Amplified: Until they were filled (permeated and saturated) with every kind of unrighteousness, iniquity, grasping and covetous greed, and malice. [They were] full of envy and jealousy, murder, strife, deceit and treachery, ill will and cruel ways. [They were] secret backbiters and gossipers, (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Barclay: They are replete with all evil, villainy, the lust to get, viciousness. They are full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, the spirit which puts the worst construction on everything. They are whisperers (Daily Study Bible)
NLT: Their lives became full of every kind of wickedness, sin, greed, hate, envy, murder, fighting, deception, malicious behavior, and gossip. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: They became filled with wickedness, rottenness, greed and malice; their minds became steeped in envy, murder, quarrelsomeness, deceitfulness and spite. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: being filled with every unrighteousness, pernicious evil, avarice, malice, full of envy, murder, wrangling, guile, malicious craftiness; secret slanderers, (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: having been filled with all unrighteousness, whoredom, wickedness, covetousness, malice; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, evil dispositions; whisperers,
|Romans — 3:21-5:21||Romans — 6:1-8:39||Romans — 9:1-11:36||Romans — 12:1-16:27|
Jew and Gentile
|Demonstration of Salvation|
|Power Given||Promises Fulfilled||Paths Pursued|
Restored to Israel
|Slaves to Sin||Slaves to God||Slaves Serving God|
|Life by Faith||Service by Faith|
Modified from Irving L. Jensen's excellent work "Jensen's Survey of the NT"
BEING FILLED: pleroo (RPPMPA):
Note that this "laundry list" of sins covers the entire gamut of life, be it the home, the family, marriage, the workplace, the church. No area of life is left unaffected by man's decision to turn his back on God.
As Pritchard comments
Being filled is perfect tense which speaks of having become filled and remaining in that state, thus pointing to a state of filling and controlling. They are completely filled and thus totally permeated and controlled by an undiscerning rejected worthless mind! This is a frightening truth: Men shook their fist at their Creator and He gave them what they lusted for...to be their own god. This is revelation of God's just wrath against unrighteous man! What a tragic, grievous picture of MAN APART FROM GOD. Not being controlled by just a portion of unrighteousness but being filled with ALL UNRIGHTEOUSNESS.
You can mark it down --
Apathy leads to apostasy which brings moral anarchy. Just look at America in the twenty first century. We see this same pattern of idolatry leading to immorality which leads to internal strife in the book of Judges, especially the horrible description of men doing what is right in their own eyes in Judges 17-21).
Haldane notes that being filled...
Hodge comments on being filled that...
So, where do the evils listed in v29-31 come from? It all started back in (Ro 1:18) where Paul gave the reason for why the gospel of the gift of God's righteousness is so desperately needed. The gospel is the power of God to save believers because in it God gives us what we need and could never produce on our own, namely, His own righteousness. The righteousness that God demands from us He freely gives to us, if we will but trust Him. This is the great Biblical truth of justification by faith. So what Paul does in the verses (Ro 1:18ff) is describe for us the effects of suppressing the truth of God. He wants us to see all the evil of the world as a river that flows from this polluted spring. Reject God, suppress God, distort God, recreate God in your own image to your own liking, and the effect is worse than we expect. And the thing that is worse than we expect is that God joins our crusade against God, as it were, and delivers us into the debasing effects of our own rebellion against him.
WITH ALL UNRIGHTEOUSNESS, WICKEDNESS, GREED, EVIL: pase adikia poneria pleonexia kakia:
All (3956)(pas) means just what it says, all with no exceptions in regard to their unrighteous conduct! Each one of these sinful attitudes and actions is "filled to the brim"!
Unrighteousness (93) (adikia from a = not + dikê = right) is a condition of not being right, whether with God, according to the standard of His holiness and righteousness or with man, according to the standard of what man knows to be right by his conscience.
In secular Greek adikia referred to unjust acts, or to deeds which caused personal injury. Rather than a general concept of injustice, this word was taken, in the writings of Plato, to mean an unjust act which injures a specific person. Such an act was not necessarily a violation of some specific law, but rather an affront against the just order of society. Among the acts which fell into this category were theft, fraud, and sexual crimes. Later this word came to mean a neglect of duty toward the pagan gods. The Septuagint (LXX) used this word to describe social sins, those deeds which violated human relations or the political order of society. Among these injustices were deceit, fraud, and lying.
Adikia is used 25 times in the NT - Lk. 13:27; 16:8f; 18:6; Jn. 7:18; Acts 1:18; 8:23; Rom. 1:18, 29; 2:8; 3:5; 6:13; 9:14; 1 Co. 13:6; 2 Co. 12:13; 2Th 2:10, 12; 2Ti 2:19; Heb 8:12; Jas. 3:6; 2Pe 2:13, 15; 1 Jn. 1:9; 5:17 and in the NAS is translated "doing wrong, 1; evildoers, 1; iniquities, 1; iniquity, 2; injustice, 1; unrighteous, 2; unrighteousness, 12; wickedness, 4; wrong."
Adikia is used over 200 times in the Septuagint (LXX) -- Ge 6:11, 13; 26:20; 44:16; 49:5; 50:17; Ex 34:7; Lev 16:21, 22; 18:25; Nu 14:18; Dt 19:15; 32:4; Jdg 9:24; 1 Sa 3:13, 14; 14:41; 20:8; 25:24; 28:10; 2 Sa 3:8, 34; 7:10, 14; 14:32; 21:1; 1Ki 2:32; 8:50; 17:18; 2Ki 17:4; 1Chr 17:9; 2Chr 19:7; Job 11:14; 15:16; 33:17; 34:6, 32; 36:10, 18, 33; Ps 7:3, 14, 16; 11:5; 17:3; 27:12; 28:3; 52:2, 3; 55:10; 58:2; 62:10; 66:18; 72:14; 73:6, 7, 8; 75:5; 82:2; 92:15; 94:4; 119:29, 69, 104, 163; 140:2; 144:8, 11; Pr 8:13; 11:5; 15:29; 21:9; 28:16; Is 33:15; 43:24; 57:1; 58:6; 59:3; 60:18; 61:8; Je 2:22; 3:13; 11:10; 13:22; 14:6, 10, 20; 16:10, 18; 18:23; 30:14, 16; 31:34; 33:8; 36:3; 50:20; 51:5, 6; La 2:14; 4:13; Ezek 3:18, 19; 4:4, 5, 6, 17; 7:16, 19; 9:9; 12:2; 14:3, 4, 7, 10; 18:8, 17, 18, 19, 20, 24, 30; 21:23, 24, 25, 27, 29; 22:7, 25, 29; 24:23; 28:18; 33:13; 35:5; 39:26; 44:10, 12; 45:9; Da 4:27; 9:13, 16, 24; 12:4; Ho 4:8; 5:5; 7:1; 8:13; 9:7, 9; 10:9, 10, 13; 12:7, 8; 13:12; 14:1, 2; Joel 3:19; Am 3:10; Jon 3:8; Mic 3:10; 6:10; 7:18, 19; Nah. 3:1; Hab 2:12; Zep 3:5, 13; Zec 3:9; 5:6; Malachi 2:6; 3:7
Barclay writes that...
Larry Richards writes that adikia
Nietzsche was not correct when he pontificated that "might makes right". Only God makes right and only His standard is acceptable as perfect. All other is "not right" but is in fact adikia and no amount of men's "might" makes it "right".
John MacArthur writes that adikia or unrighteousness
One can derive a good sense for the meaning of adikia by studying the passages in which it is used. For example, John defines adikia writing that "All unrighteousness is sin" (1Jn 5:17) Paul describes the coming anti-christ whose coming will do the work of Satan "with all the deception of wickedness (adikia)". (2Th 2:10) Adikia corrupts the truth and chokes out the truth by its deceitfulness. From this use in Scripture we can deduce that adikia deceives as well as suppresses the truth (see Ro 1:18-note). Adikia or unrighteousness is loving sin more than loving God and His truth. When the heart is in love with self-exaltation and independence and the pleasures of sin, the mind will inevitably distort the truth or suppress the truth in order to protect the idols of the heart. What is needed is not just new ideas or more information, but a new heart. And a new set of passions and desires and pleasures. This is what God provides in the gospel and what Paul is showing men that they are in desperate need of.
Adikia is used to describe people as well as things. For example, adikia describes an "unrighteous steward' Lk 16:8, an "unrighteous judge" Lk 18:6, the tongue or speech of controlled by the fallen sin nature ("the tongue is a fire, the very world of iniquity"). (James 3:6) Peter describes Simon the magician (who was seeking to purchase the effects of the Holy Spirit) as "in the gall of bitterness and in the bondage of iniquity (adikia)." (Acts 8:23) In a similar way these reprobates in Romans 1 are in bondage to their own unrighteousness, having been turned over by God to the depravity of their own minds!
Luke records that the traitor Judas Iscariot "acquired a field with the price of his wickedness (adikia)." (Acts 1:18). Similarly Peter warned of the just judgment on false teachers declaring they would suffer "wrong as the wages of doing wrong (adikia)" (see 2Pe 2:13-note) going on to explain that these men forsook "forsaking the right way they have gone astray, having followed the way of Balaam, the son of Beor, who loved the wages of unrighteousness (he loved to earn money by doing wrong)." (See 2Pe 2:15-note)
Paul asked and answered a rhetorical (for effect) question...
In a passage which presents a similar thought, Jesus in a description of Himself declared that...
Paul teaches that genuine Christian (agape) love...
One day future Jesus will declare to men and women who thought they knew Him
Believers however are not immune to adikia, Paul commanding the Roman believers to stop continually (implying that it was in fact transpiring)...
Paul warned that adikia would be repaid, writing that God would give to
Paul again warns that all are to
In his last letter, Paul exhorts...
God provides a way to deal with adikia, John recording that...
Wickedness (4189) (poneria [word study] from poneros from pónos = labor, sorrow, pain and and poneo = to be involved in work, labor) refers to depravity, to an evil disposition, to badness or to an evil nature. Poneria is used in the NT only in the moral and ethical sense and refers to intentionally practiced ill will.
Kakia (see below) is another Greek word for evil which speaks more of the vicious disposition of one's mind (one's ill will or hatefulness, a mean-spirited or vicious attitude or disposition) whereas poneria pictures the active exercise of this evil.
Poneria describes the state of lacking moral or social values (baseness, sinfulness, maliciousness, malevolence). Poneria is active malice. Poneria is malevolence, not only doing evil, but being evil. Webster defines malevolence as the condition which arises from intense often vicious ill will, spite, or hatred.
Poneria describes perverseness and denotes the bad instinct of the heart. Poneria is the general inclination to evil that reigned among the pagans, and made them practice and take pleasure in vicious and unprofitable actions.
Barclay - In Greek this word (poneria) means more than badness. There is a kind of badness which, in the main, hurts only the person concerned. It is not essentially an outgoing badness. When it hurts others, as all badness must, the hurt is not deliberate. It may be thoughtlessly cruel, but it is not callously cruel. But the Greeks defined poneria as the desire of doing harm. It is the active, deliberate will to corrupt and to inflict injury. When the Greeks described a woman as ponēra they meant that she deliberately seduced the innocent from their innocence. In Greek one of the commonest titles of Satan is ho poneros, the evil one, the one who deliberately attacks and aims to destroy the goodness of men. Poneros describes the man who is not only bad but wants to make everyone as bad as himself. Poneria is destructive badness. (Daily Study Bible Online)
Webster adds some interesting thoughts on "wicked" (English word being derived from "wicca" meaning sorcerer) including "morally very bad, marked by mischief, disgustingly unpleasant, causing or likely to cause harm, distress, or trouble."
Poneria - 7x in 7v - Usage: malice(1), wicked ways(1), wickedness(5).
Poneria - 46v in the non-apocryphal Septuagint - Ex 10:10; 32:12; Deut 31:21; Jdg 9:56-57; 11:27; 15:3; 20:3, 12-13, 41; Neh 1:3; 2:2, 17; 6:2; 13:7, 27; Ps 7:9; 28:4; 55:15; 73:8; 94:23; 141:4; Pr 26:25; Eccl 2:21; 6:1; 10:5; 11:10; Isa 1:16; 7:16; 10:1; 47:10; 59:7; Jer 4:4; 6:29; 9:7; 23:11; 24:2-3, 8; 32:32; 33:5; 44:3, 22; 48:16; Da 11:27;
Greed (KJV "covetousness") (4124) (pleonexia [word study] from pleíon = more + écho = to have) (See word study on pleonexia) means literally "to have more" and describes a strong desire to acquire more and more material possessions (the "itch for more").
The Greeks defined pleonexia as “arrogant greediness,” as “the accursed love of possessing,” as “the unlawful desire for the things which belong to others.” It is the spirit in which a man is always ready to sacrifice his neighbor to his own desires. It describes an insatiable desire and it has been said that you might as easily satisfy it as you might fill with water a bowl with a hole in it.
Here are the 10 uses on pleonexia in the NT -- Mk 7:22; Lk 12:15; Ro 1:29; 2 Co. 9:5; Ep 4:19; 5:3; Col 3:5; 1Th 2:5; 2Pe 2:3, 14
Barclay says that pleonexia...
The basic idea of pleonexia is the desire for that which a man has no right to have. It is, therefore, a sin with a very wide range. If it is the desire for money, it leads to theft. If it is the desire for prestige, it leads to evil ambition. If it is the desire for power, it leads to sadistic tyranny. If it is the desire for a person, it leads to sexual sin.
Haldane writes that pleonexia originally referred to
Pleonexia is described as the equivalent of idolatry in (see exposition of Colossians 3:5) for covetousness puts things in the place of God..
C. F. D. Moule well describes it as "the opposite of the desire to give."
Evil (2549) (kakia [word study]) is deliberate wickedness which takes pleasure in doing harm. Kakia is the quality of wickedness, with the implication of that which is harmful or damaging. It is often translated in a narrow sense for malice, describing a deep-seated feelings against a person that includes hatred that lasts on and on. It is an intense and long-lasting bitterness against a person. It is actually wishing that something bad would happen to a person. Kakia means wickedness, a deliberate intention to harm (actively plotting revenge; passively mad when they are blessed and happy when they have misfortune).
Kakia is used 50 times in the NT -- Mt 21:41; 24:48; 27:23; Mk 7:21; 15:14; Lk. 16:25; 23:22; Jn 18:23, 30; Ac 9:13; 16:28; 23:9; 28:5; Ro 1:30; 2:9; 3:8; 7:19, 21; 12:17, 21; 13:3, 4, 10; 14:20; 16:19; 1Co 10:6; 13:5; 15:33; 2Co 13:7; Php 3:2; Col 3:5; 1Th 5:15; 1Ti 6:10; 2Ti 4:14; Titus 1:12; Heb 5:14; James 1:13; 3:8; 1Pe 3:9, 10, 11; 3Jn 1:11; Re 2:2; 16:2
Lightfoot describes kakia as “the vicious nature which is bent on doing harm to others”
One Greek scholar refers to kakia as “the vicious character generally.” To varying degrees, but inevitably, the unsaved person spends his life enveloped in and motivated by kakia.
Larry Richards writes that kakia
John MacArthur says that...
FULL OF ENVY, MURDER, STRIFE, DECEIT, MALICE: mestous phthonou phonou eridos dolou kakoetheias:
Full (3324) (mestos) signifies full up, full to the utmost, "stuffed"! Mestos is generally makes reference to that of or with which a person or thing is full.
Mestos is used 9 times in NASB (Matt. 23:28; Jn. 19:29; 21:11; Rom. 1:29; 15:14; Jas. 3:8, 17; 2 Pet. 2:14), most often in a figurative sense describing being full to the utmost with good and bad moral qualities: "are full of hypocrisy and lawlessness" Mt 23:28; "full of goodness" Ro 15:14; "tongue...full of deadly poison" Ja 3:8 , "wisdom from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, reasonable, full of mercy and good fruits" Ja 3:17 ; false teachers "having eyes full of adultery" 2Pe 2:14. The literal uses describe a "jar full of sour wine" John 19:29 and a "net...full of large fish" John 21:11.
There are 4 uses of mestos in the Septuagint - Esther 5:2; Pr 6:34; Nah 1:10; Ezek 37:1;
Envy (5355) (phthonos) is an attitude of ill-will that leads to division and strife and even murder. (cp Mt 27:18) Tacitus remarks that this was the usual vice of the villages, towns, and cities. (Click for in depth study of phthonos)
The godly Scottish preacher Andrew Bonar penned a diary entry. He wrote, “This day 20 years ago I preached for the first time as an ordained minister. It is amazing that the Lord has spared me and used me at all. I have no reason to wonder that He used others far more than He does me. Yet envy is my hurt, and today I have been seeking grace to rejoice exceedingly over the usefulness of others, even where it cast me into the shade. Lord, take away this envy from me!”
F. B. Meyer held meetings in Northfield, Mass., and large crowds thronged to hear him. Then the great British Bible teacher G. Campbell Morgan came to Northfield and people were soon flocking to hear his brilliant expositions of scripture. Meyer confessed at first he was envious. He said, “The only way I can conquer my feelings is to pray for Morgan daily, which I do.”
Dwight L. Moody once told the fable of an eagle who was envious of another that could fly better than he could. One day the bird saw a sportsman with a bow and arrow and said to him, “I wish you would bring down that eagle up there.” The man said he would if he had some feathers for his arrow. So the jealous eagle pulled one out of his wing. The arrow was shot, but it didn’t quite reach the rival bird because he was flying too high. The first eagle pulled out another feather, then another—until he had lost so many that he himself couldn’t fly. The archer took advantage of the situation, turned around, and killed the helpless bird. Moody made this application: if you are envious of others, the one you will hurt the most by your actions will be yourself.
Envy - is it a small sin? Pilate knew that for envy they had delivered Him. (cp Mt27:18) Envy is discontent with, or mortification at, the knowledge or sight of another person’s superiority or advantage.
ILLUSTRATION: History tells us of a statue that was erected to a celebrated victor in the public games of Greece named Theogenes. The erection of this statue so excited the envious hatred of one of his rivals that he went every night and strove to throw the statue over by repeated blows. Ultimately h e succeeded, but alas, the statue fell upon him, and he was crushed to death beneath it. Such generally is the end of the man who allows himself to be carried away by the spirit of envy. (Zodhiates, S. Faith, Love, & Hope: Chattanooga, TN: AMG)
Murder (5408) (phonos) describes murder, particularly slaughter. It can describe slaying or killing by the sword. Murder was familiar to them, especially with respect to their slaves, whom they caused to be put to death for the slightest offenses.
Barclay reminds us that
Strife (2054) (eris) means contention (applies to strife or competition that shows itself in quarreling, disputing, or controversy; a point advanced or maintained in a debate or argument; an often perverse and wearisome tendency to quarrels and disputes), strife (bitter sometimes violent conflict or dissension; emphasizes a struggle for superiority rather than the incongruity or incompatibility of the persons or things involved), wrangling, fighting, discord, quarreling. Eris describes strife about words for vainglory (ostentatious pride especially in one’s achievements - all for show) and not truth. Are not some of these sins like looking in the mirror, even for believers? I am convicted!
There are 9 uses of eris in the NT - Ro 1:29; 13:13; 1Co. 1:11; 3:3; 2Co 12:20; Gal 5:20; Phil 1:15; 1Ti 6:4; Titus 3:9
Barclay writes that strife
Deceit (1388) (dolos which is derived from dello meaning to bait) literally refers to a fishhook, trap, or trick all of which are various forms of deception. Dolos is a deliberate attempt to mislead, trick, snare or "bait" (baiting the trap in attempt to "catch" the unwary victim) other people by telling lies. It is a desire to gain advantage or preserve position by deceiving others. A modern term in advertising is called "bait and switch" where the unwary consumer is lured in by what looks like an price too good to be true!
Dolos is used 36 times in the Septuagint (LXX) (Ge 27:35; 34:13; Exod. 21:14; Lev. 19:16; Deut. 27:24; 2 Ki. 9:23; Job 13:7, 16; 15:35; 31:5; Ps. 10:7; 24:4; 32:2; 34:13; 35:20; 36:3; 52:2; 55:11; Prov. 10:10; 12:5, 20; 16:28; 26:23f, 26; Isa. 9:5; 53:9; Jer. 5:27; 9:6; Ezek. 35:5; Dan. 8:25; 11:23; Mic. 6:11; Zeph. 1:9) and 9 times in the NT...
The related verb dolioo (1387) is used in Romans 3:13 where Paul indicts all mankind writing that
Larry Richards explains that dolos...
Barclay writes that...
Malice (2550) (kakoetheia from kakós = bad, evil + ethos = disposition) is used only here in the NT and refers to the person who has an ill-nature, taking everything with an evil connotation and giving a malicious interpretation to the actions of others, a nature which is evil and makes one suspect evil in others.
Haldane writes that kakoetheia
Barclay describes these unrighteous people as possessed of
THEY ARE GOSSIPS: psithuristas: (Ps 41:7; Pr 16:28; 26:20; 2Co 12:20)
Gossips (whisperers, secret slanderers) (5588) (psithuristes) is found only here in the NT and describes an evil tongue which secretly conveys information, whether true or false and which is detrimental to the character or welfare of others. This is the man or woman who pours their poison against their neighbor by whispering into the ear.
Haldane writes that...
Barclay adds that whisperers (gossips) (Psithuristes) and slanderers (katalalos)
Amplified: Slanderers, hateful to and hating God, full of insolence, arrogance, [and] boasting; inventors of new forms of evil, disobedient and undutiful to parents. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Barclay: slanderers, haters of God. They are insolent men, arrogant, braggarts, inventors of evil things, disobedient to their parents (Daily Study Bible)
NLT: They are backstabbers, haters of God, insolent, proud, and boastful. They are forever inventing new ways of sinning and are disobedient to their parents. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: They became whisperers-behind-doors, stabbers-in-the-back, God-haters; they overflowed with insolent pride and boastfulness, and their minds teemed with diabolical invention. They scoffed at duty to parents, (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: backbiters; hateful to God, insolent, haughty; swaggerers, inventors of evil things; disobedient to parents, (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: evil-speakers, God-haters, insulting, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,
|SLANDERERS, HATERS OF GOD: katalalous theostugeis: (Pr 25:23) (haters Ro 8:7,8; Nu 10:35; Deut 7:10; 2Chr 19:2; Ps 81:15; Pr 8:36; Jn 7:7; Jn 15:23,24; Titus 3:3)
Slanderers (2637) (KJV = "backbiting") (katalalos from katá = against + laléo = speak) is found only here in the NT and describes those who speak evil against of others with the intent to injure the one spoken about. (See also Barclay's note above on "gossips"). A slanderer is one who blackens" publicly.
Backbiting involves an element of deceit and cowardice.
One dictionary has this definition of backbiting:
Backbiters seek to ruin or defame someone’s character—they are vilifers of character.
Haldane has a long note on katalalos writing that...
Haters of God (2319) (theostuges from Theos = God + stugeo = hated, odious, hateful) means hateful to God or impious. This is the only NT use of theostuges. The ancient Greeks used to call theostuges someone who turned against God. When any heavy calamity befell such a person, He would accuse God and His providence.
Godet writes that theostuges is...
Regarding haters of God Haldane writes that...
Adam Clarke has an interesting note writing that the...
Haters Of God - Recently, I listened to an audiobook by a militant advocate for atheism. As the author himself read his own work with spiteful sarcasm and contempt, it made me wonder why he was so angry.
The Bible tells us that a rejection of God can actually lead to a more hateful attitude toward Him: “Even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a debased mind . . . [to become] haters of God” (Ro 1:28-30).
Turning one’s back on God does not lead to secular neutrality. Indeed, recent militant atheists have shown their desire to remove any reference to a Creator from culture.
When we hear about atheists trying to remove crosses or the Ten Commandments from society, it’s easy to respond to their hatred of God with our own hatred. But we’re exhorted to defend the truth with an attitude of love, “in humility correcting those who are in opposition, if God perhaps will grant them repentance, so that they may know the truth” (2 Tim. 2:25).
The next time you see the works or hear the words of a hater of God, do an attitude check. Then ask God for a spirit of humility and pray that the offender might come to the knowledge of the truth. — by Dennis Fisher
INSOLENT, ARROGANT, BOASTFUL: hubristas huperephanous alazonas: (boasters Ro 2:17,23; 3:27; 1Ki 20:11; 2Chr 25:19; Ps 10:3; 49:6; 52:1; 94:4; 97:7; Ac 5:36; 2Co 10:15; 2Th2:4; James 3:5; 4:16; 2Pe 2:18; Jude 1:16)
Insolent (5197) (hubristes from hubrizo = act with insolence + hubris = arrogance, primarily denotes wantonness, insolence; then, an act of wanton violence, an outrage, injury) refers to an insolent persecutor of others. It is the man who is violent, insolent (insultingly contemptuous in speech or conduct) and who mistreats from the pleasure which affliction of wrong brings him. Hubristes is used only one other time in the NT where Paul describes his pre-conversion condition as a "violent aggressor" (hubristes) (1Timothy 1:13)
There are uses of hubristes in the non-apocryphal Septuagint - Job 40:11; Pr 15:25; 16:19; 27:13; Is 2:12; 16:6; Je 51:2
Godet observes that...
The Greek word hubristes gives rise to our English word hubris which is defined as exaggerated pride, self-confidence or arrogance and in the Greek tragedies referred to an excess of ambition, pride, etc., which ultimately caused the transgressor’s ruin.
Haldane writes that hubristes...
Barclay adds that
Arrogant (5244) (huperephanos from huper = over, above, + phaíno = shine) is the haughty person pictured with his head held high above others. The man who is huperephanos is the one who shows himself above. This man who because of his feeling of personal superiority, regards others with haughtiness. He is puffed up with a high opinion of himself, and thus regards others with contempt, as if they were unworthy of any social interactions. The noun huperephania is usually translated pride which is one of those sins which Jesus says proceeds out of a man's heart (Mark 7.22 = only NT use of huperephania).
There are 5 uses of huperephanos in the NT...
Luke 1:51 "He has done mighty deeds with His arm; He has scattered those who were proud in the thoughts of their heart.
Romans 1:30 slanderers, haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents,
2Timothy 3:2-note For men will be lovers of self, lovers of money, boastful, arrogant, revilers, disobedient to parents, ungrateful, unholy,
James 4:6-note But He gives a greater grace. Therefore it says, "God is opposed to the proud, but gives grace to the humble."
1Peter 5:5 You younger men, likewise, be subject to your elders; and all of you, clothe yourselves with humility toward one another, for God is opposed to the proud, but gives grace to the humble.
Barclay adds that huperephanos...
In his book New Testament Words, Barclay adds that...
NIDNTT adds that...
Huperephanos is used much more frequently in the Septuagint (LXX)...where we encounter 20 occurrences - Esther 4:17; Job 38:15; 40:12; Ps 18:27; 89:10; 94:2; 101:5; 119:21, 51, 69, 78, 122; 123:4; 140:5; Pr 3:34; Isa 1:25; 2:12; 13:11; 29:20; Zeph 3:6. Here are most of the uses, a study of which helps one discern the characteristics of huperephanos...
The story is told of a young Scottish minister who walked proudly into the pulpit to preach his first sermon. He had a brilliant mind and a good education and was confident of himself as he faced his first congregation. But the longer he preached, the more conscious everyone was that “the Lord was not in the wind.” He finished his message quickly and came down from the pulpit with his head bowed, his pride now gone. Afterward, one of the members said to him,
Boastful (213) (alazon) is used only one other time in 2 Timothy 3:2 (describing men in the last days when difficult times come) and refers to the loud arrogant boaster who expresses pride in oneself or one’s accomplishments and often suggests ostentation and exaggeration. Plato described this as the person who claimed greatness that he did not possess. A boaster is the man who seeks to attract admiration by claiming advantages he does not really possess. Therefore to a degree every boast is really a lie.
Alazon in the original designates ostentatious persons in general; but as these usually affect more than belongs to them, it generally applies to persons who extend their pretensions to consideration beyond their just claims.
Barclay notes that alazon and the related word alazoneia have...
INVENTORS OF EVIL: epheuretas kakon: (inventors Psalms 99:8; 106:39; Ecclesiastes 7:29)
Inventors (2182) (epheuretes from epí = intensifies meaning + heurísko = to find) is found only here in the NT and describes the man who, so to speak, is not content with the usual, ordinary ways of sinning, but who seeks out new vices because he has grown blasé and seeks a new thrill in some new sin. With the proliferation of technology we have seen numerous ways in which men have become "inventors of evil" and most are so evil they will not even be mentioned in these notes! How tragic. Men created in God's image who could be using their minds for noble God glorifying purposes, instead have been given over to depraved minds that think up unspeakable evil! Maranatha (Come quickly) Lord Jesus!
Evil (2556) (kakos) (see related word kakia in note above)
DISOBEDIENT TO PARENTS: goneusin apeitheis: (disobedient Deut 21:18, 19, 20, 21; 27:16; Pr 30:17; Ezekiel 22:7; Mt 16:21; 15:4; Lk 21:16; 2Ti 3:2)
Parents (1118) (goneus from gínomai = to generate) is a parent, whether father or mother.
Apeithes conveys the idea of obstinate rejection of the will of God. The corresponding verb (apeitheo) describes the opposite of "believes" in John 3:36 ""He who believes (pisteuo - present tense ~ as a lifestyle) in the Son has eternal life but he who does not obey (present tense ~ as a lifestyle) the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God abides on him."
So clearly from this passage in John disobedience equates with unbelief (cf Heb 3:18, 19 where "disobedient" clearly parallels "unbelief"). If follows that if one says he believes in Jesus but in his lifestyle he continually manifests a pattern of disobedience, he is deceived and is not truly regenerate and a possessor of the Holy Spirit (as indicated by his unholy disobedient lifestyle) (cf Titus 1:16, 3:3 Lk 1:17 Col 3:6 2Ti 3:2). (See also Torrey's Topic "Disobedience to God")
Haldane adds that...
Barclay adds that
Amplified: [They were] without understanding, conscienceless and faithless, heartless and loveless [and] merciless. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Barclay: senseless breakers of agreements, without natural affections, pitless. (Westminster Press)
NLT: They refuse to understand, break their promises, and are heartless and unforgiving. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: they mocked at learning, recognized no obligations of honour, lost all natural affection, and had no use for mercy. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: stupid, faithless, without natural affection, merciless; (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: unintelligent, faithless, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful;
|WITHOUT UNDERSTANDING: asunetous: (Ro 1:20,21; 3:11; Proverbs 18:2; Isaiah 27:11; Jeremiah 4:22; Matthew 15:16)
Without understanding (801) (asunetos from a = without + sunetós = sagacious, discerning) describes the man who is a fool, who cannot learn the lesson of experience, who will not use the mind and brain that God has given to him. This person is without insight or understanding and is descriptive of unredeemed man's heart. This man has an inability to bring together facts and make sense out of them. In context this man has an inability to conclude from the creation there is a Creator. It is the man who is without insight into moral or religious things and thus is so blinded that evil is thought of as good and good as evil.
Asunetos is used 5 times in the NT (Mt 15:16; Mk 7:18; Ro 1:21, 31; 10:1). Jesus asks His disciples "are you still lacking in understanding?" Mt 15:16 (cp identical use in Mk 7:18); of men whose "foolish (asunetos) heart was darkened" Ro 1:21 ; of "a nation (gentiles) without understanding" Ro 10:19.
There are 4 uses of asunetos in the non-apocryphal Septuagint - Deut. 32:21; Job 13:2; Ps. 76:5; 92:6
Haldane adds that without understanding
UNTRUSTWORTHY: asunthetous: (2Ki 18:14-37; Is 33:8; 2Ti 3:3)
Untrustworthy (KJV "covenant breakers") (802) (asunthetos from a = not + passive of suntíthemi = consent, make agreement) describes covenant breakers or men and women who are “non-covenant-keeping.” Such individuals break promises, treaties, agreements, and contracts whenever it serves their purposes.
Haldane notes that the KJV rendering of "Covenant–breakers"...
Barclay adds that "asunthetos"
Unloving (794) (astorgos from a = without + storge = family love) literally means without love for family members. Storge love is instinctive, involves natural affection and is a conditional love. Although the Greek word storge is not used in the NT, it does form part of 3 derivative words in (Ro 1:31, 2Ti 3:3, Ro 12:10). The only other use of astorgos in the NT describes men in the last days as "unloving" (see note 2 Timothy 3:3 ).
Storge is the word used especially of family love, the love of child for parent and parent for child. If there is no human affection, the family cannot exist.
It is a terrible time when men and women are so focused on self gratification that even the closest ties mean nothing to them. Perhaps Dickens had this thought in mind in his classic epic "A Tale of Two Cities" when he wrote "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times". The "best of times" of course is only possible when depraved men & women living in the "worst of times" accept the gospel of Jesus Christ, and are forever transferred from the city of man to the city of God (cf Rev 21:2-note).
William Barclay notes that the age of the Roman Empire was
MacArthur adds that
Unmerciful (415) (aneleemon from a = without + eleemon = merciful) is used only here in the NT and means not compassionate. Aneleemon applies to those who do not feel for the distresses of others, whatever may be the cause of their distresses; and to those who inflict these distresses it peculiarly applies.
William Barclay adds