Amplified: Then Boaz said to Ruth, Listen, my daughter, do not go to glean in another field or leave this one, but stay here close by my maidens. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
GWT: Boaz said to Ruth, "Listen, my daughter. Don't go in any other field to gather grain, and don't even leave this one. Stay here with my young women. (GWT)
KJV: Then said Boaz unto Ruth, Hearest thou not, my daughter? Go not to glean in another field, neither go from hence, but abide here fast by my maidens:
NET: So Boaz said to Ruth, “Listen carefully, my daughter. Don’t leave to gather grain in another field. You need not go beyond the limits of this field. You may go along beside my female workers (NET Bible)
Young's Literal: And Boaz saith unto Ruth, 'Hast thou not heard, my daughter? go not to glean in another field, and also, pass not over from this, and thus thou dost cleave to my young women:
Septuagint (LXX): kai eipen (3SAAI) Boos pros Routh ouk ekousas (2SAAI) thugater me poreuthes (2SAPS) en agro sullexai hetero kai su ou poreuse (2SFMI) enteuthen ode kolletheti (2SAPM) meta ton korasion mou
English of Septuagint: And Booz said to Ruth, Hast thou not heard, my daughter? go not to glean in another field; and depart not thou hence, join thyself here with my damsels
|THEN BOAZ SAID TO RUTH "LISTEN CAREFULLY MY DAUGHTER": (1Sa 3:6,16; 2Ki 5:13; Matthew 9:2,22)
Boaz (01162) took the initiative. He was the "initiator", not the "terminator" like so many men are in relationships! In so doing, Boaz gives a beautiful portrayal of God's reaching out to us, initiating the conversation as it were, extending grace to those who deserve quite the opposite. Amazing grace indeed! Grace (see study of grace) then means that God makes the first move to come to our aid, not because we deserve anything, but because He loves us and wants us for Himself (to be His special/treasured possession! cp Titus 2:14-note, 1Pe 2:9-note, cp Ex 19:5NLT). “We love, because He first loved us” (1Jn 4:10,19 cp 2Pe 3:9-note, 1Ti 2:3, 4, 5). God took the initiative in salvation when we were spiritually dead (Ep 2:1-note, Ep 2:4,2:5-note), without spiritual strength (Ro 5:6-note where "helpless" = asthenes = literally without strength), wholly rebellious sinners (Ro 5:8-note), and His intractable enemies (Ro 5:10-note). Salvation was not an afterthought of God but that which He planned from eternity (Ep 1:4-note, Ep 1:5-note). Even at this early juncture, we have every reason to believe Boaz loved Ruth and therefore took the first steps to meet her physical and emotional needs.
Listen carefully (08085) (shama) conveys the idea of hearing with attention or obedience. Listen carefully conveys the concept,
Boaz is not vague nor vacillating but direct and demonstrative, again providing a clear example for godly men to imitate in their interactions with others, especially their spouse.
My daughter (01323) (bat) Boaz called Ruth my daughter most likely because she was younger than he (Ru 3:10-note) but also because this was a term of endearment. In essence Boaz is saying that he would treat her like a member of his own family. And the good report the foreman had just rendered concerning Ruth (Ru 2:6, 7) would only increase Boaz's interest in her. Furthermore, Boaz's instructions, along with this manner of addressing Ruth as my daughter indicate that he is offering her a responsibility that goes beyond simply giving her permission to glean in his fields.
The Lxx uses the word thugater which can mean one's literal daughter (female child in relation to her parents) or as in the present context indicating someone who is treated as one's daughter (cp Jesus' words to a woman suffering from hemorrhage = Mt 9:22, Mk 5:34, Lk 8:48 - also a helpless, hurting woman and yet a woman of faith like Ruth!)
"DO NOT GLEAN IN ANOTHER FIELD FURTHERMORE DO NOT GO ON FROM THIS ONE BUT STAY HERE WITH MY MAIDS": (Song 1:7,8)
Dabaq - 52v in OT - Gen 2:24; 19:19; 31:23; 34:3; Num 36:7, 9; Deut 10:20; 11:22; 13:4, 17; 28:21, 60; 30:20; Josh 22:5; 23:8, 12; Jdg 18:22; 20:42, 45; Ruth 1:14; 2:8, 21, 23; 1 Sam 14:22; 31:2; 2 Sam 1:6; 20:2; 23:10; 1Ki 11:2; 2 Ki 3:3; 5:27; 18:6; 1 Chr 10:2; Job 19:20; 29:10; 31:7; 38:38; 41:17, 23; Ps 22:15; 44:25; 63:8; 101:3; 102:5; 119:25, 31; 137:6; Jer 13:11; 42:16; Lam 4:4; Ezek 3:26; 29:4 and is rendered in the NAS as cleave(4), cleaves(4), cling(11), clings(3), closely pursued(1), closer(1), clung(4), deeply attracted(1), fasten a grip(1), follow closely(1), held fast(1), hold(2), hold fast(2), holding fast(1), joined(1), joined together(1), overtake(1), overtook(5), pursued closely(2), remained steadfast(1), stay(1), stay close(1), stayed close(1), stick(1), stick together(1), stuck(2).
The Septuagint translates dabaq with the Greek verb kollao (from Gk word kolla = glue) which literally means to join closely or glue together and is in the aorist imperative which indicates a command that is to be carried out even with a sense of urgency. Ruth is encouraged is to "stick close" or "stick like glue" to Boaz's maids and this command was given by Boaz with her best interest at heart. Remember that these were the dangerous days of the judges. As Boaz said to Ruth, so our Lord says to us “Glean not in any other field but Mine" for the "fields" of the world are dangerous, destructive, even deadly and must be shunned.
Note that Boaz first spoke to Ruth, for she would not have dared to speak to a man in this culture, especially one who was a stranger and “the lord of the harvest.” What right did a widow and a pagan alien have to address a great man like Boaz? Yet he interrupted his conversation with his foreman to speak to a poor stranger gleaning in his field. Boaz invites her to glean in his field for the entire harvest (Ru 2:21-note) instead of moving from estate to estate as gleaners usually did. What a picture of our "Greater Boaz" Christ Jesus, Whose invitation is to "Come to Me you who are weary and heavy laden and I will give you rest" (Mt 11:28, 29, 30)
My maids (05291) (Hebrew noun na'arah) usually refers to a woman of marriageable though at present unmarried and emphasizes youthfulness. These maids followed the grain cutters and bound grain into sheaves. As an aside it is not as if a wealthy man like Boaz did not have other ladies he might have chosen as a bride and yet he clearly is being drawn toward Ruth the Moabitess (the majesty and mystery of divine providence!)
Ruth 2:9 "Let your eyes be on the field which they reap, and go after them. Indeed, I have commanded the servants not to touch (molest) you. When you are thirsty, go to the water jars and drink from what the servants draw." (NASB: Lockman)
Amplified: Watch which field they reap, and follow them. Have I not charged the young men not to molest you? And when you are thirsty, go to the vessels and drink what the young men have drawn. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
GWT: Watch where my men are reaping, and follow the young women in that field. I have ordered my young men not to touch you. When you're thirsty, go to the jars and drink some of the water that the young men have drawn." (GWT)
KJV: Let thine eyes be on the field that they do reap, and go thou after them: have I not charged the young men that they shall not touch thee? and when thou art athirst, go unto the vessels, and drink of that which the young men have drawn.
Young's Literal: thine eyes are on the field which they reap, and thou hast gone after them; have not I charged the young men not to touch thee? when thou art athirst then thou hast gone unto the vessels, and hast drunk from that which the young men draw.'
Septuagint (LXX): ') href="http://studylight.org/lex/grk/view.cgi?number=3588">oi opthalmoi sou eis ton agron ou ean therizosin (3PPAS) kai poreuse (2SFMI) katopisthen auton idou eneteilamen (1SAMI) tois paidariois tou me apsasthai sou kai o ti dipseseis (2SFAI) kai poreuthese (2SFPI) eis ta skeue kai piesai (2SFMI) hothen an hudreuontai (3PPMS) ta paidaria
English of Septuagint: Let thine eyes be on the field where my men shall reap, and thou shalt go after them: behold, I have charged the young men not to touch thee: and when you shalt thirst, then thou shalt go to the vessels, and drink of that which the young men shall have drawn
|LET YOUR EYES BE ON THE FIELD WHICH THEY REAP AND GO AFTER THEM:
Let your eyes be on the field which they reap - As discussed earlier, the fields in these days had no fences or hedges dividing them and it would have been easy for Ruth to wander off of Boaz's land without knowing. In so doing she might find herself among strangers who in turn might not protect her.
Go after them - In other words, Ruth had first chance at the best of the gleanings which the maids did not bind into sheaves! (Dt 24:19, 22 cp Dt 15:9, Ps 41:1-note, Pr 14:21, 19:17, Mt 5:7-note, cp the undeserved favor or grace Boaz bestowed upon a foreign Moabitess with the marvelous grace of our Kinsman Redeemer on those who were outside of the covenants, without hope and without God in the word - 2Co 8:9)
Would God describe you (or me) as gracious to the poor, the helpless, the widow, the orphan? What does your "religion" really look like? (see Jas 1:27-note). What should motivate us? A good memory for starters for as God said to Israel and by way of application to us today "You shall remember that you were a slave in the land of _______ (fill in the blank because before we were rescued and transferred from darkness to the kingdom of God's beloved Son [Col 1:12, 13-note] by grace through faith [Ep 2:8, 9-note] we were all slaves of sin [Ro 6:11-note, Ro 6:17, 18-note] and Satan [Acts 26:18]) therefore I am commanding you to do this thing." (Dt 24:22, cp Php 2:3, 4-note, Php 2:5NIV-note)
Boaz encouraged Ruth not to go to other fields to glean, but to remain with his servant girls and work alongside them.
Keep the picture in mind of the men leading the way through the heads of standing barley grain wielding the sickles, slashing to and fro, followed by the women who were tying the freshly cut stalks into sheaves (which were bundles of the grain stalks laid lengthways and tied together after having been reaped). After these sheaves were brought in from the fields, they would then be subjected to the "trauma" of threshing, which would facilitate the separation of the heavier kernels from the lighter, worthless husks which would be carried away by the breezes that blew in from the Mediterranean Sea (see the figurative use in Ps 1:4-note). As you might surmise the process of threshing was usually performed on some elevated site to more effectively utilize the separating power of the prevailing sea winds.
Remember that in ancient times (especially the days of the Judges - Jdg 21:25) grain fields were dangerous places for women as alluded to in the Torah where Moses records…
John Butler adds a note about the importance of keeping one's eyes on the master's field writing…
INDEED I HAVE COMMANDED THE SERVANTS NOT TO TOUCH YOU: (Ge 20:6, 7, see context Ge 20:1, 2, 3, 4, 5; Job 19:21KJV; Ps 105:15; Pr 6:29; 1Co 7:1; 1Jn 5:18)
Servants (05288) is the Hebrew noun na'ar used to describe a youth or young man as contrasted with an older man. Vine says that na'ar denoted one "who is of marriageable age but is still a bachelor."
DO NOT TOUCH
Touch (05060) (naga') is the verb used in (Ex 19:15) where it is translated "do not go near" (a woman) (NASB) and more interpretatively by the NIV (accurately, which is not always the case with this dynamic paraphrase!) as "abstain from sexual relations" (Ex 19:15NIV). Clearly Boaz is alluding to sexual contact (cf use of naga' in Pr 6:29-note).The servants were charged by their master not to lay a hand upon Ruth. In those days women obviously were in danger of being raped while working in the fields (cf Naomi's warning in Ru 2:22-note). God, using Boaz as His instrument, was protecting Ruth and God at the same time was protecting the seed of Obed (Ru 4:21, 22) and the integrity of the line of the Messiah (Mt 1:1, 5, 6) from being "defiled", just as He had protected Abraham's wife Sarah from the Philistine King Abimelech (cf Ge 20:6, 7). Once again the narrator gives us the sense that Naomi, Ruth, and Boaz live in an "oasis of peace" in the midst of the dark "days of the judges".
The Septuagint (LXX) translates naga' with the Greek verb hapto which meant to cause burning to take place (to light or kindle a fire) and was used literally to mean to touch or take hold of (Jn 20:17, Lk 7:39) but was also used figuratively and euphemistically of touching a woman (ie, sexual intercourse as in 1Cor 7:1, and is also used this way in the Lxx translations of Ge 20:6, Pr 6:29-note. It is therefore very likely that the author is alluding to illicit activity that would be especially prone to occur to a foreign woman out in the field with a group of laboring young men in the days of the Judges (cp Jdg 21:25-note).
It is interesting to observe the final NT use of the Greek verb hapto in 1Jn 5:18 where it conveys the sense of "to lay hold of or grasp in order to harm."
The believer belongs to God and God protects His children by limiting Satan's power (Job 1:12, later he allows Satan to touch Job [Job 2:4, 5, 6], but He still limited Satan's power for His purposes which are always good not evil [cp Ge 50:20, Ro 8:28, 29-note].
Beloved, to counter fear nourish and build your faith in the Father's sovereignty which is an omniscient, omnipresent, omnipotent, infinite sovereignty and let your faith in such a faithful God counter any fear you might have of the Adversary [1Pe 5:8-note, 1Jn 4:4]. Remember, faith is the antidote for fear so in order to strengthen your faith lay hold of the truth in Ro 10:17-note) so that you might be able to walk by faith not sight (2Cor 5:7, cp 2Cor 4:18-note) (See related resource - Fear, How to Handle It)
Yes, Ruth had the Biblical sanction to glean (Lev 19:9, Dt 24:19) but that sanction did not necessarily connote or guarantee protection from assault, and this fact makes Boaz’s offer exceeding abundantly beyond all that Ruth could have asked or thought (cp Ep 3:20-note), especially given her Moabite background (outside the covenant promises of Israel, no hope, no God - cp Eph 2:12-note, Ep 2:13-note). We do know that Boaz’s mother, Rahab, (cf Mt 1:5, Jas 2:25-note) was from the despised Canaanites and this truth could in part explain Boaz’s desire to protect the foreigner Ruth, not to mention of course that he clearly has manifests an attraction to her excellent character (Ru 3:11-note) Note that not once does the writer speak of Ruth's external beauty or attractiveness but only of her attractive inner character (cp 1Pe 3:1, 2, 3, 4-note). I have little doubt that this young woman (probably 25-30 years old) was also physically attractive but that misses the point of this section and so the writer ignores a description of her physical appearance. In a culture so affected by the affectation of Hollywood, how prone we are to look at the outside and ignore the inside (cp 1Sa 16:7, Jn 7:24) of those we encounter.
ILLUSTRATION: Have you checked the labels on your grocery items lately? You may be getting less than you thought. According to U.S. News & World Report, some manufacturers are selling us the same size packages we are accustomed to, but they are putting less of the product in the box. For example, a box of well-known detergent that once held 61 ounces now contains only 55. Same size box, less soap. How something is wrapped doesn’t always show us what’s on the inside. That’s true with people as well. We can wrap ourselves up in the same packaging every day—nice clothes, big smile, friendly demeanor—yet still be less than what we appear to be.
WHEN YOU ARE THIRSTY GO TO THE WATER JARS AND DRINK FROM WHAT THE SERVANTS DRAW: (Genesis 24:18, 19, 20; Mt 10:42; John 4:7, 8, 9, 10, 11)
When you are thirsty - Ruth had the freedom to get a drink at any time.
Israel is a dry land, with some desert regions and with very hot, dry summers. Whoever travels in this land, experiences parching thirst. One of the ways to show hospitality was to give the thirsty visitor a drink. Boaz offers Ruth hospitality, even to the point that she did not have to draw out the water herself!
Thus Boaz gave Ruth permission to drink from the water jars that the young male servants had filled for their use. This was a privilege not ordinarily permitted the gleaners, and is another manifestation of the undeserved favor (grace) that Boaz choose to bestow on Ruth (click here). And again what a picture this gives us of the amazing grace of God as our "greater Boaz", our Kinsman-Redeemer Who also invites us to come and drink if we are thirsty (Jn 7:37, 38, 39, 4:13, 14, 15, cp Jesus our "Rock" Ex 17:6 compared with 1Co 10:4). (See Typology-Study of Types)
JESUS OUR GREATER BOAZ
Beloved are you thirsty? Have you humbled yourself to take a drink from the water jar of our "Greater Boaz" Christ Jesus, Who alone offers living waters that become a well of water springing up to eternal life? Come to Him if you are weary and heavy laden and you will find rest and soul satisfaction. Do not seek to quench your thirst with the world's offering as did a certain rich man (Lk 16:19, 20, 21) for the "water" the world offers can never satisfy your spiritual thirst as the rich man discovered in Hades (Lk 16:24).
Ruth probably did not understand why Boaz had commanded his workers to be so generous to her, but she believed his word (cp believers in the NT = 2Co 5:7) and found that her needs were met (cp Phil 4:19-note, 2Co 9:8, Ps 23:1, 2, 3-note).
Devotional from Today in the Word
|Amplified: Then she fell on her face, bowing to the ground, and said to him, Why have I found favor in your eyes that you should notice me, when I am a foreigner? (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
GWT: Ruth immediately bowed down to the ground and said to him, "Why are you so helpful? Why are you paying attention to me? I'm only a foreigner." (GWT)
ICB: Then Ruth bowed low with her face to the ground. She said to Boaz, "I am a stranger. Why have you been so kind to notice me?" (ICB: Nelson)
KJV: Then she fell on her face, and bowed herself to the ground, and said unto him, Why have I found grace in thine eyes, that thou shouldest take knowledge of me, seeing I am a stranger?
NLT: Ruth fell at his feet and thanked him warmly. "Why are you being so kind to me?" she asked. "I am only a foreigner." (NLT - Tyndale House)
Young's Literal: And she falleth on her face, and boweth herself to the earth, and saith unto him, 'Wherefore have I found grace in thine eyes, to discern me, and I a stranger?'
Septuagint (LXX): kai epesen (3SAAI) epi prosopon autes kai prosekunesen (3SAAI) epi ten gen kai eipen (3SAAI) pros auton ti hoti heuron (1SAAI) charin en opthalmois sou tou epignonai (AAN) me kai ego eimi (1SPAI) xene
English of Septuagint: And she fell upon her face, and did reverence to the ground, and said to him, How is it that I have found grace in thine eyes, that thou shouldest take notice of me, whereas I am a stranger
|THEN SHE FELL ON HER FACE BOWING TO THE GROUND: (Ge 18:2; 1Sa 25:23)
Then - This "time phrase" (see expressions of time) marks the sequence in a series of events. Always be alert for this "code word" (be observant) and let it prompt the question "When is then?" She falls to her knees and then to her face (see discussion below) after hearing the incredible, gracious (grace laden - cp Ep 4:29-note, Pr 15:23, 16:24, 25:11, 27:9, Eccl 10:12) words that Boaz had just bestowed upon Ruth, a woman, a poor woman, a widow woman, a poor foreign widow woman, a Moabitess, an undeserving stranger and alien. What a picture of grace! What a picture Ruth is of all of us before we met our gracious Redeemer, Christ Jesus! Little wonder that Boaz is so frequently spoken of as one who points to the greater Kinsman-Redeemer, Christ Jesus, the One in Whom grace has been piled upon grace and in Whom grace and truth are realized (Jn 1:16, 17 cp Ep 2:7-note)
Ruth in great humility and with a deep sense of gratitude threw herself on the ground and bowed before Boaz, asking with surprise why she, a foreigner, had found such favor in his eyes. What did the master of the field see in her?
Fell (05307) (naphal) means literally to fall (as from a higher to a lower position) and in this verse pictures Ruth literally falling to her knees before Boaz (cp uses in Ge 17:3, 50:18). But the writer adds a second verb, shachah (discussed below), which at first glance is similar, but is added to present an even clearer picture of what transpired that "fateful" ("fate filled") day in the barley field. In other words, although this Hebrew verb naphal can sometimes mean to prostrate one's self, it does not always convey that meaning. In the present scene the writer adds shachah which while also conveying the sense of going from a higher to a lower position (as when one bows down), adds the nuance of doing so with an attitude which is also "bowed down". And so the verb shachah is rightly used to describe one prostrating one's self or bowing down before God with an attitude of reverence and worship (Ge 17:3). The picture is of Ruth falling to her knees (Hebrew = naphal, translated in Septuagint (LXX) with Greek verb pipto = conveys simple meaning "to fall down") and then bowing to the ground or laying herself out on the ground at the feet of Boaz (see below for the Hebrew verb shachah, translated in LXX with Greek verb proskuneo = conveys the sense of worship)
What does the response to the reception of amazing, totally undeserved grace look like? falling on our faces in absolute abandon lost in worship of the only One Worthy of worship!
Years later Scripture gives an almost identical description of another godly woman recording that
We see a similar exchange recorded again before David when…
And so here we see Boaz's great grandson, David, manifesting a kind and gracious spirit just as Boaz himself had shown to Ruth in the barley fields! What a legacy of amazing grace! And Boaz's mother was a pagan idol worshipping harlot, Rahab the harlot by name (Josh 6:17, 25, He 11:31, Jas 2:25), a sinner who by grace through faith became a saint. It's not how bad we've been or how bad we've begun, but how great God's goodness and kindness is to extract us from the miry clay and darkness of our past and to give us a future and a hope. How great is our God! How great is Ruth's God! Play and watch - indescribable; HOW gREAT IS OUR GOD; HOLY IS THE LORD GOD ALMIGHTY
Boaz was a man of God and would have been very familiar with the charge that
And clearly as the story unfolds Boaz went beyond the letter of the Law (Lev 19:9, Deut 24:19) to bestow abundant unmerited favor on this stranger, giving her grace upon grace, far beyond what she could ever have imagined. Boaz was a man who lived out what Jesus encouraged NT saints to do…
Paul emphasizes this same principle declaring that…
Bowing (07812) (shachah) means to bow down, to prostrate oneself, to crouch, to fall down, to humbly beseech, to do reverence, to worship. The idea is to assume a prostrate position as would in paying homage to royalty (Ge 43:28) or to God (Ge 24:26, Ps 95:6).
Brown-Driver-Briggs' Definition - to bow down (Qal) to bow down; (Hiphil) to depress (fig); (Hithpael) to bow down, prostrate oneself, before superior in homage, before God in worship,
before false gods, before angel.
In the first use in Genesis (which has most of the uses - 21v), when Abraham saw "three men (one of Whom was most likely the pre-incarnate Christ)… standing opposite him… he ran from the tent door to meet them and bowed (shachah) himself to the earth (Ge 18:2, cp Lot bowing to the two angels - Ge 19:1) It is used to describe Joseph's brother's sheaves which "bowed down to my sheaf.” (Ge 37:7) When God told Abraham to sacrifice his son, he told his men to remain for they would go to "worship and return to you." (Ge 22:5) Joshua bowed down to the "Captain of the host of the LORD," (Joshua 5:14) almost assuredly a preincarnate appearance of Messiah. In Josh 23:7, 16 Joshua warned Israel NOT to bow down to the idols of the land, but in Jdg 2:12, 17, 19 that is exactly what they did!
The English word prostrate is defined as being stretched out with one's face on the ground in adoration or submission. It is not just that the person has fallen down but pictures them lying at length or with their body extended on the ground and so lying in a posture which is reflective of genuine humility and/or adoration.
Swanson - 1. (qal) fall prostrate, i.e., take a bowing stance, here as a position of submission to a human superior (Isa 51:2); 2. (hif) be despondent, formally, cause to weigh down, i.e., cause to be anxious and discouraged, as a figurative extension of causing a person to become in a prostrate position (Pr 12:25),
Shachah - 166v in the OT - Ge 18:2; 19:1; 22:5; 23:7, 12; 24:26, 48, 52; 27:29; 33:3, 6, 7; Ge 37:7, 9, 10; 42:6; 43:26, 28; 47:31; 48:12; 49:8; Ex 4:31; 11:8; 12:27; 18:7; 20:5; 23:24; 24:1; 32:8; 33:10; 34:8, 14; Lv 26:1; Nu 22:31; 25:2; Deut. 4:19; 5:9; 8:19; 11:16; 17:3; 26:10; 29:26; 30:17; Jos 5:14; 23:7, 16; Jdg 2:12, 17, 19; 7:15; Ru 2:10; 1Sa 1:3, 19, 28; 2:36; 15:25, 30f; 20:41; 24:8; 25:23, 41; 28:14; 2Sa 1:2; 9:6, 8; 12:20; 14:4, 22, 33; 15:5, 32; 16:4; 18:21, 28; 24:20; 1Ki 1:16, 23, 31, 47, 53; 2:19; 9:6, 9; 11:33; 16:31; 22:53; 2Ki 2:15; 4:37; 5:18; 17:16, 35f; 18:22; 19:37; 21:3, 21; 1Chr. 16:29; 21:21; 29:20; 2 Chr. 7:3, 19, 22; 20:18; 24:17; 25:14; 29:28, 29, 30; 32:12; 33:3; Neh 8:6; 9:3, 6; Esther 3:2, 5; Job 1:20; Ps. 5:7; 22:27, 29; 29:2; 45:11; 66:4; 72:11; 81:9; 86:9; 95:6; 96:9; 97:7; 99:5, 9; 106:19; 132:7; 138:2; Pr 12:25; Is 2:8, 20; 27:13; 36:7; 37:38; 44:15, 17; 45:14; 46:6; 49:7, 23; 51:23; 60:14; 66:23; Je 1:16; 7:2; 8:2; 13:10; 16:11; 22:9; 25:6; 26:2; Ezek 8:16; 46:2, 3, 9; Mic 5:13; Zeph. 1:5; 2:11; Zec 14:16, 17
The NAS renders shachah as bow(5), bow down(23), bowed(15), bowed down(18), bowing(1), bowing down(1), bows down(1), did homage(1), homage(2), lie down(1), paid homage(3), prostrate(2), prostrated(13), prostrating(1), way(1), weighs down(1), worship(48), worshiped(31), worshiping(3), worships(2).
Here are the uses in Psalms…
In some connotations shachah even conveys the idea of worship as we hear Abraham say to his men as he takes Isaac to the mount to sacrifice him -- "Abraham said to his young men,
The verb pictures the bowing down in homage of an inferior before a superior as when David
Bowing is translated in the Septuagint (LXX) in this passage (and most of the uses in Psalms and elsewhere) with the picturesque Greek verb proskuneo (from pros = toward or facing + kuneo = kiss, adore) which pictures the practice among the Orientals (especially the Persians) of falling upon their knees and touching the ground with their forehead as an expression of profound reverence.
Proskuneo- 60x in 54v in the NT - Matt. 2:2, 8, 11; 4:9f; 8:2; 9:18; 14:33; 15:25; 18:26; 20:20; 28:9, 17; Mk. 5:6; 15:19; Lk. 4:7f; 24:52; Jn. 4:20, 21, 22; 9:38; 12:20; Acts 7:43; 8:27; 10:25; 24:11; 1 Co. 14:25; Heb. 1:6; 11:21; Rev. 3:9; 4:10; 5:14; 7:11; 9:20; 11:1, 16; 13:4, 8, 12, 15; 14:7, 9, 11; 15:4; 16:2; 19:4, 10, 20; 20:4; 22:8f
Proskuneo- 177x in the Septuagint (LXX) - Gen. 18:2; 19:1; 22:5; 23:7, 12; 24:26, 48, 52; 27:29; 33:3, 6f; 37:7, 9f; 42:6; 43:26, 28; 47:31; 48:12; 49:8; Exod. 4:31; 11:8; 12:27; 18:7; 20:5; 23:24; 24:1; 32:8; 33:10; 34:8, 14; Lev. 26:1; Num. 22:31; 25:2; Deut. 4:19; 5:9; 8:19; 11:16; 17:3; 26:10; 29:26; 30:17; 32:43; Jos. 23:7, 16; Jdg. 2:2, 12, 17, 19; 7:15; Ruth 2:10; 1 Sam. 1:3, 19; 2:36; 15:25, 30f; 20:41; 24:8; 25:23, 41; 28:14; 2 Sam. 1:2; 9:6, 8; 12:20; 14:4, 22, 33; 15:5, 32; 16:4; 18:21, 28; 24:20; 1 Ki. 1:16, 23, 31, 47, 53; 2:13; 9:6, 9; 16:31; 19:18; 22:53; 2 Ki. 2:15; 4:37; 5:18; 17:16, 35f; 18:22; 19:37; 21:3, 21; 1 Chr. 16:29; 21:21; 29:20; 2 Chr. 7:3, 19, 22; 20:18; 24:17; 25:14; 29:28ff; 32:12; 33:3; Neh. 8:6; 9:3, 6; Ester 3:2, 5; 4:17; 8:12; Job 1:20; Ps. 5:7; 22:27, 29; 29:2; 45:11; 66:4; 72:11; 81:9; 86:9; 95:6; 96:9; 97:7; 99:5, 9; 106:19; 132:7; 138:2; Isa. 2:8, 20; 27:13; 37:38; 44:15, 17, 19; 45:14; 46:6; 49:7, 23; 66:23; Jer. 1:16; 8:2; 13:10; 16:11; 22:9; 25:6; 26:2; Ezek. 8:16; 46:2f, 9; Dan. 2:46; 3:5ff, 10ff, 14f, 18, 28; 6:26f; Mic. 5:13; Zeph. 1:5; 2:11; Zech. 14:16f;
Falling down and Bowing gives a clear indication of Ruth's humility and respect for authority. It behooves all of us to emulate Ruth's attitude and action and
Warren Wiersbe adds that
John Butler writes that…
AND SAID TO HIM "WHY HAVE I FOUND FAVOR (GRACE) IN YOUR SIGHT THAT YOU SHOULD TAKE NOTICE OF ME SINCE I AM A FOREIGNER": (Ru 2:2,13; 2Sa 9:8; 19:28; Lk 1:43,48; Ro 12:10) (Is 56:3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8; Mt 15:22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28; 25:35; Lk 7:6,7; 17:16, 17, 18, 18, Jas 4:6, 2Co 12:9, 10, 1Co 15:10)
Ruth's very question showed a spirit of humility and self-effacement. Her status as from the despised Moabites would have been constantly on her mind and she was undoubtedly aware of the fact that on the basis of her nationality, she did not belong. This truth makes her acceptance even that much more precious. Her response reminds us of the "woman… who was a sinner" of whom Jesus said "her sins, which are many, have been forgiven, for she loved much but he who is forgiven little, loves little." (Lk 7:37, 47)
Favor (02580) (chen/hen) (used 3x in Ruth 2 - Ruth 2:2, 10, 13) Ruth acknowledged her own unworthiness and accepted his "favor" or "grace" for "favor" (chen) means grace which was exactly what she had gone into the fields to find (Ru 2:2-note). She believed his promises and rejoiced in them. There was no need for Ruth to worry, for the wealthy lord of the harvest would care for her and Naomi. Furthermore Ruth was a perfect "target" to receive grace, for as Solomon reminds us God "scoffs at the scoffers, yet He gives grace to the afflicted (humble - those who are "low")" (Pr 3:34). The person with humility (Ruth) thinks of others first (Naomi) and not of themselves.
Chen - 67v in OT - Gen. 6:8; 18:3; 19:19; 30:27; 32:5; 33:8, 10, 15; 34:11; 39:4, 21; 47:25, 29; 50:4; Ex. 3:21; 11:3; 12:36; 33:12f, 16f; 34:9; Nu 11:11, 15; 32:5; Dt 24:1; Jdg. 6:17; Ruth 2:2, 10, 13; 1Sa 1:18; 16:22; 20:3, 29; 25:8; 27:5; 2Sa 14:22; 15:25; 16:4; 1 Ki. 11:19; Esther 2:15, 17; 5:2, 8; 7:3; 8:5; Ps. 45:2; 84:11; Pr. 1:9; 3:4, 22, 34; 4:9; 5:19; 11:16; 13:15; 17:8; 22:1, 11; 28:23; 31:30; Eccl. 9:11; 10:12; Jer. 31:2; Nah. 3:4; Zech. 4:7; 12:10
The NAS renders chen as adornment(1), charm*(1), charm(1), charming*(1), favor(51), grace(8), graceful(2), gracious(3), pleases*(1).
How did Ruth know Boaz would care for her? He gave her his promise, and she knew he could be trusted. Ruth had in her heart the essence of the second stanza of It is Well With My Soul:
Take notice (05234) (nakar) (used in Ru 2:19 = take notice, Ru 3:14 = recognize) means to scrutinize, look intently at and thus conveys the idea of "inspecting" or "looking over" something with the intention of recognizing it. In the present context Ruth is asking Boaz in essence why are you even choosing to pay attention to me or "even give me the time of day" to one so low in rank and unworthy? Note that nakar is not used in the Old Testament as a euphemism for the act of sexual intercourse which is significant because as noted above Ru 3:14 uses nakar when Ruth lays at Boaz's feet and "arose before one could recognize another."
The first use in Ge 27:23 nakar describes Jacob's successful ruse to masquerade as Esau for Isaac "did not recognize (Lxx = epiginosko) him, because his hands were hairy like his brother Esau’s hands; so he blessed him."
Nakar is used to describe examining to see if was Joseph's tunic (Ge 37:32,33) Judah examined and recognized the " signet ring and cords and staff " he had given to Tamar when he had illicit relations with her (Ge 38:25-26). Nakar describes when Joseph recognized his brothers but they failed to recognize him (Ge 42:7-8). In Deut 1:17 Moses instructed the judges 'You shall not show partiality (in Hebrew nakar + panim = face - you shall not "know face" which equates with treat them with partiality, as you you knew them for example. Lxx has epiginosko + prosopon = the face) in judgment." (cp similar use Dt 16:19, Pr 24:23, 28:21) Job's friends did not recognize him (Job 2:12) In Ezra 3:13 " the people could not distinguish (nakar; Lxx = epiginosko) the sound of the shout of joy from the sound of the weeping of the people, for the people shouted with a loud shout, and the sound was heard far away." In Neh 6:12, Nehemiah said "Then I perceived (Lxx = epiginosko) that surely God had not sent him, but he uttered his prophecy against me because Tobiah and Sanballat had hired him."
Brown-Driver-Briggs' Definition - to recognize, acknowledge, know, respect, discern, regard. (1) (Niphal) to be recognized (2) (Piel) to regard (3) (Hiphil) (a) to regard, observe, pay attention to, pay regard to, notice (b) to recognize (as formerly known), perceive (c) to be willing to recognize or acknowledge, acknowledge with honor (d) to be acquainted with (e)to distinguish, understand (4) (Hithpael) to make oneself known. Second major meaning = to act or treat as foreign or strange, disguise, misconstrue. (1) (Niphal) to disguise oneself (2) (Piel)
to treat as foreign (profane) to misconstrue (3) (Hithpael) to act as alien, to disguise oneself
Nakar - 41v in the OT - Ge 27:23; 31:32; 37:32f; 38:25f; 42:7, 8; Dt 1:17; 16:19; 21:17; 33:9; Jdg 18:3; Ru 2:10, 19; 3:14; 1Sa 26:17; 2Sa 3:36; 1Ki 18:7; 20:41; Ezra 3:13; Neh 6:12; 13:24; Job 2:12; 4:16; 7:10; 21:29; 24:13, 17; 34:19, 25; Ps 103:16; 142:4; Pr 20:11; 24:23; 28:21; Is 61:9; 63:16; Je 24:5; Lam 4:8; Da 11:39
The NAS renders nakar as able(1), acknowledge(3), acknowledges(1), discern(1), distinguish(1), distinguishes(1), examine(2), examined(1), familiar(1), know(2), knows(1), partial*(1), partiality*(3), perceived(1), point (1), recognize(7), recognized(8), regard(1), regards(2), see(1), show(3), take notice(1), took note(1), took notice(1).
Since I am a foreigner - Clearly Boaz knows Ruth is a foreigner (a Moabitess, Ru 2:6), but she was likely not privy to that conversation and wants to make sure Boaz understands to whom it is that he is showing favor. It's as if she is thinking to herself "His kindness is greatly appreciated but I'm not sure he really understands I am from the despised, shunned Moabites!"
Foreigner (05237) (nokriy) comes from a word that means "to recognize" or be conspicuous. The most common usage is in describing that which is foreign, especially "foreign" people (not Israelites - Ruth the Moabitess).
One of the most tragic uses of nokriy is to describe King Solomon's incredible disobedience in that he "loved many foreign women" (1Ki 11:1) and he even backslid (some actually wonder if he was even genuinely saved -- I think he was) to the point of building idolatrous high places "for all his foreign wives, who burned incense and sacrificed to their gods." (1Ki 11:8, context = 1Ki 11:7, cp allusion to this sin in Neh 13:26)! All seven uses of nokriy in Ezra 10 refer to the Israelites taking foreign wives (Ezra 10:2, 10-11, 14, 17-18, 44). We see a confrontation of the men of Israel in Neh 13:27 - "Do we then hear about you that you have committed all this great evil by acting unfaithfully against our God by marrying foreign women?" Notice how God felt about this sin (it was a great evil)!
Nokriy is used to describe an adulteress in Proverbs 2:16, 5:10, 6:24, 23:27, 27:2, 27:13 and Pr 7:5 (where adulteress is equated with foreigner - nokriy). Most of the uses of nokriy meaning adulteress are translated in the Lxx with the adjective allotrios which means "belonging to another, not one's own." (Lk 16:12) or "stranger, foreigner" (Jn 10:5) It is notable (and incredible) that all of these uses of nokriy are in sections of Proverbs penned by King Solomon and then he proceeds in his later years to seek out these very women! Amazing! Frightening! Deception is a powerful "aphrodisiac" (or perhaps better understood - the temptation precedes the deception!) which reminds me of Paul's warnings in 1Cor 10:6, 11, 12. We all need to run the race with endurance -- ALL THE WAY to the finish line! And all by reliance on God's grace and God's Spirit! Amen (or "O my")!
Nokriy is translated in the Septuagint with the Greek noun xenos which generally means a stranger from another place. Xenophobia is fear of strangers, a malady Boaz did not suffer from. A practical application for all of us in America is how do we respond to "foreigners"? Do we despise them or show them kindness?
Jehovah accuses Judah of turning from a choice vine "Into the degenerate shoots of a foreign vine?"
Brown-Driver-Briggs' Definition - foreign, alien - foreign, foreigner (subst), foreign woman, harlot, unknown, unfamiliar (fig.)
Webster on foreign - situated outside a place or country; especially : situated outside one’s own country; born in, belonging to, or characteristic of some place or country other than the one under consideration; alien in character
Nokriy in NAS usage nokriy = adulteress(2), adulterous woman(2), alien(2), aliens(1), extraordinary(1), foreign(16), foreigner(15), foreigners(5), stranger(1).
Nokriy - 45v in the OT - Ge 31:15; Ex 2:22; 18:3; 21:8; Dt 14:21; 15:3; 17:15; 23:20; 29:22; Jdg. 19:12; Ruth 2:10; 2Sam. 15:19; 1Ki. 8:41, 43; 11:1, 8; 2Chr. 6:32f; Ezra 10:2, 10-11, 14, 17-18, 44; Neh 13:26f; Job 19:15; Ps. 69:8; Pr. 2:16; 5:10, 20; 6:24; 7:5; 20:16; 23:27; 27:2, 13; Eccl. 6:2; Isa. 2:6; 28:21; Jer. 2:21; Lam. 5:2; Obad 1:11; Zeph. 1:8
Samuel Ridout - Such grace, so unexpected, moves Ruth to deepest gratitude, and falling at his feet, she asks why he should show such kindness to a stranger like herself. His reply shows how familiar he is with her history, which he interprets as far more than filial kindness to her bereaved mother-in-law. She has come to find shelter under the protecting wings of the God of Israel, and her devotion to Naomi cannot be separated from that. And has not the heart often asked a similar question of our Lord? He has manifested some special thought of us, given some refreshing to our thirsty souls, and we wonder why it should be so. Is not His answer to be found in the fact that He has marked our path, and seen the beginnings of that faith which He now rewards. Nay, is not the faith itself the fruit of His own sovereign grace, and is He not but setting the seal upon His own divine work? He knows those whom He has drawn to Himself. (Gleanings from the Book of Ruth. Pleasant Places Press)
John Piper has some wonderfully poignant insights on this section commenting that
What does Ruth acknowledge she has received? What does the response to the reception of amazing, totally undeserved grace look like? falling on our faces in absolute abandon lost in worship of the only One Worthy of worship!
What did Ruth believe? She believed his word -- she obeyed his word & gleaned his fields (His fields are all we need precious saint. Wander not to other fields!) She received his grace -- Boaz a channel to dispense God's rich grace & Ruth a vessel to receive it, for God is opposed to the proud but gives grace to the humble (Jas 4:6). She found all of her needs met -- exceedingly, abundantly, far beyond what she had expected or deserved. God gives a greater grace! (Jas 4:6) See following passages for proper response to grace - Lk 7:6,7; 17:16, 17, 18, 18, 2Co 12:9, 10
><> ><> ><>
Do We Truly Care - When I first became a Christian, my friends and I had a way of helping each other memorize portions of the Bible. We would greet one another by asking the other person to quote a verse. Knowing of my poor memory, one friend used to humorously say to me, "Quote John 11:35!" He knew that it would be easy for me to remember this two-word verse.
A heartfelt greeting can energize the weary and encourage the lonely.
Ruth 2:11 Boaz replied to her, "All that you have done for your mother-in-law after the death of your husband has been fully reported to me, and how you left your father and your mother and the land of your birth, and came to a people that you did not previously * know. (NASB: Lockman)
|Amplified: And Boaz said to her, I have been made fully aware of all you have done for your mother-in-law since the death of your husband, (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
GWT: Boaz answered her, "People have told me about everything you have done for your mother-in-law after your husband died. They told me how you left your father and mother and the country where you were born. They also told me how you came to people that you didn't know before. (GWT)
KJV: And Boaz answered and said unto her, It hath fully been showed me, all that thou hast done unto thy mother in law since the death of thine husband: and how thou hast left thy father and thy mother, and the land of thy nativity, and art come unto a people which thou knewest not heretofore.
Young's Literal: And Boaz answereth and saith to her, 'It hath thoroughly been declared to me all that thou hast done with thy mother-in-law, after the death of thy husband, and thou dost leave thy father, and thy mother, and the land of thy birth, and dost come in unto a people which thou hast not known heretofore.
Septuagint (LXX): kai apekrithe (3SAPI) Boos kai eipen (3SAAI) aute apaggelia apeggele (3SAPI) moi osa pepoiekas (2SRAI) meta tes pentheras sou meta to apothanein (AAN) ton andra sou kai pos katelipes (2SAAI) ton patera sou kai ten metera sou kai ten gen geneseos sou kai eporeuthes (2SAPI) pros laon on ouk edeis (2SPPAI) echthes kai trites
English of Septuagint: And Booz answered and said to her, It has fully been told me how thou hast dealt with thy mother-in-law after the death of thy husband; and how thou didst leave thy father and thy mother, and the land of thy birth, and camest to a people whom thou knewest not before
|BOAZ REPLIED TO HER:
Replied (06030) (anah) means to answer but can also mean to raise one's voice and thus several commentators feel that Boaz lifted up his voice so that all bystanders might hear. Boaz may have wanted everybody to hear what he thought about Ruth, and he was not ashamed to be identified with this "foreign woman". If indeed this is a correct interpretation (and it does seem reasonable in the context) Boaz gives us foretaste of how our Kinsman-Redeemer will someday confess us without shame before His Father. Jesus said that
He is not ashamed to be identified with poor, destitute sinners such as we were in Adam. Let us not be ashamed to identify with Him.
ALL THAT YOU HAVE DONE FOR YOUR MOTHER IN LAW AFTER THE DEATH OF YOUR HUSBAND HAS BEEN FULLY REPORTED TO ME: (Ru 1:11,14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22; Psalms 37:5,6)
Fully reported (05046) (nagad) is from a root meaning to place a matter conspicuously before a person and thus to bring to light a “matter” which was previously unknown. In small towns news travels fast and sadly is often "loose" but in Ruth's case the report is accurate and affirming. Ruth's treatment of her beleaguered mother in law was notable and noticed by all. Ruth's "light" shown forth proving before all and is a good illustration of one who let her "light shine before men in such a way that they (witnessed her) good works… " works which without question brought glory to her "Father Who is in heaven". (Mt 5:16-note)
Ruth is a consummate OT example of one was a light in the midst of a crooked generation (Jdg 21:25)…
The "Bethlehemites" in the world are watching - what would the report regarding my behavior today? this past week?
When Boaz justified his kindness toward Ruth, he did not say that it was because he had heard of how beautiful she was. In fact the Scripture never mentions Ruth's physical appearance which is fascinating in light of our modern society's infatuation with "good looks"! Instead what Boaz had heard about was the beauty of Ruth's character.
Horace Greeley could have just as well been referring to Ruth when he quipped
Boaz had heard about her relationship with Naomi and Ruth's willingness to leave her own family and country in order to take care of her widowed mother-in-law, even though she was a widow herself. God is not interested in our looks or even what other people think about us as much as He desires us to be living epistles (2Cor 3:2,3) that exude the aroma of godly character (2Co 2:14, 15, 16) and it for this goal that we should labor and strive. One facet of Ruth's character implied in the text is her uncomplaining nature, (cp Php 2:14, 15-note) for not once do we see her asking why God had allowed her to experience such adversity, including even the loss of a young husband. To the contrary, we see her asking why she had received such incredible, undeserved favor (grace) from Boaz. What a high and godly standard Ruth sets for all of us!
AND HOW YOU LEFT YOUR FATHER AND YOUR MOTHER AND THE LAND OF YOUR BIRTH: (Ps 45:10; Lk 5:11,23; 14:33; 18:29,30; He 11:8,9,24, 25, 26)
Left (05800) ('azab), which means to depart, leave behind or leave entirely and can convey a note of finality or completeness. The first use of azab is found the setting of the institution of a covenant where God says that
The Septuagint (LXX) translates azab with the strong Greek verb kataleipo (from kata = intensifies meaning + leipo = leave behind) to emphasize that the leaving behind was a complete forsaking of Ruth's former relationships. Ruth counted the cost leaving her homeland and all that was familiar to her, much as did Abraham (who like Ruth also departed from a land of idolatry), who
AND CAME TO A PEOPLE THAT YOU DID NOT PREVIOUSLY KNOW: