AN OUTLINE OF EZEKIEL 16
The Lord's Loving kindnesses to Jerusalem
Unfaithful Jerusalem's Harlotry
God's Judgment on Jerusalem
Sodom & Samaria Will be Restored (53-58) (GNB)
Jerusalem Will Be Ashamed (53-58) (CEV)
Covenant that Lasts Forever (59-63) (GNB)
Ezekiel 16:51-63 Commentary
Ezekiel 16:51 Furthermore, Samaria did not commit half of your sins, for you have multiplied your abominations more than they. Thus you have made your sisters appear righteous by all your abominations which you have committed. (NASB: Lockman)
Samaria did not commit half of your sins, for you have multiplied your (idolatrous) abominations more than they Samaria: Lu 12:47,48 Ro 3:9-20
Samaria - The sin of Samaria was syncretistic worship after God divided Solomon’s kingdom (930 BC) because of his horrible idolatry (1King 11:1-12). Jeroboam set up gold calf altars in Dan and Bethel combining paganism and biblical worship (1Ki 12:25-33; Hos 8:5; Amos 8:14).
"Samaria—the kingdom of the ten tribes of Israel less guilty than Judah; for Judah betrayed greater ingratitude, having greater privileges, namely, the temple, the priesthood, and the regular order of kings." (Jamieson)
Less "light" and yet less sin than Judah who had the law and the covenants, the Shekinah glory in the Temple, etc. Greater light conveys greater responsibility. Dear saint, don't miss this. We will give an account for our stewardship of God's gifts. Are you redeeming the time? Are you storing up for yourself treasure in heaven? Are you living as a light which brings glory to Your Father? The time is short. Don't waste your life, for it is but a vapor and then it is gone! Make Psalm 90:12 the prayer of your heart! That is God's will and He will answer it affirmatively as you sincerely pray in faith, believing that He is faithful.
Related Resource - Redeem the Time
“you have multiplied your abominable deeds beyond them.”
Cooper - So reprehensible were the sins of Judah that Sodom and Samaria appeared more righteous by comparison. This was a cutting indictment filled with irony since the name Sodom was not even spoken by Jews of Judah out of contempt for its evil example. (Ibid)
Abominations (detestable, loathsome) (08441)(toebah from ta'ab meaning to abhor) refers to an abominable custom or thing. Abomination. Loathsome. Detestable thing. Something or someone who is loathsome and abhorrent. The Lxx translates toebah here with the word anomia which means lawlessness.
Is there any sin in your (my) life which the Lord abhors? Beloved, confess and repent that you might be made by His Holy Spirit a holy vessel, sanctified (set apart), useful to Him as your Lord and Master, prepared for every good work He has already prepared for you in Christ (2Ti 2:21, Eph 2:10). Ask God's Spirit to give you a holy loathing for the sin that so easily entangles you (Heb 12:1).
You have made (seemed to justify) your sisters (Sodom and Samaria) appear righteous by all your abominations which you have committed. (Amp - you even make them appear righteous in comparison with you)" (Jer 3:8-11; Mt 12:41,42)
"Justified" - made them appear almost innocent by comparison with thy guilt (Je 3:11; Mt 12:41, 42).
|Ezekiel 16:52 Also bear your disgrace in that you have made judgment favorable for your sisters. Because of your sins in which you acted more abominably than they, they are more in the right than you. Yes, be also ashamed and bear your disgrace, in that you made your sisters appear righteous. (NASB: Lockman)|
which hast (KJV): Eze 16:56 Mt 7:1-5 Lu 6:37 Ro 2:1,10,26,27
bear thine (KJV): Eze 16:54,63 36:6,7,15,31,32 39:26 44:13 Jer 23:40 31:19 51:51 Ho 10:6 Ro 1:32 6:21
they are more (KJV): Ge 38:26 1Sa 24:17 1Ki 2:32
Sins (02403)(chattat/chattath) means wrong, iniquity, sin. Chattat, like it's NT counterpart (hamartia used in the Lxx translation of Ezek 16:52), means to miss or fall short of the mark, which ultimately is the will and plan of God as revealed in Scripture. Sin is whatever misses the will of God for man doctrinally or morally. The result of chattat/chattah is that man misses the goal God has for him by failing to observe the requirements of holy living and thus falls short of spiritual wholeness. We are all sinners. We all miss the mark, and none of us are perfect nor will we ever be perfect in this life. This is why Christ had to die for our sin so we might have His righteousness (see 2Cor 5:21).
You acted more abominably - Samaria and Sodom had great sin and great judgment but God says Judah committed even more abominable sin!
Acted...abominably (08581)(taab) means to despise, detest, to loathe, to degrade, to have a hatred or very strong dislike for something. It describes "persons, things or practices that offend one's ritual or moral order." (NIDOTTE) In the niphal it means to be detestable, to be loathed (1Chr 21:6; Job 15:16; Isa 14:19). Taab can mean to behave in a vile manner or to act shamefully (1Ki 21:26; Ps 14:1; 53:2; Ezek 16:52) Taab implies not only contempt for that something, but also a low opinion of its value.
Ashamed (put to shame) (0954)(bosh from root = “to become pale” or “to blush”) means to be ashamed, to become pale, to blush, to become dismayed. When failure or sin occurs, there is a disconcerting feeling, a flushing of the face. Bosh often occurs in contexts of humiliation and shattered human emotions. It is the feeling of public disgrace. The confusion, embarrassment, or dismay when things do not turn out as expected (Micah 7:16 describes the arrogant anti-Semitic Gentile world powers who will definitely be surprised and things do not turn out as they had expected!). Bosh not only conveys the idea of shame, but of a type of shame in which utter defeat pervades the mood. Disillusionment and a broken spirit follow (Ezra 9:6; Isa 1:29; 30:5; Jer 2:36; 9:19).
Webster says shame is a painful emotion caused by consciousness of guilt, shortcoming, or impropriety. Shame is a painful sensation excited by a consciousness of guilt, or of having done something which injures reputation; or by the exposure of that which nature or modesty prompts us to conceal. Shame is particularly excited by the disclosure of actions which, in the view of men, are mean and degrading. Hence it is often or always manifested by a downcast look or by blushes, called confusion of face.
Disgrace (03639)(kelimmah from kalam to wound, to make ashamed, to humiliate or be humiliated) is a feminine noun which refers to disgrace, shame, humiliation, embarrassment, insult, reproach, ignominy. This word is especially concentrated in the book of Ezekiel (12/29x). The root verb kalam denotes the sense of disgrace which attends public humiliation.
Disgrace is a state or condition of suffering loss of esteem and of enduring reproach. It often implies humiliation and sometimes ostracism.
|Ezekiel 16:53 Nevertheless, I will restore their captivity, the captivity of Sodom and her daughters, the captivity of Samaria and her daughters, and along with them your own captivity, (NASB: Lockman)|
KJV When I shall bring again their captivity, the captivity of Sodom and her daughters, and the captivity of Samaria and her daughters, then will I bring again the captivity of thy captives in the midst of them:
NET "'I will restore their fortunes, the fortunes of Sodom and her daughters, and the fortunes of Samaria and her daughters (along with your fortunes among them),
ESV "I will restore their fortunes, both the fortunes of Sodom and her daughters, and the fortunes of Samaria and her daughters, and I will restore your own fortunes in their midst,
NIV "'However, I will restore the fortunes of Sodom and her daughters and of Samaria and her daughters, and your fortunes along with them,
NLT But someday I will restore the fortunes of Sodom and Samaria, and I will restore you, too.
YLT And I have turned back to their captivity, The captivity of Sodom and her daughters, And the captivity of Samaria and her daughters, And the captivity of thy captives in their midst,
I will restore - Eze 16:60,61 29:14 39:25 Job 42:10 Ps 14:7 85:1 126:1 Isa 1:9 Jer 20:16 31:23 48:47 49:6,39 Joe 3:1
With them - Isa 19:24,25 Jer 12:16 Ro 11:23-31
Nevertheless - synonyms of this word include in spite of that; notwithstanding, but, yet. So clearly this is a term of contrast. What is being contrasted? The preceding bad news in the preceding section with the future good news in this passage. Contrast this promise with the description of punishment in Ezekiel 16:35-43.
Jamieson - Here follows a promise of restoration. Even the sore chastisements coming on Judah would fail to reform its people; God’s returning goodness alone would effect this, to show how entirely of grace was to be their restoration. The restoration of her erring sisters is mentioned before hers, even as their punishment preceded her punishment; so all self-boasting is excluded [FAIRBAIRN]....the full realization of the restoration is yet future
When will God restore their captivity? This has not occurred but awaits return of Messiah to establish His Millennial kingdom on earth.
Restore their captivity - The NAS is not the best translation of this common Hebrew idiom. Compare other renderings = "restore their fortunes," “turning back the captivity,” “turning back the turning”.
Charles Feinberg (in his comments on Jeremiah 30) on restore the fortunes - I will bring back from captivity - This sense accords well with the theme of Jeremiah 30-33. However, there are instances - e.g., Job 42:10 (with regard to his misfortunes); Ezek 16:53 (a prediction concerning Sodom) where captivity is not in view. In such eases a derived meaning such as reverse or restore the fortunes fits well. (Expositor's Bible Commentary, 1984 edition)
The NET Note explains the Hebrew idiom restore your fortunes noting first that it can also be translated "I will bring you back from exile.” This idiom occurs twenty-six times in the OT and in several cases it is clearly not referring to return from exile but restoration of fortunes (e.g., Job 42:10; Hos 6:11–7:1; Jer 33:11). It is often followed as here by “regather” or “bring back” (e.g., Jer 30:3; Ezek 29:14) so it is often misunderstood as “bringing back the exiles.” The versions (LXX, Vulg., Tg., Pesh.) often translate the idiom as “to go away into captivity,” deriving the noun from שְׁבִי (shévi, “captivity”). However, the use of this expression in Old Aramaic documents of Sefire parallels the biblical idiom: “the gods restored the fortunes of the house of my father again” (J. A. Fitzmyer, The Aramaic Inscriptions of Sefire [BibOr], 100–101, 119–20). The idiom means “to turn someone’s fortune, bring about change” or “to reestablish as it was” (HALOT 1386 s.v. 3.c). In Ezek 16:53 it is paralleled by the expression “to restore the situation which prevailed earlier.” This amounts to restitutio in integrum, which is applicable to the circumstances surrounding the return of the exiles. (NOTES on Jeremiah 29)
In Ezekiel 39:25 shub is translated in the Septuagint (Lxx) with apostrepho which means to cause to turn from incorrect to correct behavior and so to turn back or to change one's belief or behavior. It is also noteworthy that apostrepho is the very verb Paul used to describe the time of national restoration of Israel in Romans writing " thus all Israel will be saved; just as it is written, “THE DELIVERER WILL COME FROM ZION, HE WILL REMOVE (apostrepho) UNGODLINESS FROM JACOB.” (Ro 11:26-note ).
Shub is used in Ps 23:3 when David declared that it is the Good Shepherd Who "restores (Lxx = epistrepho) my soul." Similarly in Ps 19:7 he declared that it is "law of the LORD (which) is perfect, restoring (Lxx = epistrepho) the soul." The Hebrew word shub combines two requisites of repentance - a turn from evil and a turn to good. Shub conveys the idea of a radical change in one's attitude toward sin. It Implies a conscious moral separation and personal decision to forsake sin and enter fellowship with God. We see a striking example in Nineveh in Jonah 3:8 ("turn from his wicked way" = Lxx = apostrepho, same verb used here in Jer 30:3).
The phrase "restore your fortunes" is a Hebrew idiom (2 Hebrew words = shub shebuth - see NET Note above) found over 20 times in the OT. In every usage Jehovah is the Subject, the One doing or carrying out the restoration. The recipient of the restoration is most often Israel (and Judah), but other recipients of restoration include Job, Moab, Ammon, Elam and Egypt.
David Guzik - As this prophecy develops it seems clear that this return from captivity is later and greater than the relatively soon return from the Babylonian exile. This is especially indicated by the last words of this chapter, which tell us that in the latter days you will consider it (Jeremiah 30:24). Jeremiah here looked beyond his present day and near future to see the latter days. (Jeremiah 30 Commentary)
Fortunes (07622) (shebuth from shabah = to take captive but some think it originates from shub = to return, restore) is a feminine noun which has two main meanings in the OT, (1) captivity, captives (esp Nu 21:29 referring to Moab), implying control and oppression and (2) fortunes, assets (primarily possessions, materials, and property though not exclusively so which will make life easier and more secure). One could see how both senses are meant in some passages because to restore someone from captivity is tantamount to bringing them into a place of good fortune.
Baker - This word conveys either a state of exile, such as being taken for a spoil of war, or the subjects of such captivity. The chief use was in declaring the liberating power of the Lord in releasing His people from such banishment (Deut. 30:3; Jer. 33:7; Hos. 6:11).
Shebuth - 28 verses (all except Nu 21:29 are listed above under discussion of the Hebrew idion "restore fortunes") - Nu 21:29; Dt 30:3; Job 42:10; Ps 14:7; 53:6; 85:1; 126:1, 4; Jer 29:14; 30:3, 18; 31:23; 32:44; 33:7, 11, 26; 48:47; 49:6, 39; Lam 2:14; Ezek 16:53; 29:14; 39:25; Hos 6:11; Joel 3:1; Amos 9:14; Zeph 2:7; 3:20
Ryrie on Ezekiel 16:53-59 - The ultimate restoration of Sodom, Samaria, and Israel awaits the establishing of Christ's Millennial Kingdom on the present earth.
|Ezekiel 16:54 in order that you may bear your humiliation and feel ashamed for all that you have done when you become a consolation to them. (NASB: Lockman)|
Amp: That you [Judah], amid your shame and disgrace, may be compelled to recognize your wickedness and be thoroughly ashamed and confounded at all you have done, becoming [converted and bringing] consolation and comfort to [your sisters.]
KJV Ezekiel 16:54 That thou mayest bear thine own shame, and mayest be confounded in all that thou hast done, in that thou art a comfort unto them.
NET Ezekiel 16:54 so that you may bear your disgrace and be ashamed of all you have done in consoling them.
ESV Ezekiel 16:54 that you may bear your disgrace and be ashamed of all that you have done, becoming a consolation to them.
NIV Ezekiel 16:54 so that you may bear your disgrace and be ashamed of all you have done in giving them comfort.
NLT Ezekiel 16:54 Then you will be truly ashamed of everything you have done, for your sins make them feel good in comparison.
YLT Ezekiel 16:54 So that thou dost bear thy shame, And hast been ashamed of all that thou hast done, In thy comforting them.
In order that - See discussion of value of observing and interrogating this term of purpose or result.
You may bear your humiliation and feel ashamed - (Eze 16:52,63 36:31,32 Jer 2:26) "by being put on a level with those whom thou hast so much despised." (Jamieson)
When you become - Eze 14:22,23
When you become a consolation to them - The idea is that Judah's becoming converted would bring consolation and comfort to her sisters.
Become a consolation (05162)(naham/nacham) is a verb which means to be sorry, to pity, to console oneself, repent, regret, comfort, be comforted, to get revenge for oneself (Ge 27:42, Ezek 5:13). According to the TWOT nacham reflects the idea of "breathing deeply" and hence refers to the physical display of one's feelings, such as sorrow, or in this case compassion or comfort.
Cooper explains "Had God not severely punished Judah, Sodom and Samaria could have received comfort (Ezek 16:54) by pointing to Judah, justifying themselves and accusing God of violating His righteousness...Because Judah had exceeded the sins of Sodom and Samaria, any hope of restoration also must include them, since God is just." (Ibid)
|Ezekiel 16:55 Your sisters, Sodom with her daughters and Samaria with her daughters, will return to their former state, and you with your daughters will also return to your former state. (NASB: Lockman)|
KJV Ezekiel 16:55 When thy sisters, Sodom and her daughters, shall return to their former estate, and Samaria and her daughters shall return to their former estate, then thou and thy daughters shall return to your former estate.
NET Ezekiel 16:55 As for your sisters, Sodom and her daughters will be restored to their former status, Samaria and her daughters will be restored to their former status, and you and your daughters will be restored to your former status.
ESV Ezekiel 16:55 As for your sisters, Sodom and her daughters shall return to their former state, and Samaria and her daughters shall return to their former state, and you and your daughters shall return to your former state.
NIV Ezekiel 16:55 And your sisters, Sodom with her daughters and Samaria with her daughters, will return to what they were before; and you and your daughters will return to what you were before.
NLT Ezekiel 16:55 Yes, your sisters, Sodom and Samaria, and all their people will be restored, and at that time you also will be restored.
YLT Ezekiel 16:55 And thy sisters, Sodom and her daughters, Do turn back to their former state, And Samaria and her daughters Do turn back to their former state, And thou and thy daughters do turn back to your former state
And your sisters, Sodom with her daughters and Samaria with her daughters, will return to their former state, and you with your daughters will also return to your former state.
Bible Knowledge Commentary - If God would restore Jerusalem, could He do any less for her more righteous sisters? Ezekiel was speaking of the national restoration of these cities in the Millennium. (Evidently Sodom will be rebuilt at that time.)
you with your daughters will also return to your former state (Ezek 16:53; 36:11; Mal 3:4)
|Ezekiel 16:56 As the name of your sister Sodom was not heard from your lips in your day of pride, (NASB: Lockman)|
KJV Ezekiel 16:56 For thy sister Sodom was not mentioned by thy mouth in the day of thy pride,
NET Ezekiel 16:56 In your days of majesty, was not Sodom your sister a byword in your mouth,
ESV Ezekiel 16:56 Was not your sister Sodom a byword in your mouth in the day of your pride,
NIV Ezekiel 16:56 You would not even mention your sister Sodom in the day of your pride,
NLT Ezekiel 16:56 In your proud days you held Sodom in contempt.
YLT Ezekiel 16:56 And thy sister Sodom hath not been for a report in thy mouth, In the day of thine arrogancy,
As the name of your sister Sodom was not heard from your lips in your day of pride (Is 65:5; Zeph 3:11; Lk 15:28-30; 18:11)
Amplified: "[except] as a byword in the day of your pride"
Constable notes that "Many people of Jerusalem did not even speak of the Sodomites because they were such great sinners. Yet in the future the people of Edom and the Philistines, Israel’s ancient enemies, would not speak of the Jerusalemites because they were such great sinners."
In your day of pride - refers to the golden days of Jerusalem during the reign of David and the beginning of Solomon's reign.
|Ezekiel 16:57 before your wickedness was uncovered, so now you have become the reproach of the daughters of Edom and of all who are around her, of the daughters of the Philistines --those surrounding you who despise you. (NASB: Lockman)|
KJV Ezekiel 16:57 Before thy wickedness was discovered, as at the time of thy reproach of the daughters of Syria, and all that are round about her, the daughters of the Philistines, which despise thee round about.
NET Ezekiel 16:57 before your evil was exposed? Now you have become an object of scorn to the daughters of Aram and all those around her and to the daughters of the Philistines– those all around you who despise you.
ESV Ezekiel 16:57 before your wickedness was uncovered? Now you have become an object of reproach for the daughters of Syria and all those around her, and for the daughters of the Philistines, those all around who despise you.
NIV Ezekiel 16:57 before your wickedness was uncovered. Even so, you are now scorned by the daughters of Edom and all her neighbors and the daughters of the Philistines-- all those around you who despise you.
NLT Ezekiel 16:57 But now your greater wickedness has been exposed to all the world, and you are the one who is scorned-- by Edom and all her neighbors and by Philistia.
YLT Ezekiel 16:57 Before thy wickedness is revealed, As at the time of the reproach of the daughters of Aram, And of all her neighbours, the daughters of the Philistines, Who are despising thee round about.
Before your wickedness was uncovered (Ezek 16:36,37; 21:24; 23:18,19; Ps 50:21; La 4:22; Ho2:10; 7:1; 1Corinthians 4:5)
Uncovered (01540)(galah) means to be revealed or disclosed. It is interesting that galah is used in the expression to uncover the nakedness of, which often implies sexual relations (Lev. 18:6). The main idea of this verb is to bring about stark exposure of their wickedness (such that they cannot hide even as when one is naked!) This same verb is used in Jeremiah 13:22 = Because of the magnitude of your iniquity Your skirts have been removed.
So now you have become the reproach of the daughters of Edom (2Ki 16:5-7; 2Chr28:5,6,18-23; Is 7:1; 14:28)
Reproach - and a byword
Reproach (02781)(cherpah) is feminine noun meaning reproach, scorn, taunt. The term can be used for a taunt hurled at an enemy or an individual such as one with barrenness (Ge. 30:23); uncircumcision (Ge 34:14) or widowhood (Isa. 54:4).
A reproach is an expression of disapproval, rebuke or censure.
And of all who are around her, of the daughters of the Philistines-- those surrounding you who despise you (Jer 33:24)
Despise (07590)(sat) is a verb which describes a strong dislike, a loathing, a feeling of contempt, a deep repugnance and/or a total disrespect. This verb is used only 3x in the OT- Ezek 16:57, 28:24, 28:26.
Cooper - The irony of this was that Judah had become a byword (Ezek 16:56–57) to its pagan neighbors such as Edom and Philistia for destruction and judgment
|Ezekiel 16:58 You have borne the penalty of your lewdness and abominations," the LORD declares. (NASB: Lockman)|
KJV Ezekiel 16:58 Thou hast borne thy lewdness and thine abominations, saith the LORD.
NET Ezekiel 16:58 You must bear your punishment for your obscene conduct and your abominable practices, declares the LORD.
ESV Ezekiel 16:58 You bear the penalty of your lewdness and your abominations, declares the LORD.
NIV Ezekiel 16:58 You will bear the consequences of your lewdness and your detestable practices, declares the LORD.
NLT Ezekiel 16:58 This is your punishment for all your lewdness and detestable sins, says the LORD.
YLT Ezekiel 16:58 Thy devices and thine abominations, Thou hast borne them, an affirmation of Jehovah.
You have: Eze 23:49 Ge 4:13 La 5:7
Constable - The Jerusalemites were bearing the penalty of their lewdness and abominations; the Babylonian’s were threatening to destroy them completely.
(see first use in Lv 18:17) Webster says lewdness is inclined to, characterized by, or inciting to lust or lechery; lascivious. The Lxx translates zimmah here with asebeia which refers to ungodliness or ungodly behavior.
|Ezekiel 16:59 For thus says the Lord GOD, "I will also do with you as you have done, you who have despised the oath by breaking the covenant (NASB: Lockman)|
KJV Ezekiel 16:59 For thus saith the Lord GOD; I will even deal with thee as thou hast done, which hast despised the oath in breaking the covenant.
NET Ezekiel 16:59 "'For this is what the sovereign LORD says: I will deal with you according to what you have done when you despised your oath by breaking your covenant.
ESV Ezekiel 16:59 "For thus says the Lord GOD: I will deal with you as you have done, you who have despised the oath in breaking the covenant,
NIV Ezekiel 16:59 "'This is what the Sovereign LORD says: I will deal with you as you deserve, because you have despised my oath by breaking the covenant.
NLT Ezekiel 16:59 "Now this is what the Sovereign LORD says: I will give you what you deserve, for you have taken your solemn vows lightly by breaking your covenant.
YLT Ezekiel 16:59 For thus said the Lord Jehovah: I have dealt with thee as thou hast done, In that thou hast despised an oath -- to break covenant.
|For thus says the Lord GOD, " you who have despised the oath by breaking the covenant.
REAPING WHAT THEY
I will also do with you as you have done - cp the principle in Galatians 6:7, 8, Hosea 8:7.
Constable - The Lord promised to deal with them as they had dealt with Him. They had despised His covenant, and now He would despise them.
Criswell on Ezekiel 16:59-63) - This is a full statement of the law of retribution. Judah had broken her covenant with the Lord, but He had remained faithful. The Lord would introduce a new covenant which would be everlasting (Ezekiel 16:60; cf. Ge. 9:13; Jer. 31:33-note).
Holman Study Bible - Jerusalem's contempt toward the oath and the breaking of the covenant would be answered by the suspension of God's own covenant obligations. Judah's sin was especially grievous because she had despised the oath of obedience she made to the Lord at Sinai (Ex 19:6). The current generation had reached the limit of God's forbearance. In some sense God severed His relationship with that generation, though without breaking His covenant promises.
Despised (0959)(bazah is from a root meaning to accord little worth to something) means to disdain or to hold in contempt. Bazah is used in a number of places to mean “despise” in the sense of treating someone or something as totally insignificant or worthless. Bazah means to raise the head loftily and disdainfully, to look down one's nose at something (so to speak)! The idea is that one undervalues something or someone which implies contempt for that thing or person (in this case God's covenant!)
DESPISE = look down on with contempt or aversion; regard as negligible, worthless, or distasteful; may suggest an emotional response ranging from strong dislike to loathing
DISDAIN = implies an arrogant or supercilious aversion to what is regarded as unworthy; look on with scorn; refuse or abstain from because of disdain; to treat as beneath one’s notice or dignity, may or may not include overt feelings of contempt or scorn; feeling of contempt for what is beneath one
CONTEMPT = the act of despising : the state of mind of one who despises; lack of respect or reverence for something; willful disobedience to or open disrespect of a court, judge, or legislative body
I will also do with you as you have done (Ezek 7:4,8,9; 14:4; Isaiah 3:11; Jer 2:19; Mt 7:1,2; Ro 2:8,9)
Cooper adds that "Judah, the wife, was unfaithful to Yahweh, the husband. Judah broke her marriage covenant (v. 59), which probably was a reference to the covenant at Sinai (Ex 19:1–8). According to Hebrew law, when adultery was discovered a husband could not ignore it. He was compelled by law to take action against his wife for her promiscuity. Likewise, God was obligated to punish Judah for breaking the covenant (v. 59).(Ibid)
You who have despised the oath by breaking the covenant (Ezek 17:13-16; Ex 24:1-8; Dt 29:10-15,25; 2Chronicles 34:31,32; Isa 24:5; Jer 22:9) Breaking the conditional Mosaic Covenant which was the only covenant Israel entered into through an oath (cf. Ex 24:7-8; Dt 28:14-68; 29:10-21). The nation, represented by Jerusalem, had despised (disdained, held their oath in contempt!) regarding the Mosaic covenant and thus would suffer the consequences of being dispersed from the land, exactly as described in the warning section of the covenant (Dt 28:64-68)...
|Ezekiel 16:60 "Nevertheless, I will remember My covenant with you in the days of your youth, and I will establish an everlasting covenant with you. (NASB: Lockman)|
|KJV Ezekiel 16:60 Nevertheless I will remember my covenant with thee in the days of thy youth, and I will establish unto thee an everlasting covenant.
NET Ezekiel 16:60 Yet I will remember the covenant I made with you in the days of your youth, and I will establish a lasting covenant with you.
ESV Ezekiel 16:60 yet I will remember my covenant with you in the days of your youth, and I will establish for you an everlasting covenant.
NIV Ezekiel 16:60 Yet I will remember the covenant I made with you in the days of your youth, and I will establish an everlasting covenant with you.
NLT Ezekiel 16:60 Yet I will remember the covenant I made with you when you were young, and I will establish an everlasting covenant with you.
YLT Ezekiel 16:60 And I -- I have remembered My covenant with thee, In the days of thy youth, And I have established for thee a covenant age-during.
|Nevertheless, I will remember My covenant with you in the days of your youth, and I will establish an everlasting covenant with you.
THE NEW COVENANT
Nevertheless - Praise God for this word of contrast. God is speaking and says in spite of their unfaithfulness, God remains faithful to His unconditional, immutable covenant promises made initially to their fathers Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. (See Covenant: Abrahamic versus Mosaic and Covenant: Abrahamic vs Old vs New)
I will remember My covenant with you in the days of your youth" (Ezek 16:8; Lev 26:42,45; Neh 1:5-11; Ps 105:8; 106:45; Jer 2:2; 33:20-26; Hos 2:15; Lk 1:72) - This does not refer to the conditional covenant cut at Mt Sinai.
I agree with John MacArthur that the covenant...in the days of your youth refers not to the Davidic but to the Abrahamic Covenant. But the phrase and I will establish an everlasting covenant with you is a prophetic promise of the New Covenant described in Jeremiah 31:31-34 and which will be finally and fully fulfilled to Israel and Judah at the return of the Messiah Who will then set up His Messianic Kingdom (Millennium).
I will remember - God has a perfect memory regarding His covenant! We see this same phrase in Gen 9:15; Lev 26:42; Jer 31:3.
MacArthur Study Bible - God is gracious and He always finds a covenant basis on which He can exercise His grace. The Lord will remember the Abrahamic Covenant (cf. Ge 12:1ff.) made with Israel in her youth. Restoration will be by grace, not merit.
Holman Study Bible - References to the Lord remembering His covenant occur only in relationship to the patriarchal covenants (Gen 9:15-16; Ex 2:24; 6:5; Lev 26:42,45; Ps 105:8). The mention of God remembering His covenant is contrasted with Jerusalem's forgetting the terms of her relationship with God (Ezek 16:22,43). When this new relationship is established, the people will remember their ways and be ashamed. The everlasting covenant is the new covenant spoken of in Isa 59:21; 61:8; and Jer 31:31-34, but it should be viewed as closely related to the Abrahamic covenant. The features of the new covenant were actually the outworking of the basic elements of God's promises to Abraham (Isa 55:3; Jer 32:40)
Remember ((02142)(zakar) means bring to mind or think of again (an image or idea from the past into the mind), recall information or events, keep in mind for attention or consideration with a focus on responding in an appropriate manner, (Ex 6:5 Dt 25:17) The first occurrence is in Ge 8:1 with God as the subject: “God remembered Noah."
Some things God remembers (zakar) - His covenant and delivers His people (Ex 2:24) preserving them (Lev 26:44, 45), All their wickedness. (Hos 7:2), Hezekiah's past faithfulness => healing (2 Ki 20:3); Noah =>made waters to subside (Ge 8:1). Not to remember iniquity = forgive/withhold judgment (Ps 79:8-9)
Charles Feinberg on God's gracious remembrance - God can no more help being gracious than He can cease being God. He is the God of all grace, and He always finds a covenant basis on which He can exercise His grace.
I will establish an everlasting covenant with you" (Ezek 137:26,27; Is 55:3; 2Sa 23:5; Jer 31:31-34; 32:38-41; 50:5; Ho 2:19,20; Heb 8:10; 12:24; 13:20) The second of two "I will" statements in this passage which are both clear evidence of God's great mercy (not giving us what we do deserve) and grace (giving us what we do not deserve).
Cooper - In spite of the inevitability of judgment, God declared he indeed would restore Judah with its sisters, Sodom and Samaria. The assurance in v. 60 contrasts with v. 59 by the use of an emphatic “I”—Judah had forgotten Yahweh’s covenant, but “I myself will remember it.” God pledged to remember the former broken covenant and to make a new, everlasting, and therefore unbreakable covenant (cf. Ex 2:24; Lev 26:42–45). This new covenant would not only be permanent but it would be the basis for Judah’s sense of conviction and sorrow for sin (cf. 20:43; 36:31; Zech 12:10–14). (Ibid)
Everlasting (Eternal, Forever) (05769)(olam) is a masculine noun which according to some authorities is derived from 'alam (05956) which means to conceal, hide, be hidden, be concealed, be secret (2Ki 4:27, Ps 10:1). (others say the origin is uncertain) Gesenius feels olam refers to that which is hidden, especially "hidden time" the beginning or end of which is either uncertain or undefined = eternity, perpetuity. The most common associations of "everlasting" (olam) are Everlasting covenant = 15x and Everlasting lovingkindness = 44x.
The phrase everlasting covenant is used 16x in the OT where context determines the specific covenant...
Ezekiel 16:61 Then you will remember your ways and be ashamed when you receive your sisters, both your older and your younger; and I will give them to you as daughters, but not because of your covenant. (NASB: Lockman)
KJV Ezekiel 16:61 Then thou shalt remember thy ways, and be ashamed, when thou shalt receive thy sisters, thine elder and thy younger: and I will give them unto thee for daughters, but not by thy covenant.
NET Ezekiel 16:61 Then you will remember your conduct, and be ashamed when you receive your older and younger sisters. I will give them to you as daughters, but not on account of my covenant with you.
ESV Ezekiel 16:61 Then you will remember your ways and be ashamed when you take your sisters, both your elder and your younger, and I give them to you as daughters, but not on account of the covenant with you.
NIV Ezekiel 16:61 Then you will remember your ways and be ashamed when you receive your sisters, both those who are older than you and those who are younger. I will give them to you as daughters, but not on the basis of my covenant with you.
NLT Ezekiel 16:61 Then you will remember with shame all the evil you have done. I will make your sisters, Samaria and Sodom, to be your daughters, even though they are not part of our covenant.
YLT Ezekiel 16:61 And thou hast remembered thy ways, And thou hast been ashamed, In thy receiving thy sisters -- Thine elder with thy younger, And I have given them to thee for daughters, And not by thy covenant.
|Then - always be alert to this "time sensitive" word as it reflects that which is next in sequence.
You will remember your ways and be ashamed (Ezek 16:63; 20:43; 36:31,32; Job 42:5,6; Ps 119:59; Jer 31:18-20; 50:4,5)
In the latter days Israel will be reinstated into His favor. At that time she will be ashamed of her past vileness and will be saved; and this will happen at the Lord’s second advent (Zech 12:10–13:1).
When you receive your sisters, both your older and your younger (Ezek 16:53-55; Song 8:8,9; Isa 2:2-5; 11:9,10; Ho 1:9-11; Ro 11:11; Ro 15:8,9,16; Gal 4:26,27; Eph 2:12-14; 3:6)
I will give them to you as daughters (Is 49:18-23; 54:1,2; 60:4; 66:7-12; Gal 4:26-31)
Not because of your covenant (Jer 31:31-40; Jn 15:16; Heb 8:13) - Because they broke it. He would give based on grace, not on merit!
|Ezekiel 16:62 Thus I will establish My covenant with you, and you shall know that I am the LORD, (NASB: Lockman)|
|KJV Ezekiel 16:62 And I will establish my covenant with thee; and thou shalt know that I am the LORD:
NET Ezekiel 16:62 I will establish my covenant with you, and then you will know that I am the LORD.
ESV Ezekiel 16:62 I will establish my covenant with you, and you shall know that I am the LORD,
NIV Ezekiel 16:62 So I will establish my covenant with you, and you will know that I am the LORD.
NLT Ezekiel 16:62 And I will reaffirm my covenant with you, and you will know that I am the LORD.
YLT Ezekiel 16:62 And I -- I have established My covenant with thee, And thou hast known that I am Jehovah.
|I will establish My covenant with you (Ezek 16:60; Da9:27; Ho2:18-23)
Cooper - Ezek 16:62 uses the same emphatic construction (literally) “I myself” as Ezek 16:60. Though Israel despised and broke the covenant, God himself would establish it and restore his relationship with them....God’s establishing his covenant with his rebellious people will be based on his all-important work of atonement, not overlooking but covering their sin by his marvelous grace. Israel’s departure from God had come because they had failed to remember who they were in relationship to him (Ezek 15:2). But as a result of his atoning work, they would remember and return in humility and gratitude. The grace of God always is available to those who repent. God will remove the guilt of sin and will heal, forgive, and save people and nations (Ezek 16:59–63; cf. 2 Chr 7:14).
Holman Study Bible - Prophetic passages that announce the restoration of Israel (I will establish My covenant with you) reflect the teaching of Dt 30:3. The letters to the churches in the book of Revelation illustrate how God acts in a similar way by disciplining His church (Rev 2:14,20).
You shall know that I am the LORD (Ezek 6:7; 39:22; Jer 24:7; Joel 3:17)
Know that I am the LORD - This is a key passage in Ezekiel occurring approximately 63 times- Ezek 6:7, 10, 13f; 7:4, 27; 11:10, 12; 12:15f, 20; 13:9, 14, 21, 23; 14:8; 15:7; 16:62; 17:24; 20:12, 20, 26, 38, 42, 44; 22:16; 23:49; 24:24, 27; 25:5, 7, 11, 17; 26:6; 28:22ff, 26; 29:6, 9, 16, 21; 30:8, 19, 25f; 32:15; 33:29; 34:27; 35:4, 9, 15; 36:11, 23, 38; 37:6, 13, 28; 38:23; 39:6f, 22, 28; Joel 3:17
This promise echoes God's prophetic promise to Israel through Moses in Deuteronomy 30 --
|Ezekiel 16:63 so that you may remember and be ashamed and never open your mouth anymore because * of your humiliation, when I have forgiven you for all that you have done," the Lord GOD declares (NASB: Lockman)|
|KJV Ezekiel 16:63 That thou mayest remember, and be confounded, and never open thy mouth any more because of thy shame, when I am pacified toward thee for all that thou hast done, saith the Lord GOD.
NET Ezekiel 16:63 Then you will remember, be ashamed, and remain silent when I make atonement for all you have done, declares the sovereign LORD.'"
ESV Ezekiel 16:63 that you may remember and be confounded, and never open your mouth again because of your shame, when I atone for you for all that you have done, declares the Lord GOD."
NIV Ezekiel 16:63 Then, when I make atonement for you for all you have done, you will remember and be ashamed and never again open your mouth because of your humiliation, declares the Sovereign LORD.'"
NLT Ezekiel 16:63 You will remember your sins and cover your mouth in silent shame when I forgive you of all that you have done. I, the Sovereign LORD, have spoken!"
YLT Ezekiel 16:63 So that thou dost remember, And thou hast been ashamed, And there is not to thee any more an opening of the mouth because of thy shame, In My receiving atonement for thee, For all that thou hast done, An affirmation of the Lord Jehovah!'
I n order that - Another strategic term of purpose or result.
You may remember and be ashamed (Ezek 16:61; 36:31,32; Ezra 9:6; Da9:7,8)
Be ashamed (0954)(bosh) means to “to become pale” “to blush.” When failure or sin occurs, there is a disconcerting feeling, a flushing of the face. The word often occurs in contexts of humiliation and shattered human emotions. It is the feeling of public disgrace. The confusion, embarrassment, or dismay when things do not turn out as expected. Conveys the idea of shame of an utter defeat pervades the mood. Disillusionment and a broken spirit follow (Ezra 9:6; Isa 1:29; 30:5; Jer 2:36; 9:19).
The Lxx translates bosh here with aischune which means disgrace (loss of reputation as the result of a dishonorable action) or ignominy (a deep personal humiliation). Aischune describes shame resulting from exposure of one’s weaknesses or sins. It is not a feeling one has but an experience which comes to someone.
Bosh - 113v - Gen 2:25; Ex 32:1; Jdg 3:25; 2 Sam 19:5; 2 Kgs 2:17; 8:11; 19:26; Ezra 8:22; 9:6; Job 6:20; 19:3; Ps 6:10; 14:6; 22:5; 25:2f, 20; 31:1, 17; 35:4, 26; 37:19; 40:14; 44:7; 53:5; 69:6; 70:2; 71:1, 13, 24; 83:17; 86:17; 97:7; 109:28; 119:6, 31, 46, 78, 80, 116; 127:5; 129:5; Prov 10:5; 12:4; 14:35; 17:2; 19:26; 29:15; Isa 1:29; 19:9; 20:5; 23:4; 24:23; 26:11; 29:22; 30:5; 37:27; 41:11; 42:17; 44:9, 11; 45:16f, 24; 49:23; 50:7; 54:4; 65:13; 66:5; Jer 2:26, 36; 6:15; 8:9, 12; 9:19; 10:14; 12:13; 14:3f; 15:9; 17:13, 18; 20:11; 22:22; 31:19; 46:24; 48:1, 13, 20, 39; 49:23; 50:2, 12; 51:17, 47, 51; Ezek 16:52, 63; 32:30; 36:32; Hos 2:5; 4:19; 10:6; 13:15; Joel 1:11; 2:26f; Mic 3:7; 7:16; Zeph 3:11; Zech 9:5; 10:5; 13:4.
NAS translation = Usage: acted shamefully(1), acts shamefully(3), ashamed(60), ashamed at all(1), became anxious(1), become dry(1), been confounded(1), been put(8), been put to shame(8), been shamed(1), brings shame(1), covered with shame(1), delayed(1), disappointed(2), feel...shame(1), put me to shame(1), put them to shame(1), put to shame(32), shame(1), shamed(3), shameful(1), shames(1), utterly dejected(1), utterly put(1), utterly put to shame(1).
Never open your mouth anymore because of your humiliation (shame), " (Job 40:4,5; Ps 39:9; La 3:39; Ro 2:1; 3:19,27; 9:19,20)
Humiliation (03639)(kelimmah from kalam = to be humiliated or ashamed especially public humiliation) denotes the sense of disgrace or shame which attends public humiliation. In thirty cases the root is used in parallel with bosh "to be ashamed" (q.v.). Any distinction between the meanings of the two roots is therefore small. It can convey the meaning of embarrassment. The fact that the Arabic cognate means "to wound" suggests the idea of a "wounded" pride.
Kelimmah is used by David in the imprecatory prayers when he asked for his adversaries' to receive humiliation and dishonor (Psalm 35:26, 71:13, 109:29, cp Jeremiah 20:11) Kelimmah described Judah's disgrace when profane pagans enter the House of the Lord, from which He had departed because of their spiritual harlotry and idolatry (Jer 51:51). However the Ezekiel prophesied of a better day for Israel (The Messianic Age) when "they will not endure the insults (Lxx = oneidismos = reproach brought upon one's self) of the nations anymore." (Ezek 34:29, cp Ezek 36:6-7, 15).
To humiliate means to make (someone) feel ashamed and foolish by injuring their dignity and self-respect, especially publicly.
To dishonor is to bring shame or disgrace on. Synonyms: disgrace, shame, discredit, bring into disrepute, humiliate, degrade, debase, lower, cheapen, drag down, drag through the mud, blacken the name of, give a bad name to; sully, stain, taint, besmirch, smear, mar, blot, stigmatize
TWOT says the root verb kalam "seems to refer to 1) wounding of the body (2) wounding of the spirit through public humiliation, and 3) wounding of the spirit because of defeat and captivity."
The Lxx translates kelimmah in this verse with the noun atimia which describes a state of dishonor or disrespect. Atimia is used of the unseemliness and offensiveness of a dead body.
Kelimmah - NAS Usage: disgrace(8), dishonor(6), humiliation(7), insults(5), reproach(1), reproaches(1), shame(2).
Kelimmah (note frequency in Ezekiel) - 29v -
When I have forgiven you for all that you have done (Ro 5:1,2; 1 Co 4:7; Ep 2:3-5; Titus 3:3-7)
When I have forgiven you - MacArthur writes that "This looks to the cross of Christ (cf. Is 53:1-12), by which God’s just wrath on sin was satisfied so that He could grant grace to all who believe (cf. 2Co 5:21)."
Forgiven - This is the great Hebrew verb "kaphar" (cf Yom Kippur) which means to make atonement for Israel's sins, clearly looking forward to the Cross of Christ which propitiates or satisfies God's holy wrath on sin, allowing Him to be both just and the Justifier, granting grace to all who place their faith in the finished work of Calvary.
Forgiven (03722)(kapar) means to make atonement, to make reconciliation (to reconcile), to purge, to make propitiation (to propitiate), to pacify, to cancel. There are two main ideas regarding the meaning of kapar - (1) Kapar means to cover over sin (2) A number of resources however favor the idea that kapar means to wipe away. (See discussion)
MacArthur on I have forgiven - This looks to the cross of Christ (cf. Isa 53:1-12), by which God’s just wrath on sin was satisfied so that He could grant grace to all who believe (cf. 2Co 5:21).