|Greek: e gar humon hupakoe eis pantas aphiketo; (3SAMI) eph' humin oun chairo, (1SPAI) thelo (1SPAI) de humas sophous einai (PAN) eis to agathon, akeraious de eis to kakon
Amplified: For while your loyalty and obedience is known to all, so that I rejoice over you, I would have you well versed and wise as to what is good and innocent and guileless as to what is evil. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: For your obedience is come abroad unto all men. I am glad therefore on your behalf: but yet I would have you wise unto that which is good, and simple concerning evil.
NLT: But everyone knows that you are obedient to the Lord. This makes me very happy. I want you to see clearly what is right and to stay innocent of any wrong (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: Your loyalty to the principles of the Gospel is known everywhere, and that gives me great joy. I want to see you experts in good, and not even beginners in evil. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: for your obedience has come to the ears of all. Because of you, therefore, I am rejoicing. But I desire you to be wise ones with reference to that which is good, and pure ones with reference to that which is evil. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: for your obedience did reach to all; I rejoice, therefore, as regards you, and I wish you to be wise, indeed, as to the good, and harmless as to the evil;
|Romans — 3:21-5:21||Romans — 6:1-8:39||Romans — 9:1-11:36||Romans — 12:1-16:27|
Jew and Gentile
|Demonstration of Salvation|
|Power Given||Promises Fulfilled||Paths Pursued|
Restored to Israel
|Slaves to Sin||Slaves to God||Slaves Serving God|
|Life by Faith||Service by Faith|
Modified from Irving L. Jensen's excellent work "Jensen's Survey of the NT"
FOR THE REPORT OF YOUR OBEDIENCE HAS REACHED TO ALL: e gar humon hupakoe eis pantas aphiketo (3SAMI) eph humin: (cf Ro 1:8 1 Thes 1:8,9)
Your loyalty to the principles of the Gospel is known everywhere, and that gives me great joy. (Phillips)
For (gar) is a term of explanation and this Biblical "code word" should always prompt us to pause and ponder the text and especially the context, asking our Teacher the Spirit to illuminate what the writer is explaining. See Alford's thoughts below.
Henry Alford - Their obedience being matter of universal notoriety, is the ground of his confidence that they will comply with his entreaty, Romans 16:17. (Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary)
Obedience (5218) (hupakoe [word study] from hupó = under + akoúo = hear) literally means to "hear under". Hupakoe conveys picture of listening or hearkening to and submitting to that which is heard and involves a change of attitude of the hearer. Paul uses hupakoe 6 times (out of 14 total uses in the NT) in Romans (Ro 1:5; 5:19; 6:16; 15:18; 16:19; 26-see notes Ro 1:5; 5:19; 6:16; 15:18; 16:19; 16:26)
Hupakoe - 15x in 14v- Rom 1:5; 5:19; 6:16; 15:18; 16:19, 26; 2 Cor 7:15; 10:5, 6; Philemon 1:21; Heb 5:8; 1 Pet 1:2, 14, 22
The Greek word for obedience pictures one who listens and submits to that which is heard. It is in marked contrast to the unsaved attitude of rebelliousness and self will. The obedience of the Romans was wonderful news to Paul, because it was an indicator that their faith was genuine.
If one says they have believed in the gospel of God and yet continually are disobedient to God, then that individual needs to be wary and should prayerfully look at Paul's warning in (2Cor 13:5). On the other hand, Paul is not saying that works gain God's favor, but he is saying that a "working" faith produces a change in one's behavior. For a "summary" of the relationship of salvation to works study see Ep 2:8; 9-notes; Ep 2:10-notes. Man is saved by grace alone but the faith that saves is never alone, but brings forth fruit in keeping with repentance.
Paul is not speaking of a perfect obedience (that would be the state of glorification), nor is he speaking of rigid "obedience" to a set of rules and laws like the Pharisees which would be legalism or work's righteousness. Instead he is speaking of that obedience motivated by love (not legalism) that flows forth from a new heart (Ezek 36:27, 2Cor 5:17; Php 2:12,13-see notes Ph 2:12; 13) that now desires and is empowered to be obedient to the Master's voice.
J Vernon McGee - Obedience to the faith is very important to God. God saves us by faith, not by works; but after He has saved us, He wants to talk to us about our works, about our obedience to Him. I hear many people talk about believing in Jesus, then they live like the Devil and seem to be serving him. My friend, saving faith makes you obedient to Jesus Christ. (McGee, J V: Thru the Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson) (Bolding added)
If you have some questions regarding this issue Pastor Ray Pritchard has an interesting sermon you might want to read entitled What is Saving Faith?
Note that it is widely taught that "once saved, always saved" and I agree with that, with the caveat that the initial salvation is genuine! Some (even in evangelical circles) teach that a man or a woman can simply pray a prayer to accept Jesus into your heart, and then live the rest of their life just as they did before they obtained the "fire insurance" policy. These teachers conclude that such a person is still saved. This website respectfully disagrees with that teaching. And I think Paul would likewise disagree for the faith that genuinely saves, is the faith that results in obedience.
Albert Barnes explains that "the obedience of faith" means
"in order to produce, or promote obedience to the faith; that is, to induce them to render that obedience to God which faith produces. There are two things therefore implied.(1) that the design of the gospel and of the apostleship is to induce men to obey God. (2) that the tendency of faith is to produce obedience. There is no true faith which does not produce that. This is constantly affirmed in the New Testament… " (Barnes Notes on the Bible)
Let the acts of the offspring indicate similarity to the Father
True, God-exalting OBEDIENCE comes from FAITH. Any other kind of OBEDIENCE is not true OBEDIENCE at all. "
It should be clear from a study of the Word that God has wedded faith and obedience so that they are related much like two sides of a coin. Dr. H. A. Ironside was told by a lady that she expected to get to heaven by faith plus her good works, explaining to Pastor Ironside…
It's like rowing a boat. It takes two oars to row a boat; otherwise you go around in a circle.
Dr. Ironside replied
That's a good illustration except for one thing: I'm not going to heaven in a rowboat!
The faith that saves is the faith that proves itself in good works (Ep 2:8; 2:9; 2:10; Titus 2:14; 3:8; 3:14-See notes Ep 2:8; 2:9; 2:10; Titus 2:14; 3:8; 14). Abraham was saved by faith (Genesis 15:6; Ro 4:1; 4:2; 4:3; 4:4; 4:5; He 11:8-see notes Romans 4:1; 4:2; 4:3; 4:4; 4:5; Hebrews 11:8), but his faith was made evident by his obedience (James 2:21-24).
Was not Abraham our father justified (shown to be righteous - see below) by works, when he offered up Isaac his son on the altar? (James is not at odds with Paul - if you think he is then read verse 23 below which is the only way any man or woman is declared righteous -- it has always been by faith in the Messiah - Abraham looked forward to the Cross, while believers today look back to the same Cross. Both are justified [declared righteous] by faith and both are justified [shown to be righteous - this is other way this verb is used in the NT and is clearly the meaning in this context] by works)
22 You see that faith was working with his works, and as a result of the works, faith was perfected (was shown to have reached its goal or to have matured)
23 and the Scripture was fulfilled which says, "AND ABRAHAM BELIEVED GOD, AND IT WAS RECKONED TO HIM AS RIGHTEOUSNESS," and he was called the friend of God. (This clearly teaches that God's righteousness is credited to sinners by faith not by works - works only demonstrate that one is righteous)
24 You see that a man is justified (shown to be righteous) by works, and not by faith alone. (James 2:21-24).
John MacArthur adds that…
The best protection against falsehood is adhering to God’s truth, just as the best protection against sin is holding on to His righteousness. Believers in Rome were protected against false teachers by their obedience to Christ and the truth of His gospel. Not only did their obedience protect themselves, but it also helped believers elsewhere who knew of and were encouraged by the Roman church’s reputation for godliness. Early in this letter, Paul commended them for their faithfulness. “I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, because your faith is being proclaimed throughout the whole world” (Ro 1:8). He therefore had good cause for rejoicing over them. The godliness of that church brought encouragement and joy to Paul, although he had never visited Rome and did not know most of the believers there."
Has reached (864) (aphikneomai) means first to to come from, then to arrive at. This is the only use in the N.T.
THEREFORE I AM REJOICING OVER YOU: oun chairo (1SPAI) thelo (1SPAI) de humas: (Eph 1:15, 16, 17 Col 1:3, 4,5, 6, 7, 8, 9 1Th 1:2,3 3:6, 7, 8, 9, 10)
I am rejoicing (present tense = continually, joy is a fruit of the Spirit, so it follows that Paul filled with the Spirit is enabled to continuously rejoice - what about you dear saint? Are you enabled to continuously rejoice over things/circumstances/people that warrant that response?) over you - upon you because your desire to live practically according to godly wisdom unadulterated by evil.
John expressed a similar cause for joy "I have no greater joy than this, to hear of my children walking (living, manifesting a lifestyle) in the truth (In the final analysis this is only sound doctrine, but a Sure Deliverer, the Person of Jesus Christ = walking in Christ "the Truth" Jn 14:6). (3John 4)
Comment: Walking in the truth was clear evidence to John that they were genuine believers, ones who were obedient to the faith, for only men and women possessing a new heart (2Cor 5:17, Ezekiel 36:26-27) and a new power (the Spirit - see note Romans 8:9) can walk in the truth. Would those who led you to the Lord receive the joyful report that you are walking in the truth? If not, why not?
BUT I WANT YOU TO BE WISE IN WHAT IS GOOD AND INNOCENT IN WHAT IS EVIL: sophous einai (PAN) eis to agathon, akeraious de eis to kakon: (Matt 10:16 Lk 10:3 1Co 14:20 Eph 1:17,18 Eph 5:17 Php 1:9 Php 2:15 Col 1:9 3:16 2Ti 3:15, 16, 17 Jas 3:13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18)
But - Always be on the alert for the "code word" but which signifies a change in direction (See also term of contrast). You will often be pleasantly surprise at the insights the Spirit will give as you pause to ponder the living Word!
Be practically wise in relationships with others. Earlier Paul had instructed the saints to
Abhor (present tense = our lifestyle, only possible as we are continually filled with and empowered by the Spirit of Christ! cf Php 2:13NLT-note) what is evil; cling (present tense = our lifestyle) to what is good. (Romans 12:9-note)
Paul's desire was similar to that of our Lord Who gave His disciples the following instructions…
Behold, I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves; therefore be shrewd (thoughtful, sagacious or discreet and implying a cautious character) as serpents, and innocent (akeraios - see below) as doves. (Mt 10:16)
Good (18) (agathos [word study]) means intrinsically good, inherently good in quality but with the idea of good which is also profitable, useful, benefiting others, benevolent (marked by or disposed to doing good). Agathos is that which is good in its character, beneficial in its effects and/or useful in its action.
William Newell echoes the desire of every person who is blood bought and heaven bound declaring…
Oh, for such a habit of mind—to be constantly wise unto that which is good! (Romans 16)
The believer should not mix with evil; rather, he should be knowledgeable about good things. We will not be free from the allures of sin until Christ takes us to be with Himself. It is therefore necessary for Christians constantly to “abhor what is evil [and] cling to what is good” (see note Romans 12:9), to "be shrewd as serpents and innocent as doves" as Jesus instructed His disciples.
Figuratively it refers to that which is without admixture of evil, which is free from guile and is translated as innocent, harmless or simple.
Like a "little child". ("… in evil be babes, but in your thinking be mature." 1Cor 14:20).
The believer’s life is to be absolutely pure, unmixed with sin and evil. The KJV translates akeraios as harmless (twice) and simple.
Other than this verse and (Mt 10:16 quoted above), akeraios is used only one other time in the NT, Paul exhorting the saints at Philippi to…
Do (present imperative = as your habitual practice, your lifestyle) all things without grumbling or disputing so that (they might) prove (themselves) to be blameless and innocent, children of God above reproach in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation, among whom you appear as lights in the world, (see notes Philippians 2:14; Philippians 2:15)
Comment: Note the only way we can fulfill this command is by reliance on the truth in the previous verse - the power of the Holy Spirit to give us the "desire" and the "power" to do supernaturally that which does not come naturally! (See Php 2:13-note)
Vincent (commenting on use of akeraios in Mt 10:16) writes that akeraios meant…
unmixed, unadulterated. Used of wine without water, and of metal without alloy. Hence guileless. So Luther, without falsity. Compare Ro 16:19; Php 2:15. They were to imitate the serpent’s wariness, but not his wiliness. “The presence of the wolves demands that ye be wary; the fact that ye are my apostles (compare “I send you”) demands that ye be guileless” (Dr. Morison on Matthew). (Romans 16 - Vincent's Word Studies - Online)
Vine adds that akeraios
was used of wine unmingled with water, of unalloyed metal, etc. Hence it means “without admixture of evil.” Here, then, it would mean that his desire for them was that they might be untainted by the influences of evil teachers and the divisions and stumbling blocks caused thereby. Thus would they be wise in adherence to the truth. If we are to be kept from admixture of what is baneful we must be steadfast in the faith, abiding in the truth. (Vine, W. Collected writings of W. E. Vine. Nashville: Thomas Nelson)
Barclay has a similar description writing that akeraios was
used of metal which has no suspicion of alloy, of wine and of milk which are not adulterated with water. It describes something which is absolutely pure of any corruption. The Christian is a man whose utter sincerity must be beyond all doubt… When used of people, it implies motives which are unmixed. Christian purity must issue in a complete sincerity of thought and character." (Barclay, W: The Daily Study Bible - Romans Online)
Denney - The fundamental idea of (akeraios) is that of freedom from alien or disturbing elements. What Paul here wishes for the Romans—moral intelligence, not impaired in the least by any dealings with evil—does suggest that antinomianism (lawlessness, antagonism against law) was the peril to be guarded against. Integrity of the moral nature is the best security: the seductive teaching is instinctively repelled. (The Expositor's Greek Testament - online)
The idea in this verse is to keep your doctrine (the teaching you believe to be true) unmixed with false teachings; do not let yourself get “all mixed up” in your thinking (Ephesians 4:14-Ephesians 4:14). Also, keep your moral life unmixed with sin and even the appearance of sin; stay as far away from evil as possible. Be so sensitive to it that the moment you suspect something is evil, flee from it at once. Phillips’s translation sums this thought up well: “I want to see you experts in good, and not even beginners in evil.” for as Paul writes in (Ephesians 5:12-note) "it is disgraceful even to speak of the things which are done by them in secret."
MacArthur warns: "Many Christians rationalize watching degrading movies and TV programs by claiming they need to be familiar with the ways of the world in order to better analyze secular culture and be better prepared to witness to those who are worldly. But it is not necessary to sift through garbage to recognize it for what it is, and the more we are around it the more we pick up its stench. The more willingly we associate with evil, the more it will drag us down to its level. To be innocent in what is evil is not to be ignorant of it or to disregard it. We cannot abhor evil unless we have some idea of what it is. But, to use a popular analogy, the only reliable way to recognize a counterfeit bill is to be completely familiar with the genuine bill. The only reliable way to recognize evil is to be thoroughly familiar with the good, and the only reliable way to learn what is good is to learn God’s Word."
|Greek: o de theos tes eirenes suntripsei (3SFAI) ton Satanan hupo tous podas humon en tachei. e charis tou kuriou emon Iesou meth' humon.
Amplified: And the God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ (the Messiah) be with you. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: 1 And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen.
NLT: The God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet. May the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: It will not be long before the God of peace will crush Satan under your feet. May the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: And the God of the peace will trample Satan under your feet soon. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: and the God of the peace shall bruise the Adversary under your feet quickly; the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen!
AND THE GOD OF PEACE WILL SOON CRUSH SATAN UNDER YOUR FEET: o de theos tes eirenes suntripsei (3SFAI) ton satanan hupo tous podas humon en tachei: (Ro 15:33, Ro 16:20, Phil 4:9, 1Th 5:23, Heb 13:20)
And - Continues the thought
It is very interesting that this is the first mention of Satan in Paul's greatest epistle. Satan does not get as much press as does our other mortal enemy, the power of Sin (See its defeat in notes on Romans 6:11-note)
Paul assures faithful believers that they can look forward to the day when their spiritual warfare (click link for excellent book on this topic) will be over. Teachers of deceit and falsehood are instruments of the devil, and they will be destroyed. But why does Paul mention Satan here? The immediate context is men "who cause dissensions". This suggests that Paul is associating their nefarious deceptive activity with the evil one & this would parallel a similar line of thought by Paul in (2Co 11:13, 14, 15).
God is the God of peace…
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The War is Over - The bitter conflict had finally ended between the North and the South. The soldiers of the US Civil War were free to return to their families. But a number of them remained hidden in the woods, living on berries. They either didn't hear or didn't believe that the war was over, so they continued enduring miserable conditions when they could have been back home.
We fail, O Lord, to realize
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The Peace Initiative - It was the night before Christmas in 1870. French and German armies faced each other on the field of battle in the Franco-Prussian War. A French soldier started walking toward the German lines. His comrades watched breathlessly, expecting to hear at any instant the crack of a rifle that would end his life. As he neared the enemy lines, he stopped and began singing, "Noel, noel! Noel, noel! Born is the King of Israel!" No shot rang out.
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F B Meyer writes - WE ALL need Peace! There are sources of Peace which are common to all men. The peace of a happy home; of an increasing business and enlarging influence; of the respect and love of our fellows. As a man is conscious of these, he is inclined to say with Job, "I shall die in my nest." We can all understand a peace like that; but there is a "peace that passeth understanding." It is too deep for words. It is like the pillowed depths of the ocean, which are undisturbed by the passing storm. Here is a sufferer, almost always in acute pain, and needing constant attention, and yet so happy. Joy and Peace, like guardian angels, sit by that bedside; and Hope, not blindfolded, touches all the strings of the lyre, and sheds sunshine,--how do you account for it? Let the sceptic and the scoffer answer! Here is a peace that passes understanding which comes from the God of Peace.
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Peace (1515) (eirene from verbal form eiro = “to bind together that which was separated”) means to set at one again. God's grace is the fountain of which His peace is the stream. (Click word study of eirene) When the divisions are bound together again, the result is peace (cf Ro 5:1-note)
And I will put enmity between you (Satan) and the woman, and between your seed and her seed (Messiah); He (Messiah) shall bruise you (Satan) on the head, and you shall bruise him (Messiah) on the heel." (Genesis 3:15)
This incredible prophecy promised that the Seed of the woman, the Messiah, would totally and forever crush the head of that serpent
And the great dragon was thrown down, the serpent of old who is called the devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world; he was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him. 10 And I heard a loud voice in heaven, saying, "Now the salvation, and the power, and the kingdom of our God and the authority of His Christ have come, for the accuser of our brethren has been thrown down, who accuses them before our God day and night. (See notes Revelation 12:9; Revelation 12:10)
And the devil who deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are also; and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever. (Revelation 20:10) (See notes regarding the fulfillment of this promise in Revelation 20:2; Revelation 20:10).
In the meantime, believers, who also in a sense are the woman's seed (cf note Revelation 12:17), can achieve local victories over Satan and his wiles by resisting him "firm in your faith"
But resist him, firm in your faith, knowing that the same experiences of suffering are being accomplished by your brethren who are in the world. (see note 1 Peter 5:9).
If we resist him with Scripture as Jesus did, testing and refuting his enticements therewith (Mt 4:4,7,10), then he will "flee from you" (James 4:7), just as he did from Jesus… "until an opportune time." (Luke 4:13).
En tachei often carried the secondary connotation of an event that occurs unexpectedly.
We know from the NT itself that Satan was not "soon" crushed from the perspective of believers living at that time and He is still not yet subdued in our day, but "soon and very soon" he will be because as A. T. Robertson says it is reckoned
as God counts time. Meanwhile, patient loyalty from us.
John agrees with Paul's verdict on Satan writing that…
the devil who deceived them (those who tried to come again the "holy city" of Jerusalem at the end of Messiah's 1000 year reign on earth) was thrown into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are also and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever. (now that is "crushing"!) (Rev 20:10-note) (Bolding added)
OUR ADVERSARY FOREVER CRUSHED!
Crush (4937) (suntribo from sun = together or intensification of meaning of the root word + tríbo = wear away, rub, break in pieces; see cognate word suntrimma) means to crush completely, to shatter, or to break in pieces and in context of Ro 16:20 it means to break the strength and power of Satan once and for all! This is a strong verb which leaves no doubt as to who is the winner in this battle. Glory!
Suntribo is used of a reed, to break so as to have a flaw or crack. (Mt 12:20). To tear apart chains (Mk 14:3). Figuratively suntribo means brokenhearted (Lk 4:18). Here in Romans the picture is of trampling the devil under your feet. Suntribo was used in secular Greek to denote the act of smashing grapes into wine. It was also used to refer to the act of snapping, breaking, and crushing bones so utterly that they were beyond recognition.
Crush (Webster) - to squeeze or force by pressure so as to alter or destroy structure; to suppress or overwhelm as if by pressure or weight; to oppress or burden grievously; to subdue completely; To press and bruise between two hard bodies; to squeeze, so as to force a thing out of its natural shape; to bruise by pressure. To crush grapes or apples, is to squeeze them till bruised and broken, so that the juice escapes. Hence, to crush out, is to force out by pressure. (Ed: This nuance begs the question dear reader -- Are you currently experiencing "crushing" circumstances? If so remember three things - God is good [always], God is in control [always] and crushed grapes yield fine wine!) To overwhelm by pressure; to beat or force down, by an incumbent weight, with breaking or bruising; as, the man was crushed by the fall of a tree. To overwhelm by power; to subdue; to conquer beyond resistance; as, to crush one’s enemies; to crush a rebellion.
Shatter (Webster) - break into pieces; damage badly (ruin); cause the disruption of; to break at once into many pieces; to dash, burst, rend or part by violence into fragments; as, explosion shatters a rock (lightning shatters the sturdy oak); to be broken into fragments; to fall or crumble to pieces by any force applied.
Suntribo literally means "to rub hard together; hence smash, crush; (1) of things break (in pieces), shatter
(1) of things break (in pieces), shatter (Mk 14.3); (2) of persons mistreat, bruise, beat severely (Lk 9.39); of enemies overcome completely, crush (Ro 16.20); (3) figuratively, of mental and emotional states deprive of strength, break down; passive be heartbroken, be in despair (Lk 4.18)" (Friberg)
Thayer says "the Septuagint very often for to break, to break in pieces, shiver."
Suntribo - 8x in 8v - battered(1), broke(1), broken(1), broken in pieces(1), broken to pieces(1), crush(1), mauling(1), brokenhearted (combined with kardia = heart).
Suntribo - 178 verses in the non-apocryphal Septuagint - Gen 19:9; 49:24; Ex 9:25; 12:10, 46; 15:3, 7; 22:10, 14; 23:24; 32:19; 34:1, 13; Lev 6:28; 11:33; 15:12; 22:22; 26:13, 19; Num 9:12; Deut 1:42; 7:5; 9:17; 10:2; 12:3; 28:7; 33:20; Josh 7:5; 10:10, 12; Jdg 2:2; 7:20; 14:6; 1 Sam 4:18; 1Kgs 13:28; 16:28; 19:11; 20:37; 2Kgs 1:18; 11:18; 18:4; 23:14f; 25:13; 2Chr 14:3, 13; 20:37; 31:1; 34:4; Neh 2:13, 15; 4:10; Job 24:20; 29:17; 31:22; 38:11, 15; Ps 2:9; 3:7; 10:15; 29:5; 34:18, 20; 37:15, 17; 46:9; 48:7; 51:17; 58:6; 74:13; 76:3; 105:16, 33; 107:16; 124:7; 147:3; Pr 6:16; 17:10; 24:22; 25:15; 26:10; Eccl 12:6; Isa 1:28; 8:15; 10:33; 13:18; 14:5, 12, 29; 21:9; 28:13; 38:13; 42:3, 13; 45:2; 46:1; 57:15; 59:5; 61:1; Jer 2:13, 20; 5:5; 13:17; 14:17; 17:18; 19:10f; 22:20; 23:9; 28:2, 4, 10ff; 30:8; 43:13; 48:4, 17, 20, 25, 38; 49:35; 50:23; 51:8, 30; 52:17; Lam 1:15; 2:7, 9; 3:4; Ezek 4:16; 5:16; 6:4, 6; 7:11; 14:13; 26:2; 27:26, 34; 29:7; 30:8, 18, 21f; 31:12; 32:12; 34:4, 16, 27; Da 2:42; 8:7-8, 22, 25; 11:4, 20, 22, 26, 34, 40; Hos 1:5; 2:18; Joel 2:6; Amos 1:5; Jonah 1:4; Mic 4:6f; Nah 1:13; Zeph 3:18; Zech 11:16
In the instructions for handling the Passover Lamb we read…
Exodus 12:46 (suntribo also used in same context in Nu 9:12, Ps 34:20) "It is to be eaten in a single house; you are not to bring forth any of the flesh outside of the house, nor are you to break (Hebrew - shabar, Lxx - suntribo) any bone of it. (A prophetic picture or "type" if you will of the Lamb of God - cf Jn 19:33, 36).
A Fulfillment of Prophecy
Wayne Barber - Suntribo is the word that means to just smash, to destroy. It has the idea of taking something and mashing it. Have you ever taken a grain of something and rolled it between your fingers. It just mashes it. It just obliterates it. Have you ever done that? That’s exactly the word (suntribo). He’s going to take Satan and just crush him. That’s what Genesis 3:15 said, wasn’t it (Ed: Although the Lxx does not use suntribo, the picture in Ge 3:15 is of Satan's being crushed on the head when Jesus was crucified)? As God spoke to Satan. He said, "You’re going to bruise his heel, the seed of woman but he is going to bruise or crush your head." Which would you rather have? A bruise on the heel or a crushed head? That’s what Jesus is going to do to Satan. It’s going to come.
Satan (4567) (satanas from the Hebrew noun Satan, the verb from meaning to oppose or thwart anyone in his purpose or claims) is the adversary, the arch-enemy of good, the one that contends with, opposes, and resists God and His people and purposes. Satan is our antagonist, enemy, foe, opponent, and rival. Satan is a personal, evil, spiritual being whose purposes are hostile and opposed to God, His people and his cosmos.
Newell writes that…
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It's Note Over - One of the intriguing characters in literature and opera is Dr. Faust. The character of Faust was based on a German legend about a man who made a pact with the devil, surrendering his soul in exchange for youth, knowledge, and magical powers.
The prince of darkness grim--
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Spurgeon (in Faith's Checkbook) wrote about the Conquest to Victory...
THE GRACE OF OUR LORD JESUS BE WITH YOU: E charis tou kuriou hemon Iesou meth humon:
Grace (5485) (charis [word study]) is unmerited favor and here we see it is found in our Lord Jesus (study the associations of grace in 2Ti 2:1-note, 2Co 12:9-note, 2Pe 3:18-note). Grace is God's transforming power to enable us to live the Christ life, the abundant life (Jn 10:10b).
In this short benediction Paul is saying in essence
Puritan Thomas Brooks…
Amplified: Timothy, my fellow worker, wishes to be remembered to you, as do Lucius and Jason and Sosipater, my tribal kinsmen (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: Timotheus my workfellow, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my kinsmen, salute you.
NLT: Timothy, my fellow worker, and Lucius, Jason, and Sosipater, my relatives, send you their good wishes. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: Timothy, who works with me, sends his greetings, and so do Lucius and Jason and Sosipater my fellow-countrymen. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: There greet you Timothy, my co-worker, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my countrymen. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: Salute you do Timotheus, my fellow-workman, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my kindred;
TIMOTHY MY FELLOW WORKER GREETS YOU: Aspazetai (3SPMI) humas Timotheos o sunergos mou:
Paul next sends greetings to the church at Rome in behalf of his companions, presumably men who were known by some of the believers in that city.
As summarized in the table below, the first mention of Timothy in Scriptures is found in Acts 16 during Paul's second missionary journey. Luke records this meeting…
Timothy is Paul’s young understudy and fellow-worker who had joined Paul while he was in Corinth, and apparently was still with him when he wrote the Roman letter. Timothy was Paul's fellow worker and as such they had a "synergism" in ministry.
F ellow worker (4904) (sunergos from sun = together with, speaks of an intimate relationship + érgon = work) means literally working together with and thus refers to a companion in work, a colleague, a co-laborer, a fellow laborer or fellow helper.
Notice that in 1 Corinthians, Paul refers to all believers God’s fellow workers (1Cor 3:9). Think of our familiar English word derived from sunergos - Synergy which describes combined action or operation. It is interaction or cooperation of two or more organizations, substances, or other agents to produce a combined effect greater than the sum of their separate effects.
Timothy + Paul + God = supernatural synergy!
In the NT, sunergos is used only of a co–worker or helper in the Christian work. In each instance sunergos conveys the idea of an affectionate partnership and not merely that of an impersonal, official relationship. Paul twice specifically includes godly women among his fellow workers (Prisca or Priscilla see note Ro 16:3) and Euodia and Syntyche, two godly but quarreling members of the church at Philippi who had shared Paul’s “struggle in the cause of the gospel” (see note Philippians 4:3).
Thayer writes that sunergos
Keathley says that sunergos…
Paul wrote to the church at Philippi
"I hope in the Lord Jesus to send Timothy to you shortly, so that I also may be encouraged when I learn of your condition. For I have no one else of kindred spirit (isopsuchos = "equal souled" or “one souled,” like minded and so one in thought, feeling, and spirit with Paul in love for the church) who will genuinely be concerned (expresses a strong feeling for something or someone, often to the point of being burdened) for your welfare. For they all seek (present tense = continually) after their own interests, not those of Christ Jesus. But you know of his proven worth (here refers to Timothy's character which was tested and proven as to genuineness and trustworthiness) that he served with me in the furtherance of the gospel like a child serving his father. Therefore I hope to send him immediately, as soon as I see how things go with me; You know of [Timothy’s] that he served with me in the furtherance of the gospel like a child serving his father” (see notes Philippians 2:19; 2:20; 2:21; 2:22; 2:23).
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Companions or Competitors? - The French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) had nothing but disdain for the concept of companionship. He saw all people as competitors. According to this view, people are always striving with one another in a kind of continual rivalry.
Competition can be healthy in the worlds of business and athletics. It becomes detrimental, however, when a person's attitudes and actions become viciously self-serving. Such competition should have no place in a marriage or in the church.
When spouses try to outdo each other in a career, or in some other endeavor, the marriage may be in trouble. The apostle Peter, in a male-dominated society, admonished men to treat their wives as companions, as "heirs together of the grace of life" (1 Peter 3:7-note).
When someone starts complaining about people in the church who always try to run things, a competitive spirit may be at the heart of the problem. In Romans 16, Paul saw his fellow believers as companions, not competitors. All Christians, men and women, are members of God's family and serve Jesus as co-workers in the greatest of all enterprises.
Companions, not competitors—that's what Christ wants us to be! —Herbert Vander Lugt (Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved) (Bolding added)
Lord, help me live from day to day
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MacArthur explains that…
Amplified: I, Tertius, the writer of this letter, greet you in the Lord. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: I Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord.
NLT: I, Tertius, the one who is writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as a Christian brother. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: (Paul has just told me that I, Tertius, who have been taking down this epistle from his dictation, may send you my Christian greetings too.) (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: As for myself, I, Tertius, greet you in the Lord, the one who is putting this letter in writing. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: I Tertius salute you (who wrote the letter) in the Lord;
I TERTIUS ("the third") WHO WRITE THIS LETTER GREET YOU IN THE LORD: aspazomai (1SPMI) humas ego Tertios o grapsas ten epistolen en kurio:
Paul customarily used an amanuensis (Origin of this word is Latin, from servus a manu = slave with secretarial duties) when writing his letters, but frequently added a greeting with his own hand (1Co16:21; 2Th 3:17 Phile 1:19).
Tertius evidently was Paul's secretary or stenographer. Many think that at this time Paul may have been almost blind (Gal 4:13-15; 6:11), hence needing someone to render this service.
Just as Phoebe had the great privilege of delivering the book of Romans, Tertius had the great privilege of writing it for Paul. And ever believer has the privilege of exercising his or her spiritual gift(s) for the furtherance of His Kingdom and for His glory. Are you fulfilling your potential like Tertius and Phoebe? Or are you going to church on Sunday, sitting and soaking and never sharing your gift(s) with the body?
Amplified: Gaius, who is host to me and to the whole church here, greets you. So do Erastus, the city treasurer, and our brother Quartus. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: Gaius mine host, and of the whole church, saluteth you. Erastus the chamberlain of the city saluteth you, and Quartus a brother.
NLT: Gaius says hello to you. I am his guest, and the church meets here in his home. Erastus, the city treasurer, sends you his greetings, and so does Quartus, a Christian brother. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: Gaius, my host (and the host as a matter of fact of the whole church here), sends you his greetings. Erastus, our town clerk, and Quartus, another Christian brother, send greetings too. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: There greets you Gaius, my host and host of the whole assembly. There greet you Erastus, the manager of the city, and Quartus, the brother. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: salute you doth Gaius, my host, and of the whole assembly; salute you doth Erastus, the steward of the city, and Quartus the brother,
GAIUS HOST TO ME AND TO THE WHOLE CHURCH, GREETS YOU: aspazetai (3SPMI) humas Gaios o xenos mou kai holes tes ekklesias:(1Cor 1:14 3 Jn 1:1-6)
This is presumably the Gaius of 1 Corinthians 1:14 whom Paul had baptized.
Host (3581) (xenos) first means stranger, foreign or not of one's family and in this context refers to one who hosts strangers. This fact suggests that Gaius' house probably was the meeting place of the church.
ERASTUS THE CITY TREASURER GREETS YOU, AND QUARTUS ("the fourth") THE BROTHER: aspazetai (3SPMI) humas Erastos o oikonomos tes poleos kai Kouartos o adelphos: (Acts 19:22 2Ti 4:20)
So you say the Bible is all myth and the NT is not true! Then be agitated by the fact that the name of this man Erastus has been found on a pavement that he donated to Corinth. The Bible is truth. Archeological finds don't prove it to be true, but only serve as "goads" to skeptics. Sadly as Luke (Lu 16:31) recorded that the rich man's five brothers would not believe even if a man were to resurrected from the dead (1Corinthians 15:1; 15:2; 15:3; 15:4; 15:5; 15:6; 15:7; 15:8 - see notes on how crucial resurrection is to the Gospel - 1Co 15:1; 15:2; 15:3; 15:4; 15:5; 15:6; 15:7; 15:8)
An interesting thought in light of Tertius ("the third") in (Ro 16:22) and Quartus ("the fourth") in this verse is that in the ancient world they had a very simple way of solving the problem of names. The first born was called Primus, the second Secundus, the third, Tertius; & the fourth, Quartus, etc.
The men so name by Paul were possibly slaves, because this is the way people referred to slaves -- they just numbered them.
Pastor Stedman sums up his thought on this long list of names:
Greek: Only in Textus Receptus: e charis tou kuriou hemon Iesou Christou meta panton humon amen
THE GRACE OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST BE WITH YOU ALL. AMEN: e charis tou kuriou hemon Iesou Christou meta panton humon amen:
As indicated by brackets in the NASB, Paul’s third short benediction (cf. Rom 15:33; 16:20) is not found in the earliest Greek manuscripts of the book of Romans. Both Nestle and Westcott and Hort reject the entire 24th verse.