|Greek: on to stoma aras kai pikrias gemei (3SPAI)
Amplified: Their mouth is full of cursing and bitterness. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
NLT: "Their mouths are full of cursing and bitterness." (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness'. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: whose mouth is full of imprecations and bitterness; (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness.
|Romans — 3:21-5:21||Romans — 6:1-8:39||Romans — 9:1-11:36||Romans — 12:1-16:27|
Jew and Gentile
|Demonstration of Salvation|
|Power Given||Promises Fulfilled||Paths Pursued|
Restored to Israel
|Slaves to Sin||Slaves to God||Slaves Serving God|
|Life by Faith||Service by Faith|
WHOSE MOUTH IS FULL OF CURSING: on to stoma aras kai pikrias gemei (3SPAI): (Psalms 10:7; 59:12; 109:17,18; James 3:10)
Here is a list of the Old Testament passages which Paul quotes from
Mouth (4750) (stoma) refers to the bodily organ for eating and speaking.
Cursing (685) (ara) (only here in the NT) originally it meant a wish, a petition, a prayer, but from the time of Homer it came to mean a prayer or invocation for harm or injury to come upon one, an imprecation (invocation of evil upon another), a curse which the deity was to execute. Eventually ara came to mean a malediction, the evil invoked, the mischief itself, the realized curse. In Greek mythology Ara was personified as the goddess of destruction and revenge. Cursing refers to wanting the worst for someone and publicly expressing that desire in caustic, derisive language. It represents open, public expression of emotional hostility against one’s enemy.
Full of cursing pictures constant cursing, as if ready to be spilled at the least provocation.
Preacher's Bible Commentary notes that...
Spurgeon comments on Psalm 10:7 writing that
The Apostle James says that
Ray Stedman comments that...
AND BITTERNESS: kai pikrias:
Bitterness (4088) (pikría from pikrós from pik- = to cut, prick) originally meant pointed or sharp, e.g., of arrows then more generally of what is “sharp” or “penetrating” to the senses, a bitter, pungent taste or smell and then what is “painful” to the feelings.
Pikria was used literally to describe plants that produced inedible or poisonous fruit. Greeks defined this word as long-standing resentment, as the spirit which refuses to be reconciled. So many of us have a way of nursing our wrath to keep it warm, of brooding over the insults and the injuries which we have received.
In the NT pikria is used in a metaphorical sense to describe animosity, resentfulness, harshness or an openly-expressed emotional hostility against an enemy. Pikria defines a settled hostility that poisons the whole inner man. Somebody does something we do not like, so we harbor ill will against him. Bitterness leads to wrath, which is the explosion on the outside of the feelings on the inside.
Pikria is found 4 times in the NAS (Acts 8:23; Rom. 3:14; Eph. 4:31; Heb. 12:15)
Pikria is used 27 times in the Septuagint (LXX) (Exod 15:23; Deut 29:18; 32:32; Job 3:20; 7:11; 9:18; 10:1; 21:25; Ps 10:7; 14:3; Isa 28:21, 28; 37:29; Jer 2:21; 15:17; Lam 3:15, 19; Ezek 28:24; Amos 6:12)
In the first use of pikria in the OT Moses records...
Bitterness reflects a smoldering resentment, a brooding grudge–filled attitude, an unwillingness to forgive or a harsh feeling. Bitterness is the opposite of sweetness and kindness (cf. husbands toward wives in Colossians 3:19 - see note). It harbors resentment and keeps score of wrongs (cf 1Cor 13:5)
Pikría or bitterness is It is the spirit of irritability that keeps a person in perpetual animosity, making him sour and venomous. Bitterness applies to the bitterness of spirit to which men give vent by bitter words.
Barclay adds that
Eadie says that pikria is...
Newell adds that their
Wiersbe has this practical comment on "bitterness" to which even believers can fall prey (although here in Ro 3:14, the reference is of course referring to an unsaved individual):
In Acts Peter confronts Simon the sorcerer declaring
Gall (chole gives us our medical term cholecystitis for gallbladder disease) is a bitter ingredient or bile and with pikría (bitterness), it conveys an extremely bitter, harsh, and distasteful condition, vividly picturing the reality of one in the bondage of iniquity. This verse then describes a spiritual poisoning—a heart of great wickedness—in Simon the sorcerer. The sin of bitterness, like all sin, is a harsh taskmaster, Solomon recording that a man's
Writing to the Ephesian saints Paul exhorted them to
In the final use of pikría in the NT, the writer of Hebrews exhorts his readers to
MacArthur writes that in this context
Every age of mankind, our own certainly included, has been characterized by people who use their tongues as vicious weapons. Their attacks not only are against those they know well enough to hate but sometimes, as David seems to intimate, even against strangers, simply for the perverse pleasure of venting their anger and hatred.
Is desecration of God’s name and forbidden -Ex 20:7; Mt 5:34, 35, 36; 23:21,22; Jas 5:12
Addicted to -Psalms 10:7; Romans 3:14
Love -Psalms 109:17
Clothe themselves with -Psalms 109:18
Guilt of -Exodus 20:7; Deuteronomy 5:11
Woe denounced against -Matthew 23:16
Nations visited for -Jeremiah 23:10; Hosea 4:1-3
Punishment for -Leviticus 24:16,23; Psalms 59:12; 109:17,18
Son of Israelitish woman -Leviticus 24:11
Gehazi -2Kings 5:20
Peter -Matthew 26:74
|Greek: oxeis oi podes auton ekcheai (AAN) haima
Amplified: Their feet are swift to shed blood. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
NLT: "They are quick to commit murder. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: 'Their feet are swift to shed blood; (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: their feet are swift to pour out blood. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: Swift are their feet to shed blood.
THEIR FEET ARE SWIFT TO SHED BLOOD: oxeis oi podes auton ekcheai (AAN) haima: (Pr 1:16; 6:18)
In Romans 3:15-17 Paul is quoting from (Isa 59:7-8)
Whereas the preceding indictment was directed at men’s sinfulness as shown primarily by their words, in the next three verses Paul focuses his charges primarily against the conduct or actions of unredeemed men.
These three verses are almost like a condensed history of the world.
Every page of history attests the truth of this awful charge.
Their feet (4228)(pous = the part of the body used to stand and walk) Scripture frequently uses the path of one's feet as a picture for one’s approach to life.
Swift (3691) (oxús) had two basic meanings. Oxus refers to a keen edge for cutting, and thus meaning sharp, all of the NT uses with this meaning being in the book of the Revelation.
As used in the present verse, oxus pertains to that which is rapid in motion. Quick, meaning a very short period of time. Swift, nimble, probably since the idea of sharpness also implies eagerness. People apart from God are prone to violence. At the slightest provocation they commit murder.
Oxus is used 11 times in the Septuagint (LXX) (Job 16:10; 41:30; Ps 14:3; 57:4; Pr 22:29; 27:4; Isa 5:28; 49:2; Ezek 5:1; Amos 2:15; Hab 1:8)
In secular Greek oxus had several nuances depending on the context -- Of feeling, sharp, keen, Of the sight, to be keenest of sight, to notice a thing sharply, to be quick of hearing. When referring to things that affect the sight oxus meant dazzling, bright, Of sound, sharp, shrill, piercing. Of musical tones, sharp, high, Of taste, sharp, pungent, acid, Metaphorically of the mind, sharp, keen: quick to anger, hasty, passionate, sharp, quick, clever.
Shed (1632) (ekcheo from ek = out + chéo = pour) means literally to pour out causing something (in this case blood) to be emitted in quantity.
Blood (129) (haima) defines blood as the basis of life. Shedding of blood equates with committing murder.
Solomon writes that...
"Swift" denotes the readiness and eagerness of men to murder others, which in turn shows the dreadful malice and hatred that is in them.
Robert Haldane - The most savage animals do not destroy so many of their own species to appease their hunger, as man destroys of his fellows; to satiate his ambition, his revenge, or [greed]. (Romans 3 Commentary).
How swift are men to shed blood?
MacArthur writes that
Wayne Barber reminds us that
Kent Hughes explains that...
Ray Stedman -Someone has suggested that this would be a very remarkable verse to write above the doors of the United Nations building in New York: "Their feet are swift to shed blood, in their paths are ruin and misery, and the way of peace they do not know." Isn't it true? Here are the nations gathered together -- gathered to seek peace -- but the outcome of it is constant friction, and trouble, and disturbance, and heartache, and bloodshed, and misery, and they do not know the way of peace. (Read full text of sermon Romans 3:9-26: Peale or Paul?)
|Greek: suntrimma kai talaiporia en tais hodois auton
Amplified: Destruction [as it dashes them to pieces] and misery mark their ways (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
NLT: Wherever they go, destruction and misery follow them. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: destruction and misery are in their ways; (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: Destruction and misery are in their paths. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: Ruin and misery are in their ways.
DESTRUCTION AND MISERY ARE IN THEIR PATHS: suntrimma kai talaiporia en tais hodois auton:
The brevity of this statement belies its profundity. The truth is that man damages and destroys everything he touches, leaving a trail of pain and suffering in his wake! Mark it down. Wherever man goes, sin soon follows. Death and destruction follow his steps as night follows day.
Destruction (4938) (suntrimma from suntribo = break into pieces, crush completely) (only here in NT) literally describes that which is broken into pieces and shattered, resulting in total devastation. It was used to describe a fracture or broken limb (see LXX below).
Figuratively as used here in Romans 3 (the only NT use), suntrimma means destruction, decimation, calamity, ruin or that which is laid waste. A vivid word picture of what fallen man does to all he touches, whether it be "animal, vegetable or mineral"!
Suntrimma is used only once in the NT but 35 times in the Septuagint (LXX) most describing that which is broken, shattered or fractured. (Lev 21:19 = broken hand and foot; Lev 24:20 = fracture for fracture; Job 9:17; Ps 14:3; 60:2; 147:3; Pr 20:30; 23:29; Isa 15:5; 22:4; 28:12; 30:14, 26; 51:19; 59:7; 60:18; Jer 3:22; 6:14; 8:21; 10:19; 14:17; 17:18; 30:12; 48:3, 5; Lam 2:11; 3:48; 4:10; Amos 9:9)
Misery (5004) (talaiporia from talaiporos [Ro 7:24-note, Re 3:17-note] = afflicted, wretched, miserable, distressed condition in turn from tálas = suffering, wretched) is the general term that denotes the resulting harm that is always in the wake of man’s acts of destruction against his fellow man. His destructiveness inevitably leaves a trail of pain and despair. Talaiporia describes overwhelming hardship, trouble, suffering, calamity, misery or distress.
Talaiporia also describes the emotional condition that arises from inner or outer torment. In the present verse misery follows in the wake of man’s destructive acts against his fellow man.
Talaiporia is found 29 times in the Septuagint (LXX) (Job 30:3; Ps 12:5; 14:3; 32:4; 40:2; 69:20; 88:18; 140:10; Isa 47:11; 59:7; 60:18; Jer 4:20; 6:7, 26; 15:8; 20:8; 51:35, 56; Ezek 45:9; Hos 9:6; Joel 1:15; Amos 3:10; 5:9; Mic 2:4; Hab 1:3; 2:17)
The only other NT use of talaiporia is by James who writes...
Path (3598)(hodos) when used literally describes any place along which one travels and moves from one place to another, and thus a way, a road, or a highway
Destruction and misery as Newell says is the
Denney - Wherever they go, you can trace them by the ruin and distress they leave behind.
Wayne Barber - Look back over human history and what do you have? You have the ruins of cities that have been destroyed by somebody else...Homer sang a song about the city of Troy, "The city of Troy is built on the ruins of an earlier city." Since the time Homer sang that song they have found seven more cities underneath the ruins. Now you say, "I haven’t killed anybody. I haven’t shot anybody. I am a pretty decent person." No...you have covered it over. It is like putting honey over the top of it, but underneath it is the same vengefulness. One of these days, the Lord Jesus is going to take the church out of this world and this world will for the first time see the hate that has been here, the depravity of man’s heart, wickedness like never before. Thank God we are not destined for His wrath. Thank God we have received the Lamb. (The full measure of man's destructiveness) is going to be seen one day. The only thing that is restraining it right now is the presence of the Holy Spirit in this world. (Barber, Wayne. Notes on Romans)
Mankind's tendency to destructiveness inevitably leaves a trail of deeply afflicted, dejected, and distressed men and women.
As Godet puts it man
Ray Stedman - Wherever man goes, ruin follows. Do we need any documentation of that today? Why do cities always develop ghettos and slums? Why do our beautiful mountains and streams become polluted? It is because of the heart of man. (Romans 3:1-20 Total Wipeout )
Robert Haldane - Men labor to destroy and to ruin one another; proceeding in their perverse ways, they cause destruction and misery. (Romans 3 Commentary).
Albert Barnes - The tendency of their conduct is to destroy the virtue, happiness, and peace of all with whom they come in contact. (Romans 3 Commentary)