Amplified: They will perish, but You remain and continue permanently; they will all grow old and wear out like a garment. ( (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: They shall perish; but thou remainest; and they all shall wax old as doth a garment;
Phillips: they will perish, but you remain; and they will all grow old like a garment; like a cloak you will fold them up, and they will be changed. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: They themselves shall perish, but as for you, you remain permanently. And all these shall become old and worn out as a garment. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: these shall perish, and Thou dost remain, and all, as a garment, shall become old,
THEY WILL PERISH BUT THOU REMAINEST: autoi apolountai (3PFMI) su de diameneis (2SPAI): (Heb 12:27; Isa 34:4; 65:17; Mt 24:35; Mk 13:31; Lk 21:33; 2Pe 3:7, 3:8, 3:9, 3:10; Rev 20:11; 21:1) (Ps 10:16; 29:10; 90:2; Isa 41:4; 44:6; Rev 1:17, 1:18, 2:8)
Perish (622) (apollumi from apo = away from + olethros = state of utter ruin <> from ollumi = to destroy) is a strengthened form of ollumi with the preposition apó conveying the sense of separation away from and thus the idea is wholly or fully destroy. Destroy utterly or fully perish, lay waste, disintegrate.
Clarke - Permanently fixed as they seem to be, a time shall come when they shall be dissolved, and afterward new heavens and a new earth be formed, in which righteousness alone shall dwell. See notes 2 Peter 3:10; 11;12; 13
Remainest (1265) (diameno [word study] from dia = intensifies meaning + meno = to remain or abide) means to remain permanently or to continue in the same place or condition (cf Lk 1:22). When diameno is used to describe people it means to remain constant or to stand by (as those did with Jesus in Lk 22:28). It is used to describe a circumstance, state or condition that continues and thus remains the same (2Pet 3:4). Here in Hebrews the idea is that it continues to exist. It is used figuratively of the gospel continuing in association with the Galatians.
Here are the NT use of diameno…
Luke 1:22 But when he came out, he was unable to speak to them; and they realized that he had seen a vision in the temple; and he kept making signs to them, and remained mute.
Luke 22:28 "And you are those who have stood by Me in My trials;
Galatians 2:5 But we did not yield in subjection to them for even an hour, so that the truth of the gospel might remain with you.
Hebrews 1:11 (note) They will perish, but Thou remainest; and they all will become old as a garment,
2 Peter 3:4 (note) and saying, "Where is the promise of His coming? For ever since the fathers fell asleep, all continues just as it was from the beginning of creation."
There are 11 uses of diameno in the non-apocryphal Septuagint (LXX) (Ps. 5:5; 19:9; 61:7; 72:17; 102:26; 119:89ff; Jer. 3:5; 32:14) and below are several uses…
Psalm 5:5 The boastful shall not stand (Heb = yatsab = set or station oneself; Lxx = diameno) before Thine eyes; Thou dost hate all who do iniquity.
Psalm 19:9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring (Heb = amad = to takes ones stand; Lxx = diameno) forever; The judgments of the LORD are true; they are righteous altogether.
Psalm 61:7 He will abide (Heb = yashab = sit, remain; Lxx = diameno) before God forever; Appoint lovingkindness and truth, that they may preserve him.
Psalm 102:26 "Even they will perish, but Thou dost endure; And all of them will wear out like a garment; Like clothing Thou wilt change them, and they will be changed. (NAS)
Spurgeon: They shall perish, but thou shalt endure. The power which made them shall dissolve them, even as the city of thy love was destroyed at Thy command; yet neither the ruined city nor the ruined earth can make a change in Thee, reverse Thy purpose, or diminish Thy glory. Thou standest when all things fall.
Yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment; as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed. Time impairs all things, the fashion becomes obsolete and passes away. The visible creation, which is like the garment of the invisible God, is waxing old and wearing out, and our great King is not so poor that he must always wear the same robes; He will ere long fold up the worlds and put them aside as worn out vestures, and He will array Himself in new attire, making a new heaven and a new earth wherein dwelleth righteousness. How readily will all this be done. "Thou shalt change them and they shall be changed;" as in the creation so in the restoration, omnipotence shall work its way without hindrance.
Psalm 119:89 Forever, O LORD, Thy word is settled (Heb = natsab = to take one's stand, to appoint, to erect; Lxx = diameno) in heaven.
Spurgeon: For ever, O LORD, thy word is settled in heaven. The strain is more joyful, for experience has given the sweet singer a comfortable knowledge of the word of the Lord, and this makes a glad theme. After tossing about on a sea of trouble the Psalmist here leaps to shore and stands upon a rock.
Jehovah's word is not fickle nor uncertain; it is settled, determined, fixed, sure, immovable. Man's teachings change so often that there is never time for them to be settled; but the Lord's word is from of old the same, and will remain unchanged eternally.
Some men are never happier than when they are unsettling everything and everybody; but God's mind is not with them. The power and glory of heaven have confirmed each sentence which the mouth of the Lord has spoken, and so confirmed it that to all eternity it must stand the same, -- settled in heaven, where nothing can reach it.
Christ is better than angels because He exists eternally (see related topic Immutable)
Spurgeon writes that…
AND THEY ALL WILL BECOME OLD AS A GARMENT : kai pantes hos himation palaiothesontai (3PFPI): (Isa 50:9; 51:6, 51:8, 1Jn 2:17)
In the passive voice as used here in Hebrews 1:11, palaioo means to become old, to deteriorate and can include the idea of becoming useless.
Wuest comments that palaioo "means “to make ancient or old, to be worn out.” The idea here is not that the heavens will become old so far as lapse of time is concerned, but old in the sense of wearing out. The Greeks had a word for “old in point of lapsed time” namely, archaios (Wuest, K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans)
NIDNTT notes that palaioo is derived from "palaios (also from Homer onwards) is commonly used in secular Gk. meaning old: (a) positively as existing for a long time and hence venerable; (b) negatively as obsolete, worn out, and hence worthless, unusable (cf. Soph., Oedipus Rex 290, etc.). Often archaios, original, venerable, is used in the same sense, but almost always positively. palaioo (from Plato onwards) is found only in the passive in secular Greek… By giving mankind and the whole creation over to decay and corruption God passes judgment on the sin and fall of mankind (Isa. 51:6; Ps 102:26). (Brown, Colin, Editor. New International Dictionary of NT Theology. 1986. Zondervan)
Here are the 3 uses of palaioo in the NT…
Luke 12:33 "Sell your possessions and give to charity; make yourselves purses which do not wear out, an unfailing treasure in heaven, where no thief comes near, nor moth destroys.
Hebrews 1:11 They will perish, but Thou remainest; And they all will become old as a garment,
Hebrews 8:13 (note) When He said, "A new covenant," He has made the first obsolete. But whatever is becoming obsolete (palaioo) and growing old (gerasko) is ready to disappear. (Comment: This is entirely God’s work. Seeing that God in Christ makes a new covenant, the old covenant of the law has become obsolete. In Christ the first can be regarded only as old and fulfilled [2 Cor. 3:14]. Indeed, it may be said that the NT speaks of the old only from the standpoint of the new and for the sake of the new.)
There are 22 uses of palaioo in the non-apocryphal Septuagint (LXX) (Lev. 13:11; Deut. 29:5; Jos. 9:5, 13; Neh. 9:21; Job 9:5; 13:28; 14:18; 21:7; 32:15; Ps. 6:7; 18:45; 32:3; 49:14; 102:26; Isa. 50:9; 51:6; 65:22; Lam. 3:4; Ezek. 47:12; Dan. 7:25; 11:33)
Deuteronomy 29:5 "And I have led you forty years in the wilderness; your clothes have not worn out (Heb = balah; to become old; Lxx = palaioo) on you, and your sandal has not worn out on your foot.
Psalm 32:3 When I kept silent about my sin, my body wasted away (Heb = balah = figuratively because of guilt he grew old, wasting away - Dear brother or sister, is there a secret sin you need to confess so that you might not waste away and become a dishonorable vessel, useless to the Lord?; Lxx = palaioo) Through my groaning all day long.
TDNT says that in the Septuagint (LXX) "the verb palaioo,… denotes the uselessness of worn-out things, and figuratively the transitoriness of creaturely life (cf. Ps. 32:3; Ge 8:12; Job 21:13; Isa 65:22)
Adam Clarke has an interesting note - As a garment by long using becomes unfit to be longer used, so shall all visible things; they shall wear old, and wear out; and hence the necessity of their being renewed. It is remarkable that our word world is a contraction of wear old; a term by which our ancestors expressed the sentiment contained in this verse. That the word was thus compounded, and that it had this sense in our language, may be proved from the most competent and indisputable witnesses. It was formerly written weorold, and wereld.
Garment (2440) (himation) is the general word for garments and here is used as a metaphor to emphasize that like a garment becomes thread bare and useless, the universe is in the process of wearing out. This truth is presented to highlight the eternality (See attribute = eternal) and immutability (See attribute = immutable) of Jesus the Creator and Sustainer.
This revelation, originally given in the Psalm 102 and now doubly verified, as it were, by being quoted in the NT, makes it clear that the universe is not evolving, but in fact is wearing out. This revelation anticipated the discovery of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which it illustrates, by almost 3000 years. Also called the law of increasing entropy, this law is considered one of the most certain and best-proved laws of science, specifying as it does the observed fact that everything in the universe has a tendency to run down, deteriorate and eventually die. The universe, as a whole, is heading toward an ultimate heat death (see notes 2 Peter 3:7,3:10).
F B Meyer writes on Psalm 102:25-27 which is quoted in this section - Of old hast Thou laid the foundation of the earth.--These magnificent verses are applied directly to our Lord (Heb. 1:8, 10, 11, 12). Granite rocks and stars of light shall fulfil their purpose and be laid aside as worn-out robes when He speaks their concluded mission (see note Revelation 21:5). But Jehovah-Jesus will ever be unchangeably the same, able to summon new creations into being with a word. (F. B. Meyer. Gems From the Psalms)
Amplified: Like a mantle [thrown about one’s self] You will roll them up, and they will be changed and replaced by others. But You remain the same, and Your years will never end nor come to failure. [Ps. 102:25-27] ( (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: And as a vesture shalt thou fold them up, and they shall be changed: but thou art the same, and thy years shall not fail.
Phillips: like a cloak you will fold them up, and they will be changed. But you are the same, and your years will not fail' . (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: And as a garment which one throws about oneself you will roll them up; as a garment also shall they be changed. But as for you, you are the same, and your years shall have no termination (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: and as a mantle Thou shall roll them together, and they shall be changed, and Thou art the same, and Thy years shall not fail.'
AND AS A MANTLE THOU WILT ROLL THEM UP: kai osei peribolaion elixeis (2SFAI) autous:
In the Revelation John has a similar description - And the sky was split apart like a scroll when it is rolled up; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places. [see note Revelation 6:14]
John MacArthur comments that "During the Tribulation, as if the heavens were to be stretched to the limit and the corners then cut, they will roll up just like a scroll. The stars are going to fall, come crashing down to earth, and every island and mountain will move out of its place. The whole world will fall apart.
Spurgeon - Time impairs all things; the fashion becomes obsolete and passes away. The visible creation, which is like the garment of the invisible God, is becoming old and wearing out, and our great King is not so poor that He must always wear the same robes. Before long, He will fold up the worlds and put them aside as worn out vestures, and He will array Himself in new attire, making a new heaven and a new earth wherein righteousness dwells. How readily will all this be done. “You will replace them like clothing, and they will be set aside” (Psa 102:26). As in the creation so in the restoration, omnipotence shall work its way without hindrance.
Like Peter warned the scoffers all of us are naturally tempted to think that “all continues just as it was from the beginning of creation” (2Pe 3:4-note). Ask God to give you a vision of the transitory, passing nature of this present age, so that you may redeem each day and order each step wisely, knowing that you are bound for eternity which shall not pass away.
Only one life
Life Application commentary has an interesting note - That the earth and the heavens will be "folded up" reveals that the earth is not permanent or indestructible (a position held by many Greek and Roman philosophies). God placed Jesus in authority over all of creation, so we dare not treat any created object or earthly resource as more important than He is. When we spend more time on ourselves than on serving Christ, we treat ourselves (His creation) as being more important than our Creator. When we regard our finances, rather than our faith in Christ, as the basis for security, we give higher status to an earthly resource than we do to God. Rather than trusting in changeable and temporary resources, trust in God, Who is eternal.
F B Meyer - "We live in a world of change. The earth is not the same today as it was ages ago, or as it will be ages on. The sun is radiating off its heat. The moon no longer as of yore burns and glows; she is but an immense opaque cinder, reflecting the sunlight from her disk. Stars have burnt out, and will. The universe is waxing old, as garments which from perpetual use become threadbare. But the wearing out of the garment is no proof of the waning strength or slackening energy of the wearer. Nay, when garments wear out quickest, it is generally the time of robustest youth or manhood. You wrap up and lay aside your clothes when they have served their purpose; but you are the same in the new suit as in the old. Creation is the vesture of Christ. He wraps himself about in its ample folds. Its decay affects him not. And, when he shall have laid it all aside, and replaced it by the new heavens and the new earth, he will be the same forevermore."
LIKE A GARMENT THEY WILL ALSO WILL BE CHANGED BUT THOU ART THE SAME AND THY YEARS WILL NOT COME TO AN END: hos himation kai allagesontai (3PFPI) su de o autos ei (2SPAI) kai ta ete sou ouk ekleipsousin (3PFAI): (Heb 13:8; Ex 3:14; Jn 8:58; Jas 1:17, Ps 90:4) (Isa 46:4; Mal 3:6)
Wuest makes an interesting statement that I cannot entirely substantiate from other Scriptures…
John MacArthur seems to support Wuest's conclusion, observing that
Jesus Himself testified of His eternal existence (and pre-existence before Moses) saying to the Jews
Jesus' Jewish audience clearly knew that He was making the claim of being God and they responded to what they interpreted as blasphemy…
In the OT God reminded Israel that
Nature is at his mercy,
Although His creation is now decaying, the Creator and His Word remain the same forever.
Matthew records that "Heaven and earth will pass away ("are passing away" under the decay law established by the primeval curse on the ground because of sin), but My words shall not pass away." (Mt 24:35)
The writer of Hebrews himself adds the testimony that "Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today, yes and forever." (Heb13:8)
Jesus Christ is "Alpha and Omega… Who is and Who was and Who is to come, the Almighty." (Rev 1:8-note).
Spurgeon - Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, today, and forever (Heb 13:8). As a man remains the same when he has changed his clothing, so is the Lord evermore the unchanging One, though His works in creation may be changed, and the operations of His providence may vary. When heaven and earth shall flee away from the dread presence of the great Judge, He will be unaltered by the terrible confusion, and the world in conflagration will effect no change in Him. Since the Messiah is thus described as immutable and eternal, He must be divine, and to deny the Godhead of the Savior is a deadly error. Dr. Owen most comfortingly remarks: “Whatever our changes may be, inward or outward, yet Christ changing not, our eternal condition is secured, and relief provided against all present troubles and miseries. The immutability and eternity of Christ are the spring of our consolation and security in every condition. Such is the frailty of the nature of man, and such the perishing condition of all created things, that none can ever obtain the least stable consolation but what arises from an interest in the omnipotency, sovereignty, and eternity of Jesus Christ.”
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F B Meyer in Our Daily Homily - Thou are the same.
Writing on Psalm 102:27 which is quoted in Hebrews 1:11, F B Meyer adds that…
Amplified: Besides, to which of the angels has He ever said, Sit at My right hand [associated with Me in My royal dignity] till I make your enemies a stool for your feet? [Ps. 110:1.] (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: But to which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool?
Phillips: But does he ever say this of any of the angels: 'Sit at my right hand, till I make your enemies your footstool?' (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: But to which of the angels has He said at any time, Be sitting at my right hand until I set your enemies down as the footstool of your feet? (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: And unto which of the messengers said He ever, 'Sit at My right hand, till I may make thine enemies thy footstool?'
BUT TO WHICH OF THE ANGELS HAS HE EVER SAID SIT AT MY RIGHT HAND: pros tina de ton aggelon eireken (3SRAI) pote Kathou (2SPMM) ek dexion mou: (Heb 1:3; 4:14; 8:1; 10:12; 12:2; Ps 110:1; Mt 22:44 Mk 12:36 Mk 16:19; Lk 20:42;43 Acts 2:33; 7:56; Ro 8:34; Ep 1:20;21, 22 Col 3:1; 1Pe 1:21; 3:22; Rev 3:21)
But to which - This is clearly a rhetorical (for effect or emphasis) question.
Sit at My right hand is the seventh and final Old Testament quotation in this section from Ps 110:1 which reads
In Hebrews 1:3 (note) Jesus sat down, marking the act of assuming this place of honor, but here the verb sit is present imperative a command calling for Jesus to sit continually, clearly speaking of a permanent seat next to God the Father.
Jesus taking His seat at the right hand of God is taken from Ps 110:1 where David writes…
Psalm 110 verse 1 is quoted 5 times in the NT -- Mk 12:36, Lk 20:42; Acts 2:34, Heb 1:13 and Heb 10:12. There are 15 other Scriptural references to Christ seated at the right hand of God:
The writer of Hebrews obviously considers this teaching about the position of Christ Jesus our Great High Priest at the right hand of His Father as very important for he records this truth four times, at the beginning, in the middle and toward the end of his epistle…
Marvin Vincent paraphrases this verse as “be associated with Me in My royal dignity."
Christ's seated position at right hand of God, a place of privileged honor, is mentioned 5x in Hebrews clearly making it a key phrase (click Heb 1:3) the author wants his readers to fully comprehend.
There is only one answer to this question. As God, Messiah is David’s Lord but as man, He is David’s Son. He is both “the root and the offspring of David” (Rev 22:6-note). Ps 110:1 teaches the deity and the humanity of Messiah. He is David’s Lord and He is David’s Son. The rulers had heard the multitudes proclaim Him as “Son of David” when He rode into Jerusalem. The fact that He accepted this title is evidence that Jesus acknowledged Himself to be the Messiah, the Son of God. So once again the writer of Hebrews proves the superiority of Jesus for there was never an angel to which God said "Sit at My right hand… "
UNTIL I MAKE THINE ENEMIES A FOOTSTOOL FOR THY FEET: eos an tho (1SAAS: tithemi) tous ecthrous sou hupopodion ton podon sou: (Ps 21:8, 21:9; 132:18; Isa 63:3, 63:4, 63:5, 63:6; Lk 19:27; 1Cor 15:24, 25, 26; Rev 19:11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21; Rev 20:15)
Until - Always take note of this important time word (see expressions of time) which Webster reminds us is used as a function word to indicate continuance (as of an action or condition) to a specified time. Up to to the time that… What marks the terminus of this "until"? In this case the until marks the assumption of the throne by the King of kings (Rev 19:16) and Messiah's final, full, complete and consummate rule over all the world forever and ever (beginning with the establishment of His Millennial Kingdom on earth). Specifically when the "Stone" (Christ Jesus - see Da 2:34, 35, Da 2:44, 45) returns to terminate the "times of the Gentiles" (Lk 21:24) (the times that began with Jerusalem being tread underfoot by the Gentile King Nebuchadnezzar and will continue UNTIL the Stone returns and crushes all the Gentile kingdoms including the final evil Gentile king, the Antichrist - Rev 19:19-note, Rev 19:20-note)
Enemies a footstool for Thy feet - This image is taken from the custom of conquerors putting the feet on the necks of the conquered as the ultimate sign of victory. Joshua 10:24, 25 for example records that "it came about when they brought these kings out to Joshua, that Joshua called for all the men of Israel, and said to the chiefs of the men of war who had gone with him, "Come near, put your feet on the necks of these kings." So they came near and put their feet on their necks. Joshua then said to them, "Do not fear or be dismayed! Be strong and courageous, for thus the LORD will do to all your enemies with whom you fight."
To reiterate, this glorious truth should remind all believers in all ages that Christ, the Righteous Branch (Jer 23:5, 33:15), ultimately and totally triumphs over all unrighteousness (cp 2Pe 3:13-note which follows Christ's Millennial Kingdom). Are you suffering because of your faith now? Are you being belittled or ostracized because of Jesus? Then you need to look carefully at the "time expression" in this verse -- "until". Not "if it might occur at some time" but "until". Until means up to the time of the dawn of that glorious day when our Lord will reign as King of kings over all creation. He will bring about justice for all. And we will no longer suffer because of our love for Jesus. And there is no more "until" when the King of kings returns to establish His rule over all mankind for His kingdom will continue forever and ever (Rev 11:15-note). Hold on to this little word "until" if you are weak and tired and feel like throwing in the towel, for He will return and right all wrongs beloved.
Peter uses the time sensitive word "until" in his second epistle to encourage his first century readers (and us) to keep pressing on "And so we have the prophetic word made more sure, to which you do well to pay attention as to a lamp shining in a dark place, until the day dawns (What day might this be?) and the morning star (To Whom might this metaphor refer?) arises in your hearts. (2Pe 1:19-note)
Paul emphasized the truth about His authority over all creation in his letter to the Philippians writing that as a result of His obedience to the point of death on the cross "Therefore also God highly exalted Him, and bestowed on Him the name which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus EVERY KNEE SHOULD BOW, of those who are in heaven, and on earth, and under the earth, and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. (See notes Philippians 2:9; 10; 11)
Paul records that Jesus "must reign until He has put all His enemies under His feet. The last enemy that will be abolished is death. For He has put all things in subjection under His feet. But when He says, “All things are put in subjection,” it is evident that He is excepted who put all things in subjection to Him. And when all things are subjected to Him, then the Son Himself also will be subjected to the One who subjected all things to Him, that God may be all in all." (1Cor 15:25, 26, 27, 28)