from the demon, but that their
profit was gone.)
is used usually in Scripture to refer to an absolute certainty of future
good (as the blessed hope of the Lord's sure return in Titus 2:13 -
However in this verse hope is used as it is by the secular world conveying
the sense of "I hope so".
Profit (ergasia from ergázomai = to toil, work) refers here to
their work in the sense of their business or trade (they "traded" in
fortune telling) and in the sense of that which brings gain or income.
(See this nuance in Acts 16:16, 19; Acts 19:24).
Seized (epilambanomai from epí = upon + lambáno = to take) means to
make the motion of grasping or taking hold of something. To lay hold of or
to seize upon anything with the hands, to take hold of or grasp, with
focus upon the goal of motion seize for help, injury, attainment or any
other purpose, catch, lay hold upon, take hold of.
Market place (agora) is the town-square where the people assembled
in public. It can also refer to a market or thoroughfare or a broad
street. Here it refers to a forum or a market place where things were
exposed for sale and where assemblies and public trials were held (See
similar use in Mk 7:4; Acts 16:19; 17:17)
Judaism was not a
prohibited religion (the cult of the emperor being the official religion),
but propagating it was regarded as a menace. Paul and Silas were regarded
as Jews, since, at this time, the Romans considered Christianity to be a
MacArthur adds this note...
Anti-Semitism was alive even then. The
Emperor Claudius issued an order around that time expelling the Jews from
Rome (Acts 18:2). This may explain why they apprehended only Paul and Silas,
since Luke was a Gentile and Timothy half-Gentile. (MacArthur,
J.: The MacArthur Study Bible Nashville: Word
In the Roman Empire,
there were two very different laws: one for citizens of the Roman Empire,
and one for those who were not citizens. Roman citizens had specific civil
rights which were zealously guarded. Non-citizens had no civil rights, and
were subject to the whims of both the multitude and the magistrates.
There was great indignation that Roman
citizens should be molested by strolling peddlers of an outlandish
religion. Such people had to be taught to know their proper place and not
trouble their betters.
Rose up (sunephistemi
from sún = together + ephistemi = stand upon, be at hand,
stand before, by or over) means to join in an uprising or join in an
attack. Here Luke adds the preposition katá which means against so the
idea is that the crowd made an assault together against them. This same
verb describes the assembly rises up against Moses also the servant of the
And they assembled together against
Moses and Aaron, and said to them, "You have gone far enough, for all the
congregation are holy, every one of them, and the LORD is in their midst;
so why do you exalt yourselves above the assembly of the LORD?" (Nu 16:3)
magistrates tore their robes off them - Moved by the incited crowd and the
false accusations, the magistrates acted rashly and did not investigate
the matter fully as they should have. Their neglect later brought them
embarrassment for it was imprison Roman citizens without a trial (and Paul
was a Roman citizen).
Chief magistrates (strategos from stratos = an army +
ágo = to lead) referred to the highest official in a Greco-Roman
city. In other contexts strategos was used to describe a commander
responsible for the temple in Jerusalem or captain of the temple (see Acts
4:1, 5:24). More generally it referred to the leader or commander of an
army such as a general.
Every Roman colony had two of these men serving as judges. In this case,
they did not uphold Roman justice: They did not investigate the charges,
conduct a proper hearing, or give Paul and Silas the chance to defend
Tore off (perirrhegnumi from perí = about +
rhegnumi = to break, tear) means literally to tear from around
someone, as tearing off fetters or stripping off ones robe by tearing.
This verb is used in the NT only of garments of Paul and Silas as the
crowd tore off their clothes preparing them to be scourged. The Roman
custom was to allow officers to tear off the clothes of criminals before
Beaten with rods (rhabdizo from rhabdos = rod for
scourging) means to beat with a rod or stick and in the NT is used only of
Roman punishment by scourging. This punishment was referred to by the
Latin term fustigatio and was distinguished from catigatio (a lashing) and
verberatio (flogging with chains). As Paul records (see below) this
punishment was inflicted on his body on three separate occasions although
this is the only one the NT specifically records in detail.
It is interesting that in the Septuagint, rhabdizo is used of
threshing wheat to remove the chaff from the grain...
So she gleaned in the field until
evening. Then she beat out what she had gleaned, and it was about an ephah
of barley. (see note
Then the angel of the LORD came and sat under the oak that was in Ophrah,
which belonged to Joash the Abiezrite as his son Gideon was beating out
wheat in the wine press in order to save it from the Midianites. (see
proceeded to order them to be beaten with rods - In Jewish legal
tradition, there was a maximum number of blows that could be delivered
when beating a person, but the Romans had no such limit. We can rest
assured Paul and Silas were severely beaten.
Paul alluded to this (and possibly other similar events) as he defended
his ministry to the saints at Corinth asking...
Are they (false apostles, deceitful
workers who were disguising themselves as apostles of Christ) servants of
Christ? (I speak as if insane) I more so; in far more labors, in far more
imprisonments, beaten times without number, often in danger of death. 24
Five times I received from the Jews thirty-nine lashes. 25 Three times I
was beaten with rods, once I was stoned, three times I was shipwrecked, a
night and a day I have spent in the deep. (2 Corinthians 11:23-25)
Later in Acts Paul
does in fact appeal to his Roman citizenship, once to avoid being scourged
(Acts 22:25-29) and another time to force the officials to send him to
Rome as he appealed to Caesar (Acts 25:11-12) Festus' suggestion that Paul
appear in Jerusalem for trial (Acts 25:9) provoked his appeal to Caesar
for he realized that the trial would not be impartial especially in
Jerusalem, and that he would be in great danger if he was returned to the
jurisdiction of the Sanhedrin. The right of appeal was one of the most
ancient and cherished rights of a Roman citizen. And to whom ultimately
did Paul appeal? To the infamous, nefarious Nero who was emperor at that
time (A.D. 54-68)!
They threw them
into prison - This event might at first glance seem to signal the end
of Paul's ministry in Philippi, but in God's providence it would not be so
but would lead to another conversion. God's ways are always higher than
our ways. Dear believer, are you in a "dungeon" because of your witness?
Take heart from the example of Paul and Silas and by the power of the
Spirit, rejoice. And again I say rejoice in the Lord. Rejoice always, pray
without ceasing and give thanks for all things (see notes
Paul alludes to these hindrances to sharing the gospel in his letter to
the Thessalonians writing that...
after we had already suffered and been
mistreated in Philippi, as you know, we had the boldness in our God to
speak to you the gospel of God amid much opposition. (see note
It is fascinating
that here in Acts 16:23 we find the very one who had been throwing
Christians into jail, now in jail himself. Luke records...
But Saul (later Paul) began ravaging
the church, entering house after house; and dragging off men and women, he
would put them in prison. (Acts 8:3)
commenting on the stocks writes that...
These stocks had more than two holes
for legs, which could thus be forced apart in a such a way as to cause the
utmost discomfort and cramping pain. (Bruce)
means wood and in some contexts refers to a cross (Acts 5:30, 10:39,
13:29, 1Peter 2:24). In this context xulon describes an instrument that
secured the feet (and sometimes the neck and hands) of a prisoner.
Stocks were usually constructed of wood with holes to secure the feet.
They could also be used as an instrument of torture by stretching the legs
apart and causing the prisoner to sit in unnatural positions. The Romans
often added chains along with the stocks. Stocks were much used in
medieval and later times in the persecution of Christians.
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Our Daily Bread -
"LED" INTO PRISON - In a vision, Paul saw a man of Macedonia who said,
"Come over . . . and help us." Assured that the Lord Himself had thus
called him to preach the Gospel in that area, he and Silas — and evidently
Dr. Luke — set out at once for their new "mission field." But what a
reception they received! The record tells us that the "multitude rose up
together against them" and "beat them" and "thrust them into the inner
prison, and made their feet fast in the stocks." If they would have
reacted like many of us today, Paul would probably have complained, "Well,
isn't this just fine: led by God into prison! Here we were obedient to the
heavenly vision, and this is our reward!"
Was this Paul's attitude? I should say not! Listen to the story in Acts
16:25: "And at midnight Paul and Silas prayed, and sang praises unto God."
Singing in prison! Paul knew that "all things work together for good to
them that love God." With the eye of faith he could see some future good,
and in that confidence was happy even while enduring severe trial. When
the Lord had accomplished His purpose, demonstrated His power, and saved
the jailer and his family, then Paul and Silas were commanded to "depart
and go in peace."
Sometimes we find ourselves in troubling situations as the result of our
service for the Lord. Doing that which we believe to be right and
according to His will, we seem to end up in the "prison" of suffering,
hardship, and loss, and are tempted to complain, "Lord, is this what I
get for my faithfulness?" Then He comes and assures us that He "doeth all
things well," and that Romans 8:28 is still in the Book! When all has been
accomplished, we shall be able to look back and clearly see His hand and
purpose in it all. "Wherefore let them that suffer according to the will
of God commit the keeping of their souls to him in well-doing, as unto a
faithful Creator" (1 Pet. 4:19).
There's One who will
journey beside me,
In weal, nor in woe, will forsake;
And this is my solace and comfort,
"He knoweth the way that I take!" —Anon.
Every lock of sorrow has a key of promise to fit it!
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Our Daily Bread
- When Paul and Silas were imprisoned at Philippi and their backs were raw
from beatings, they sang hymns (Acts 16:23-25). They chose the bright
color of praise instead of the dark colors of depression, bitterness, and
No matter what affliction or crisis we may face, we too can decide how we
will respond. With the enablement of the Holy Spirit, we can refuse to
paint our lives in the dull gray of grumbling and complaining. Instead,
our chosen color can be the azure blue of contentment because God's help
is always available. -- Vernon C. Grounds
He gives me joy in
place of sorrow;
He gives me love that casts out fear;
He gives me sunshine for my shadow,
And "beauty for ashes" here. -- Crabbe
God chooses what we go through;
we choose how we go through it.
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One of the most
important times to sing praise to God is when we feel imprisoned by the
circumstances of life. Like the experience of Paul and Silas in the Roman
prison, it is often uncanny how prayer and praise open the doors of our
lives to new dimensions of opportunity and spiritual power.
singing - Beloved if I were unjustly treated like Paul and Silas, I am
afraid that too often my first reaction would be to murmur or dispute the
charges (see notes
2:15). However instead of complaining to God or
even calling on Him to avenge their unjust treatment (see notes
1 Peter 3:9)
Paul and Silas prayed and praised God (see notes
Paul explains how we can have a song in our heart writing to the
saints in Colossae...
Let the word of Christ richly dwell
(continually) within you, with all wisdom teaching and admonishing one
another with psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with
thankfulness in your hearts to God. (see note
And to the saints at
Ephesus he wrote...
And do not get drunk with wine, for
that is dissipation, but be (continually) filled with the Spirit, 19
speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing
and making melody with your heart to the Lord; 20 always giving thanks for
all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ to God, even the Father
How could they
have done what is not natural? Clearly they were men so filled with
and controlled by the Spirit that He strengthened their inner man to
respond not naturally but supernaturally. When you are in pain, the
midnight hour is not the easiest time for worship and praise, but we must
remember the truth of what God says about Himself...
God gives songs in
the night, Elihu declaring...
But no one says, 'Where is God my
Maker, Who gives songs in the night" (Job 35:10)
The psalmist whose
soul is like a deer panting for the water brooks (Ps 42:1 -
Spurgeon note) testifies
The LORD will command His
lovingkindness in the daytime and His song will be with me in the night, a
prayer to the God of my life. (Ps 42:8 -
once said that...
Trials are food for faith to feed on.
Any fool can sing in the day. It is
easy to sing when we can read the notes by daylight; but the skillful
singer is he who can sing when there is not a ray of light to read by....
Songs in the night come only from God; they are not in the power of men."
G Campbell Morgan
Any man can sing when the prison doors
are open, and he is set free. The Christian soul sings in prison. I think
that Paul would probably have sung a solo had I been Silas: but I
nevertheless see the glory and grandeur of the Spirit that rises superior
to all the things of difficulty and limitation.
believer, please remember that the Word of God teaches that prayer and
praise are powerful weapons (Read and be encouraged by the illustration of
this principle in 2 Chr 20:1-22)
Singing (humneo from húmnos = hymn; English = hymn)
means to celebrate or praise with a hymn.
(hymnos) is a song or hymn in honor of God. The word humnos also came to
mean praise to men. Whereas a psalm is the story of man's deliverance or a
commemoration of mercies received, a hymn is a magnificat, a declaration
of how great someone or something is (Lu 1:46-55, 67-79; Acts 4:24;
16:25). A hymn is a direct address of praise and glory to God. According
to Augustine a hymn has three characteristics: It must be sung; it must be
praise; it must be to God. The word "hymn" nowhere occurs in the writings
of the apostolic fathers because it was used as a praise to heathen
deities and thus the early Christians instinctively shrank from it.
The prisoners and the guards undoubtedly heard much about Christ and His
saving gospel through the hymns of Paul and Silas, as well as through
their testimony of rejoicing in the midst of suffering.
John Stott quips that...
Instead of cursing men, they blessed
During Paul's second
missionary journey, the apostle and his compatriot, Silas, found their
ministry causing a riot, and they felt the brunt of it. Their clothes were
torn from them, and they were beaten and thrown into prison. Stress? Yes!
Anxiety? Every legitimate reason for it! How did Paul and Silas handle it?
What kept them from breaking? Acts 16:25 gives us the answer, "But about
midnight Paul and Silas were praying and singing hymns of praise to God."
They turned their focus from the present pressures of their lives to the
throne of their sovereign Abba Father -- and the tension was relieved.
When sheep become tense, edgy, and restless, the shepherd will quietly
move through the flock, and his very presence will release the tension of
the sheep and quiet their anxieties. Their shepherd is there! And this is
what happens when we begin to worship our God and our Lord in song. We
move into a consciousness of His presence, and the tension begins to
unravel, the tautness of the pressure eases, anxieties become meaningless,
for we are reminded that He is there -- our Jehovah Shamah, our
all-sufficient sovereign God. He inhabits the praises of His people.
Songs that stir your soul to worship…songs that bring tears of
gratitude to your eyes…spiritual songs and making melody in your heart is
God's way of delivering you from the stresses of the world.
came a great earthquake - This was no seismological quirk but a
genuine miracle, for earthquakes don't cause fetters to drop off of hands
and feet! Further there is no evidence that the building itself was
demolished. So a most unusual earthquake!
Matthew records a similar even more magnificent opening caused by
And behold, a severe earthquake had
occurred, for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven and came and
rolled away the stone and sat upon it. 3 And his appearance was like
lightning, and his garment as white as snow; 4 and the guards shook for
fear of him, and became like dead men. 5 And the angel answered and said
to the women, "Do not be afraid; for I know that you are looking for Jesus
who has been crucified. 6 "He is not here, for He has risen, just as He
said. Come, see the place where He was lying.7 "And go quickly and tell
His disciples that He has risen from the dead; and behold, He is going
before you into Galilee, there you will see Him; behold, I have told you."
another notable earthquake (yet future) which marks the midpoint of
Daniel's Seventieth Week of Seven Years and the inception of the horrible
time for earth called the Great Tribulation...
And in that hour there was a great
earthquake, and a tenth of the city fell; and seven thousand people were
killed in the earthquake, and the rest were terrified and gave glory to
the God of heaven. 14 The second woe is past; behold, the third woe is
coming quickly. 15 And the seventh angel sounded; and there arose loud
voices in heaven, saying, "The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom
of our Lord, and of His Christ; and He will reign forever and ever." (see
were unfastened - compare to similar supernatural releases from jail
But an angel of the Lord during the
night opened the gates of the prison, and taking them (Peter and the other
apostles) out... (Acts 5:19)
And behold, an angel of the Lord
suddenly appeared, and a light shone in the cell; and he struck Peter's
side and roused him, saying, "Get up quickly." And his chains fell off his
hands. (Acts 12:7)
The jailer was
about to kill himself - Roman law stated that if a guard lost a
prisoner, he was given the same punishment the prisoner would have
received. It follows that the jailer knew that there were some men in the
prison who had committed capital crimes and were being held for execution.
The jailer would rather commit suicide than face shame and execution.
Luke records a similar fate to the guards who had "allowed"
Peter to go free from jail...
And when Herod had searched for him and
had not found him, he examined the guards and ordered that they be led
away to execution (these words are added by the translators but the
context justifies this interpretation). And he went down from Judea to
Caesarea and was spending time there. (Acts 12:19)
Do yourself no
harm - How paradoxical that it was the jailer who was the prisoner
(spiritually speaking in bondage to sin, self and Satan), not Paul and so
Paul not only saved the man's physical life (preventing him from
committing suicide), but best of all pointed him to the freedom of an
eternal life in Christ.
In not escaping, they showed tremendous
discernment. The circumstances said, escape. But love said, Stay for the
sake of this one soul. They were not guided merely by circumstances, but
by what love compelled.
fear (entromos from en = in + tromos = tremor or terror) means to be
terrified, quaking or trembling with extreme fear. It pictures a person in
a quivering condition because of exposure to an overwhelming or
Fell down before (propipto from pros = preposition
expressing motion or direction as toward + pipto = to fall) means
literally to fall towards or upon something and as here when referring to
people means to fall down to or before someone (cf the healed woman in
Luke 8:47, the demons before Jesus in Mk 3:11, Luke 8:28)
What must I do?
- Is not this the question many ask? What works must I do? How good must I
be? And every world religion and cult provides the answer which in one
form or another is summed up in the answer you must do "good works"
in order to merit heaven (or whatever they refer to as "heaven"). Only Christianity
says the work of salvation has already been done by Jesus, the Savior of all
mankind but to receive "credit" for His sacrifice in your
place, you must receive His free gift by grace through faith (see notes
10:10). Trust in the
Messiah's finished work on Calvary "Believe in the Lord Jesus and you
shall be saved."! That is the answer to all of mankind's deepest need and
most profound question.
The story is told of
a wealthy man who, although he was outwardly religious, was not a
Christian. He had in his employ an old gardener, a true believer, who
tried to show him the emptiness of mere religion without Christ. Now it
happened that there was one tree on the rich man's estate which never bore
any fruit. However, one day as the owner was walking in his orchard, he
saw some beautiful apples hanging on it. Imagine his surprise, especially
when he went to pick some and found them to be tied on! The gardener by
this simple illustration wanted to point out to his employer the
difference between real Christianity and pious sham. Religion without
Christ is like a barren tree on which the fruit is merely "tied on"!
Have you ever
actually trusted Christ, or are you simply going through the motions? Are
those so-called "good works" of yours just "tied on," or are
they the genuine fruit of a new life?
W. P. Loveless
says it well...
The only "works" of unsaved men that
will endure in Heaven are the nail prints in Christ's hands!
MacDonald wisely comments that...
This question must precede every
genuine case of conversion. A man must know he is lost before he can be
saved. It is premature to tell a man how to be saved until first he can
say from his heart, I truly deserve to go to hell...Many people today seem
to have difficulty knowing what it means to believe. However, when a
sinner realizes he is lost, helpless, hopeless, hell-bound, and when he is
told to believe on Christ as Lord and Savior, he knows exactly what it
means. It is the only thing left that he can do! (MacDonald,
W & Farstad, A. Believer's Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson or
Salvation comes when
a person recognizes their personal state of sinfulness and certain
judgment and thus their need for salvation.
David Guzik writes...
This is how God wants our lives to be:
Natural magnets drawing people to Him. Our Christianity should make others
want what we have with God.
Rome held a jailer
responsible for his prisoners, and if any escaped, he forfeited his life.
Thus, it is possible that the jailer's question is an expression of
concern for his own physical life. However, he doubtless had heard Paul
and Silas as they witnessed and sang. Paul, in v28, with a loud voice
assured the jailer that his life was not in jeopardy. Significantly, it
was after Paul's assurance that no one had escaped that the jailer asked
Arthur Pink writes:
When the Philippian jailer asked “What
must I do to be saved?” all the apostle answered was “Believe on the Lord
Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house.” Waiving now the
fact that that was not the idle inquiry of one who was still in love with
the world and taking his fill of its pleasures, but instead the distressed
cry of one who was desperate, let it be pointed out that while believing
in Christ is a simple and easy act considered in itself, yet it becomes a
very hard (see notes on
Matthew 7:14 where the way is "narrow" = thlibo =
trouble) and difficult thing to us by reason of the opposition made
thereto by our inward corruptions and the temptations of Satan.
commenting on the miraculous deliverance of the prisoners writes that...
In such a city as Philippi, so
thoroughly committed to pantheistic occultism and so antipathetic to
Jewish monotheism, it would take a notable testimonial miracle to provide
a breakthrough for the gospel among its Greek citizenry. The jailer
immediately recognized that such a miracle had occurred, and that these
men were, indeed, as the evil spirit in the damsel had proclaimed,
"servants of the Most High God" (Acts 16:16) who could show him "the way
of salvation" (Acts 16:16). Hence his question.
- Is in the
which conveys a sense of urgency = Do this now. These words must be
connected with "believe" as well as "be saved."
You and your whole household - Luke is not advocating salvation by
proxy. In other words, he is not saying the jailer's salvation
automatically included everyone in his house and that they had no need to
respond to the Gospel. The fact is that each member of the household had
to personally believe in order to be saved. The example of the head of the
household made it easier for them, but they, too, needed to believe to be
saved, a salvation which they testified to by being baptized.
Guzik observes that in reading this passage...
Some have worried that Paul's
invitation to salvation here is too easy, and would promote an
easy-believism and a cheap grace. Others refuse to preach repentance,
claiming that this text says that it is not necessary. Paul never
specifically called the keeper of the prison to repent because he was
already repenting. We see the humble repentance of the jailer in that he
fell down trembling, in the full idea of the word believe (pistis, which
means to trust in, rely on, and cling to), and in the command to believe
on the Lord Jesus Christ).
Faith can be
summarized in the acrostic
We are to forsake
all (repent of our sins) and to take Him (by faith turn to God for our
salvation) (Acts 20:21).
><> ><> ><>
Our Daily Bread -
GOOD QUESTION! -"Sirs, what must I do to be saved?" So they said,
"Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and you will be saved."- Acts 16:30-31
Finding the right questions is as crucial as finding the right answers,"
says devotional writer Henri Nouwen. Yet how easy it is to run ahead of
God's Spirit as we talk to nonbelievers about Christ, giving pre-packaged
answers before we listen to their questions.
This tendency was highlighted several years ago when someone scrawled the
words "Christ is the answer!" on the side of a building. A cynical
passerby added these words: "What is the question?"
Paul and Silas, thrown into prison for the gospel's sake, provoked a deep
spiritual question in the heart of their jailer. This wasn't achieved,
however, by preaching a three-point sermon at him. Instead, they prayed
and sang hymns to God. When an earthquake opened the prison doors and
broke their chains, the jailer tried to kill himself, fearing that the
would be put to death if his prisoners escaped. But Paul and Silas stopped
him by choosing to stay in prison for his sake. At this he cried out,
"Sirs, what must I do to be saved?" (Acts 16:30).
Today, as then, the Spirit will create the right questions in people's
hearts and make them ready for the right answer -- Jesus Christ. -- Joanie
Tell the sweet story
of Christ and His love,
Tell of His power to forgive;
Others will trust Him if only you prove
True, every moment you live.-- Wilson
Christians worth their salt
make others thirsty for the water of life.
><> ><> ><>
Our Daily Bread
- THE BIGGEST DECISION -Decisions! Decisions! Decisions! We're
constantly making decisions. Some are trivial, like, "Which outfit will I
wear today?" Others are life-shaping, like, "Should I take that job and
move my family clear across the country?" But common sense tells us that
some are vastly more important than others.
A group of doctors ran an ad in a New York newspaper. Over the picture of
an attractive woman, the caption read, "The most important decision I ever
made was choosing my spouse. The second, my plastic surgeon." The text of
the ad then suggested that the order of priorities could be reversed!
Choosing a spouse is immeasurably more important than choosing a plastic
surgeon. But deciding to put your
trust in Jesus as your Savior is the most important decision you can make
The apostle Peter told a group of unbelievers about Jesus and encouraged
them to turn from their sin and trust Him (Acts 2). Peter's words speak to
us today as well. If you haven't accepted Christ's free gift of
forgiveness, pray to Him and ask Him to save you. And once you've done
that, make the second most important decision: Determine to follow
Christ's leading daily. -- Vernon C. Grounds
If you'd like to know the love of God the Father, Come to Him through
Jesus Christ, His loving Son; He'll forgive your sins and save your soul
forever, And you'll love forevermore this faithful One.-- Felten
decision is what you do with Jesus.
><> ><> ><>
C H Spurgeon -
Faith's Checkbook - What of My House? - “Believe on the Lord Jesus
Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house.”—Acts 16:31
THIS gospel for a
man with a sword at his throat is the gospel for me. This would suit me if
I were dying, and it is all that I need while I am living. I look away
from self and sin and all idea of personal merit, and I trust the Lord
Jesus as the Saviour whom God has given. I believe in Him; I rest on Him;
I accept Him to be my all in all. Lord I am saved, and I shall be saved to
all eternity, for I believe in Jesus. Blessed be thy name for this. May I
daily prove by my life that I am saved from selfishness and worldliness
and every form of evil.
But those last words
about my “house.” Lord, I would not run away with half a promise when
thou dost give a whole one. I beseech thee, save all my family. Save the
nearest and dearest. Convert the children, and the grandchildren, if I
have any. Be gracious to my servants and all who dwell under my roof or
work for me. Thou makest this promise to me personally if I believe in the
Lord Jesus; I beseech thee to do as thou hast said.
I would go over in
my prayer every day the names of all my brothers and sisters, parents,
children, friends, relatives, and servants and give thee no rest till that
word is fulfilled: “and thy house.”
><> ><> ><>
They spoke the
Word of the Lord - This is why the jailer's household was saved.
Sinners must be presented with the Gospel of God in order to respond and
believe and be saved. As stated earlier no one becomes a saint (a
believer) by proxy or by virtue of their parent's belief in Christ. Each
person is called to make a definite, personal statement of belief in
Christ's and His good news of salvation by grace through faith.
The jailer took
them that very hour of the night and washed their wounds -
This is the "about
face" supernatural turnaround that one sees when a person is genuinely
converted and has a true change in lifestyle. The change in the attitude
of the jailer is clearly manifest in washing the wounds of these two
prisoners for they were now his brothers in Christ, not his enemies. One
evidence of genuine repentance is a desire to make restitution and
reparation to those whom we have hurt. Jesus left us the perfect
"template" to follow declaring...
If I then, the Lord and the Teacher,
washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another's feet. "For I gave
you an example that you also should do as I did to you. (John 13:14-15)
an interesting question...
What about the other prisoners? Luke
doesn't give us the details, but it is possible that some of them were
also born again through the witness of Paul and Silas and the jailer. Some
of these prisoners may have been waiting for execution, so imagine their
joy at hearing a message of salvation! Paul and Silas thought nothing of
their own pains as they rejoiced in what God did in that Philippian jail!
No doubt the jailer later joined with Lydia in the assembly.
was baptized - Remember this must have been sometime between midnight
and daylight! One wonders how many people have so desired to identify with
Christ that they sought baptism irregardless of the hour or circumstances?
And so they were baptized just like Lydia and her household (Acts 16:15)
and just like those men and women who responded to Phillip's proclamation
of the Gospel...
But when they believed Philip preaching
the good news about the kingdom of God and the name of Jesus Christ, they
were being baptized, men and women alike. (Acts 8:12)
rejoiced greatly - The very one who moments before was on the verge of
committing suicide, was now rejoicing in his new found faith (and that of
his family) in the living God.
Paul was born a
Roman citizen (Acts 22:28), which gave him certain rights, including a
public hearing. Scourging of any Roman citizen was prohibited by law; the
rights of Paul and Silas, therefore, had already been violated.
The Roman forbade the binding or beating of a Roman citizen.
Cicero, in his celebrated Oration against Verres, asserts
It is a transgression of the law to
bind a Roman citizen; it is wickedness to scourge him. Unheard, no man can
offers an excellent thought on why Paul did not wish to leave Philippi
Paul, however, was unwilling to sneak
out of town, for that kind of exit would have left the new church under a
cloud of suspicion. People would have asked, "Who were those men Were they
guilty of some crime? Why did they leave so quickly? What do their
followers believe?" Paul and his associates wanted to leave behind a
strong witness of their own integrity as well as a good testimony for the
infant church in Philippi. It was then that Paul made use of his Roman
citizenship and boldly challenged the officials on the legality of their
treatment. This was not personal revenge but a desire to give protection
and respect for the church. (Wiersbe,
W: Bible Exposition Commentary. 1989. Victor
They were afraid
- Upon learning of Paul's Roman citizenship, the magistrates were
filled with fear, because it was a grave offense to treat Roman citizens
as Paul and Silas had been treated.
They are Romans - Paul's father in Tarsus evidently had been
awarded Roman citizenship for services to the state, so Paul (and
presumably Silas) had been born with such citizenship. Roman citizenship
carried with it many privileges and protections established by Roman law.
An interesting question at this juncture is how did Paul and Silas prove
their Roman citizenship? Luke is silent on this but the magistrates
clearly are convinced.
Williams offers two possible explanations writing that...
They may each have carried a copy of
his professio or registration of birth, in which his Roman status would
have been recorded. These were convenient in size...To claim Roman
citizenship falsely was punishable by death.
reviews this chapter writing that...
It is also worth noting that not every
sinner comes to Christ in exactly the same manner. Timothy was saved
partly through the influence of a godly mother and grandmother. Lydia was
converted through a quiet conversation with Paul at a Jewish prayer
meeting, while the jailer's conversion was dramatic. One minute he was a
potential suicide, and the next minute he was a child of God! Different
people with different experiences, and yet all of them changed by the
grace of God. Others just like them are waiting to be told God's simple
plan of salvation. Will you help them hear? In your own witness for
Christ, will you be daring? (Wiersbe,
W: Bible Exposition Commentary. 1989. Victor
Guzik sums up
the 2 radically different conversions...
Lydia was a churchgoer; the guard was
not. Lydia was prospering in business; the guard was about to kill
himself. Lydia's heart was gently opened; the guard's heart was violently
confronted. The guard had a remarkable sign - an earthquake, but all Lydia
had was the move of the Holy Spirit in her heart. Both heard the gospel
and believed, and through each of them their whole families were touched!