JUDGMENT IN THE
DAY OF THE LORD
DAY OF THE LORD
DAY OF WRATH
Sure Doom of
Sure Doom of
"The Day of the LORD"
Zeph 1:7, 14
"Seek the LORD"
Zeph 2:5, 3:1
"The LORD is with you"
Zeph 3:15NIV, Zeph 3:17NIV
"I will utterly
"I will save"
Zeph 1:4, Zeph 2:3
Judgment: Zeph 1:14-18
Restoration: Zeph 3:14-17
and doom are certain unless there is repentance.
Only repentance will bring hope and restoration.
Time: 630BC (640-612)
To: Judah & the Nations
accurately interpret the famous passage in Zephaniah 3:17, we must first
take a moment to examine the
for context is "king" regarding accurate
was Zephaniah written?
Zephaniah prophesied during the reign of
godly King Josiah (640-609BC), most likely in
the latter portion of his reign (between 640-630BC). Others suggest that
Zephaniah's prophecy occurred earlier were a significant influence of the
godly actions of King Josiah who became king in 632BC at age 16, when "he
began to seek the God of his father David and in the twelfth year (age 20,
628BC) he began to purge Judah and Jerusalem of the
high places, the
Asherim, the carved images, and the molten
images (idolatry)" (2Chr 34:3). "In the eighteenth year of his reign (age
26, 622BC), when he had purged the land and the house" (2Chr 34:8), the book
of the was discovered in the house of the LORD (2Chr 34:14) which led to
significant reforms which lasted for only a short time (For more excellent
historical background read 2Ki 22:1-23:30, 2Chr 34:1-35:27). Recall
that the Northern 10 Tribes (often referred to as "Israel") had fallen and
been taken into exile by
Assyria in 722BC, over a century before the
fall of Judah and Jerusalem (586BC) of which Zephaniah prophesied. Zephaniah
also prophesied the destruction of
Nineveh (Zeph 2:13) which occurred in 612BC.
(For more on the historical setting of Zephaniah read 2Ki 22:1-23:30, 2Chr
MacDonald - Believing scholars are
divided as to whether he wrote before or after the great revival of 621 B.C.
If before, his prophecy likely helped bring about the spiritual awakening.
But several details, such as quoting the newly rediscovered law, would
suggest a date after 621. Since Zephaniah 2:13 shows that Nineveh was still
standing, a date before that city’s destruction in 612 B.C. is called for.
Hence the book was probably written between 621 and 612 B.C. (Believer’s
Zephaniah (Zeph 1:1 note genealogy goes back to godly king Hezekiah). His
name means "Jehovah has hidden" (sheltered, concealed, treasured ,
stored up). One writer suggests that the idea of hidden derives from the
fact that he was likely born to godly parents in the time of
Manasseh's evil rule during which he "shed
very much innocent blood." (2Ki 21:16).
To Whom? Judah
and Jerusalem (Zeph 1:4) Although the immediate audience was Jewish, clearly
the truths of this prophecy (especially in Zeph 3:9-20) are applicable to
every believer of every age whether Jew or Gentile. As John Piper
reminds us "even though the amazing promises of this section relate most
directly to the converted and restored people of Israel (Zeph 3:10 Ed:
"dispersed one" - see notes below), nevertheless it is a necessary
implication of the prophecy that the blessings promised flow out beyond the
bounds of Israel and include us who through faith in Christ become Abraham's
seed and heirs of the promise (Galatians 3:29). (The
Lord Will Rejoice over You)
What is the
structure? In very general terms, from the preceding chart it is clear
that most of the book deals with judgment (Zeph 1:1-3:8), but even in the
midst of these "earth shaking" prophecies of God's righteous wrath against
Judah, there is a beautiful prophecy of future restoration, a prophecy that
will be fulfilled at the Second Coming of the Messiah, Who alone is Mighty
to Save the believing remnant of the Chosen People.
What are the Key
Words or Key Phrases in Zephaniah (See
Day of the Lord
another discussion of this Day),
(Zeph 1:4, 2:7, 9, 3:13, cf Zeph
3:12 "I will leave" - see notes below),
nations (plural - Zeph 2:11,
destruction/destroy (Zeph 1:15, 2:5, 13),
desolate/desolation (Zeph 1:13,15,
2:4, 9, 13, 14, 15, 3:6),
midst (Zeph 2:14, 3:11, 15, 17),
Seek (Zeph 2:3),
Anger (Zeph 2:2, 3, 3:8),
(Zeph 1:15, 18),
Indignation (Zeph 3:8);
Gather (Zeph 2:1, 3:8, 18, 19, 20);
Earth (Zeph 1:2, 3, 18, 2:3, 11, 3:8, 19, 20).
Why? What is
Zephaniah's purpose? Given the fact that Zephaniah mentions the
Day of the Lord
discussion of this Day) Day of
the Lord more than any other OT book, clearly this is a key subject. That
Day begins with prophecies of great destruction, not only involving Judah,
but eventually involving the entire earth (cf Zeph 1:1, 4, 1:18, 2:10).
Zephaniah stated that the Day of the LORD was "near" (Zeph 1:14), would be a
time of wrath, trouble, distress, etc, (see full description in Zeph
1:15-16) and would come as judgment on sin against Jehovah (Zeph 1:17), but
that it would be followed by blessing of His very presence in the midst of
His people (Zeph 3:17). (See
Theology of Zephaniah in Baker's Evangelical Dictionary
of Biblical Theology)
“If anyone wishes all the secret oracles of the prophets to be given in a
brief compendium, let him read through this brief Zephaniah.”—Martin Bucer
Outline - from
I. GOD’S DETERMINATION TO EXECUTE
JUDGMENT (Zephaniah 1)
A. On All the Earth (Zeph 1:1–3)
B. On Judah and Jerusalem because of Idolatry (Zeph 1:4–6)
C. The Day of the Lord under the Figure of a Sacrifice (Zeph 1:7–13)
1. Guests-Judah’s Enemies (Zeph 1:7)
2. Victims-Wicked People of Judah (Zeph 1:8–13)
D. The Terror of the Day of the Lord
II. JUDAH IS CALLED TO REPENT (Zeph
III. THE DOOM OF GENTILE NATIONS (Zeph 2:4–15)
A. The Philistines (Zeph 2:4–7)
B. The Moabites and Ammonites (Zeph 2:8–11)
C. The Ethiopians (Zeph 2:12)
D. The Assyrians and Especially the City of Nineveh (Zeph 2:13–15)
IV. WOE PRONOUNCED ON JERUSALEM (Zeph
A. Disobedience, Unresponsiveness,
Unbelief, Impenitence (Zeph 3:1, 2)
B. Greed of the Princes and the Judges (Zeph 3:3)
C. Levity and Treachery of the Prophets and Sacrilege of the Priests (Zeph
D. The Lord’s Presence in Judgment (Zeph 3:5–7)
V. MESSAGE OF COMFORT TO THE FAITHFUL
REMNANT (Zeph 3:8–20)
A. Destruction of Wicked Gentiles (Zeph
B. Conversion of the Remaining Nations (Zeph 3:9)
C. Restoration of Dispersed Israel (Zeph 3:10–13)
D. Rejoicing over the Second Advent of Christ (Zeph 3:14–17)
E. What God Will Do for His People (Zeph 3:18–20)
explains why the Jewish prophets consistently ended their books with a
message of hope for the people of Israel...
(1) To begin with, hope is a great
motivation for obedience, and the prophets wanted to encourage God’s people
to submit to God’s will and do what He commanded. God’s covenant blessings
come to His people only when they obey His covenant conditions.
(2) A second reason is the
prophets’ emphasis on the faithfulness of God. The Lord will keep His
promises and one day establish the kingdom (Ed: This question was
ever in the heart of every pious Jew - Acts 1:6, cf the prayer in Mt 6:10-note,
Lk 11:2); and since God is faithful to keep His promises (1Cor 1:9, 10:13-note,
2Cor 1:18, 2Th 3:3, Heb 10:23-note),
we ought to be faithful obeying His Word. If we obey, God will be faithful
to chasten; if we confess, He will be faithful to forgive (1Jn 1:9-note).
(3) Finally, the closing message
of hope was an encouragement to the
in the land, who were true to God and suffered because of their devotion to
Him (Ed: God always has His "7000" who have not bowed to Baal [Ro 11:4-note],
cf Simeon - Lk 2:25 and Anna - Lk 2:36, 37, 38). It’s difficult to belong to
that “company of the committed” who stand true to the Lord and His Word no
matter what others may do or say. Knowing that God would one day defeat
their enemies and reign in righteousness would encourage the believing
remnant to persist in their faithful walk with the Lord. (Be
Woe to her who is rebellious and defiled, the tyrannical city!:
defiled: Leviticus 1:16; city: Isaiah 5:7; 30:12; 59:13;
Jeremiah 6:6; 22:17; Ezekiel 22:7,29; Amos 3:9; 4:1; Micah 2:2; Zechariah
7:10; Malachi 3:5
NET Zephaniah 3:1 The filthy, stained
city is as good as dead; the city filled with oppressors is finished!
The Lord's Judgment of Jerusalem
Zeph 3:1-4: Her Pollutions
Zeph 3:5-8: Her Punishment
Zeph 3:9-20 Her Promises
1828 Webster defines a rebel as
"One who revolts from the government to which he owes allegiance, either
by openly renouncing the authority of that government, or by taking arms and
openly opposing it. A rebel differs from an enemy, as the
latter is one who does not owe allegiance to the government which he
attacks." Jerusalem (her leaders and people) have rebelled against Jehovah
by rejecting His Word (His Law, His authority) and as a result departed from
His ways of righteousness. God expected more from Judah than the surrounding
nations because of her privileged position (Ex 19:5).
Kenneth Barker - Sometimes life seems almost unbearable and completely
hopeless. When we survey the current societal scene, we see crime out of
control, families breaking up and pulling down the individual members of the
family with them, and confusion and frustration on every side. Out of the
darkness of our lives comes
the dawn of God’s love and care. Zephaniah promised that God had not
finished with his people. When life seemed the toughest, God promised to
provide. Zephaniah prophesied in such a way as to be called the
fiercest of the prophets. Yet, in his fierceness against the sin
of the people, the prophet knew that God was at work creating a faithful
remnant who would serve Him with all their hearts. Out of the judgment would
come a time when God would restore the fortunes of the humble and faithful
of the people of Judah.
In the previous section Zephaniah had
declared "woe" to the nations, but as he ends his prophecy, he returns again
(Zeph 1:4-13) to rebellious Judah and Jerusalem to pronounce God's judgment
followed by God's promise of restoration to be consummated in the end times
(cf Jer 23:20, Hos 3:4-5). As an aside, if God judges the sins of the pagan
nations who did not know God, how much greater will be the punishment of
Judah who had ready access to God?
APPLICATION: And what about believers
in the modern church who even have the indwelling Holy Spirit (1Cor
and yet who are willingly, even wantonly compromising with the godless world
(See Mt 6:24-note)
(movies we watch now without any hesitation, that we never would have
watched when we were first born again [you know what I mean because PG-13
today is yesterday's R-Rated! By the way as I point one finger at you, know
that 4 fingers are pointing back at me!], and what about the pictures we
look at on the internet [Men I am speaking especially to you, because I am
one!] because no one is watching [except God!
= Pr 15:3],
and finally what about the off color,
even overtly blasphemous language [especially the use of "Jesus Christ" in
vain or as a curse word!] we now tolerate that once would have "burned" our
ears? Remember what Peter said - Read
Are you convicted yet (as convicted as
I am as I write)? I hope (pray) so, for the sake of the purity of Christ's
(see Rev 19:7, 8-note)
is an interjection of distress used primarily by the prophets, 6x in mourning for the dead (1Ki 13:30 Jer 22:18;
34:5), and 40x as negative warnings specifying Divine punishment in the
form of disaster, etc, for failing to repent from certain sins. The
wicked are under the judgment of God (cp Ro 1:18ff) and therefore face a
time of ruin and mourning, so that the only thing left for an
unrepentant people is to mourn the destruction of their lives! Woe!
They had been clearly warned (even as we are warned against the dangers of
willful sin against the Holy God) -
Deut 28:15 “But it shall come about, if you do not obey the LORD your God,
to observe to do all His commandments and His statutes with which I charge
you today, that all these curses will come upon you and overtake you....45
“So all these curses shall come on you and pursue you and overtake you until
you are destroyed, because you would not obey the LORD your God by keeping
His commandments and His statutes which He commanded you. 46 “They shall
become a sign and a wonder on you and your descendants forever....47
“Because you did not serve the LORD your God with joy and a glad heart, for
the abundance of all things; 48 therefore you shall serve your enemies whom
the LORD will send against you, in hunger, in thirst, in nakedness, and in
the lack of all things; and He will put an iron yoke on your neck until He
has destroyed you. 49 “The LORD will bring a nation (a reference to Babylon)
against you from afar, from the end of the earth, as the eagle swoops down,
a nation whose language you shall not understand, 50 a nation of fierce
countenance who will have no respect for the old, nor show favor to the
young....62 “Then you shall be left few in number, whereas you were as
numerous as the stars of heaven, because you did not obey the LORD your God.
63 “It shall come about that as the LORD delighted over you to
prosper you, and multiply you, so the LORD will delight over you to
make you perish and destroy you; and you will be torn from the land where
you are entering to possess it. 64 “Moreover, the LORD will scatter you
among all peoples, from one end of the earth to the other end of the earth;
and there you shall serve other gods, wood and stone, which you or your
fathers have not known. 65 “Among those nations you shall find no rest, and
there will be no resting place for the sole of your foot; but there the LORD
will give you a trembling heart, failing of eyes, and despair of soul. 66
“So your life shall hang in doubt before you; and you will be in dread night
and day, and shall have no assurance of your life.
Patterson - Woe oracles typically contain the following elements:
invective (“woe to”), threat, and criticism (the reason for the denunciation
and threatened judgment).
Carpenter - It expresses great emotion and can be an interjection
of warning or distress. It represents a thought transformed into a
feeling and expressed in a word—hoy, “woe!” ...Hoy can be used to
introduce a prophetic declaration of judgment, as when Isaiah announced
the coming destruction of Assyria (Isa. 10:5). It conveys a note of
certainty about what is said and an atmosphere of finality—such as in,
“Woe unto you, the end has come!” The word is also applied to groups of
people and individuals who are wicked (Isa. 5:8, 11, 18, 20–22). (Holman
Treasury of Key Bible Words )
Hoy is used
>50x in prophets and only once elsewhere. 6x = mourning for the dead (1
Ki13:30), 40x = negative warnings or threats of God's physical
chastisement. R. J. Clifford found 53 occurrences of hoy in the
Old Testament. Of these he listed three possible uses: (1) to describe
funeral laments (eight times), usually translated “alas”; (2) a
cry to get attention (four times), usually translated “ho” or “ah”;
(3) an announcement of doom (forty-one times and used only by the
prophets), usually translated “woe to.” The wicked were
under the judgment of God and therefore faced a time of ruin and
mourning. The only thing left for an unrepentant people was to mourn the
destruction of their lives.
translated in NAS as - Ah(2), alas(11), ho(2), ho there(1),
woe(34). Hoy is translated in the Septuagint with ouai
which an interjection of grief, horror, pain, displeasure, disaster,
calamity or denunciation. (Mt 11:21, Mt 23:13, 15, 16, 23, 25, 27, 29,
Rev 18:10, 16, 19, etc)
Woe - 47
verse - 1Kgs
13:30; Isa 1:4, 24; 5:8, 11, 18, 20, 21, 22; 10:1, 5; 17:12; 18:1; 28:1;
29:1, 15; 30:1; 31:1; 33:1; 45:9f; 55:1; Jer 22:13, 18; 23:1; 30:7;
34:5; 47:6; 48:1; 50:27; Ezek 13:3, 18; 34:2; Amos 5:18; 6:1; Mic 2:1;
Nah 3:1; Hab 2:6, 9, 12, 15, 19; Zeph 2:5; 3:1; Zech 2:6f; 11:17
Woe to her - Who? The city,
Jerusalem (not named until Zeph 3:14), here personified and representative of the people
(princes, judges, prophets, priests) who were
committing the rebellious and defiling acts (cp Neh 9:26, Jeremiah
Kaiser - Each of the three
participles in verse 1 that expose the sins of the city are graphic: the
“rebellious,” mutinous, and disobedient; the “polluted,”
defiled, bloodstained, and unclean; the “oppressing,” repressive,
bullying, and crushing! These three charges indicated the three
directions in which Jerusalem’s sin manifested itself: to God, to
religious practices, and to fellow humans.
MacKay - This indicates
not just unwillingness to submit to God’s general rule over the world he
created, but is more particularly defined as covenant rebellion in Zeph
3:2 (Jer. 4:17; 5:23; Hosea 14:1).
means to be contentious, rebellious, and openly defiant to an authority
by not obeying commands. Most of the uses of marah refer to
rebellion by Israel or Judah against Jehovah (exceptions = Dt 21:18, 20,
Job 17:2, Job 23:2, Pr 17:11). There is repeated focus on Israel's
rebellion in the wilderness after being set free from slavery in Egypt
20:10, 24; 27:14; Deut 1:26, 43; 9:7, 23), summed up by the statement
"You have been rebellious against the LORD from the day I knew
you." (Deut 9:24) Marah is used with similar descriptive words -
stubborn (Dt 21:18, 20, Jer 5:23, Ps 78:8), to grieve (Isa 63:10, Ps
78:40), to refuse (Isa 1:20, Neh 9:17), to transgress (Lam 3:42), to sin
(Ps 78:17), to test (Ps 78:56), to rebel (marad in Neh 9:26), to reject
or profane (Ezek 20:13).
Vine - Some personal names are
partly composed of the verb: Meraiah (“stubborn headed”; Neh. 12:12) and
Miriam (“stubborn headed,” if actually derived from the verb).
Marah signifies an opposition to someone motivated by pride: (Dt.
21:18). The sense comes out more clearly in Isa. 3:8. More
particularly, the word generally connotes a rebellious attitude against
God. Several prepositions are used to indicate the object of rebellion (im,
et, generally translated as “against”) (Dt. 9:7, Jer. 4:17).
The primary meaning of marah is “to disobey.” Several passages
attest to this: (1Ki 13:21; cf. 1Ki 13:26). The OT sometimes
specifically states that someone “rebelled” against the Lord; at other
times it may refer to a rebelling against the Word of the Lord (Ps
105:28; 107:11), or against the mouth of God (KJV, “word”; NIV,
“command”; cf. Nu 20:24; Dt. 1:26, 43; 9:23; 1Sa 12:14-15). The intent
of the Hebrew is to signify the act of defying the command of God (La
1:18). The verb marah is at times strengthened by a form of the
verb carar (“to be stubborn”) = (Ps. 78:8; cf. Dt. 21:18, 20; Jer 5:23).
An individual (Dt. 21:18, 20), a nation (Nu 20:24), and a city (Zeph
3:1) may be described as “being rebellious.” Zephaniah gave a vivid
image of the nature of the rebellious spirit: (Zeph. 3:1-2, RSV).
TWOT - This sin of
rebellion may be in word: Num 17:10; 27:14, complaining; Ps
78:17ff., challenging and defying God to do the abnormal, to cater to
their tastes and delicacies. Or, it may be a rebellion in deed: 1Sa
12:15, obedience to man over God; 1Kgs 13:21, 26, actions contrary to
God’s clearly expressed will by a “clergyman”; Jer 4:17, “your own
behavior and actions”; Isa 3:8, “their words and their deeds.” What is
most often rebelled against is “the commandment/the word of the Lord,”
(et) pî (literally, “the mouth”). This is the most frequent direct
object of the verb mārâ: 1Kgs 13:21, 26; Lam 1:18; Ps 105:28; Nu 20:24;
NAS Usage: became
disobedient(1), bitter(1), disobedient(1), disobeyed(2), provocation(1),
rebel(6), rebelled(18), rebellious(12), rebels(2), very rebellious(1).
Marah - 45 v - Ex 23:21; Nu
20:10, 24; 27:14; Deut 1:26, 43; 9:7, 23, 24; 21:18, 20; 31:27; Josh 1:18;
1Sam 12:14f; 1Kgs 13:21, 26; 2Kgs 14:26; Neh 9:26; Job 17:2; Ps 5:10;
78:8, 17, 40, 56; 105:28; 106:7, 33, 43; 107:11; Isa 1:20; 3:8; 50:5;
63:10; Jer 4:17; 5:23; Lam 1:18, 20; 3:42; Ezek 5:6; 20:8, 13, 21; Hos
13:16; Zeph 3:1
means to defile or to stain. To defile means to make something
unclean or impure. When one's
hands are polluted with blood they are defiled (Isa 59:3). Ceremonial
pollution of imperfect sacrifices (Mal 1:7, 12) pagan king’s diet (Da
1:8), uncertain lineage of the priests after the exile (Ezr 2:62; Neh
7:64) Something is defiled when it breaches moral or ceremonial law
Gaal - 9 v - Ezra 2:62; Neh
7:64; Isa 59:3; 63:3; Lam 4:14; Dan 1:8; Zeph 3:1; Mal 1:7, 12 NASB Usage: defile(2),
defiled(6), stained(1), unclean(2).
MacKay - ‘Defiled’ denotes
stained with sins and evil doing (Isa. 59:3; 63:3; Lam. 4:14) They are
no longer fit for the distinctive role God had in mind for them as his
means to oppress (crush or burden by abuse of power or authority),
mistreat, treat violently. Yanah refers especially to improper
treatment of strangers (Ex 22:21,Lev 25:14, 17, Dt 23:16) An "oppressor,
i.e., one who pursues, represses and subjugates another (Jer 25:38;
46:16; 50:16; Zep 3:1)" (Swanson) "Yanah seems to be used in the
sense of “doing wrong” to someone as in the Mosaic legislation which
protects the rights of the gēr “resident alien.” (TWOT)
Patterson- The Hebrew term is
utilized in a variety of ways but most frequently of intolerance toward
or the suppression of the rights and privileges of others. It especially
characterizes the rich and influential members of society who take
advantage of the less fortunate (cf. Ex 22:21; Lev 19:33; Deut 23:16).
Usage: do him wrong(1), mistreat(2), oppress(3), oppresses(1),
oppressing(1), oppressor(2), oppressors(1), subdue(1), thrusting(1),
tyrannical(1), wrong(3), wronged(2).
Yanah - 19v - Ex 22:21; Lev
19:33; 25:14, 17; Deut 23:16; Ps 74:8; Isa 49:26; Jer 22:3; 25:38;
46:16; 50:16; Ezek 18:7, 12, 16; 22:7, 29; 45:8; 46:18; Zeph 3:1. The
first use gives a sense of the crime of which Jerusalem was guilty...
You shall not wrong a stranger
or oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt. (Ex
Isaiah gives a similar
derogatory description of Jerusalem...
How the faithful city has become
a harlot, She who was full of justice! Righteousness once lodged in her,
But now murderers. (Isa 1:21-note)
Jeremiah alludes to the
tyranny or oppression
Thus says the LORD, “Do justice
and righteousness, and deliver the one who has been robbed from the
power of his oppressor. Also do not mistreat or do violence to the
stranger, the orphan, or the widow; and do not shed innocent blood in
this place. (Jer 22:3)
MacKay sums it up - Those who
had no place for the LORD in their lives had no scruples about
furthering their own selfish ends by exploiting the unfortunate and
disadvantaged in their own community. The feeling of brotherhood that
should have existed in the covenant had been lost (Lev. 19:18; Dt. 15:2,
She heeded no voice, she accepted no instruction. She did not trust in the
LORD, She did not draw near to her God.:
heeded: Deuteronomy 28:15-68; Nehemiah 9:26; Jeremiah 7:23-28; 22:21;
Zechariah 7:11-14; accepted: Isaiah 1:5; Jeremiah 2:30; 5:3; Ezekiel
24:13; instruction: Ps 50:17; Proverbs 1:7; 5:12; Jeremiah 32:33;
35:13,17; John 3:18,19; trust: Ps 78:22; Isaiah 30:1-3; 31:1;
Jeremiah 17:5,6 draw: Ps 10:4; Isaiah 29:13; 43:22; Hebrews 10:22
No voice...no instruction...not trust...not
draw near - Four
specific "negative" indictments that warrant one woe and
explain the source of the depraved description of the city in Zeph 3:1. This
passage gives us the explanation for the ungodly conduct described in Zeph
3:3-4. Without the Word of God as the nourishment for their soul, they
walked according to their flesh nature with nothing to restraint them.
She heeded (shama) no voice
(Jer 22:21, Zech 7:11-14) - In other
words her refusal to listen was indicative of her disobedience. The idea of
this verb in context is not just they did not hear the Word of God, for they
did (the prophets faithfully proclaimed God's Word, even in face of
continual rebuff and danger of losing their life!). They simply refused to obey what they heard ("in one ear and out the
other"!) They were proverbial hearers but not doers, which is always a
dangerous delusion! (See
delusion = paralogizomai
uses eisakouo which conveys the idea of obedience on the basis of
having listened carefully or attentively (this is the sense in the Lxx use
of eisakouo in Dt 1:43 = "would not listen", Dt 9:23 = "neither
believed Him nor listened to His voice.").
Contrast the heart of the post-exilic
Jewish remnant in Haggai's day, about 100 years after Zephaniah's message
and 70 years of discipline in Babylonian captivity. -
Then Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and
Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest, with all the remnant of the
people, obeyed the voice of the LORD their God and the words of
Haggai the prophet, as the LORD their God had sent him. And the people
showed reverence for the LORD (Ed: Clearly divine discipline brought
forth from at least the remnant of Judah the peaceful fruit of
righteousness!). (Hag 1:12)
She accepted no instruction
(correction, discipline) - MacKay "Throughout their history God
continued to send circumstances (natural disasters like drought and famine,
or foreign aggression) to alert his people to the fact that they had broken
the covenant and bring them to their senses. But they ignored what they were
being taught." Divine discipline did not correct their wayward steps which
begs the question...
APPLICATION: "When God disciplines you, do you
recognize it (confessing and repenting) as His Fatherly love to bring you
back into fellowship with Him or do you ignore or even worse spurn His
loving discipline which is designed to bring forth "the peaceful fruit of
righteousness in your life" to those "who have been trained [gumnazo/gymnazo
= word study] by it" (Heb
Accepted is translated in the
with the verb
dechomai (see word study) which means
to receive something willingly (eg, see especially these uses: Negative =
1Cor 2:14, Positive = 1Thes 1:6-note,
like "putting the welcome mat out" for the Word of God (cf James 1:21-note
- notice the attitude that accompanies acceptance - humility!).
Hebrews warns us...
You have forgotten the exhortation which
is addressed to you as sons, “MY SON, DO NOT REGARD LIGHTLY THE DISCIPLINE
OF THE LORD, NOR FAINT WHEN YOU ARE REPROVED (elegcho) BY HIM (Heb 12:5-note,
quoting Pr 3:11-12-see
comments by one of Spurgeon's favorites = William Arnot
by Charles Bridges
- Bridges writes "This is a most important exhortation. Nowhere are
our corruptions so manifest, or our grace so shining, as under the rod. We
need it as much as our daily bread! If we be children of God, we are still
children of Adam--with Adam's will, pride, independence, and waywardness."
Amen or oh my!)
One of the purposes of the God-breathed
Scripture is correction (2Ti 3:16-note),
something the people of Zephaniah's day refused to receive. Jeremiah had a
similar word for rebellious Judah...
In vain I have struck your sons; They
accepted no chastening. Your sword has devoured your prophets
Like a destroying lion. (Jer 2:30, cf Jer 5:3 = "they refused to take
correction", cp Pr 5:12)
They have turned their back to Me and not
their face; though I taught them, teaching again and again, they
would not listen and receive instruction. (Jer 32:33)
Thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, ‘Go and say to the men of
Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, “Will you not receive instruction by
listening to My words?” declares the LORD. (Jer 35:13)
Therefore thus says the LORD, the God of hosts, the God of Israel, ‘Behold,
I am bringing on Judah and on all the inhabitants of Jerusalem all the
disaster that I have pronounced against them; because I spoke to them but
they did not listen, and I have called them but they did not answer.’” (Jer
Beloved, is there some word which God
is speaking to you, some secret sin He is telling you you must confess and
repent of, and you repeatedly refuse to listen to His Word? Beware, for you
like Judah might find out the truth of God's promise that sowers will be
reapers of what they sow
As Matthew Henry quips "A sinful state is, and will be, a woeful
Judah's rejection of the "light" of God's
Word is the problem of all unregenerate men an women...
This is the judgment, that the Light has
come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the Light, for
their deeds were evil. For everyone who does evil hates the Light, and does
not come to the Light for fear that his deeds will be exposed. (Jn 3:19-20)
Judah and Jerusalem would soon experience
the truth of the proverb that taught...
He will die for lack of instruction,
and in the greatness of his folly he will go astray. (Pr 5:23)
NET Note says "The Hebrew phrase, when negated, refers elsewhere to
rejecting verbal advice (Jer 17:23; 32:33; 35:13) and refusing to learn from
experience (Jer 2:30; 5:3)." Clearly God had tried over and over
to discipline the people of Judah but they would not learn from His hand of
chastisement. How often we as children of God are like Judah and chaff at
His discipline, even when we know we deserve it because of our disobedience.
We see similar statements by Jeremiah to
Judah regarding her rejection of divine discipline (all using the word
“In vain I have struck your sons; They
chastening. Your sword has devoured your prophets Like a destroying
lion. (Jer 2:30)
O LORD, do not Your eyes look for truth? You have smitten them, But they did
not weaken; You have consumed them, But they
refused to take
correction. They have made their faces harder than rock; They have
refused to repent. (Jer 5:3)
Yet they did not obey or incline their
ear, but walked in their own counsels and in the stubbornness of their evil
heart, and went backward and not forward. (Jer 7:24, cf Jer 9:13)
“You shall say to them, ‘This is the nation that
obey the voice of the LORD their God or
correction; truth has perished and has been cut off from their mouth.
“Yet they did not listen or incline their ears, but stiffened their necks in
to listen or take
correction. (Jer 17:23)
“They have turned their back to Me and not their face; though I taught them,
teaching again and again, they
listen and receive
instruction. (Jer 32:33)
Solomon describes those who reject
instruction as fools...
The fear of the LORD is the beginning of
knowledge; Fools despise wisdom and instruction. (Pr 1:7)
(04148)(musar from yasar =
to discipline, chasten, admonish) refers to discipline, chastening,
correction. God's chastening is always for purposes of instruction, and
should not be ignored or resented. (Job 5:17 cp Job 42:2). Solomon instructs
us "My son, do not reject the discipline of the LORD Or loathe His reproof."
(Pr 3:11) One of major purposes of wisdom literature is to teach
wisdom and instruction (musar) (Pr 1:2) Isaiah describes the divine
chastisement poured out on the Suffering Messiah (Isa 53:5).
See also similar discussion of
musar (with additional material) at
Proverbs 1:7 Commentary
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary - Discipline
Holman Bible Dictionary - Discipline;
See also Chastisement
ISBE - Chastisement
Hastings' Dictionary -
Discipline - Part 1
Hastings' Dictionary - Discipline - Part 2
Hastings' Dictionary - Chastisement
Musar is translated in the
Septuagint with the noun
which is used of rearing and
guiding a child to maturity (Heb 12:11) and refers to God's fatherly
discipline (Heb 12:5). Paideia means to provide instruction, with the
intent of forming proper habits of behavior, of providing guidance for
responsible living, of rearing and guiding a child toward maturity.
NAS Usage: chastening(3), chastise(1), correction(3), discipline(18),
disciplines(1), instruction(20), punishment(2), reproof(1), warning(1).
Musar - 50 verses - Dt 11:2; Job
5:17; 20:3; 33:16; 36:10; Ps 50:17; Pr 1:2f, 7f; 3:11; 4:1, 13; 5:12, 23;
6:23; 7:22; 8:10, 33; 10:17; 12:1; 13:1, 18, 24; 15:5, 10, 32f; 16:22;
19:20, 27; 22:15; 23:12f, 23; 24:32; Isa 26:16; 53:5; Jer 2:30; 5:3; 7:28;
10:8; 17:23; 30:14; 32:33; 35:13; Ezek 5:15; Hos 5:2; Zeph 3:2, 7.
Some other representative uses of
(Deut 11:2) “Know this day that I am not
speaking with your sons who have not known and who have not seen the
discipline of the LORD your God–His greatness, His mighty hand and His
(Job 5:17) “Behold, how happy is the man
whom God reproves, So do not despise the discipline of the Almighty.
She did not trust in the LORD -
How so? Judah trusted not in God but in man. When danger threatened, she
relied on human treaties alliances with the foreign, pagan nations. Or she
resorted to her idols and prayed for help to false gods! Calvin said
that distrust in the Lord as if He were insufficient is the parent of all
superstitions and wickednesses.
MacKay - Instead she turned to all
the substitutes people put in God’s place when they rebel against him—wealth
(Ps. 52:7), extortion (Ps. 62:10), princes, mortal men (Ps 146:3; 118:8–9),
the idols of the nations (Ps 135:18; 115:8). She had no interest in, or
attachment to, the covenant promises of the LORD, because she had no
interest in, or attachment to, the one who had made them.
God desires for His people to trust Him,
to believe Him when He speaks in His Word, whether it be a Word of warning
or of promise. And to truly trust His Word means we will obey His Word.
Anyone can say they trust God, but their actions either belie or
authenticate their declaration of faith. Judah's rebellious, sinful actions
(detailed in Zeph 3:3-4) proved that their faith was faulty and not genuine
(cf James 2:14-26-note).
The writer of Hebrews reminds us that...
Without faith (trust) it is
impossible to please Him, for he who comes to God must believe that He is
and that He is a rewarder of those who seek Him. (Heb 11:6-note)
She did not draw near to her God -
They may have drawn near with their lips and with external show, but not
with a sincere heart (see Isa 29:13, Heb 10:22-note)
Their failure to draw near with sincere hearts was inexcusable for as Moses
reminded Israel "What great nation is there that has a god so near to it as
the LORD our God whenever we call on Him?" (Dt 4:7)
APPLICATION: America would do well to heed these
words, for God has blessed this nation exceedingly and yet instead of
drawing near to Him, our courts and laws and godless citizens are doing all
they can to spurn God's favor and blessing, in effect negating the founder's
declaration of "One Nation Under God."
(cp Pr 14:34).
Revive us O LORD according to Thy Word (Ps 119:25) sending a holy fire into
the pulpits of our wayward land for the sake of Your great Name! Amen
Kaiser - When the people of Judah
worshipped at all they had preferred to draw near to
astrological bodies, and pagan
Draw near (07126)(qarab)
means to come near or approach. It is a verb which basically indicates
coming physically closer. To come near (1Sa 17:41, Jonah 1:6, et al).
To come near or approach ("When they saw him [Joseph] from a distance and
before he came close to them." Ge 37:18) Speaks of arrival at a
country ("came near to Egypt" Ge 12:11) Of the nearness of a time such
as the end of mourning (“The days of mourning for my father are near" Ge
27:41) or time of death ("When the time for Israel to die drew near." Ge
47:29) Of sexual intimacy ("Abimelech had not come near her" Ge 20:4) Judah
refused to draw near though invited, even while Moses was told (first
use in OT) "Do not come near here; remove your sandals from your
feet, for the place on which you are standing is holy ground." (Ex 3:5).
Thus it was is used of approaching God (Ex. 3:5; Dt. 4:11; 5:23, 27; Isa.
48:16; 1Sa. 14:36). Another prohibition to draw near involved the adulteress ("do not go near
the door of her house" Pr 5:8) Foreigners invited to celebrate Passover
("let him come near to celebrate it" Ex 12:48) Israel invited to draw
near even in their sin! ("Come near before the LORD, for He
has heard your grumblings.”) A prayer for God to draw near ("Oh draw near
to my soul and redeem it" Ps 69:18, cp Ps 119:169). Of bringing or
presenting an offering ("bringing near one's sacrifice") to the LORD and thus often translated "offer"
(Lev 2:1, 4, 8, Nu 26:61, 31:50, et al). Since Israel would not draw near
for worship, God says "I will draw near to you for judgment."
(Mal 3:5) Figuratively of plague not coming near (Ps 91:10).
translates qarab in Zeph 3:2 with
meaning to draw near, be near, to
approach (including the idea of approaching in time = being at hand = Ro
Here is a beautiful use of qarab...
Ps 65:4 How blessed is the one whom
You choose and bring near to You to dwell in Your courts. We will be
satisfied with the goodness of Your house, Your holy temple.
Qarab - 264 verses - Ge 12:11; 20:4;
Ge 27:41; 37:18; 47:29; Ex 3:5; 12:48; Ex 14:10, 20; Ex 16:9; Ex 22:8; 28:1; 29:3f, 8,
10; 32:19; 36:2; 40:12, 14, 32; Lev 1:2f, 5, 10, 13ff; Lev 2:1, 4, 8, 11ff; 3:1,
3, 6f, 9, 12, 14; 4:3, 14; 5:8; 6:14, 20f; 7:3, 8f, 11ff, 16, 18, 25, 29,
33, 35, 38; 8:6, 13, 18, 22, 24; 9:2, 5, 7ff, 15ff; 10:1, 3ff, 19; 12:7;
14:12; 16:1, 6, 9, 11, 20; 17:4; 18:6, 14, 19; 20:16; 21:6, 8, 17f, 21;
22:3, 18, 20ff, 24f; 23:8, 16, 18, 25, 27, 36f; 27:9, 11; Nu 3:4, 6; 5:9,
16, 25; 6:14, 16; 7:2f, 10ff, 18f; 8:9f; 9:6f, 13; 15:4, 7, 9f, 13, 27, 33;
16:5, 9f, 17, 35, 38ff; 18:2ff, 15, 22; 25:6; 26:61; 27:1, 5; 28:2f, 11, 19,
26f; 29:8, 13, 36; 31:48, 50; 36:1; Dt 1:17, 22; 2:19, 37; 4:11; 5:23, 27;
15:9; 20:2f, 10; 22:14; 25:11; 31:14; Josh 3:4; 7:14, 16ff; 8:5, 23; 10:24;
17:4; Jdg 3:17f; 5:25; 19:13; 20:24; 1Sa 10:20f; 14:36; 17:41, 48; 2Sa
15:5; 20:16f; 1Kgs 2:1, 7; 20:29; 2Kgs 16:12, 14; 1Chr 16:1; 2Chr 35:12;
Ezra 8:35; Esther 5:2; Job 31:37; 33:22; Ps 27:2; 32:9; 65:4; 69:18; 72:10;
Ps 91:10; Ps 119:150, 169; Pr 5:8; Eccl 5:1; Isa 5:8, 19; 8:3; 26:17; 34:1;
41:1, 5, 21; 46:13; 48:16; 54:14; 57:3; 65:5; Jer 30:21; Lam 3:57; 4:18;
Ezek 9:1; 12:23; 18:6; 22:4; 36:8; 37:7, 17; 42:14; 43:19, 22ff; 44:7, 15f,
27; 46:4; Hos 7:6; Jonah 1:6; Zeph 3:2; Hag 2:14; Mal 1:8; 3:5
NASB Usage - Usage: accept(1),
appear(1), approach(11), approach to offer(1), approached(9), approaches(3),
approaching(2), assisted(1), bring(20), bring her near(1), bring him
near(2), bring you near(1), bring near(4), brings(1), brought(11), brought
his near(1), brought you near(1), brought your near(1), brought...near(1),
came(3), came close(1), came forward(1), came near(12), came together(1),
came*(1), come(7), come forward(1), come near(25), comes near(1), draw(2),
draw near(9), drawn near(1), draws near(1), drew near(6), go near(3),
join(2), joined(1), keep(1), made an offering(1), near(9), offer(43),
offered(10), offering(2), offers(7), present(40), presented(16),
presenting(3), presents(4), presents his shall present(1), soon(1).
Vine - In general qarab
signifies “approach or coming near someone or something” apart from any
sense of intimacy. In Ge 12:11 (first biblical occurrence) the word is used
of spatial proximity, of being spatially close to something. Usually
the word represents being so close to something (or someone) that the
subject can see (Ex 32:19), speak to (Nu 9:6), or even touch (Ex. 36:2) the
object or person in question. This verb also is used of temporal
nearness, in the sense that something is about to occur. Qarab
can be used of the imminence of joyous occasions, such as religious feasts
(Dt. 15:9). The word is also used of the imminence of foreboding events (Ge
27:41). Qarab is used in a number of technical senses. In all these
instances personal involvement is suggested; the idea is not simply being
close to something (someone) but being actively and personally involved with
it (him). In military contexts the word signifies armed conflict. In Dt.
2:37 the Lord commended Israel because “unto the land of the children of
Ammon thou camest not.” Yet in Dt. 2:19 He allowed them to “come nigh” that
land: “And when thou comest nigh over against the children of Ammon,
distress them not, nor meddle with them." The later passage (Dt. 2:37) uses
the word technically, to close in battle. Therefore, Israel did not come
close to the land of Ammon; they did not close in battle with them (cf.
Josh. 8:5). In some passages this martial coloring is not immediately
obvious to the casual reader but is nonetheless present (Ps. 27:2). Ps. 27:3
substantiates that this use of the verb is “to close in battle” (cf. Ps
91:10; 119:150). Qarab is used technically of having sexual
relations. In Ge 20:4 before Abimelech states his innocence with regard to
Sarah we read he “had not come near her” (cf. Dt. 22:14; Isa 8:3). In
another technical use the word represents every step one performs in
presenting his offering and worship to God. This idea first appears in Ex.
3:5 where God tells Moses not to “draw near” before removing his sandals.
Later Israel’s meeting with God’s representative was a drawing near to God
(Ex. 16:9). At Sinai they drew near to receive God’s law (Dt. 5:23, 27). In
the causative stem the verb often represents the sacrificial presentation of
offerings (Lev 1:14) through the priests (Lev. 1:5) to the Lord (Lev. 1:13).
Israel also came near the Lord’s representative in serious legal cases so
that God the great King and Judge could render a decision (Josh. 7:14). In
the eschaton (future time) all peoples are to gather before God; they are
“to come near” Him to hear and receive His judgment (Isa 41:1; 48:16).
MacKay says to not draw near
"indicates that whatever outward acts of worship were engaged in, there was
no true reverence for God or fellowship with him. He was ‘near in their
mouth but far from their heart’ (Jer. 12:2, literally)."
Her princes within her are roaring lions, Her judges are wolves
at evening; They leave nothing for the morning.:
princes: Job 4:8-11; Ps 10:8-10; Proverbs 28:15; Isaiah 1:23;
Jeremiah 22:17; Ezekiel 22:6,25-27; Micah 3:1-4,9-11 evening:
Jeremiah 5:6; Habakkuk 1:8
Her princes (officials)-
Jerusalem's leaders (cf Isaiah's description - Isa 1:23).
Like a roaring lion and a rushing bear is
a wicked ruler (Heb - mashal) over a poor people. (Proverbs 28:15)
Your rulers (same Hebrew word "sar"
translated in Zeph 3:3 as princes) are rebels And companions of
thieves; Everyone loves a bribe And chases after rewards. They do not defend
the orphan, Nor does the widow’s plea come before them. (Isa 1:23)
(The wicked) sits in the lurking places
of the villages; In the hiding places he kills the innocent; His eyes
stealthily watch for the unfortunate. 9 He lurks in a hiding place as a lion
in his lair; He lurks to catch the afflicted; He catches the afflicted when
he draws him into his net. 10 He crouches, he bows down, And the unfortunate
fall by his mighty ones. (Ps 10:8-10)
Princes (leaders) - These are the
"power brokers," who did not rule with justice or in equity.
Within her (qereb) - In
her midst. What a contrast this description presents with the next use of
"within her" or "in her midst" (qereb) in Zeph 3:5, where it is the
righteous LORD Who is within their midst.
(in the midst) (07130)(qereb)
is used 6 times in Zephaniah 3
Her princes are within her - Zeph
The LORD is righteous within her -
I will remove from your midst your
proud - Zeph 3:11
I will leave among you a humble and lowly people - Zeph 3:12
The King of Israel, the LORD, is in your midst - Zeph 3:15
The LORD your God is in your midst
- Zeph 3:17
- The Hebrew noun (for princes) used here refers to officials at various levels,
frequently coming from leading tribal families and forming powerful advisory
groups throughout Israel’s history (cf. Ex 18:13–26; 1Kgs 4:2–6; 2Kgs 24:12;
2Chr 35:8). The term may designate the chieftains of Israel (Num 21:18),
court officials (1 Chr 22:17), district supervisors (1 Kgs 20:14–15), city
officials (Judg 8:6), military leaders (1 Kgs 2:5; 2 Kgs 1:9–14; 5:1; 25:23,
26), or even religious leaders (Ezra 8:24). The importance of such leaders
in Zephaniah’s day is underscored not only in their mention before the
members of the royal family here, but also in their prominence in the
enumeration of the levels of Judahite society during the reign of Josiah
(Jer 1:18; 2:26; 4:9). Jeremiah emphasized their importance and
responsibility, using the term more than three dozen times.
Roaring lions - A
- see discussion of wolves below for more on metaphors. Lions are
ever ready to pounce on their pray (Read the first depiction of a wild beast
ready to pounce on its prey in God's warning to Cain - Ge 4:5-6, 7-8)
following descriptions of the behavior of lions (and the effect of their
roar on their victims) to help you understand the picture that Zephaniah is
painting about these evil rulers in Jerusalem. Here is a description from
Lions have an array of facial expressions
and body postures that serve as visual gestures. Their repertoire of
vocalizations is also large; variations in intensity and pitch, rather than
discrete signals, appear central to communication. Lion sounds include
snarling, hissing, coughing, meowing, woofing, and roaring. Lions tend
to roar in a very characteristic manner, starting with a few deep, long
roars that trail off into a series of shorter ones. They most often roar at
night; the sound, which can be heard from a distance of 8 kilometers
(5.0 mi), is used to advertise the animal's presence. Lions have the loudest
roar of any big cat. (Roaring
lion - YouTube)
Grant Richison adds (1Pe 5:8-note)
that the "lion produces a howling or roaring sound. The lion uses his roar
to frighten his game. By his roar, he immobilizes his victims. His roar is a
weapon. Lions usually range near six hundred pounds, standing four feet
high. They run at twenty feet per bound and at about a hundred yards in five
seconds. They are totally unpredictable. They will attack for no apparent
reason. They have extremely powerful voices. Fear will blunt an aggressive
Christian life. A roaring lion intimidates by his roar. The Devil
intimidates by fear. He casts fear into weak Christians because that will
intimidate them from a life of faith. As a lion in the wild chases a herd of
gazelles and runs down the weak of the herd, so the Devil usually catches
weak Christians first because he freezes them in fear. Fear incapacitates us
from moving ahead with our Christian walk. (1
Peter 5:8 Exposition Commentary)
Her judges - The legal system was
unjust because the judges were unjust. The very ones who were to discern
true guilt and innocence, were themselves guilty of "high crimes and
midemeanors" as well as "treason" against the Most High God ,
Wolves at evening (Habakkuk uses
the same metaphor to describe the horses of the Babylonians - Hab 1:8-note) - This is a
which is like a window into the text. God's Spirit is giving us a picture we
know (wolves at evening) to get a sense of the heart and character of
the judges. When you encounter a
term of comparison (including
similes), pause to ask the Spirit what He
intends this to picture or depict. You will often be rewarded with new
spiritual insights and illumination. And as you practice this discipline of
pausing to ponder the text, you are in a very real sense learning to
on the Scriptures, a discipline God promises to richly bless (see Ps 1:2-3-note,
Wolves that are hungry, famished from fasting during the day, prowl for food
and do this especially in the evening when they are fiercest, attacking the
unsuspecting prey under covert of the approaching night. Zephaniah pictures
these judges as rapacious, covetous men, hungry and greedy for
illicit gain "devouring" the poor, the widowless and the fatherless without
They leave nothing for the morning
(literarily "The do not gnaw bones for the morning")
- This description extends the lupine (wolfish) metaphor, emphasizing the
rapacious ravenous nature of these unjust judges, so thoroughly did
they "devour" their victims. Their greed prompts an insatiable desire for
gain, to "gnaw" their victims not just to the bone, but even devouring the
bone. It is interesting that the morning was often the time when
justice was to be meted out (cf Zeph 3:5, 2Sa 15:2, Ps 101:8, Jer 21:12).
Wolf is a frequent metaphor in the
writings of the prophets...
Her officials within her are like
wolves tearing their prey; they shed blood and kill people to make
unjust gain. (Ezekiel 22:27, see full context for description of the
prophets who were like roaring lions = Ezek 22:25-27)
Therefore a lion from the forest will
attack them, a wolf from the desert will ravage them, a leopard will
lie in wait near their towns to tear to pieces any who venture out, for
their rebellion is great and their backslidings many. (Jer 5:6)
Their (Babylonian) horses are swifter
than leopards, fiercer than wolves at dusk. Their cavalry
gallops headlong; their horsemen come from afar. They fly like an eagle
swooping to devour; (Hab 1:8-note)
Her prophets are reckless, treacherous men; Her priests have
profaned the sanctuary. They have done violence to the law.:
reckless: Isaiah 9:15; 56:10-12; Jeremiah 5:31; 6:13,14; 8:10;
14:13-15; 23:9-17,25-27; Jeremiah 23:32; 27:14,15; Lamentations 2:14;
Ezekiel 13:3-16; Hosea 9:7; Micah 2:11; 3:5,6; Matthew 7:15; 2 Corinthians
11:13; 2 Peter 2:1-3; 1 John 4:1; Revelation 19:20; her priests: 1Samuel 2:12-17,22; Ezekiel 22:26; 44:7,8; Hosea 4:6-8; Malachi 2:8
NOT FOR PROFIT
Her prophets are reckless - NIV
says "Her prophets are unprincipled." "arrogant liars" (NLT), "fickle"
(ESV). This probably refers to their arrogance in passing off their own
words as from the LORD (Jer 23:32).
The prophet Micah gives a good
commentary on the false prophets (see Micah 2:11-note;
means boiling over like water and figuratively to be wanton or reckless. The
only other use is Judges 9:4. The Lxx translates with
pneumatophoros which means something like "he who has the spirit" and
which Brenton translates as "He prophets are light."
Jeremiah adds these accusations...
For from the least of them even to the
greatest of them, everyone is greedy for gain, and from the prophet
even to the priest everyone deals falsely. (Jer 6:13)
Her prophets are...treacherous men
(cp related word used in Hab 1:13-note
= "those who deal treacherously")
- They were ever ready to speak a word to tickle the ears of their audience
In God's original plan for His people, the priests were instructed to teach
God’s law to the people (Lev 10:10–11; Dt. 33:10), they had neglected to
fulfill this vital role.
Kaiser explains this somewhat
obscure phrase - By allowing the people to blur the distinction between what
was sacred or holy and what was not, and by disregarding what had been
specifically taught in the law, the priests acted as agents for the
populace, not as ministers of God! They profaned what was holy—i.e., they
“unhallowed” the holy.
MacKay - They were ‘treacherous’
because they were speaking from their own minds and not by divine
revelation. Therefore they prove to be deceitful not just in the way in
which they conduct business with others, but particularly in the way in
which they deceive those who come to them seeking divine guidance. However
outwardly impressive their words seem, they only promote rebellion and
apostasy against God and deceive those who accept what they say as being
genuine. The divine evaluation of such conduct was scathing.
Here is God's judgment on men like
“Behold, I am against those who have
prophesied false dreams,” declares the LORD, “and related them and led My
people astray by their falsehoods and reckless boasting; yet I did not send
them or command them, nor do they furnish this people the slightest
benefit,” declares the LORD. (Jer 23:32)
Her priests have profaned the
sanctuary (cf Ezek 5:11, 7:20, Ezek 23:38-39, Jer 7:31, 23:11, 32:34) -
They have defiled and polluted the Temple of God. We can get a good sense of
how the priests had defiled the Temple (especially under the evil reigns of
Manasseh and Amon) by observing how godly King Josiah cleaned "house" in the
Temple. Read 2Kings 24:4-12...
Then the king (Josiah) commanded Hilkiah
the high priest and the priests of the second order and the doorkeepers, to
bring out of the temple of the LORD all the vessels that were made for
Asherah, and for all the host
of heaven (Ed: probably
astrology); and he burned them
(Dt 7:25) outside Jerusalem in the fields of the
Kidron, and carried their
Bethel. 5 He did away with the
idolatrous priests whom the kings of Judah had appointed to burn
incense in the high places in the cities of Judah and in the surrounding
area of Jerusalem, also those who burned incense to Baal, to the sun and to
the moon and to the constellations and to all the host of heaven (See
Manasseh's evil practices = 2Ki 21:3-9) 6 He brought out the Asherah
from the house of the LORD (Abominable idols in the Holy Place of God!)
outside Jerusalem to the brook Kidron, and burned it at the brook Kidron,
and ground it to dust, and threw its dust on the graves of the common
people. 7 He also broke down the houses of the male cult prostitutes which
were in the house of the LORD, where the women were weaving hangings for the
Asherah. 8 Then he brought all the priests from the cities of Judah,
and defiled the
High Places where the
priests had burned incense (Offerings to dead idols instead of the
Living God!), from
Beer Sheba; and he broke down
the high places of the gates which were at the entrance of the gate of
Joshua the governor of the city, which were on one's left at the city gate
(Dt12:2-7, 13,14). 9 Nevertheless the priests of the high places did
not go up to the altar of the LORD in Jerusalem, but they ate unleavened
bread among their brothers. 10 He also defiled
Topheth, which is in the
valley of the son of
Hinnom, that no man might make
his son or his daughter pass through the fire for
Moloch. 11 He did
away with the horses which the kings of Judah had given to the sun (Sun
worship! cf Ro 1:21-23-note),
at the entrance of the house of the LORD, by the chamber of Nathan-melech
the official, which was in the precincts; and he burned the chariots of the
sun with fire. 12 The altars which were on the roof, the upper chamber of
Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had made, and the altars which Manasseh had
made in the two courts of the house of the LORD, the king broke down; and he
for a graphic summation of their almost incomprehensibly abominable
defilement of God's Holy Temple (Then
see commentary on Ezekiel 8). King Josiah carried out a purging
of the polluted priests (2Ki 23:4-6), but unfortunately it had only a temporary
restraining effect as shown by the descriptions of the reign of the 4 kings
who followed godly King Josiah and reigned to the time of Judah's defeat and
exile to Babylon (Shockingly Josiah's son Jehoahaz immediately returned to
the evil his father had purged = 2Ki 23:30, 31, 32, cp Eliakim/Jehoiakim,
sadly another son of Josiah did evil = 2Ki 23:34, 36, 37, Jehoiachin did
evil = 2Ki 24:8,9 and Zedekiah did evil = 2Ki 24:18, 19, 20).
- see word study) means to
pollute, defile, profane, desecrate. They treated that which was holy and
dedicated to Jehovah in an improper, unbecoming way as described above in
They have done violence to the law
- NLT paraphrases it "disobeying God's instructions." TEV = "They twist the
law of God to their own advantage." While the phrase is somewhat difficult
to interpret, clearly it has to do with mistreatment or misuse of the law,
the Word of God. This could speak of their "breaking" of the law
(disobedience) or acting wrongly regarding their duty to interpret it.
Perhaps they give favorable interpretations to those who give them money as
in Micah 3:11-note.
means to be violent, to act violently, to treat in a bad manner (Job 21:27,
Pr 8:36) or to act wrongly. Hamas stresses both social and physical
harm and violence. Hamas refers almost always to sinful violence,
not to "violence" of natural catastrophes. The noun form
describes extreme wickedness, e.g., in the days before the flood ("filled
with violence" = Ge 6:11). The verb means to harm one physically. To strip
or tear off something from its main body (Job 15:33). For example treating
people (widows) badly (Jer 22:3). God "did violence" to His own House when
Jerusalem was razed (Lam 2:6).
Ezekiel uses hamas/chamas
in describing a similar charge
against the priests...
Her priests have done violence to My
law and have profaned My holy things; they have made no distinction
between the holy and the profane, and they have not taught the difference
between the unclean and the clean; and they hide their eyes from My
Sabbaths, and I am profaned among them. (Ezekiel 22:26)
NASB Usage: do violence(1), done
violence(2), drop off(1), exposed(1), injures(1), violently treated(1),
Hamas/chamas - 8 verses - Job
15:33; 21:27; Pr 8:36; Jer 13:22; 22:3; Lam 2:6; Ezek 22:26; Zeph 3:4
Kaiser - Like many contemporary pastors, Judah’s priests
did “violence to the law” by replacing God’s Holy Word with their own ideas,
adapting the words of Scripture so as to fit the popular eddies and moods of
the day! By so doing, they conveniently did not mention the “whole counsel
of God” (Acts 20:27), for not all of it fitted their own interests or the
interests of the people.
The LORD is righteous within her; He will do no injustice. Every morning He
brings His justice to light; He does not fail. But the unjust knows no
Deuteronomy 32:4; Ps 99:3,4; 145:17; Ecclesiastes 3:16,17; Isaiah 45:21;
Habakkuk 1:3; Zechariah 9:9; Romans 3:26; 1 Peter 1:17; In the midst:
Zeph 3:15,17; Deuteronomy 23:14; Isaiah 12:6; Ezekiel 48:35; Micah 3:11;
Zechariah 2:5; He will: Genesis 18:25; Job 8:3; 34:10,17-19; every
morning: Isaiah 28:19; 33:2; 50:4; Jeremiah 21:12; Lamentations 3:23;
brings: Ps 37:6; Isaiah 42:3,4; Micah 7:9; Luke 12:2; Romans 2:5; 1Corinthians 4:5; but: Jeremiah 3:3; 6:15; 8:12
NET = The just LORD resides within her;
He commits no unjust acts. Every morning He reveals His justice. At dawn He
appears without fail. Yet the unjust know no shame.
A STRIKING CONTRAST
IN THE MIDST OF JERUSALEM
The LORD is righteous within (in
the midst of) her (Jerusalem) -
Though there were unrighteous princes in her midst ("within her" Zeph
3:3), there was also a righteous Prince in her midst! This would be an encouraging
reminder to those readers who are part of the righteous remnant
(genuine believers like Abraham - Ge 15:6). The Righteous One will have the
final say and it will be "right." Indeed, He "will remove from your midst
your proud, exulting ones" (Zeph 3:11) and "will leave among you a humble
and lowly people." (Zeph 3:12).
The mention of the Righteous One in the
midst of the treacherous city is assurance that justice will be dispensed
and that sinners would not be left unpunished.
The Psalmist writes of Jerusalem
Beautiful in elevation, the joy of the
whole earth, Is Mount Zion in the far north, the city of the great King
(Zeph 3:15). (Ps 48:2)
The Rock! His work is perfect, For all
His ways are just; A God of faithfulness and without injustice, Righteous
and upright is He. (Dt 32:4)
The psalmist writes
"The LORD is righteous in all His
ways and kind in all His deeds." (Ps 145:17).
Within her - Within the midst of
Jerusalem. Jamieson - He retorts on them their own boast, "Is not the Lord
among us" (Mic 3:11)? True He is, but it is for another end from what ye
think [Calvin]; namely, to lead you by the example of His righteousness to
be righteous. Lev 19:2, "Ye shall be holy: for I the Lord your God am holy"
[Maurer]. But Calvin, "That ye may feel His hand to be the nearer for taking
vengeance for your crimes: 'He will not do iniquity' by suffering your sins
to go unpunished" (Dt 32:4).
Kaiser - One would have thought
that the presence of the Lord (Zeph 3:5) in their midst would have been
enough to deter most, if not all, of the sins described in Zeph 3:1–4. The
indicted leaders had been “in her midst” (Zeph 3:3), but so had the Lord
been “in her midst” (Zeph 3:5). No one could implicate the Lord in any
wrongdoing; “He will do no unrighteousness” (Zeph 3:5b). On the contrary,
“Every morning He brings His justice to light; He never fails” (Zeph 3:5c).
So why doesn’t everyone see what is as plain as the morning sunlight on
their face? God’s moral standards are plainly visible to all; He never
fails! Nor have His standards failed!
Every morning (Literally "in the
morning, in the morning") He brings His justice to
light - In Zeph 3:3 we see the evil judges left "nothing for the
morning." As noted in the comments on that passage the morning was often the time when
justice was to be meted out (cf Zeph 3:5, 2Sa 15:2, Ps 101:8, Jer 21:12).
Here we see the Righteous Judge whose perfect justice shines brightly (to
light) which accentuates the contrast with the unjust ravenous judges
who do their nefarious deeds under cover of darkness (Zeph
O Palmer Robertson - Despite the
appearance that corruption prevails on every side, the Lord daily manifests
his righteous judgments. Even the faithful remnant, suffering under the
oppressive tyrannies of a depraved leadership, must acknowledge the daily
realities of the Lord’s justice. As faithfully as the Lord provided daily
manna for his people during their trial period in the wilderness, so in the
chaotic last days of Jerusalem the Lord’s righteousness was coming to
light.(NICOT - Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah)
MacKay - ‘Morning by morning’ is
associated with the regularity of sacrifice in Israel (Ex 30:7; Lev 6:12;
2Chr 13:11; Ezek 46:13–15) and of the provision of manna (Ex 16:21). Here it
is a matter of the administration of justice. The judges of the land
normally met in the morning (v. 3), but they were corrupt. The morning was
when the king heard cases as the final court of appeal in the land (Jer.
21:12), but Josiah was the exception among Judah’s kings of this time in
that he sought the LORD and promoted justice (Jer. 22:15–16).
Barker - God gives his justice
each new day. Righteousness is doing those acts which God himself requires
because of the relationship with him. Justice takes the righteous
acts to the legal sphere, insuring the care for the needy of society. The
affirmation of God’s “justice” (mishpat) contains a play on words
with the “rulers” (shaphat) of Zeph 3:3. Those who should have been
dispensing justice (the rulers) are those who use their position to pick the
people clean, leaving nothing to the morning (Zeph 3:3). But the Lord
dispenses justice every morning....Justice” is a word of such broad
meaning and significance in the Old Testament that it is difficult to
translate. It “can be used to designate almost any aspect of civil or
religious government,” for example: the act of deciding a case by a judge
(Dt 25:1; Josh 20:6); place where a judge decides a case (1Kgs 7:7); process
of litigation (Job 22:4; Isa 3:14); a case or suit brought before the judge
(1Kgs 3:11; Job 13:18); the sentence or decision the judge announces (1Kgs
20:40; Jer 26:11, 16); the time the decision is made (Ps 1:5; Eccl 12:14);
sovereign authority (Deut 1:17; Pr 16:33); the just claims of God (Isa
30:18; Ps 37:28); that which is right as that which agrees with God’s
character (Ps 106:37; Pr 12:5; Mic 6:8); an ordinance or law designed to
establish justice in society (Ex 15:25; Isa 42:4; Dt 33:10); the just rights
an individual possesses in the legal system (Dt 18:3; Jer 32:7). Because God
is righteous, does no wrong, and daily dispenses justice, Israel should be
secure. By implementing his word in their justice system, they could be sure
every case was settled in righteousness and every person would receive his
due. Reality contrasted theory. A righteous, just God faced an unrighteous,
self-centered people. Zephaniah’s recitation of the goodness of God should
have caused the unrighteous to meditate on their behavior. God had been so
good, how could they continue in arrogance before God? They were shameless
before the great God who manifested his goodness before them daily.
He does not fail - NET = "At dawn
He appears without fail."
- In spite of this hourly manifestation
of God's justice, and the enactments of the Law so well known, the perverse
nation will not amend its ways, feels no shame at its backslidings (Jeremiah
3:3; Jeremiah 6:15).
Kaiser - God’s moral standards are
plainly visible to all; He never fails! Nor have His standards failed!
Isaiah speaks of the One Who never
Lift up your eyes on high and see who has
created these stars, The One who leads forth their host by number, He calls
them all by name; Because of the greatness of His might and the strength of
His power, not one of them is missing. (Isa 40:26)
But the unjust knows no shame - But
indicates a contrast. What is he contrasting? In context he is describing
the Righteous One Who is present and Who every morning reveals His justice.
exposure to His righteous "light" should be enough to cause the evil doer's
consciences to feel shame. And yet their conscience was so seared, they did
even blush at their evil deeds, as we see in another description of Judah by
the prophet Jeremiah...
Were they ashamed because of the
abomination they had done? They certainly were not ashamed, and
they did not know how to blush; Therefore they shall fall among those
who fall; At the time of their punishment they shall be brought down,"
Declares Jehovah. (Jer 8:12)
APPLICATION: This description is
reminiscent of those wicked men in
our day who are involved in despicable "trades" like drug dealing, human
trafficking and pornography, all so abominable that most would blush just at
the mention of those terms because their conscience is tender and sensitive
(cp Ro 2:14,15). These
purveyors of such grotesque evil which destroys lives and marriages, have in
turn so destroyed their consciences that they cannot feel shame or remorse
and are driven by their insatiable avarice, lust and ever deepening
depravity. And yet they will surely one day see Jehovah the righteous
One in their midst (Rev 20:11-15-note)!
And He will judge them justly for their unspeakably perverted practices,
casting them "into hell (gehenna), where THEIR WORM DOES NOT DIE (Ed:
Jesus is saying that they will be sent to a horrible place where they will
have eternal consciousness of their evil deeds. While they still may not be
ashamed, they will clearly be aware that God has dealt justly with them and
that they are appropriately reaping fire for eternity as just retribution
for sowing evil in time), AND THE FIRE IS NOT QUENCHED." (Mark 9:47-48)
"I have cut off nations; Their corner towers are in ruins. I have made their
streets desolate, with no one passing by; Their cities are laid waste, without a man, without an inhabitant.:
cut: Isaiah 10:1-34; 15:1-16; 19:1-25; 37:11-13,24-26,36; Jeremiah
25:9-11; Jeremiah 25:18-26; Nahum 2:1-3; 1Corinthians 10:6,11
A WARNING AND
NET Zephaniah 3:6 "I destroyed nations;
their walled cities are in ruins. I turned their streets into ruins; no one
passes through them. Their cities are desolate; no one lives there.
While this passage describes the fate of
the nations, it is notable that this description fits precisely with what
transpired in Judah and Jerusalem less then 50 years later (Zephaniah
written about 625BC) when Nebuchadnezzar's third siege was successful in
Kaiser quips - At this point, the
Lord takes the people of Judah (and all who would eventually read this text)
to school, and gives them (and us) a lesson in world history....History is
full of examples of nations that are no longer on the scene, but had anyone
thought to ask why? Wasn’t their wreckage directly related to their moral
collapse and disregard for the basic principles of righteousness taught in
the Word of God—whether or not they were believing nations? Judah needed to
look no further for such an example than the Northern kingdom that had gone
into captivity in 721BC (or 722BC). Nations and peoples are responsible to
learn from history. It was hoped that Judah would heed the tragic realities
of the past and reverse her headlong rush into disaster.
I have cut off nations (Dt 12:29,
19:1, Jos 11:21, 23:4, Jdg 4:24, 2Sa 7:9) - Jehovah
begins to speak and His first Person discourse extends through Zeph 3:13.
Jehovah is warning Judah that He has judged other nations for their sins.
How could Judah expect to escape His judgment?
Israel had been given a "heads up" by
Moses before they entered the Promised Land regarding the pagan nations...
When the LORD your God cuts off
(karath;) before you the nations which you are going in to dispossess, and
you dispossess them and dwell in their land,
(not a suggestion, but a command; Lxx =
that you are not ensnared to follow them, after they are destroyed before
you, and that you do not inquire after their gods, saying, 'How do these
nations serve their gods, that I also may do likewise? (Dt 12:29-30)
Barker - Zeph 3:5–7 appear to
revolve around the theme of Israel’s knowledge of the goodness of the Lord
and their need to turn from their sins. Seeing the righteousness of the Lord
should have caused the people to feel the intense sorrow associated with sin
(Jer 31:18–19). Yet they went on with their sin. Any rational person would
have thought as the Lord did that the people would fear the Lord and accept
his correction. By accepting the correction of the Lord, the people could
have averted the disaster. Instead of accepting God’s chastisement, they
persisted in their sin, thus insuring the judgment of God. In pride the
wicked of Zeph 3:3, 4—the officials, rulers, prophets, and priests—carried
on in their rebellion against God.
Zephaniah 1:3 also used karath
I will remove man and beast; I will
remove the birds of the sky and the fish of the sea, And the ruins along
with the wicked; And I will cut off man from the face of the earth,”
declares the LORD.
So just as God had cut off nations, now
He would be forced to do the same to Jerusalem and Judah.
literally means to cut, to cut off or to sever an object from its source or
cut into parts and implies a violent action. For example, Zipporah "cut off her son’s foreskin."
(Ex 4:25) or the Jews "cut down a branch with a single cluster of grapes."
(Nu 13:2-24, cf Dt 19:5, 20:19-20, Jdg 9:48-49, 1Sa 5:4, 17:51, 24:4-5,11,
31:9, 2Sa 10:4, 2Sa 20:22) In another literal use as punishment to Israel
for breaking the Mosaic covenant (cf Dt 29:25, 31:16), God says He will "cut
down (karath) your incense altars" (Lev 26:30, cf Jdg 6:25-26, cf 1Sa 28:9).
A sacrificial animal was not to be offered if it was "cut" (karath) (Lev
22:24). Karath means "chewed" (cutting food with teeth) in Nu 11:33.
NAS translates karath as -
beams(3), cease(1), chewed(1), completely cut off(1), covenanted(1),
cut(10), cut her off(1), cut him off(5), cut it down(1), cut it off(1), cut
them down(1), cut you down(1), cut you off(2), cut down(23), cut off(129),
cuts(1), cuts off(4), cutter(1), destroy(1), destroyed(3), fail(1 = 2Sa
3:29), kill(1), lack(8 - 1Ki 2:4), made(52), make(31), makes(2), making(2),
making an in writing(1), perish(1).
Figuratively karath refers to
being "cut off" from Israel for some disobedience such as failing to
receive circumcision or celebrate Passover (Ge 17:14, Ex 12:15, Nu 9:13 - karath
translated in both in Lxx with verb
means to utterly destroy or "root out"). "The person who does
anything defiantly (willfully), whether he is native or an alien, that one
is blaspheming the LORD; and that person shall be cut off (Lxx =
from among his people." (Nu 15:30-31) The idea of a disobedient or
unclean individual being "cut off" is the meaning in almost all of the uses
in the Leviticus (Lev 7:20, 21, etc). Many of the uses of karath in this
context in Leviticus are translated in the Lxx with the verb
which describes that which is ruined and no longer usable for its original,
intended purpose. The question arises is what does karath signify in these
uses? Does it just mean the person becomes a social outcast or does it
signify actual physical death? See
Covenant Solemn & Binding
for detailed analysis of this question. See also discussion of the verb
which also addresses this question.
Karath refers to cutting off one's
name in Israel by providing no male descendants (Ru 4:10, 1Sa 24:21, 1Ki
14:10, 21:21, 2Ki 9:8).
Karath refers to the cutting off
of the waters of the Jordan River to allow Israel to pass over (Josh 3:13,
Karath is used in Joshua 9:23 of
the Gibeonites who would "never cease (karath - cut off from) being slaves."
Karath speaks of literal death, as in Ge
9:11 where God promises "all flesh shall never be cut off (karath;
= to die) by the water of the flood."
Karath can refer to the people of
the land being "cut off," as in Ge 41:36, where it is translated "perish during the
famine." The Septuagint uses ektribo (to cause removal by
irritation, obliterate as by rubbing, thus destroy), a verb also used to
describe the fate of Sodom and
Gomorrah (Ge 19:13). Here in Zeph 3:6 karath refers to destroying pagan
nations, which should have been a warning to Judah. Similarly karath is
applied to the nation of Israel as a whole being cut off because of breaking
the Mosaic covenant (Isa 9:14, 48:19, Jer 7:28, 44:7-9, Ezek 14:13-15, Zech
13:2). In Leviticus God says He "will let loose among you the beasts of the
field" to "destroy you cattle and reduce you number so that your roads lie
deserted." (Lev 26:22)
CUT A COVENANT
Karath is used with
meaning to "cut a covenant"
or establish a covenant between two parties, either between God and men
(Abrahamic Covenant = Ge 15:18, Mosaic Covenant = Ex 24:8, Dt 5:2-3, 9:9;
Abrahamic versus Mosaic and
Abrahamic vs Old vs New) or between men
(Ge 21:27, 32, 26:28, 31:44, 2Sa 3:12-13, 21, 5:3; 1Sa 18:3, 20:15-16, 22:8,
23:18 between Jonathan and David [See
discussion of their Covenant - Exchanging of Robes]; cutting
covenant was prohibited = Ex 23:32, Dt 7:2, Jdg 2:2, a dictum which Joshua
disobeyed - Josh 9:6-7,11). In the context of
cutting covenant karath is translated in the Lxx with
diatithemi (see detailed discussion)
which is used in the sense of
making "a last will or testament" (Heb 9:16-note).
There is a very important use of karath
in Da 9:26 (See
in depth discussion)
where the angel tells Daniel "Then
(Don't miss this crucial
expression of time)
the sixty-two weeks ("seven weeks and sixty-two week" - in sum, after 69
weeks or 483 years) the Messiah will be cut off (karath) and have
nothing, and the people (Romans) of the prince who is to come (Antichrist)
will destroy the city (Jerusalem) and the sanctuary (Temple). And its end
will come with a flood; even to the end there will be war; desolations are
determined." The Septuagint (LXX) translates karath in Daniel 9:26 with the
which means to extirpate, to wipe out, to
utter destroy (only NT use is Acts 3:23, also used in Lxx of Ex 30:33;
31:14; Dt 7:10) Almost every conservative evangelical source agrees this
verse is clearly a reference to the crucifixion of Christ. Christ was indeed
not only "cut off" from man and from life, but on the cross indicated that
He was forsaken of God, crying out "My
God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?"
(Mt 27:46) Geisler writes "karath is used of the death of the Messiah."
(Correcting the Cults) Isaiah has a similar description (but not using the
verb karath) writing "By oppression and judgment He was taken away;
And as for His generation, who considered That He was cut off (Hebrew =
gazar; Lxx = airo = take from) out of the land of the living For the
transgression of my people, to whom the stroke was due?" (Isa 53:8)
Vine - karath basically
means “to sever” something from something else by cutting it with a blade.
The nuance depends upon the thing being cut off. In the case of a branch,
one “cuts it down” (Nu 13:23), and one "[swings] the axe to cut down the
tree” (Deut. 19:5). The word is also used of “chopping down” wooden idols
(Ex. 34:13). Karath can signify “chopping off” a man’s head and feet
(1Sa 5:4). In Jer 34:18 this verb means “to cut into two pieces.” (Ed:
This description is similar to the passing between the pieces of flesh in Ge
15:17-18 when God cut a covenant with Abram; cf Dt 29:12 where "enter"
connotes the idea of movement between two particular places, presumably the
slain sacrifices which the contracting parties passed between. This means of
cutting a covenant was also used among the Babylonians). “Cut off” may also
imply cutting off in the sense of circumcision. In Ex. 4:25 Zipporah took a
flint knife and “cut off” her son’s foreskin. In a related but different
usage this word appears in Nu. 11:33, where it means “to chew” meat. “To cut
off” can mean “to exterminate or destroy.” God told Noah that “all flesh
[shall never again] be cut off … by the waters of a flood …” (Gen. 9:11).
Karath can be used of spiritual and social extermination. A person “cut
off” in this manner is not necessarily killed but may be driven out of the
family and removed from the blessings of the covenant. God told Abraham that
“the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised,
that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken my covenant”
(Gen. 17:14). One of the best known uses of this verb is “to make” a
covenant. The process by which God made a covenant with Abraham is called
“cutting”: “In the same day the Lord made a covenant with Abram” (Ge 15:18).
The word “covenant” appears nine times before this in Genesis, but it is not
connected with karath....Karath is frequently associated with making a
covenant. This verb, therefore, constitutes a rather technical term for
making (cutting) a covenant. In Genesis it often alludes to an act by which
animals were cut in two and the party taking the oath passed between the
pieces. This act was not created by God especially to deal with Abraham but
was a well-known practice at that time among many men. Later, “cutting” a
covenant did not necessarily include this act but seems to be an allusion to
the Abrahamic covenantal process (cf. Jer 34:18). In such a covenant the one
passing through the pieces pledged his faithfulness to the covenant. If that
faithfulness was broken, he called death upon himself, or the same fate
which befell the animals. In some cases it is quite clear that no literal
cutting took place and that karat is used in a technical sense of “making an
agreement in writing” (Neh. 9:38).
Karath - 283 v - Gen 9:11; 15:18;
17:14; 21:27, 32; 26:28; 31:44; 41:36; Ex 4:25; 8:9; 12:15, 19; 23:32; Ex
24:8; 30:33, 38; 31:14; 34:10, 12f, 15, 27; Lev 7:20-21, 25, 27; 17:4, 9-10, 14;
18:29; 19:8; 20:3, 5-6, 17-18; 22:3, 24; 23:29; 26:22, 30; Nu 4:18; 9:13;
11:33; 13:23-24; 15:30-31; 19:13, 20; Deut 4:23; 5:2f; 7:2; 9:9; 12:29; 19:1, 5;
20:19f; 23:1; 29:1, 12, 14, 25; 31:16; Josh 3:13, 16; 4:7; 7:9; 9:6f, 11,
15f, 23; 11:21; 23:4; 24:25; Jdg 2:2; 4:24; 6:25f, 28, 30; 9:48f; Ruth
4:10; 1 Sam 2:33; 5:4; 11:1f; 17:51; 18:3; 20:15f; 22:8; 23:18; 24:4f, 11,
21; 28:9; 31:9; 2 Sam 3:12f, 21, 29; 5:3; 7:9; 10:4; 20:22; 1Kgs 2:4; 5:6,
12; 6:36; 7:2, 12; 8:9, 21, 25; 9:5, 7; 11:16; 14:10, 14; 15:13; 18:4f;
20:34; 21:21; 2Kgs 9:8; 11:4, 17; 17:15, 35, 38; 18:4; 19:23; 23:3, 14; 1Chr 11:3; 16:16; 17:8; 19:4; 2Chr 2:8, 10, 16; 5:10; 6:11, 16; 7:18; 15:16;
21:7; 22:7; 23:3, 16; 29:10; 34:31; Ezra 10:3; Neh 9:8, 38; Job 14:7; 31:1;
41:4; Ps 12:3; 34:16; 37:9, 22, 28, 34, 38; 50:5; 83:5; 89:3; 101:8; 105:9;
109:13, 15; Pr 2:22; 10:31; 23:18; 24:14; Isa 9:14; 10:7; 11:13; 14:8, 22;
18:5; 22:25; 28:15; 29:20; 37:24; 44:14; 48:9, 19; 55:3, 13; 56:5; 57:8;
61:8; Jer 6:6; 7:28; 9:21; 10:3; 11:10, 19; 22:7; 31:31ff; 32:40; 33:17f;
34:8, 13, 15, 18; 35:19; 44:7f, 11; 46:23; 47:4; 48:2; 50:16; 51:62; Ezek
14:8, 13, 17, 19, 21; 16:4; 17:13, 17; 21:3f; 25:7, 13, 16; 29:8; 30:15;
31:12; 34:25; 35:7; 37:26; Dan 9:26; Hos 2:18; 8:4; 10:4; 12:1; Joel 1:5, 9,
16; Amos 1:5, 8; 2:3; Obad 1:9f, 14; Mic 5:9ff; Nah 1:14f; 2:13; 3:15; Zeph
1:3f, 11; 3:6f; Hag 2:5; Zech 9:6, 10; 11:10; 13:2, 8; 14:2; Mal 2:12
Their corner towers are in ruins
(same word pinnah is used Zeph 1:16 describing the
Day of the Lord) -
ESV translates this as "Battlements (see note below)."
These were the key defense posts, the most strongly fortified point of a
walled city. If they were in ruins, everything was in
translates "corner towers" with the
interesting word huperephanos
(huper = over, above + phaino
= shine) which literally describes the one above and when speaking of men
refers to one who shows (shines) himself above others (in a word, pride).
Theophylact called it "the citadel and summit of all evils."
Surely there is a play on words by the
translators, who seem in a sense to
personify the "corner towers" as possessing an arrogance voicing the
thought "We are invincible!" And is not that exactly what men do with their
possessions or money or power (etc) - they fallaciously think themselves to
be impregnable! The are like the man in Proverbs 18:11 (note)
which says "A rich man’s wealth is his strong city, And like a high wall in
his own imagination." In marked contrast, Solomon describes the truly "rich"
man in Pr 18:10-note!
refers to a location where various surfaces or lines meet to form an angle.
In this context the "corner towers" were the apparently places in the walls
from which arrow could be shot, stones hurled, etc. (See description and
Battlements). Clearly corner
towers were vital for defense of a city and the fact that they lay in ruins
indicates they were overrun by enemy troops.
NAS Usage: chiefs(2), corner(16),
corner towers(2), corners(7), cornerstone(3), cornerstone*(1).
Pinnah - 31v - Ex 27:2; 38:2; Jdg
20:2; 1 Sam 14:38; 1Kgs 7:34; 2 Kgs 14:13; 2 Chr 25:23; 26:9, 15; 28:24; Neh
3:24, 31f; Job 1:19; 38:6; Ps 118:22; Pr 7:8, 12; 21:9; 25:24; Isa 19:13;
28:16; Jer 31:38, 40; 51:26; Ezek 43:20; 45:19; Zeph 1:16; 3:6; Zech 10:4;
I have made their streets desolate
- Notice God says "I have made" indicating He is sovereign over
nations and would be sovereign over Judah's fall. Isaiah
declares "For the LORD of hosts has planned, and who can frustrate it? And
as for His stretched-out hand, who can turn it back?" (Isa 14:27). And again
Jehovah Himself declares "Even from eternity I am He; And there is none who
can deliver out of My hand; I act and who can reverse it?" (Isa 43:13)
a verb that means to be desolate, ruined or destroyed, in essence to lay in
ruins in a state of utter destruction. (Ezek 26:19; 30:7) To be dry (Jdg
16:7-8), to dry up (Ge 8:13, 2Ki 19:24), to lay waste. Note that most of the
uses of this word are in the prophets where we see them repeatedly warn of
coming desolation not just to Israel but to other nations (eg, Tyre in Ezek
Chareb is translated in the Lxx
with the verb exeremoo (eremos = wilderness, uninhabited, waste,
desert, desolate) meaning to make quite desolate, to devastate (Used in Lxx
of Lev 26:31-32, Jdg 16:24, 2Ki 19:24, Ezek 6:6, 12:20, 19:7, Amos 7:9, Zeph
3:6). The root verb eremoo (to be brought to ruin, become desolate,
be devastated - Mt 12:25) is used in the Lxx translations of 2Ki 19:17, Isa
34:10, 37:18, Isa 49:17, 60:12, Jer 26:9, Ezek 26:2, 19, 29:12, 30:7 .
Xeraino (to stop a flow of something resulting in dryness, to dry out,
to whither) in Isa 42:15.
NAS Usage: become waste(2),
desolate(4), destroyer(1), devastated(3), devastators(1), laid waste(5), lay
waste(1), made their desolate(1), utterly ruined(1).
Chareb - 18v - Jdg 16:24; 2Kgs
19:17 (Lxx = eremoo - to make uninhabitable); Isa 34:10; 37:18; 42:15;
49:17; 60:12; Jer 2:12; 26:9; Ezek 6:6; 12:20; 19:7; 26:2, 19; 29:12; 30:7;
Amos 7:9; Zeph 3:6
With no one passing by -
Emphasizes the utter devastation of Judah.
Their cities are laid waste - The
citizens were either dead or deported! MacKay adds that "Their
ruins testify to the ineffectiveness of human devices when the LORD decides
Without a man, without an inhabitant
- Note how the description of desertion, devastation and desolation is
"piled up" in this verse.
MacKay - This had not been
capricious conduct on the LORD’S part, but fully warranted by the sin of the
nations (Ge 13:13; 18:20; Lev. 18:25–27; Dt. 9:4; 1Ss 15:2–3). He had not
acted a moment sooner than was proper; for instance, he waited because the
sin of the Amorites had not yet reached full measure (Gen. 15:16).
"I said, 'Surely you will revere Me, accept instruction.' So her dwelling
will not be cut off according to all that I have appointed concerning her.
But they were eager to corrupt all their deeds.:
Surely: Zeph 3:2; Isaiah 5:4; 63:8; Jeremiah 8:6; 36:3; Luke 19:42-44; 2Peter 3:9; So: Jeremiah 7:7; 17:25-27; 25:5; 38:17; according to: 2Chronicles 28:6-8; 32:1,2; 33:11; 36:3-10; they: Micah 2:1,2;
corrupt: Genesis 6:12; Deuteronomy 4:16; Hosea 9:9
NET Zephaniah 3:7 I thought, 'Certainly
you will respect me! Now you will accept correction!' If she had done so,
her home would not be destroyed by all the punishments I have threatened.
But they eagerly sinned in everything they did.
I said - “I said" brings us
right into the divine mind and heart.” (Motyer) Presumably He spoke words
similar to these through the His mouthpieces, the prophets (eg, see Jer
35:15, 26:5, 44:4). Recall Jehovah began this
discourse in Zeph 3:6 and it continues through Zeph 3:13. Before Jehovah
pronounces judgment on Judah, He gently reminds and warns her of her errant
ways. Is this not how Jehovah
deals with us daily, we who like Robert Robinson rightly said are so "Prone
to wander, Lord, I feel it, Prone to leave the God I love," and thus daily
need to cry out "Here’s my heart, O take and seal it, Seal it for Thy courts
Thou Fount of Every Blessing) (David
Surely you will revere (fear)
Me, accept instruction - Alas, it was not to be so! One would think that after seeing Jehovah's
judgment against the nations, such objective, historical truth would surely
encourage Judah and Jerusalem to repent. But it was not to be. They must
have falsely reasoned that God would never destroy His Temple and His holy
city Jerusalem, where He had made His name to dwell. (Ezra 6:12, Ex 20:24,
Dt 12:5,11, 1Ki 9:3)
Surely is an "emphatic
affirmative" as if to say "based on the fact that you have
observed My judgment on other nations,
surely you will see your great need to fear Me and obey Me." Jamieson
paraphrases God "I had hoped that My people by My judgments on other nations
would be led to amendment; but they are not, so blinded by sin are they."
To revere does not describe a fear
of God that borders on sheer terror (Ex 3:6, 20:18, cf this as one of the
first emotions in Adam after sin entered - Ge 3:10!), but a reverential fear
and awe. Israel had learned a proper fear of Jehovah from His past
deliverances (Ex 14:31, Josh 4:24, cf Dt 6:1-2, 31:12, even their kings = Dt
17:19) As E H Merrill says "While the normal meaning of fear as dread
or terror is retained in the theological use of the terms, a special nuance
of reverential awe or worshipful respect becomes the dominant notion.” (Fear
- Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology)
Now, Israel, what does the LORD your God
require from you, but to fear the LORD your God, to walk in all His ways and
love Him, and to serve the LORD your God with all your heart and with all
your soul, and to keep the LORD’S commandments and His statutes which I am
commanding you today for your good? (Deut 10:12-13)
As Jeremiah declares...
There is none like Thee, O LORD; Thou art
great, and great is Thy name in might. Who would not fear Thee, O
King of the nations? Indeed it is Thy due! For among all the wise men of the
nations, And in all their kingdoms, There is none like Thee. (Jer 10:6-7, cf
Jer 5:22, Job 37:23-24, Lk 12:4-5, Rev 15:4-note)...And
I will make an everlasting covenant with them (Israel) that I will not turn
away from them, to do them good; and I will put the fear of Me in their
hearts so that (Purpose
clause - What purpose?) they
will not turn away from Me. (Jer 32:40, cp Jer 31:31-33, Ezek 36:26-27-note,
contrast their hearts in Zeph 3:2!)
Kaiser - There was no trembling in
the face of the presence and power of God, nor any evidence of a willingness
to receive His instruction. Despite all divine hope, Judah had resisted
every loving attempt—in the form of divine punishments—to drive her back
onto the right path. It was almost as if the people could not disengage
themselves from a vice-grip of sin. (Ed:
Beloved, is there some sin that has
you in it's firm grip [cf Pr
Confess, repent and return that you might be revived, lest you experience,
like Judah, Jehovah's just retribution! [cf
God desires us to have a healthy fear
of Him, and not an unhealthy type of fear which we all experience from time
to time. The antidote for this latter genre of fear is faith. If you wrestle
with fear (and who doesn't), see the related resources -
How To Handle Fear Part 1,
How To Handle Fear Part 2,
How To Handle Fear Part 3,
How To Handle Fear Part 4.
Barker - Wisdom taught that
fearing God was the starting point for wisdom (Pr 1:7; 31:30). To fear God
was parallel to and synonymous with obeying his precepts (Ps 119:63; cp.
Deut 5:29; 6:2; 13:4). Those who fear God praise and glorify him (Ps 22:23).
To fear God means to hold Him in awe, to give to the Lord the honor due Him.
Bowling noted five usages of “fear” with the sense of awe and
reverence being the predominant usage in the Old Testament. The person who
fears God makes his fear work in terms of personal piety and righteousness.
In many passages, fearing God and proper living are so closely connected
that they seem to be synonyms. In the present verse this seems to be the
case. Fearing God and accepting correction seem to follow one
upon the other.
Accept instruction - Recall that in this same chapter Zephaniah had
recorded the sad "quadruple" indictment that "She heeded no voice, She
accepted no instruction. She did not trust in the LORD, She did not draw
near to her God." (Zeph 3:2). Jeremiah also alludes to their failure to
They have turned their back to Me and not
their face; though I taught them, teaching again and again, they would not
listen and receive instruction. (Jer 32:33, 7:13, 25:3-4, Pr 1:24)
In 2Chronicles we read...
And the LORD, the God of their fathers,
sent word to them again and again by His messengers, because He had
compassion on His people and on His dwelling place;16 but they continually
mocked the messengers of God, despised His words and scoffed at His
prophets, until the wrath of the LORD arose against His people, until there
was no remedy. (2Chr 36:15-16)
So her dwelling will not be cut off
according to all that I have appointed concerning her - In other words
if Judah feared and obeyed Jehovah, He would not destroy them.
But they were eager to corrupt all
their deeds (Isa 1:4) - But is a
term of contrast
from what could have been true of them if they had obeyed to what was in
actuality true of them -- Instead of fearing God they did not pursue God,
but pursued evil.
They were eager in translated in
the KJV as "they rose
early," as if to picture them so eager to sin that they jumped out of bed
lest they lose time committing evil! They should have risen early to meet
with God, but spurned meeting with Him ("She did not draw near to her God."
Zeph 3:1), flaunting His goodness and "storing up for themselves wrath!"
Matthew Henry on Judah's
eagerness to sin - Alas, that men often are more active in doing wickedness
than believers are in doing good.
MacArthur (commenting on 2Pe 2:13-note)
notes that "Sinning during the day without the
cover of darkness was a sign of low-level wickedness in Roman society
But these false teachers (Ed: In the first century church were like the
ancient Israelites -
doesn't change much, does it
beloved?) are so consumed with lust and rebellion that they are pleased
not to wait for the night. Their unbridled passions consume them." (Woe!
Such is the nature of the corruption [see below] wrought by sin! Why do we
still sin so willfully, duped into thinking it has no corrupting, decaying
effect on our heart and our "functional fellowship" with Jehovah?)
Barker - The combination of “rise
early” with the verb “corrupt” means that they were persistent in
their evil. In becoming absorbed in corruption the people repeated the crime
of the flood (Ge 6:12) and fulfilled the prophecy of Moses (Dt 31:29). The
people of Jerusalem lived according to their own plans and planned to live
apart from God. “Grace is offered, but frivolously spurned, a sobering
epitaph for the city of David.”
Making your own plans and ignoring God is a sure prescription for
destruction whether living in the sixth century B.C. or the twenty-first
means primarily to start, to rise early (in order to accomplish something).
In the Middle East, the mornings are cool, whereas the afternoons are hot
and less amenable to doing things.
Vine - It is found for the first
time in Gen. 19:2: “… And ye shall rise up early, and go on your ways.” As
in this instance, many of the instances of the use of shakam are in
connection with traveling. Thus, it may be used with verbs of going (as
above) or encamping (Jdg. 7:1). The word is used some 30 times in reference
to rising early in the morning, as in 1Sa 29:10, in which this phrase
appears twice: “Wherefore now rise up early in the morning with thy master’s
servants that are come with thee: and as soon as ye be up early in the
morning, and have light, depart.” A number of times in the Book of
Jeremiah, “rising up early” is used with “speaking” (Jer 7:13; 25:3; 35:14),
“sending” (Jer 7:25; 25:4; 29:19; 35:15; 44:4), “protesting” (Jer 11:7), or
“teaching” (Jer 32:33). Ps. 127:2 gives some interesting advice while using
this word: “It is vain for you to rise up early, to sit up late, to eat the
bread of sorrows: for so he giveth his beloved sleep.”
Swanson says in addition to doing
something early in the morning shakam means to "repeat, do again and again,
i.e., have an activity or event continue as a succession of events (in
points of time) which occur several to many times, implying eagerness in an
action (2Chr 36:15; Jer 7:13, 25; 11:7; 25:3, 4; 26:5; 29:19; 32:33; 35:14,
15; 44:4; Zep 3:7)
NAS Usage: again(9), arise
early(2), arisen early(1), arose(1), arose to early(1), arose early(16),
eager(1), early(6), got up early(1), morning(1), persistently(1), rise up
early(1), rise early(6), rising up early(2), rising early(1), rose up
early(3), rose early(12), soon(1).
The Lxx translates shakam here
with the verb horthrizo, which means literally to rise early, to be
up with the dawn (in NT only in Lk 21:38 where the early risers were eager
to listen to Jesus - As an
aside, this is a good practice for all God's children! See
Quiet Time-- 7 Minutes With God)
Shakam - 64v - Gen 19:2, 27; 20:8; 21:14;
22:3; 26:31; 28:18; 31:55; Ex 8:20; 9:13; 24:4; 32:6; 34:4; Num 14:40;
Josh 3:1; 6:12, 15; 7:16; 8:10, 14; Jdg 6:28, 38; 7:1; 9:33; 19:5, 8f;
21:4; 1 Sam 1:19; 5:3f; 9:26; 15:12; 17:16, 20; 29:10f; 2 Sam 15:2; 2Kgs
3:22; 6:15; 19:35; 2Chr 20:20; 29:20; 36:15; Job 1:5; Ps 127:2; Pr 27:14;
Song 7:12; Isa 5:11; 37:36; Jer 7:13, 25; 11:7; 25:3f; 26:5; 29:19; 32:33;
35:14f; 44:4; Hos 6:4; 13:3; Zeph 3:7
means to decay, to go to ruin, to corrupt, to destroy (Sodom and Gomorrah =
Ge 13:10, Ge 18:28, 31-32), to lay waste (Egypt from swarms of flies -Ex
8:24). Shachath is used of Israelites
who worshiped the golden calf (Ex 32:7; Dt 9:12; 32:5, Hos 9:9). God warned
He would destroy Israel if they were turned away from following Him
(Nu 32:15). Shachath describes Israel's behavior as more corrupt
after a judge died (Jdg 2:19).
The first 3 uses of shachath are
very instructive for they resulted in a worldwide flood, even as Israel's
corruption would result in worldwide shame at her ignominious defeat by
Now the earth was corrupt (Lxx =
= cause loss of soundness, ruin,
destroy, kill. Corruption derives from "the lusts of deceit" Eph 4:22-note)
in the sight of God (cp Pr 15:3), and the earth was filled with violence. 12
And God looked on the earth, and behold, it was corrupt (Lxx = kataphtheiro
= "rotten"!) for
all flesh had corrupted (Lxx = kataphtheiro)
their way upon the earth. 13 Then God said to Noah, "The end of all flesh
has come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence because of them;
and behold, I am about to destroy them with the earth. (Ge 6:11-13)
While Moses was on the mountain the
Israelites made a golden idol, which caused God to speak...
Then the LORD spoke to Moses, “Go down at
once, for your people, whom you brought up from the land of Egypt, have
corrupted themselves. (Ex 32:7, "acted corruptly" = Dt 9:12; Corruption
is associated with idolatry = Dt 4:16, 25)
God prophesied of Israel's corruption...
For I know that after my death you
will act corruptly (shachath) and turn from the way which I have
commanded you; and evil will befall you in the latter days, for you will do
that which is evil in the sight of the LORD, provoking Him to anger with the
work of your hands." (Deuteronomy 31:29)
Despite Israel's repeated sin, God
remained faithful to the Abrahamic Covenant...
For the LORD your God is a compassionate
God; He will not fail you nor destroy (shachath; Lxx = ektribo =
obliterate) you nor forget the covenant with your fathers which He swore to
them. (Deuteronomy 4:31)
NAS Usage: act corruptly(4),
act...corruptly(1), acted corruptly(3), acted...corruptly(1), acting
corruptly(1), blemished animal(1), corrupt(8), corrupted(4),
depravity(1), destroy(69), destroyed(14), destroyer(4),
destroyers(1), destroying(7), destroys(5), destruction(2), devastate(1),
felled(2), go to ruin(1), harm(2), jeopardize(1), laid waste(1),
polluted(1), raiders(2), ravage(1), ravaged(1), ruin(1), ruined(4),
set(1), spoiled(1), stifled(1), waste(1), wasted(1), wreaking
Shachath - 138v - Ge 6:11-13, 17;
9:11, 15; 13:10; 18:28, 31f; 19:13f, 29; 38:9; Ex 8:24; 12:13, 23; 21:26;
32:7; Lev 19:27; Num 32:15; Deut 4:16, 25, 31; 9:12, 26; 10:10; 20:19f;
31:29; 32:5; Josh 22:33; Jdg 2:19; 6:4f; 20:21, 25, 35, 42; Ruth 4:6; 1Sa
6:5; 13:17; 14:15; 23:10; 26:9, 15; 2 Sam 1:14; 11:1; 14:11; 20:15, 20;
24:16; 2Kgs 8:19; 13:23; 18:25; 19:12; 1Chr 20:1; 21:12, 15; 2Chr 12:7,
12; 21:7; 24:23; 25:16; 26:16; 27:2; 34:11; 35:21; 36:19; Ps 14:1; 53:1;
78:38, 45; 106:23; Pr 6:32; 11:9; 18:9; 23:8; 25:26; 28:24; Isa 1:4; 11:9;
14:20; 36:10; 37:12; 51:13; 54:16; 65:8, 25; Jer 2:30; 4:7; 5:10, 26; 6:5,
28; 11:19; 12:10; 13:7, 9, 14; 15:3, 6; 18:4; 22:7; 36:29; 48:18; 49:9;
51:1, 11, 20, 25; Lam 2:5f, 8; Ezek 5:16; 9:8; 16:47; 20:17, 44; 22:30;
23:11; 26:4; 28:17; 30:11; 43:3; Dan 8:24f; 9:26; 11:17; Hos 9:9; 11:9;
13:9; Amos 1:11; Nah 2:2; Zeph 3:7; Mal 1:14; 2:8; 3:11
Vine - “to corrupt, spoil, ruin,
mar, destroy.” ... Anything that is good can be “corrupted” or “spoiled,”
such as Jeremiah’s loincloth (Jer. 13:7), a vineyard (Jer. 12:10), cities
(Ge 13:10), and a temple (Lam. 2:6). Shachath has the meaning of “to waste”
when used of words that are inappropriately spoken (Pr. 23:8). In its
participial form, the word is used to describe a “ravening lion” (Jer. 2:30,
RSV) and the “destroying angel” (1Chr. 21:15). The word is used as a symbol
for a trap in Jer. 5:26. Shachath is used frequently by the prophets in the
sense of “to corrupt morally” (Isa. 1:4; Ezek. 23:11; Zeph. 3:7).
Swanson - 1. (nif) be
corrupt, be marred, be ruined, i.e., pertaining to an object being in a
ruined state, implying the object is now useless (Ex 8:20; Jer 13:7; 18:4);
(piel) destroy, ruin, ravage, devastate (Ge 6:17), note: destruction of
animate life; (hif) destroy, bring to ruin (Ge 6:13); (hof pt.) blemished,
corrupted (Pr 25:26; Mal 1:14), note: this may refer to male castration or
water pollution; 2. (nif) be corrupt, marred, i.e., be ruined morally
and so be in an impure state, as a figurative extension of an object being
in a ruined or decayed condition (Ge 6:11, 12; Ezek 20:44); (piel) become
corrupt (Ex 32:7); (hif) corrupt, bring to ruin (Dt 4:25)
for Me," declares the LORD, "For the day when I rise up as a witness.
Indeed, My decision is to gather nations, to assemble kingdoms, to pour out
on them My indignation, all My burning anger; for all the earth will be
devoured by the fire of My zeal:
wait: Ps 27:14; 37:7,34; 62:1,5; 123:2; 130:5,6; Proverbs 20:22;
Isaiah 30:18; Lamentations 3:25,26; Hosea 12:6; Micah 7:7; Jas 5:7,8;
rise: Ps 12:5; 78:65,66; Isaiah 42:13,14; 59:16-18; gather:
Ezekiel 38:14-23; Joel 3:2,9-16; Micah 4:11-13; Zechariah 14:2,3; Matthew
25:32; Revelation 16:14; 19:17-19; for all the earth: Zeph 1:18;
Deuteronomy 32:21,22; Song of Solomon 8:6; Ezekiel 36:5,6; 38:19; 2 Peter
Compare Zephaniah's earlier pronouncement...
Neither their silver nor their gold will
be able to deliver them on the
day of the LORD’S wrath; and
all the earth will be devoured In the fire of His jealousy
qin'ah = also used here in Zeph 3:8
= "My zeal"),
of explanation) He will make a
complete end, indeed a terrifying one, of all the inhabitants of the
earth. (Zeph 1:18)
Therefore - Another "strategic"
term of conclusion
- What is being concluded? What (or who)
has been the main focus of Zeph 3:1-7? Where does the focus switch in verse
8? Has this event occurred?
for Me -
Jehovah issues a command
but the question is "To Whom?" While we cannot be definitive, in the
context it could be those who seek righteousness and humility in Zeph 2:1-3.
The fact that Jehovah will exert His sovereign power to "gather nations, to
assemble kingdoms" (cf repeated allusions to the global aspect of this
prophecy - Zeph 1:2, 3, 18, 2:3, 11, 3:8, 19, 20) clearly requires a future fulfillment
and parallels John's description of the gathering of the
nations of the world at
Armageddon (see discussion of this campaign), in preparation for
the final great conflict (see Rev 16:14-16-note).
Notice the vivid synonyms that describe the LORD's attitude in "the
day" - indignation, anger, (zealous) fire. This Day of Jehovah will
have a two-fold effect, bringing judgment on the nations that have rejected
His gracious offer of eternal life in Christ (and for their treatment of
Israel - see Joel 3:2b) and purification for the
God fearing remnant
(cp Ro 11:26-27-note).
A C Gaebelein has a useful note on
for what they were to "Wait"
- This verse leads us back to the opening exhortation of this chapter
(Zeph 3:1). They are as a nation to wait for Him, till the day comes in
which He arises to execute the judgment of the nations. It has been a long
waiting. Centuries have come and gone; His earthly people have been the
wanderers among the nations of the world, where they have been a byword and
a curse, yet witnesses for Him also. Still they are waiting for “that day,”
the day which closes the
Times of the Gentiles (Lk
21:24), when the Stone (Messiah) strikes the great man image and becomes a
mountain filling the whole earth Daniel 2:1-49. (Ed: See Da 2:34-35-note
and Da 2:45-note)
3 - Arno Gaebelein's Annotated Bible Commentary)
NET Note - The second person verb
form ("you must wait patiently") is masculine plural, indicating that
a group is being addressed. Perhaps the humble individuals addressed earlier
(see Zech 2:3) are in view. Because of Jerusalem's sin, they must patiently
wait for judgment to pass before their vindication arrives.
G Campbell Morgan - The address
opened with a declaration of woe against Jerusalem, which the prophet
described as rebellious, polluted, and oppressing. In the presence of this
utter hopelessness the prophet cried, "Therefore
for Me, saith Jehovah." This
was the first gleam of hope. The very hopelessness and sin of the people
made divine action necessary, and the action would be judgment. The
judgment, however, would be but the prelude, for no sooner had the prophet
declared it to be inevitable than he proceeded to describe the ultimate
restoration. From this
point the prophecy is clearly Messianic.
Zephaniah gave no picture of the suffering Servant, nor any hint of His
method. He dealt only with the ultimate result. He then addressed himself to
the remnant, charging them to sing and rejoice because their enemy
would be cast out, and their true King Jehovah be established in the midst
of them. He next called them to true courage and to service. The prophecy
reaches its highest level as Zephaniah describes the attitude of God in
poetic language...Jehovah in the midst of His people will rejoice, and from
the silence of love will proceed to the song of His own satisfaction.
term of explanation.
What is he explaining?
He is explaining why they must wait.
They must be patient for the day when Jesus avenges His cause.
The day when I rise up - When is
this day? The context helps us, explaining that it will be a day when
Jehovah gathers nations and assembles kingdoms and that this would involve
the entire earth. This is clearly at the Second Coming of Jesus.
John MacArthur - The prophet
transitions from the historical invasion of Judah by Babylon to the future
day of the Lord. He speaks of the
when the LORD will gather all the nations for judgment (cf. Joel 3:1-2 [“For
behold, in those days and at that time, when I restore the fortunes of Judah
and Jerusalem, "I will gather the nations And bring them down to the
valley of Jehoshaphat Then I will enter into judgment with them there On
behalf of My people and My inheritance, Israel, Whom they have scattered
among the nations; And they have divided up My land."],
Joel 3:12–17; Zec 12:2, 3; 14:2; Mt 24:21). The
presumably the meek of Zeph 2:1–3, are exhorted to
wait in trust for Him to
carry out His judgment. (MacArthur
= marturion/martyrion - see
- This is a description of Jehovah testifying or taking the witness stand
(so to speak) against His enemies, a concept of which is common in the Old
Testament (Mic 1:2; Mal 3:5; Jer 29:23). Some versions like ESV render the
Hebrew here as plunder or seize, picturing the LORD avenging Himself against
My decision is to gather nations, to
assemble kingdoms - Decision is the Hebrew word mishpat, which refers to
a verdict pronounced judicially and thus is a judgment, a sentence or formal
decree in a legal dispute. God's dispute is with sinners, because all
sinners have broken His perfect law and are deserving of the death penalty
(cf Ro 3:23-note,
"Decision" pictures God as a just Judge (See God's attribute of
pronouncing "sentence" on the guilty nations and kingdoms of the world.
Dear reader, are you safe from the
wrath to come? You can be
(Read 1Thes 1:10-note)
If you are unsure, then let today be the
day of your salvation (2Cor
6:2) and believe in the Lord
Jesus Christ and you will be saved
(Acts 16:31, cp Ro 10:9-10-note,
Observe that God is
over nations and kingdoms. They can
choose to rebel against Him, but ultimately He is control (God
is in Control). The same principle applies to human beings --
which is good news if you are His child (Jn 1:11-13), but bad
news if you are His enemy (Nahum 1:2). The idea of God gathering nations
is used eschatologically in some contexts of gathering the Gentile nations
for judgment in the end times (Isa 43:9; 66:18; Joel 3:2, 11, Micah 4:12,
Zeph 3:8) or alternatively of gathering of the dispersed nation of Israel in
the last days (Dt 30:3-4, Isa 11:12, 40:10, 43:5, 54:7, 56:8 Jer 23:3,
29:14; 31:8, 10; 32:37, Ezek 11:17, 20:34, 41, 28:25, 34:13, 36:24, 37:21,
39:27, Hos. 1:11, Micah 2:12, 4:6, Zeph 3:19-20, Zech 10:8, 10:10).
To pour out on them My indignation -
Note that the indignation is personal! God has been personally offended! I
think too often when I sin, I forget that God's heart is grieved (cf Ezek
and He takes my sin against Him very personally! Who is
them? In context them signifies the nations and kingdoms,
in short the Gentiles.
It is interesting (and not a coincidence)
that the Hebrew verb for pour out (shaphak) is translated in
with the verb
Ekcheo is used 9 times in Revelation 16 in John's graphic description
of the pouring out of the Bowl Judgments (representing the final outpouring
of God's wrath) on the Christ rejecting world. John writes "Then I heard a
loud voice from the temple, saying to the seven angels, "Go and pour out
on the earth the seven bowls of the wrath of God.", Rev 16:1, 2,4,5, 6, 8,
10, 12, 17-see
notes on Revelation 16)
As noted in the table
above Zephaniah 1:1-3:8 prophesies darkness and gloom associated with the
Day of the LORD when God pours out His wrath on Judah and Jerusalem and
then on the entire world. Zephaniah 3:8 is in a sense the climax of the
pouring of His wrath, after which the tone changes to one of hope and
restoration for those who place their faith in the Messiah, both Jews and
As Matthew Henry says Zephaniah 3:9-20 propounds "precious promises...to the
people of God, for the banishing of their griefs and fears and the
encouraging of their hopes and joys."
conveys the basic idea is experiencing or expressing intense anger and
includes the thought of denunciation. Swanson notes that za'am can be "a
curse that demonstrates extreme indignation." (eg Ps 38:4, 69:34). Leon Wood
notes that "The verb is used to indicate both the state of being indignant
and the activity giving expression to that state. It is used in reference to
man, but more often to God." In light of this latter truth Isaiah has good
words for all who are under the wrath of God (only believers are safe, for
they are "in the Ark" so to speak, of Christ and will not be touched by
Isaiah 26:20 Come, my people, enter into your rooms And close your doors
behind you; Hide for a little while Until indignation runs its course.
NAS Usage: indignation(21),
translates za'am in this verse
(and several other OT uses of za'am) with the word
which gives us an interesting word picture for
derives from the verb orgao which
means to swell. Thus God's orge pictures a process of swelling and
which finally bursts. It is not an impulsive, uncontrolled, emotional
response like we as humans often display, but is an anger that proceeds from
God's settled nature (His hatred of sin). Settled indignation means that
God’s holiness cannot and will not coexist with sin in any form whatsoever.
Za'am - 22v - Ps 38:3; 69:24;
78:49; 102:10; Isa 10:5, 25; 13:5; 26:20; 30:27; Jer 10:10; 15:17; 50:25;
Lam 2:6; Ezek 21:31; 22:24, 31; Da 8:19; 11:36; Hos 7:16; Nah 1:6; Hab 3:12;
Habakkuk writes "In indignation You marched through the earth;
In anger You trampled the nations." (Hab 3:12)
All My burning anger - Anger
is the Hebrew word 'aph which can be translated "nose" and gives
emphasis to the emotional aspect of anger.
Again note God is personally angry ("My
burning anger"). This is a fearful thought indeed. It is interesting
that He says "all" which is the Hebrew word kol, which speaks
of the totality of something, in this case the totality of God's
anger! When we combine this idea with the previous description of za'am
(specifically the Greek word
used to translate za'am), one gets the picture of God's anger
progressively swelling until it finally reaches it's limit ("all") and then
it bursts forth. Have you ever grown tomatoes? Did you notice that if you
let them ripen too long, they begin to swell and eventually burst (manifest
by cracks on the surface). This is a picture, if you will, of God's
indignation and anger, which eventually swells to such an extent that "all"
His anger is ready to be released or burst forth. We see His wrath finally
and fully expressed in Revelation 16-note
(The Bowl Judgments) where orge is used in the description of the Seventh
and final Bowl Judgment...
And the seventh angel poured out his bowl upon the air; and a loud voice
came out of the temple from the throne, saying, "It is done." (More
literally "It has come.") 18 And there were flashes of lightning and sounds
and peals of thunder; and there was a great earthquake, such as there had
not been since man came to be upon the earth, so great an earthquake was it,
and so mighty. 19 And the great city was split into three parts, and the
cities of the nations fell (cp "nations...kingdoms"
here in Zephaniah 3:8! This final Bowl represents a global outpouring of
God's Holy Indignation). And Babylon the great was remembered before
God, to give her the cup of the wine of His fierce wrath (orge).
20 And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found. 21 And huge
hailstones, about one hundred pounds each, came down from heaven upon men;
and men blasphemed God (Note
carefully - #1 They
knew the wrath was from God and not "Mother Nature"! and #2 Even
knowing the is God's wrath, they still refuse to repent [Rev 16:9-note,
We should be amazed that any of us have been saved, for we had the same
hardened, depraved heart! Amazing grace indeed!) because of the plague of
the hail, because its plague was extremely severe. (Revelation 16:17-21-note)
For - Always query this
term of explanation.
What is Jehovah explaining?
All the earth will be devoured by the fire of My zeal - As discussed
above the "all" (Heb - kol) is significant because it identifies
God's judgment as global and complete and not local and partial. Since the
global flood in Book of Genesis there has been no global judgment, but there
will be one in the Book of the Revelation!
The Hebrew word for devoured (akal = consumption of food) is
used of literal fire "consuming" Nadab and Abihu (Lev 10:1-2 literal fire
killed them but left their bodies for burial Lev 10:4; Lxx = katesthio =
"eat up", figuratively destroy) metaphorically of fire that consumes (Lev
6:10, Nahum 3:13). In Dt 4:24 Moses records that "the LORD your God is a
consuming (akal; Lxx = katanalisko, the verb used in Heb 12:29-note)
fire, a jealous (qanna - see qin'ah below) God." (Dt 4:24). Here in
Zephaniah akal describes God's "consumption" of the earth (identical
to the use of akal in Zeph 1:18). The Lxx translates akal with the
Greek verb katanalisko which means to destroy completely, consume
wholly or utterly, as when something is consumed by fire. This pictures a
future total devastation of the world as we know it today.
Peter describes "the day of the Lord will come like a thief, in which the
heavens will pass away with a roar and the elements will be destroyed with
intense heat, and the earth and its works will be burned up." (2Pet 3:10)
This will be a literal fire and does not fit well with the context, for in
Zeph 3:9-20 there will be people who are saved and they will worship Jehovah
"from beyond the rivers of the Ethiopia" (Zeph 3:10). The "fire of
My zeal" in Zephaniah is a metaphorical usage of "fire" (to describe the
intensity of God's zeal or jealously - God's jealously is not a literal
fire) whereas in Peter it is a literal usage. See commentary on
2 Peter 3:10
for explanation of when the event described by Peter most likely occurs.
Warren Wiersbe agrees that this is not the final conflagration of
heaven and earth described by Peter writing...
The Lord concludes this message to Jerusalem by describing a courtroom scene
in which He stands to testify against His people (Zeph 3: 8). While the
impending Babylonian Captivity is involved here, there is also an
end-times application in the Battle of Armageddon, when the nations of the
world converge against Jerusalem. God will pour out His wrath upon these
nations, deliver His people, and establish His kingdom (Zech. 14:1–9).
His jealous anger will burn like fire against all who resist His truth and
disobey His Word. The terrible Day of the Lord will dawn and there will be
no escape (see Zeph. 1:2ff). (Be Concerned) (Bolding added)
John MacArthur concurs - (In Zephaniah 3:8) The prophet transitions
from the historical invasion of Judah by Babylon to the future
Day of the Lord. He speaks of the
Great Tribulation, when the Lord will
gather all the nations for judgment (cf. Joel 3:1, 2, 12–17; Zec 12:2, 3;
14:2; Mt 24:21). The faithful remnant, presumably the meek of Zeph 2:1–3,
are exhorted to wait
in trust for Him to carry out His judgment. (The MacArthur study Bible)
(See another study on
ardor, zeal, jealousy. Zephaniah 1:18 uses this same word describing the
time when "all the earth will be devoured In the fire of His jealousy."
The Lxx translates qin'ah in this verse with the noun
which strictly speaking means fervent in
spirit and when used of God as in this passage speaks of the intensity of
His righteous judgment.
In Exodus 34:14 the related Hebrew noun
qanna' (07067) is used as a Name of God, Moses recording "you shall
not worship any other god, for the LORD, whose Name is Jealous (qanna'),
is a jealous (qanna') God. This is strong statement which
serves to emphasize God's utter hatred of idolatry in any shape, size or
form! Jealousy then is a holy attribute of God and does not refer to our
common concept of jealousy as a shallow, childish human emotion. The use of
jealous is intended to emphasize that God will not tolerate a divided
loyalty (cf Mt 6:24). He alone deserves honor as the one true God-not just
lip service, but life submission! How are you doing? Are you destroying the
idols in your life? They seem to have a way of rising from the dead so to
speak and they take on forms and names that sound so acceptable (money,
fame, etc). John ends his first great epistle with the words "Little
- do this now!) yourselves from idols." (1Jn 5:21, cf Ex 20:3-4, 1Cor 10:7,
14, 2Cor 6:16-17).
NAS Usage: anger(1),
envy(1), jealousy(24), passion(1), rivalry(1), zeal(14).
Qin'ah - 41v - Nu 5:14, 15, 18, 25,
29, 30; 25:11; Dt 29:20; 2Kgs 10:16; 19:31; Job 5:2; Ps 69:9; 79:5; 119:139; Pr 6:34; 14:30; 27:4; Eccl 4:4; 9:6; Song 8:6; Isa 9:7; 11:13; 26:11;
37:32; 42:13; 59:17; 63:15; Ezek 5:13; 8:3, 5; 16:38, 42; 23:25; 35:11;
36:5f; 38:19; Zeph 1:18; 3:8; Zech 1:14; 8:2.
"For then I will give to the
peoples purified lips, that all of them may call on the Name of the LORD, to
serve Him shoulder to shoulder. will - Isaiah 19:18; Matthew
12:35; Ephesians 4:29; purified lips: Genesis 11:1; that
(expresses purpose - always ask "What purpose?"): 1Kings 8:41-43; Ps 22:27;
86:9,10; 113:3; Jer 16:19; Hab 2:14; Zech 2:11; Zech 8:20-23; 14:9; Acts
2:4-13; Ro 15:6-11; Rev 11:15
For then: Note the conjunction
"then" which is a strategic
expression of time
-- always be alert to this word asking "What happens then?,"
or "When is then?", etc, especially in prophetic passages.
Then often (usually) marks some event next in the order of time and thus
helps establish sequence of prophetic events. In this case, the dark times
of God's judgment (Zeph 3:8), will give way to a new day, a new age for mankind, as
Jehovah promises a great conversion at His Second
The peoples - The phrase "the peoples" describes
the believing "remnant" of Gentiles who will be blessed during this time of restoration.
though Zeph 1:2-3 says the wicked of the world would be cut off, not all be
cut off. While Zephaniah is primarily addressing the Chosen People, the
Gentiles are in no way excluded from this glorious time of restoration which
will ultimately be consummated in the
Millennial Reign of the Messiah on earth.
A C Gaebelein explains this verse
"means that the nations which escaped the judgment-wrath of the day of the
Lord will be converted, and as a result of their conversion they will call
upon the Lord with pure lips; all idolatry will cease and all serve the Lord
as one man." (Gaebelein's
Annotated Bible Commentary)
ESV Study Bible - God the judge is
also God the gracious. He intends that the nations (Ed: The Gentiles)
should turn to him (Zeph 3:9–10), as well as His own people (Ed:
Referring to those in Israel who turn to Him) (Zeph 3:11–13).
Give (NAS translation) is not the
best translation of this Hebrew word (haphak) which is a word (ESV = "I will
change") which describes a turning around, a turning away, a transformation,
total change, this turn being manifest not as a slow, progressive change,
but as a sudden, radical break with the past (compare
translates haphak with the verb
metastrepho which means
to turn around, to cause something to change in its state or condition, as in turning
something to its opposite state. In this case unregenerate men and women are
given the gift of regeneration, the gift of new hearts (cf God's promises in
Ezek 18:31, Ezek 36:26-27-note)!
In short this clearly describes conversion of the Gentiles by grace through
faith (Eph 2:8-9-note)!
I will give them purified lips speaks of them being born again
(regenerated, entering into the New Covenant) for out of the mouth comes
that which fills the heart (Mt 12:34-37, Lk 6:45, cf Isaiah 6:5-note,
Hos 2:17). The only way to have purified lips is to
have a purified ("circumcised")
Call on the Name of the LORD -
This is something only someone with a
"new heart" would even desire to do, for no man seeks after God (see Ro 3:11-note,
cf Ro 8:7-note,
Isa 31:1, see also Ge 4:26; 1Ki 18:24; Jer. 10:25; Joel 2:32; Acts 2:21; Ro
Shoulder to shoulder - It is
interesting that the Lxx uses the noun zugos, which is strictly speaking a
crossbeam, the yoke that was used to control two working oxen who worked
best when they pulled in unison. Beloved, this phrase is a beautiful picture
of the coming day when born again Jews and Gentiles will worship and serve
the Messiah side by side, in one accord. Oh, what a glorious day it will be!
"From beyond the rivers of Ethiopia My
dispersed ones will bring My offerings.
Psalms 68:31; 72:8-11; Isaiah 11:11; 18:1,7-19; 27:12,13; 49:20-23; Isaiah
60:4-12; 66:18-21; Malachi 1:11; Acts 8:27; 24:17; Romans 11:11,12; 15:16; 1
My dispersed ones - Could refer to
either Gentiles throughout the world or the Diaspora, the dispersion of the
Jews, or both.
My worshipers: Born again Jews and
Comment: The truth of God’s offer
of redemption to both Jews and Gentiles is seen in a number of other Old
Testament passages (Isaiah 2:2–4-note;
Isaiah 19:23–25; 49:5–6)
Offerings (minhâh) refers
to voluntary “gift” offerings (cf. Lev. 2) which is made over an above the
regular offerings and thus is expressive of deep gratitude to God.
3:11 "In that day you will feel no shame
because of all your deeds by which you have rebelled against Me; for then I
will remove from your midst your proud, exulting ones, and you will never
again be haughty on My holy mountain. You will: Zeph 3:19,20;
Psalms 49:5; Isaiah 45:17; 54:4; 61:7; 65:13,14; Joel 2:26,27; Romans 9:33;
1 Peter 2:6; exulting: Numbers 16:3; Isaiah 48:1,2; Jeremiah
7:4,9-12; Ezekiel 7:20-24; 24:21; Micah 3:11; Matthew 3:9; Romans 2:17;
My holy mountain: Ps 87:1,2; Isaiah 11:9; Daniel 9:16,20
In that day -
Pause, ponder and
expression of time.
In that day, in context the day when Messiah returns to turn an
upside down world, right side up! In short, the
Day of the Lord!
You will feel no shame - While
this could refer to both Jews and Gentiles, the reference to "My holy
mountain" might favor this as reference primarily to the Jews who come to
faith in Messiah.
For then - Pause and ponder and
expression of time.
I will remove from your midst your
proud - See Isa 2:12-18.
Exulting...haughty - Israel
had the Law and yet choose to rebel.
My holy mountain - The central,
most strategic and important site of the world in that day, the place where
Messiah rules and reigns His kingdom in Jerusalem (Isaiah 2:2–4-note;
3:12 "But I will leave among you a humble
and lowly people, and they will take refuge in the name of
the LORD. leave:
Isaiah 14:32; 61:1-3; Zechariah 11:11; 13:8,9; Matthew 5:3; 11:5; 1
Corinthians 1:27,28; James 2:5; and - Ps 37:40; Isaiah 50:10; Nahum
1:7; Matthew 12:21; Romans 15:12; Ephesians 1:12,13; 1 Peter 1:21
But - A strategic
term of contrast.
What is Jehovah contrasting?
I will leave (a remnant) (07604)(sha'ar/sa'ar)
means to remain, be left over, to leave, to let remain. The first Biblical
use of sha'ar is in the context of judgement, Moses recording that
after the worldwide flood "only Noah was left" and was in essence a "remnant."
(Ge 7:23; Lxx =
The second use also describes God's judgment, this time on Sodom and
Gomorrah stating that "those who survived fled to the hill country."
(Ge 14:10; Lxx =
Sha'ar describes Pharaoh's army = "not even one of them remained."
(Ex 14:28; Lxx =
See Study of Related Hebrew Verb - (07611) sheerith
Gary Cohen - Sha'ar/sa'ar
"seems to be used almost exclusively to indicate the static action of
surviving after an elimination process. This process of elimination
may have been natural (Ru 1:3, “Naomi’s husband died; and she was left”).
It may have been humanly caused (1Sa 9:24, “Behold that which is left!”
Here Samuel is speaking of meat which was intentionally left for Saul to
eat). Or the elimination may have been the direct result of a divine
intervention (Ex 10:19, “There remained not one locust in all the
coasts of Egypt,” when God blew them away). No matter what the cause,
however, šāar points to that which remains or has survived, e.g. 1Sa
16:11, “There remains yet the youngest,” whereby Jesse informs Samuel that
the prophet has examined every one of his sons except one who yet
“remained,” a survivor as it were from Samuel’s earlier interviews." (TWOT)
Sha'ar speaks of
(see the NAS Usage below), and in Zeph 3:12 refers to the believing (take
refuge ~ trust in the Name Jehovah) Jewish remnant. Three times
Zephaniah speaks of a remnant (cp use in 1Ki 19:18; Lxx =
hupoleipo used only in Ro 11:3-note
= to leave remaining, leave behind or be left behind) being saved (Zeph 2:3, 2:7, 3:12-13) and twice
he mentions their return from captivity (Zeph 2:7, 3:20).
Vine - In the pre-exilic period,
this remnant idea is stressed by Isaiah. Isaiah tells of the judgment
on the earth from which a remnant will “remain” (Isa. 24:6). Isa 4:3
refers to a “remnant” which shares holiness. In the writing prophets,
the idea of the “remnant” acquired a growing significance. Yet the
idea may be found as early as the Pentateuch. The idea of “those being left”
or “having escaped,” especially a portion of the Israelite people, may be
traced back to Dt. 4:27 (cf. Dt. 28:62). In these passages, Moses warns that
if Israel failed to live up to the stipulations of the Mosaic covenant, the
Lord would scatter them among the nations, and then He would regather a
“remnant.” In Neh. 1:2-3, the condition of the “remnant” of Israel is
Resources related to Remnant:
by George Livingston
Remnant - article in The 1901 Jewish Encyclopedia
Remnant - article in Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of
NAS Usage: bereft(1), have a
left(1), have...left(1), leave(12), leave as a remnant(1), leaves(1),
left(73), left behind(2), remain(10), remained(11), remains(6),
remnant(2), reserved(1), rest(2), survive(1), survived(4), surviving
remnant(2), survivor(1), survivors(1).
Sha'ar - 123v - Ge 7:23; 14:10;
32:8; 42:38; 47:18; Ex 8:9, 11, 31; 10:5, 12, 19, 26; 14:28; Lev 5:9; 25:52;
26:36, 39; Nu 9:12; 11:26; 21:35; Deut 2:34; 3:3, 11; 4:27; 7:20; 19:20;
28:51, 55, 62; Josh 8:17, 22; 10:28, 30, 33, 37, 39f; 11:8, 14, 22; 13:1f,
12; 23:4, 7, 12; Jdg 4:16; 6:4; 7:3; Ruth 1:3, 5; 1 Sam 5:4; 9:24; 11:11;
14:36; 16:11; 25:22; 2 Sam 14:7; 1Kgs 15:29; 16:11; 19:18; 22:46; 2Kgs 3:25;
7:13; 10:11, 14, 17, 21; 13:7; 17:18; 19:30; 24:14; 25:11f, 22; 1Chr 13:2;
2Chr 21:17; 30:6; 34:21; Ezra 1:4; 9:8, 15; Neh 1:2f; Job 21:34; Isa 4:3;
11:11, 16; 17:6; 24:6, 12; 37:31; 49:21; Jer 8:3; 21:7; 24:8; 34:7; 37:10;
38:4, 22; 39:9f; 40:6; 41:10; 42:2; 49:9; 50:20; 52:15f; Ezek 6:12; 9:8;
17:21; 36:36; Dan 10:8, 17; Joel 2:14; Amos 5:3; Obad 1:5; Zeph 3:12; Hag
2:3; Zech 9:7; 11:9; 12:14
A humble and lowly people - In
contrast to the proud, exulting...haughty in Zeph 3:11.
(Jas 4:6) But He gives a greater grace.
Therefore it says, “GOD IS OPPOSED TO THE PROUD, BUT GIVES GRACE TO THE
Humble ("afflicted" KJV)(06041)(ani from
anah = to be bowed down or afflicted [Dt 8:3]) means the poor, afflicted, humble
and primarily refers to someone suffering some kind of disability or
distress. (Lev 23:22) The Lxx
translates ani with praus
which means gentle, meek, not overly
impressed with a sense of one's self-importance. Compare Jesus' promise in
the "beatitude" in Mt 5:5-note
“Blessed are the gentle, for they shall inherit the earth."
Lowly (01800)(dal) means low, weak, poor, thin. Lxx =
= means low, not high, not rising
far from the ground. It speaks of one's condition as lowly or of low degree.
It described what was considered base, common, unfit, and having little
value. It pictures one brought low, as for example by grief. Tapeinos is
descriptive particularly of attitude and social positions. This is who the
Messiah came to redeem and deliver from bondage!
Adam Clarke - In such a
state will the Jews be found when they shall hear the universal call, and
believe in Christ Jesus. Indeed, this is the general state of the Jews in
the present day/
Will take refuge - Hebrew =
hasah = seek or take refuge (literally under a tree - Jdg 9:15), in Zion
(Isa 14:32), in Jehovah (2Sa 22:31), under His wings (Ru 2:12, Ps 36:7, Ps
57:1, Ps 61:4, Ps 91:4). Louw-Nida says hasah pictures one going "to a place
where one will find safety, rest, or comfort, implying the place of refuge
is a place to be trusted to keep one safe." Their action of "taking refuge"
in Jehovah's Name is tantamount to an expression of their trust in Him. We
don't take refuge under a roof that we think is going to collapse and leave
us unprotected or even hurt! Nahum writes
The LORD is good, a stronghold in the day
of trouble (Which Nahum describes in Nah 1:1-6, etc), and He knows those who
take refuge (hasah) in Him.
Name of the LORD (See
Why Should You Study His Names?)
- His Names depict His great character and glorious attributes. See the
encouraging study on the
Name of the LORD is a Strong Tower:
= God's covenant Name. He is faithful to keep covenant forever and ever.
Three qualities of the redeemed - humble,
of Israel will do no wrong and tell no lies,
nor will a
deceitful tongue be found in their mouths; For they will feed and lie down
with no one to make them tremble. remnant: Zeph 2:7; Isaiah
6:13; 10:20-22; Micah 4:7; Romans 11:4-7; do no: Isaiah 11:6-9; 35:8;
60:21; Jeremiah 31:33; Ezekiel 36:25-27; Joel 3:17,21; Zechariah 14:20,21;
Matthew 13:41; 1 John 3:9,10; 5:18; nor: Isaiah 63:8; John 1:47;
Colossians 3:9; Revelation 14:5; 21:8,27; they will feed: Psalms
23:2; Isaiah 65:10; Jeremiah 23:4; Ezekiel 34:13-15,23-28; Micah 4:4; 5:4,5;
Micah 7:14; Revelation 7:15-17; and: Isaiah 17:2; 54:14; Jeremiah
30:10; Ezekiel 39:26; 1 Peter 3:14
The remnant of Israel - This
refers to the remnant of the nation of Israel. It does not refer to the
church. To spiritualize it as the church is to totally jettison the "safety
Keep Context King).
Remnant (cf Zeph 2:7, Zeph 3:12) (07611)
(sheerith from shaar = to remain, be left over, used in Zeph 3:12) = rest,
residue, remnant, remainder (see comments on Zeph 3:12). These are the Jews
who are saved by the Deliverer (Ro 11:26-27-note)
and who will enter into the
Do no wrong (like their Lord in
Zeph 3:5 = do no injustice)...no lies...deceitful
tongue - Their lives will match their lips, their profession of faith in
Messiah. They would speak truth with no deceit. These were sins of which they had been guilty. How is it they
now do not commit these sins? Jeremiah 31:33 explains...
"But this is the covenant (New
Covenant - Jer 31:31-32 - notice the covenant is with Israel and Judah, not
just Israel, so clearly this is not spoken to the Church which some take as
"Israel" today, but to the united nation, Israel and Judah. No where is the
Church ever called "the house of Judah" - literal promises MUST be
interpreted literally. You do not have to be a dispensationalist to
interpret Scripture literally!) which I will make with the house of Israel
after those days (What days? The full fulfillment will be in the last days,
the time of Jacob's distress, Jer 30:7, the
declares the LORD, "I will put My law within them and on their heart I will
write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. (cf Ezekiel
which explains that they will then have a "new power," the indwelling Holy
Spirit Who gives the desire and the power to obey the Law on their heart -
cp Php 2:13-note).
Kaiser aptly remarks - Those who
attempt to place this prediction somewhere within the present historic
process will find that they have an impossible task, for it will exceed all
constraints of language to make it fit our present world. This must be a day
when our Lord has returned and our lips, hearts and lives have been
Adam Clarke - O what a change! And
then, how different shall they be from their present selves! Iniquity,
lying, and deceit shall not be found among them! A Jew once said to me “Tere
are shome of you Christians who are making wonderful efforts to convert the
Tshews (Jews.) Ah, dere ish none but Gott Almighty dat can convert a Tshew.”
Truly I believe him. Only God can convert any man; and if there be a
peculiar difficulty to convert any soul, that difficulty must lie in the
conversion of the Jew.
For: Always pause,
ponder and query this
term of explanation.
What is he explaining?
The will feed them and lie down - This picture is common in
prophecy (Is 49:9; Mic. 7:14; Jer. 50:19; Ezek. 34:14).
No one to make them tremble -
Micah alludes to this same time of future peace and security in Israel (Mic
one to make them tremble (see Isa 17:2, 54:14, Jer 30:10, Ezek 39:26)
- This speaks of the security of these redeemed Jews in the age to come
which is in marked contrast to Israel's status in this present age.
for joy, O daughter of Zion!
in triumph, O Israel!
with all your heart, O daughter of Jerusalem!
shout: Ezra 3:11-13; Nehemiah 12:43; Psalms 14:7; 47:5-7; 81:1-3;
95:1,2; 100:1,2; Psalms 126:2,3; Isaiah 12:6; 24:14-16; 35:2; 40:9;
42:10-12; 51:11; 54:1; Isaiah 65:13,14,18,19; Jeremiah 30:19; 31:13; 33:11;
Zechariah 2:10,11; 9:9,10; Zechariah 9:15-17; Matthew 21:9; Luke 2:10-14;
Revelation 19:1-6; O daughter of Jerusalem - Micah 4:8
Zephaniah 3:14 to Zeph 3:17 is a message
of encouragement from Zephaniah. In Zeph 3:18 to the end the message is from
the lips of Jehovah Himself (Note the last words of the book are "Yahweh has
The tone of Zephaniah 3:14-20 is so
radically different that some doubt whether Zephaniah actually penned these
words. However this pattern of the promise of the Lord's presence and
protection is not unique to Zephaniah, but is seen in passages such as
Isaiah 57:7-10, Isaiah 54:1-8.
(Zech 2:10) “Sing for joy and be glad, O
daughter of Zion; for behold I am coming and I will dwell in your
midst,” declares the LORD. (Ed: This is Jehovah Who is Jesus - He will
dwell in their midst at He promises in Zeph 3:15, 17! Lord, hasten that
glorious Day! Amen)
(Zech 9:9-10) Rejoice greatly, O daughter
of Zion! Shout in triumph, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your
King is coming to you; He is just and endowed with salvation, Humble,
and mounted on a donkey, Even on a colt, the foal of a donkey (First
Advent).10 I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim And the horse from
Jerusalem; And the bow of war will be cut off. And He will speak peace to
the nations; And His dominion will be from sea to sea, And from the River to
the ends of the earth (Second Advent).
McComiskey notes that "J. Smith
(Zephaniah, p. 261) reports that few defend Zephaniah’s authorship of this
passage, mainly because threat gives way to promise."
APPLICATION: Statements such as the
preceding comment are one of the
primary reasons you need to be careful reading the commentaries (even the
one you are reading now!). It is the height of arrogance to question that
the Holy Spirit would inspire Zephaniah to write a note of hope at this
juncture. Carry out your own
inductive Bible study,
so that you will be able to wisely comment on the commentaries!.
(Sing = KJV, NIV) (ranan = give a ringing cry,
translated "sing" by KJV, ESV)...shout
(rua = raise a shout, give a
(samach = rejoice, be glad)...exult
(alaz = be jubilant) - Four
"staccato-like" commands which is a call
for the people of Israel to acknowledge the great blessing
and boundless joy over their restoration! Beloved, while this is
addressed directly to Israel, all believers will participate in this divine
utopia, something mankind has been searching for throughout world history.
It has finally arrived, for the King has taken His throne and begins His
NLT Study Bible - The cumulative
effect of these commands emphasizes that God’s people will one day
experience unsurpassed joy.
means to give a ringing cry. It can refer to a cry of lamentation (Lam 2:19), awe (Lev 9:24), or joy (Ps
96:12). The type of the cry must be determined by the context joy,
exaltation (Isa 12:6; 24:14; Jer. 31:7) praising the Lord (Isa 26:19; 35:2;
52:8; Jer. 31:12; 51:48, Ps. 5:11; 67:4; 81:1; 90:14; 92:4; 149:5). An
absent cry can be an indication of God’s judgment (Isa. 16:10). God makes a
widow’s heart sing for joy (Job 29:13), causes nature to shout for delight
(Ps. 65:8) and commands the righteous to shout for joy (Ps. 32:11). In some
context it is a cry of distress (Isa. 65:14; Lam 2:19). Finally, ranan can
be cry of encouragement, exhortation or instruction (Pr 1:20; 8:3).
NAS Usage: cries(1), cries of
joy(1), cry aloud(1), joyfully sing(2), rejoice(1), sang(1), shout for
joy(16), shout of joy(1), shout joyfully(4), shouted(1), shouts(1), sing for
joy(18), sing aloud(3), sing aloud for joy(1), sings(1).
Vine - “to sing, shout, cry
out.” Found in both ancient and modern Hebrew, this word is used in modern
Hebrew in the sense of “to chant, sing.” It occurs approximately 50 times in
the Hebrew Old Testament, with about half of these uses being in the Book
of Psalms, where there is special emphasis on “singing” and “shouting”
praises to God (see below). Ranan is found for the first time
in Lev. 9:24 at the conclusion of the consecration of Aaron and his sons to
the priesthood. When the fire fell and consumed the sacrifice, the people “shouted,
and fell on their faces.” Ranan is often used to express joy,
exultation, which seems to demand loud singing, especially when it is praise
to God: “ Cry aloud and shout for joy, O inhabitant of Zion, For great in
your midst is the Holy One of Israel.” (Isa. 12:6). When Wisdom calls, she
cries aloud to all who will hear (Pr. 8:3). To shout for joy (Ps. 32:11) is
to let joy ring out!
Ranan - 52v - Lev 9:24; Deut
32:43; 1 Chr 16:33; Job 29:13; 38:7; Ps 5:11; 20:5; 32:11; 33:1; 35:27;
51:14; 59:16; 63:7; 65:8; 67:4; 71:23; 81:1; 84:2; 89:12; 90:14; 92:4; 95:1;
96:12; 98:4, 8; 132:9, 16; 145:7; 149:5; Pr 1:20; 8:3; 29:6; Isa 12:6;
16:10; 24:14; 26:19; 35:2, 6; 42:11; 44:23; 49:13; 52:8f; 54:1; 61:7; 65:14;
Jer 31:7, 12; 51:48; Lam 2:19; Zeph 3:14; Zech 2:10.
(Ps 5:11) But let all who take refuge in You be glad, Let them ever sing
for joy; And may You shelter them, That those who love Your name may
exult in You.
(Ps 20:5) We will sing for joy over your victory, And in the name of
our God we will set up our banners. May the LORD fulfill all your petitions.
(Ps 32:11) Be glad in the LORD and rejoice, you righteous ones; And shout
for joy, all you who are upright in heart.
(Ps 33:1) Sing for joy in the LORD, O you righteous ones; Praise is
becoming to the upright.
Notice how appropriate it is that this
call for joy immediately follows (Zeph 3:13) the cleansing of their sins (an
"emancipation proclamation") and the silencing of their fears of insecurity.
This reminds us of the effect the knowledge that our sins against a Holy God
have been removed, forgiven...
A Psalm of David. A Maskil. How blessed
is he whose transgression is forgiven, Whose sin is covered! 2) How blessed
is the man to whom the LORD does not impute iniquity, And in whose spirit
there is no deceit! (Ps 32:1-2-note)
He who conceals his transgressions will
not prosper, but (always carefully observe this
term of contrast,
as some reveal a striking change of direction!) he who confesses and
forsakes (cf repents, not just words from one's lips, but a change in one's
heart, resulting in a change in direction of one's life!) them will find
compassion. (Pr 28:13-note)
This is a great passage for those of us
who love "Praise and Worship"
will be a time of shouting (singing) with
joy! John Phillips comments that "We have a God who is happy as well as
holy. He loves to hear us sing. One of the greatest books of the Bible is
Psalms, the Hebrew hymnbook; it is full of joyful song. Only a redeemed
people can really sing. The first song in Scripture was sung by Israel when,
having been put under the blood and brought through the water, they stood on
the other side of the Red Sea, which had swept their old enemies away; Ex
14:30-15:1 records, "Thus the Lord saved Israel.... Then sang Moses and the
children of Israel." In the millennial kingdom Israel-redeemed, regenerated,
and regathered home-will sing. Oh, how they will sing! The sobs and anguish
of centuries will be swept away in song. They will rejoice because the enemy
This call for great joy reminds one of
Year of Jubilee (see
also ISBE article),
where jubilee is the Hebrew jowbel, the joyful shout or
resounding blasts of trumpets marking this time of celebration as lands were
returned to their original owners and slaves were set free from bondage. The
Year of Jubilee begins with the blast of the Shophar on the Day of
Atonement each fiftieth year. (Listen
to the wonderful words of Michael Card's great song Jubilee)
Alexander Maclaren has a sermon
comparing Zeph 3:14 and Zeph 3:17 - The very words seem to
dance with joy. But more remarkable than this is the parallelism between the
two verses. Zion is called to rejoice in God because God rejoices in her.
She is to shout for joy and sing because God’s joy too has a voice, and
breaks out into singing. For every throb of joy in man’s heart, there is a
wave of gladness in God’s. The notes of our praise are at once the echoes
and the occasions of His. We are to be glad because He is glad: He is glad
because we are so. We sing for joy, and He joys over us with singing because
we do. It is to be noticed that the former verse of our text is followed by
the assurance: ‘The Lord is in the midst of thee’; and that the latter verse
is preceded by the same assurance. So, then, intimate fellowship and
communion between God and Israel lies at the root both of God’s joy in man
and man’s joy in God. (Read the full sermon =
Zephaniah 3:14, 17 Zion's Joys and God's)
in triumph - The Lxx
translates rua with
which pictures the proclamation
like a town herald would cry out. "In triumph" in not in the literal Hebrew
but is added by the translators for effect.
Matthew Henry - After the promises
of the taking away of sin, here follow promises of the taking away of
trouble; for when the cause is removed the effect will cease. What makes a
people holy will make them happy of course.
With all your heart - Let it
emanate from deep within your soul. With all that is within you. With your
whole being. Holding nothing back. Oh, "happy day!"
APPLICATION: You may be downcast, despairing,
depressed, or disillusioned this day, but look up dear one, for a new day is
dawning, a day of righteousness and truth and justice in the presence of the
Righteous One Himself, the long awaited and longed for Messiah. Hasten that
glorious day, Lord God, when our morning is turned into dancing!
(Ps 30:11, Eccl 3:4)
Daughter of Zion - 28x =
Personification of Jerusalem (and therefore the populace, the Jews or Israel, cf Jer 6:26
"daughter of my people") =
2Kgs 19:21; Ps 9:14; Isa 1:8; 10:32; 16:1; 37:22; 52:2; 62:11; Jer 4:31;
6:2, 23; Lam 1:6; 2:1, 4, 8, 10, 13, 18; 4:22; Mic 1:13; 4:8, 10, 13; Zeph
3:14; Zech 2:10; 9:9; Matt 21:5; John 12:15. Daughter of Zion does not refer
to the Church as some older commentaries state (Albert Barnes). Clearly this
is a Jewish prophet speaking to Jews and to spiritualize a passage that can
with normal reading can easily be interpreted literally is poor hermeneutics.
F B Meyer (1847-1929) - Not a
dispensationalist but one who rightly divided the Word of Truth, ascribing
literalness to passages which could and should normally be interpreted in
such a manner. Thus it is not surprising to read Meyer's comment "These
words were primarily addressed to the daughter of Zion, to Israel the
chosen people; and they undoubtedly foreshadow blessings which are yet to be
realised. Ten times over in this chapter God assures His people of what He
will most certainly do on their behalf. But a much wider circle than the
chosen race may appropriate the blessed comfort of these words."
Daughter of Jerusalem -7x - all
except Lam 2:15 also have the phrase Daughter of Zion = 2Kgs 19:21; Isa
37:22; Lam 2:13, 15; Mic 4:8 (commentary); Zeph 3:14; Zech 9:9
NET Note: "Daughter of..." = This
phrase is used as an epithet for the city and the nation. "Daughter" may
seem extraneous in English but consciously joins the various epithets and
metaphors of Israel and Jerusalem as a woman, a device used to evoke
sympathy from the reader. Constable adds - "The phrase “daughter
of” is a way of referring to the citizens of Zion (Jerusalem) as the
children of the city. Children born in any city are the children of that
city in a metaphorical sense as well as the children of their physical
parents in a literal sense."
Adam Clarke - Here is not only a
gracious prophetic promise of their (Israel's) restoration from captivity,
but of their conversion to God through Christ.
Willmington - They’ll be moved
out, then he’ll move in. Once the Promised Land is rid of God’s enemies, God
himself will resettle his people there and dwell among them. It will be a
time of healing, peace, and joy. The restoration of Judah following the
Babylonian captivity was only a partial fulfillment of this promise. Its
ultimate fulfillment will come when Jesus returns to earth and establishes
his millennial kingdom. (Willmington’s Bible Handbook)
With all your heart (Heb = leb;
- Our heart is the source of our emotions, the very center of one's
personality, the "control center," if you will, of our lives. The prophet
exhorts his readers to "hold nothing back!" This is to be a whole hearted
time of rejoicing. O, what a day it will be! The next verse explains why
Zephaniah commanded Israel to sing with such joyful shouting.
3:15 The LORD has taken away His judgments against you, He has cleared away
your enemies. The King of Israel, the LORD, is in your midst; You will fear
disaster no more. has taken: Genesis 30:23; Psalms 85:3;
Isaiah 25:8; 40:1,2; 51:22; Micah 7:18-20; Zechariah 1:14-16; Zechariah
8:13-15; 10:6,7; has cleared away: Isaiah 13:1-14; Jeremiah 50:1-51;
Micah 7:10,16,17; Habakkuk 2:8,17; Zechariah 2:8,9; 12:3; Romans 8:33,34;
Revelation 12:10; the king: Isaiah 33:22; Ezekiel 37:24,25; Zechariah
9:9; John 1:49; 12:15; 19:19; Revelation 19:16; in the midst: Zeph
3:5,17; Ezekiel 37:26-28; 48:35; Joel 3:20,21; Revelation 7:15; 21:3,4;
You will fear...: Isaiah 35:10; 51:22; 60:18; 65:19; Ezekiel 39:29; Joel
3:17; Amos 9:15; Zechariah 14:11
The LORD has taken away - Indeed,
no one else could have accomplished this task but their Messiah!
Has taken away - Hebrew = sur =
turned aside or away (removed);
= periaireo = take away from around some
one, which pictures God's judgments (Heb - mishpat = judgments; Lxx -
adikema = a completed act of deliberate wrongdoing) as previously
continually surrounding them! This Greek verb was used of casting off the
anchors of a ship, allowing it freedom of movement (cf Acts 27:40).
Periaireo is used in Hebrews 10:11 describes the picture of futility in
which "Every priest stands daily ministering and offering time after time
the same sacrifices, which can never take away (periaireo) sins." So
here in Zephaniah, the judgments are taken away, ultimately because the
penalty of their sins is paid in full (See
TETELESTAI – IT IS FINISHED! PAID IN
FULL!) by the Messiah's substitutionary, sacrificial,
satisfactory (propitiatory) death on Calvary.
Kaiser on "has taken away"
- Zephaniah uses the “prophetic perfect tense” since he views the events he
describes as being so certain that they may be spoken of as having already
been accomplished (cf. Is. 40:2). Since God has forgiven Jerusalem’s
iniquity and totally removed any resulting guilt, there will no longer be a
need to use any of the nations as instruments of His judgment. The nations
too will be cast out.
Cleared away your enemies - The
Hebrew verb panah (06437) means to turn. Along with the first verb
"taken away" (sur) serve to reiterate God's work to set His people free. The
idea of sur is the removal of the source of their stress and the idea of
panah emphasizes their enemy being sent away. The Septuagint translates
"cleared away your enemies" as He "has ransomed you from the hand of
your enemies," where the verb
depicts the payment of a price to set
captives, slaves or prisoners free. Ultimately the "price paid" was the
precious blood of the Lamb (1Pe 1:18-19-note).
And thus the reason for such great jubilation in Zeph 3:14.
His judgments against you - This
speaks of the condemnation of the city of Jerusalem because of the evil
behavior of the Jewish leaders (see a description of the evil, especially
Judah's idolatry = Zeph 1:4-9, Zeph 3:1-7). Here Zephaniah is saying there
will come a day when Jehovah will cease punishing His rebellious people (the
nation of Israel).
The King of Israel, the LORD, is in
your midst - Judgments taken away and enemies removes, in a sense,
leaves a "vacuum," one which is filled by Messiah Himself, Who will reign in
Jerusalem as the true King He should have always been. Finally, the day of
His "coronation" has arrived! Recall when Israel had desired a king like all
of the other nations (1Sa 8:5) and yet had rejected God as their King (1Sa
8:7, 10:19, cp Jdg 21:25-note,
He gave them what they desired but their human kings generally fell far
short of an ideal monarchy (Read 1Sa 8:10-18). One role of a king is to
protect his people and fight their enemies, something that will only be
fulfilled for Israel when Messiah reigns as her rightful Monarch and this is
why they "will fear disaster no more."
Read parallel passages
that also describe this great future day when Messiah returns to reign in
Jerusalem - Isa 35:10, Isa 51:22 Isa 60:18 Isa 65:19 Ezek 39:29 Joel
3:17 Am 9:15 Zec 14:11.
King of Israel (see the King's
rejection in 1Sa 8:7; Isa 9:7-note,
Isa 44:6, Zech 14:9, "Jehovah will reign over them in Mount Zion = Micah
4:7-note) - Some Jews such as
Nathaniel recognized Jesus even in His first coming, not only as "the Son of
God" but also as "the King of Israel." (Jn 1:49). However, when Jesus
returns triumphantly in Revelation 19:11-16-note,
He returns as "King of kings and Lord of lords" (Rev 19:16-note)
and all (both receivers and rejecters) will recognize His majesty and His
right to rule and reign (cf Rev 1:7-note,
Play Third Day's song
King of Glory.
Prior to the destruction of Jerusalem in
586BC, the King departed from Israel's midst, leaving
His abode in the Temple in Ezekiel's vision (Ezekiel 8-11). The prophet saw
"the glory of the LORD of Israel" was still present in the Temple in
Jerusalem (Ezek 8:4-note),
But in Ezekiel 9:3-note
"the glory of the God of Israel went up from the cherub on which it had
been, to the threshold of the Temple," and "the Temple was filled with the (Shekinah
glory) cloud and the court was
filled with the brightness of the (Shekinah)
glory of Jehovah." (Ezek 10:4-note)
"Then the glory of Jehovah departed from the threshold of the temple and
stood over the cherubim. When the cherubim departed, they lifted their wings
and rose up from the earth in my sight with the wheels beside them; and they
stood still at the entrance of the east gate of the LORD’S house, and the
glory of the God of Israel hovered over them." (Ezek 10:18-19-note).
"Then the cherubim lifted up their wings with the wheels beside them, and
glory of the God of Israel hovered over them. The (Shekinah)
glory of the LORD went up from the midst of the city and stood over the
mountain which is east of the city (Mount of Olives, prophetically
significant = Mt 24:3; Acts 1:10-12; Zech 14:4)." (Ezek 11:22-23-note)
And so Ezekiel envisions that terrible day when the
of God finally left His Temple and His city, abandoning it and leaving it to
destruction by the wicked Babylonians. There is fascinating "play on words"
in this description of Jehovah's departure, for in Ezekiel 8:4 we read "The
God of Israel was there" which parallels the final words of the book of
Ezekiel which prophecy His return with the great promise that "the Name of
the city from that day shall be 'THE LORD IS THERE!" (Ezekiel 48:35). We
know this Name as
Jehovah Shammah (see study) which
is the Name of the King of Israel, Jehovah (Jesus)" Who will be in their
midst one day!
In anticipation of this great and glorious day, let us worship the King in
spirit and in truth by singing along with Robin Mark....
by Robin Mark
To you, oh Lord will all the earth give
No other name will share the glory due
No kingdoms rise and nations mock your mercy
One day they`ll stand and worship only you
Every knee will bow down, every tongue sing out loud
You are the Lord of earth and heaven
Every hand will be raised
in the thunder of praise
You are the King of all creation
They`ll say: One day, one day
Zechariah prophesies of the great
day when Israel will see the return of the ...
Sing for joy
a command; Lxx = teron = to delight, to cheer, to cause to rejoice, to be
made happy or delighted, to have pleasure -
present imperative in
middle voice - reflexive sense = make
yourself happy or delighted continually!!) and
= samach; Lxx =
present imperative in
middle voice - reflexive sense = make
yourself happy or delighted continually!!), O daughter of
Zion; for behold (Pay attention!) I am coming (Jesus is coming) and
I will dwell
(shakan = to settle down, abide; translated in the
= kataskenoo [see related verb
episkenoo] = pitch My tent,
tarry, take up My abode) in your midst,” declares the LORD. Many
nations (Heb = goyim ~ Gentiles) will join themselves (The Lxx is even more
vivid using katapheugo picturing the Gentiles as fleeing for refuge
in Jehovah in that future day!) to the LORD
in that day
expression of time
- Ask "What day?" Context answers this question.) and will become My
people (Gentiles will become His people).
of time) I will dwell in your midst, and you will know
(Heb = yada = to know and can convey an intimate knowledge; Lxx =epiginosko
= know by experience, faith become sight in that day when the peoples behold
the Glorious One, King Jesus!) that the
Jehovah Sabaoth, LORD of hosts
(In context this refers to God the Father) has sent (Lxx = exapostello -
used in Gal 4:4 of God sending Jesus in the fullness of time the first time,
but this passage ultimately refers to the second time) Me to you.
Jamieson comments on
"many nations … joined to the Lord in that day"—The result of the Jews'
exile in Babylon was that, at their subsequent return, through the diffusion
of knowledge of their religion, many Gentiles became proselytes, worshipping
in the court of the Gentiles (1Ki 8:41). Cyrus, Darius, Alexander, Ptolemy
Philadelphus, Augustus, and Tiberius, paid respect to the temple by sending
offerings [Grotius]. But all this is but a shadow of the future conversion
of the Gentiles which shall result from Jehovah dwelling in Jerusalem (Ps
102:15, 16; Php 2:10, 11). (Ed:
Jamieson in Commentary Critical and
Explanatory on the Whole Bible is one of the more literal and
therefore one of the more accurate pre-1900 commentaries. Matthew Henry
while wonderfully devotional is not the best source to read for
interpretation of the OT prophecies. If they speak of the Messiah he is
accurate, but for some reason if they are spoken to or of Israel, he
generally replaces Israel with the Church [See
The Rise of Allegorical Interpretation
Allegorizing and Spiritualizing the Truth].
Jamieson generally reads the OT promises given to Israel literally and thus
generally avoids the error of so many older commentaries [and a large number
of modern one!] who replace Israel with the Church. See
What is replacement theology?
Christian Apologetics and Research
In your midst (qereb) (cf Dt 7:21, Isa
12:6, repeated in Zeph 3:17) - In Zeph 3:5 we read "the LORD was righteous
within (KJV = "in the midst of" [qereb]
her (the wicked city of Jerusalem)." Previously sin,
sinners and unrighteousness had been in their midst, but here the Sin
Bearer, the Righteous One is in now in their midst! Radical change motivated
by God's radical love for sinners! Jesus in their midst "as the sun in the
centre of the universe, to diffuse His light and influence upon every part."
In your midst - This specific
phrase occurs 30x in 29v - Ex 33:3, 5; 34:12; Lev 20:14; Deut 7:21; 16:11;
17:2; 23:16; Josh 7:13; 24:23; Isa 12:6; Jer 29:8; Ezek 7:9; 22:7, 9; 26:15;
27:27; 28:22; 47:22; Hos 11:9; Mic 6:14; Nah 3:13; Zeph 3:15, 17; Hag 2:5;
Zech 2:10f; Luke 17:21; Acts 2:22
Kaiser - No longer will He be
present only in His
or as the
Angel of the LORD;
indeed, He will personally reside in Jerusalem “in [their and our]
midst.” Therefore, “you shall see disaster no more” (Zeph 3:15d).The
personal presence of the Lord shall render ineffective all the powers of
evil and harm.
Adam Clarke - They (Israel) have
never had a king since the death of Zedekiah, and never shall have one till
they have the King Messiah to reign among them; and this promise refers to
3:16 In that day it
will be said to Jerusalem: "Do not be afraid, O Zion; Do not let your
hands fall limp. be
said: Isaiah 35:3,4; 40:9; 41:10,13,14; 43:1,2; 44:2; 54:4; Jeremiah
46:27,28; Haggai 2:4,5; Zechariah 8:15; John 12:12; Hebrews 12:12; fall
limp: 2Corinthians 4:1; Galatians 6:9; Ephesians 3:13; Hebrews 12:3-5;
In that day (cf Zeph 1:9, 10,
3:11) - Whenever you encounter an
expression of time,
pause and ask at least "What
time is it? You may (will) be
pleasantly surprised at how your Teacher the Spirit will honor your pausing
to ponder by giving you illumination and insight that heretofore you had
never had on that passage. As the Coca Cola commercial used to say "It's the
pause that refreshes!" In context, that day
refers to the day when God takes away His judgments against Israel and has
cleared away her enemies. Has that day occurred yet? As this comment
is being written the nation of Iran appears to be covertly developing
nuclear weapons and has repeatedly threatened to annihilate Israel. The
Palestinians persist in failing to acknowledge Israel as a sovereign nation.
Surely that day when the King is in her midst and she has no reason to fear
(Zeph 3:15) or be afraid has not yet come to pass.
Do not be afraid - When the Lord
Himself is present, there is no reason to fear. Anti-Semitism will be no
John Phillips writes that "The Jew
will no longer be persecuted, fearful, hunted, and haunted by the
possibility of betrayal and brutal treatment. He will no longer be
characterized as "the wandering Jew.""
Hands fall limp - Implying they
had indeed "fallen limp" from fear, for fear "paralyzes" us emotionally and
physically, so that we are unable to properly function (cf 2Chr 15:7, Isa
13:7, Neh 6:8-9, Ezek 7:17). We see this same pattern of exhortation
following divine discipline (as in Zeph 3:1-8, cf Heb 12:5-11-note)
in the letter to the Hebrews 12:12-13-note.
Kaiser - “Weak” or “slack hands”
indicated despair, disheartenment, and lack of involvement.
3:17 "The LORD your God is in your midst, A
victorious warrior. He will exult over you with joy, He will be quiet in His
love, He will rejoice over you with shouts of joy..
in your midst: Zeph 3:5,15; mighty:
Genesis 17:1; 18:14; Psalms 24:8-10; Isaiah 9:6; 12:2,6; 63:12; Hebrews
7:25; exult: Numbers 14:8; Deuteronomy 30:9; Psalms 147:11; 149:4;
Isaiah 62:4,5; 65:19; Jeremiah 32:41; Luke 15:5,6,23,24,32; John 15:11;
Be quiet (rest): Genesis 1:31; 2:2; Isaiah 18:4; John 13:1
FIVE PERSONAL PROMISES
FROM THE MIGHTY WARRIOR
NET Zephaniah 3:17 The LORD your God is in your midst; he is a warrior who
can deliver. He takes great delight in you; he renews you by his love; he
shouts for joy over you."
CSB Zephaniah 3:17 The LORD your God is among you, a warrior who saves. He
will rejoice over you with gladness. He will bring you quietness with His
love. He will delight in you with shouts of joy."
ESV Zephaniah 3:17 The LORD your God is in your midst, a mighty one who will
save; he will rejoice over you with gladness; he will quiet you by his love;
he will exult over you with loud singing.
NIV Zephaniah 3:17 The LORD your God is with you, he is mighty to save. He
will take great delight in you, he will quiet you with his love, he will
rejoice over you with singing."
NKJ Zephaniah 3:17 The LORD your God in your midst, The Mighty One, will
save; He will rejoice over you with gladness, He will quiet you with His
love, He will rejoice over you with singing."
Mighty To Save - Part 1
Mighty To Save - Part 2
Mighty To Save - Part 3
Mighty To Save - Part 3
El Gibbor-Mighty God
Below are passages that parallel the thought of Zephaniah 3:17. In context
the passages speak primarily to the nation of Israel. However, the truths in
these passages are applicable to every blood bought, heaven bound saint of
the Living God. The fact that they Lord God would delight, take pleasure in
and/or rejoice over you should cause us to bow low in wonder and adoration
and motivate to give ourselves fully as living sacrifices to such a
gracious, loving Father Who expresses such kind emotions toward us who are
Deuteronomy 28:63 "And it shall come about that as the LORD delighted
over you to prosper you, and multiply you, so the LORD will delight
over you to make you perish and destroy you; and you shall be torn from the
land where you are entering to possess it.
Deuteronomy 30:9 "Then the LORD your God will prosper you abundantly in all
the work of your hand, in the offspring of your body and in the offspring of
your cattle and in the produce of your ground, for the LORD will again
rejoice over you for good, just as He rejoiced over your fathers;
Psalm 149:4 For the LORD takes pleasure in His people; He will
beautify the afflicted ones with salvation.
62:4 It will no longer be said to you, "Forsaken," Nor to your land will it
any longer be said, "Desolate"; But you will be called, "My delight
is in her," And your land, "Married"; For the LORD delights in you,
And to Him your land will be married. 5 For as a young man marries a virgin,
So your sons will marry you; And as the bridegroom rejoices (Heb =
gil, Lxx =
over the bride, So your God will rejoice (Heb = gil, Lxx = euphraino)
Jeremiah 32:41 "I will rejoice over them to do them good and will
faithfully plant them in this land with all My heart and with all My soul.
THE LORD YOUR GOD
IS IN YOUR MIDST
The LORD your God is in your midst - Note the personal possessive
pronoun "your!" If Scripture did not say God was our God, we would not dare
even hope for such a thing! And yet Jehovah is our God, because of our
covenant relationship with His Son.
In your midst - Note the repetition of this incredible truth. In Zeph
3:15 we saw that "The King of Israel, the LORD, is in your midst." (What was
the effect? "You will fear disaster no more.") He is among you, with you, in
you. What better place could He be present, then in their midst! Beloved
believer, we do well to apply this truth to ourselves when fearful, adverse
circumstances threaten to cause us to faint from worry and dread (cf even
brave warriors - Zeph 1:14). Our Mighty Warrior is within us (Col 1:27b-note),
in His Temple, our physical body, manifesting His presence by His indwelling
Spirit (1Cor 6:19-20-note),
the Spirit of Christ (Ro 8:9-note,
the Spirit of Jesus (Acts 16:7, Php 1:19-note)
and greater is He Who is in us than he who is in the world (1Jn 4:4).
The LORD -
- In context this refers to Jesus (see
Jehovah = Jesus).
Septuagint (Lxx) translates "LORD" with
which is the Name of the one to whom a person or thing belongs. Jesus is Kurios, the Master, the sovereign
One Who possesses absolute authority, absolute ownership and uncontested
power. This is good news if His is our Friend (Jn 15:14, 15), but bad news
if He is our enemy!
O Palmer Robertson - Now the prophet moves into the “holy of
holies” by a rapturous description of the love of God for His people.
This verse is the John 3:16 of the OT. The love of God for his own people is
not a soft, sentimental emotion that has no strength to act on behalf of its
object. For this God who loves is Yahweh. He is God. He is a mighty hero who
saves. The term for mighty hero (gibbôr) frequently refers to a
warrior who overpowers his enemies. The Lord goes forth as a “warrior” who
marches against his foes (Isa. 42:13). (The New International Commentary on
the Old Testament)
Remember that the context of this great passage is the tumultuous, terrible
Day of the LORD, when God's wrath is poured out on a world which has
rejected His Son and His offer of free salvation. And so in the prior
passage the prophet exhorts them "Do not be afraid, O Zion; Do not let your
hands fall limp." Zephaniah 3:17 is the reason they do not need to fear nor
faint. Jehovah is there for the rescue and is a mighty Warrior, which refers
to Messiah at His Second Coming when He crushes all opposition and
evil-doers and delivers those who are His by grace through faith.
F B Meyer refers to Zephaniah 3:17 as "a cluster of grapes"
commenting that "These words were primarily addressed to the daughter of Zion, to Israel the
Chosen People; and they undoubtedly foreshadow blessings which are yet to be
realized. Ten times over in this chapter God assures His people of what He
will most certainly do on their behalf. But a much wider circle than the
Chosen Race may appropriate the blessed comfort of these words (cf 1Pe 2:9). Twice over
in this paragraph we are told that the Lord, the King of Israel, is in the
midst of His people (Zeph 3:15, 17). This is an indisputable fact. He is in the midst of His
Church, so that it shall not be moved. Well would it be if each Christian
were to devote some portion, however brief, in each day, to meditation upon
this marvelous fact. “The mighty God, the King, is in the midst of me. I am
God-tenanted, God-possessed. The High and Holy One who inhabits eternity
has taken up His abode in my heart.” And this marvelous indwelling--more
wonderful than if an angel were to indwell an ant or a humming-bird--is
not dependent on frames or feelings or anything at all in us; but endures
through all our changes and fluctuations unto the eternal ages. But if the
mighty God is indeed in us, why is there so much weakness and failure in our
lives? Alas, the answer is not far to seek--we have limited the Holy One of
Israel. What now shall hinder us ridding ourselves of all which has hindered
Him from doing His mighty works, so that He may do that which He so much
loves, and which we so much need? Then we may expect Him to accomplish the
four blessed “I wills” of this precious verse (Zeph 3:17KJV).
means midst, middle, interior, inner part, inner organs, bowels, inner
being. Qereb is the center or inner part of anything, but especially
referred to the inner organs of the body (Ex 29:13), including the heart
(1Sa 25:37, Jer 23:9, Ps 39:3, 55:4) and the psychological center (1Ki 3:28,
Ps 94:18, Jer 4:14), man's inner being (Zech 12:1). David prays "renew a
steadfast spirit within (qereb) me."
TWOT adds that qereb "denotes the internal. It can represent
the inward part(s) of human or animal bodies, or of groups of people, or of
social structures (e.g., a city). It frequently functions as a preposition
“in the midst, among” (Hab 3:2; Num 14:13 - Ed: This could be the
sense of qereb in Zeph 3:17). Our word is used parallel to lēb (heart, Jer
9:8 [H 7]), nepeš (soul, Isa 26:9), and various other internal organs
(frequently as seats of various psychological functions).
It is interesting that the
translates qereb with the phrase "en
soi" meaning "in you." This would seem to convey the truth that not only
is Messiah in their "midst," but He is "in them," in the believers, which is
what Paul says in Col 1:27b. It is a fascinating thought to consider.
Indeed, if Christ is our life (Col 3:4) even in this present life, how much
more will He be when He returns to all things right!
Qereb - 209v in NAS - Gen 18:12; 24:3; 25:22; 41:21; 48:16;
Exod 3:20; 8:22; 10:1; 12:9; 17:7; 23:25; 29:13, 17, 22; 31:14; 33:3, 5;
34:9f, 12; Lev 1:9, 13; 3:3, 9, 14; 4:8, 11; 7:3; 8:16, 21, 25; 9:14; 17:4,
10; 18:29; 20:3, 5f, 18; 23:30; Num 5:27; 11:4, 20f; 14:11, 13f, 42; 15:30;
Deut 1:42; 2:14ff; 4:3, 34; 6:15; 7:21; 11:6; 13:1, 5, 11, 13f; 16:11; 17:2,
7, 15, 20; 18:2, 15, 18; 19:10, 19f; 21:8f, 21; 22:21, 24; 23:14, 16; 24:7;
26:11; 28:43; 29:11, 16; 31:16f; Josh 1:11; 3:2, 5, 10; 4:6; 6:25; 7:12f;
8:35; 9:7, 16, 22; 10:1; 13:13; 16:10; 18:7; 24:5, 17, 23; Judg 1:29f, 32f;
3:5; 10:16; 18:20; 1 Sam 4:3; 16:13; 25:37; 1 Kgs 20:39; Job 20:14; Ps 5:9;
36:1; 39:3; 46:5; 48:9; 49:11; 51:10; 55:4, 10f, 15; 62:4; 64:6; 74:4, 11f;
78:28; 82:1; 94:19; 101:2, 7; 103:1; 109:18, 22; 110:2; 138:7; 147:13; Prov
15:31; 26:24; Isa 4:4; 5:8, 25; 6:12; 7:22; 10:23; 12:6; 16:11; 19:1, 3, 14,
24; 24:13; 25:11; 26:9; 29:23; 63:11; Jer 4:14; 6:1, 6; 9:8; 14:9; 23:9;
29:8; 30:21; 31:33; 46:21; Lam 1:15, 20; 3:45; 4:13; Ezek 11:19; 22:27;
36:26f; Hos 5:4; 11:9; Joel 2:27; Amos 2:3; 3:9; 5:17; 7:8, 10; Mic 3:11;
5:7f, 10, 13f; 6:14; Nah 3:13; Hab 2:19; 3:2; Zeph 3:3, 5, 11f, 15, 17; Zech
NAS translates qereb as - among(62), body(1), devoured*(2),
entrails(20), heart(1), herself(1), inner thought(1), inside(1), inward
feelings(1), inward part(1), inward thought(1), inwardly(2), middle(2),
midst(81), within(35), within our land(2), within their land(2).
HE IS MIGHTY TO SAVE
He is mighty to save (transliterated = Gibbôr yôšîª`) - A
victorious warrior (NAS),
a Warrior Who can deliver (NET),
a Warrior Who saves (CSB), a mighty one who will save (ESV), The
Mighty One, will save (NKJV). The translates it as
(literally "powerful He will save").
Why is He mighty to save? Moses answers...
For the LORD your God is the God of gods and the Lord of lords, the great,
the mighty (gibbor), and the awesome God who does not show partiality nor
take a bribe. "He executes justice for the orphan and the widow, and shows
His love for the alien by giving him food and clothing. (Dt 10:17-18)
cp related verb gabar = be strong, accomplish, excel, prevail) is from a
root which is commonly associated with warfare and has to do with the
strength and vitality of the successful warrior. And thus this adjective
means powerful, strong, brave, mighty. Warrior. Hero. Mighty man (cp "mighty
[gibbor] men of David" - 2Sa 23:8).
Peter experienced His saving power when he was sinking down (Mt 14:30)...
Why did'st thou look at wind and sea?
Have faith," said Christ, "and look to Me;
I'll take thy hand, I'm mighty to save,
Trust thou in Me; we will walk the wave,
Together, we'll conquer the sea.
Vine - In the context of battle, the word is better understood to
refer to the category of warriors. The gibbor is the proven warrior (eg
"valiant warriors [gibbor]" Josh 1:14)...The Septuagint gives the following
dunatos (“powerful; strong; mighty; able ruler”) and ischuros
(see studies of related words - ischus and
see also yeshua from
which we get the Name Jesus) is an important Hebrew verb which means
to help, to save, to deliver, to rescue. The root in Arabic is "make wide"
which underscores the main thought of yasha' as to bring to a place of
safety or broad pasture in contrast to a narrow strait which symbolizes
distress or danger. Yasha' is used many times as a title for God =
2Sa 22:47; 1Ch 16:35; Ps 18:46; Ps 24:5; Ps 25:5;Ps 27:9; Ps 65:5;Ps
79:9; Ps 85:4; Isa 17:10; 62:11; Mic 7:7.
In the future Day of the LORD, when Israel's hope seems lost because of the
overwhelming force gathered against her, "the Sun (Son) of Righteousness
will arise with healing in His wings," (Mal 4:2-note)
and He will deliver all Israel (all that believe in Messiah = the remnant)
(Now take a moment to worship our
indescribably majestic Lord God with Robin Mark's wonderful song
Days Of Elijah)
Behold He comes riding on the clouds
Shining like the Sun at the trumpet call;
Lift your voice, it's the Year of Jubilee
And out of Zion's hill Salvation comes.
F B Meyer - As God took the side of His people against their foes,
and will do so again in the final struggle, when His feet shall stand upon
the Mount of Olives (Zech 14:4), so will He take our side against our sins. He has saved
us from the penalty of sin. He will also save us from its power (cf Ro
6:11-14). Your foes
may be numerous as the devils in hell, strong and wily; but He will save.
Your temperament may be as susceptible to temptation as an aspen leaf is to
the wind; but He will save. Your past years, by repeated acts of indulgence,
may have formed habits strong as iron bands; but He will save. Your
circumstances and companions may be most unfavorable to a life of victory;
but He will save. Difficulties are nought to Him; the darkness shineth as
HE WILL TAKE GREAT DELIGHT IN
He takes great delight in you (NIV, NET) - "He will exult over you
with joy" (NAS); "He will rejoice over you with gladness," (ESV).
Those two words "over you" (repeated in the last phrase of Zeph 3:17)
are simply incomprehensible. As Palmer asks "How could the Sovereign
Creator concentrate His whole being in the love of a temporal creature of
dust? How could the Holy satisfy Himself contentedly in the loving
contemplation of the unholy?" I would propose that one aspect of the answer
is that we are in an indissoluble, immutable covenant with the Son of His
love, we are
and the Father forevermore will see us not as unholy sinners but as saints
in His Son (Mt 3:17). There is nothing in us that explains the reason for
the Father's love. Ultimately, His love reflects His incomprehensible,
transcendent nature and that nature (cf 1Jn 4:16, 1Jn 3:1-note)
will forever be manifest to us as love! Palmer adds "So the prophet
describes a love of God exceeding all human imaginations. “Remember the
silence of Jesus, and expound this text thereby,” says C. H. Spurgeon."
Play F. M. Lehman's great hymn that attempts to put in words some of
the mystery of...
The Love of God
The love of God is greater far
Than tongue or pen can ever tell.
It goes beyond the highest star
And reaches to the lowest hell.
The guilty pair, bowed down with care,
God gave His Son to win;
His erring child He reconciled
And pardoned from his sin.
O love of God, how rich and pure!
How measureless and strong!
It shall forevermore endure—
The saints’ and angels’ song.
When hoary time shall pass away,
And earthly thrones and kingdoms fall;
When men who here refuse to pray,
On rocks and hills and mountains call;
God’s love, so sure, shall still endure,
All measureless and strong;
Redeeming grace to Adam’s race—
The saints’ and angels’ song.
Could we with ink the ocean fill,
And were the skies of parchment made;
Were every stalk on earth a quill,
And every man a scribe by trade;
To write the love of God above
Would drain the ocean dry;
Nor could the scroll contain the whole,
Though stretched from sky to sky.
HE WILL QUIET YOU WITH HIS LOVE
He will quiet you by His love (ESV, cf NIV, NKJV) (He will be quiet
in His love - NAS) (He will calm all your fears - Patterson) -
The NET Bible translation ("He
renews you by His love") follows the
which translates "quiet" with the verb kainizo (cf
= brand new, of a kind never seen before!) and means to make new or to
renew. God does not want to give you a piece of His mind. He wants o give
you a piece of His heart! No wonder Paul prayed for the Ephesians to somehow
begin to comprehend such incomprehensible love, asking the Father ...
would grant you, according to the riches of His glory, to be strengthened
with power through His Spirit in the inner man, so that Christ may dwell in
your hearts through faith; and that you, being rooted and grounded in love,
may be able to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length
and height and depth, and to know the love of Christ which surpasses
knowledge, that you may be filled up to all the fullness of God.
Wiersbe on "He will be quiet in His love" - The Hebrew
phrase has been variously explained: “He will quiet you with His love”; “He
will be silent in His love” (i.e., not bring up your past sins); “He will
renew you in His love”; “He will renew your love for Him”; “His love for you
will make everything new.” Perhaps it all means the same thing: A new and
deeper relationship with God will bring peace and joy and make all things
Palmer - The mutuality of the loving response of Redeemer and
redeemed is seen in the fact that some of the same terms used in the
admonition to his people now describe the response of God himself to his
people (cf. Zeph 3:14, 17). Zion is exhorted to sing (rānnî); he rejoices
with singing (rinnāh). Jerusalem shall rejoice (śimti); he delights over
Jerusalem with joy (śimtāh). The whole scene depicts a grand oratorio as God
and his people mutually rejoice in their love for one another...To consider
Almighty God sinking in contemplations of love over a once-wretched human
being can hardly be absorbed by the human mind...Almighty God, quiet in his
love. God the mighty savior, quietly contemplating, contented in his love
for you....Other passages that speak vividly of God’s rejoicing in the love
of his people include Isa. 62:4–5; 65:19; Jer. 32:40–41. Cf. Luke 15:7, 10.
Each of these passages deserves extensive contemplation.
‘The Lord thy God in the midst of thee is mighty,’ Zephaniah tells us. ‘He
will rest in His love’ (Zephaniah 3:17). Thus, concerning the storm you may
be going through even now or perhaps will face tomorrow, the Lord is not
wondering if you’re going to make it. He’s resting in His love. He knows
He’s going to see you through. Therefore, if Jesus is at rest, you can rest
as well. -- A Day’s Journey: 365 Daily Meditations from the Word
Quiet (02790)(haras/charash) means to be silent, be still, be
quiet, dumb, speechless, mute or deaf. The picture is of a person remaining
still or silent (Ge 24:21, 2Ki 18:36).
Patterson - The verb haras/charash has been explained
variously as (1) keeping silent about or covering up people’s sins (Rashi),
(2) God’s silence due to the overwhelming depths of His love (Keil 1954),
(3) God’s preoccupation with planning Israel’s good (Nowack 1922), (4) God’s
resting in His love (Laetsch 1956), (5) a means for the believer to
cultivate peace and silence in his heart (Luther), (6) God’s singing out of
the joy of his loving concern (O’Connor 1980), and (7) God’s refraining from
bringing accusation of wrongdoing against Jerusalem (Ben Zvi).
F B Meyer - The margin suggests an exquisite
alternative, “He will be silent in His love.” Of old the Psalmist said that
his soul was silent in its calm expectancy for God’s salvation. Here we are
told that God is silent in His brooding tenderness. All the deepest emotion
is silent. When we are told, then, that God’s love will be a silent one, we
know that it is too intense, too deep, too infinite to find expression. It
will break silence presently; but in the meanwhile be still, and know that
God is love.
Jesus, I rest in Thee,
In You myself I hide
Laden with guilt and misery,
Where can I rest beside?
It is on Your meek and lowly breast
My weary soul alone can rest."
You Holy One of God!
The Father rests in Thee.
And in the savor of that blood
which speaks to Him for me.
The curse is gone- through You I'm blest,
God rests in You- In You I rest.
The slave of sin and fear,
Your truth my bondage broke,
My happy spirit loves to wear
Your light and easy yoke;
Your love, which fills my grateful breast,
Makes duty joy, and labor rest.
"Soon the bright glorious day
The rest of God will come,
Sorrow and sin shall pass away,
And I shall reach my home
Then, of the promised land possessed,
My soul shall know eternal rest.
Scofield on "His love" - A love too great for
words. For the LORD's own, His final word is not of anger, as with the
unbelieving nations, but of love, as expressed in this beautiful verse. When
it comes to His people, chastised and forgiven, the LORD rests His case in
love and rejoicing.
Spurgeon in "A Sermon for the
Present Time" on Zephaniah 3:16-18 wrote...
I do not know any Scripture which is more
full of wonderful meaning than this. “He shall rest in his love,” as
if our God had in his people found satisfaction. He comes to an anchorage:
he has reached his desire. As when a Jacob, full of love to Rachel, has at
length ended the years of his service, and is married to his well-beloved,
and his heart is at rest; so is it spoken in parable of the Lord our God.
Jesus sees of the travail of his soul when his people are won to him; he has
been baptized with his baptism for his church, and he is no longer
straitened, for his desire is fulfilled. The Lord is content with his
eternal choice, content with his loving purposes, satisfied with the love
which went forth from everlasting. He is well pleased in Jesus—well pleased
with all the glorious purposes which are connected with his dear Son, and
with those who are in him. He has a calm content in the people of his
choice, as he sees them in Christ. This is a good ground for our having a
deep satisfaction of heart also. We are not what we would be; but then we
are not what we shall be. We advance slowly; but then we advance surely. The
end is secured by omnipotent grace. It is right that we should be
discontented with ourselves, yet this holy restlessness should not rob us of
our perfect peace in Christ Jesus. If the Lord hath rest in us, shall we not
have rest in him? If he rests in his love, cannot we rest in it?
My heart is comforted as I plainly see in these words love unchanging, love
abiding, love eternal: “he will rest in his love.” Jehovah changes not.
Being married to his people, “he hateth putting away.” Immutability is
written on his heart. The turtle-dove, when he has once chosen his mate,
remains faithful throughout life, and if the beloved dies, he will, in many
cases, pine away with grief for her, for his life is wrapped up in hers.
Even so our Lord hath made his choice of his beloved, and he will never
change it: he died for his church, and so long as he lives he will remember
his own love, and what it cost him: “Who shall separate us from the love of
God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord?” “He will rest in his love.”
The love of God to us is undisturbed: “The peace of God, which passeth all
understanding,” dwells with his love: he is not disquieted about it, but
peacefully loves, and is never moved. The calm of God is wonderful to
contemplate: his infallible knowledge and infinite power put him beyond fear
or question. He sees no cause of alarm as to his redeemed, nor as to the
cause of truth and the reign of righteousness. As to his true church, he
knows that she is right, or that he will make her right. She is being
transformed into the image of Jesus, and he rests in the full assurance that
the image will ere long be complete. He can carry out his own purposes in
his own way and time. He can see the harvest as well as the sowing;
therefore he doth “rest in his love.” You have seen a mother wash her child,
and as she washes its face the child perhaps is crying, for it does not for
the present enjoy the cleansing operation. Does the mother share the child’s
grief? Does she also cry? Oh, no! she rejoices over her babe, and rests in
her love, knowing that the light affliction of the little one will work its
real good. Often our griefs are no deeper than the cry of a child because of
the soap in its eyes. While the church is being washed with tribulations and
persecutions, God is resting in his love. You and I are wearying, but God is
“He shall rest in his love.” The Hebrew of this line is, “He shall be silent
in his love.” His happiness in his love is so great, that he does not
express it, but keeps a happy silence. His is a joy too deep for words. No
language can express the joy of God in his love; and therefore he uses no
words. Silence in this case is infinitely expressive. One of the old
commentators says, “He is deaf and dumb in his love,” as if he heard no
voice of accusation against his chosen, and would not speak a word of
upbraiding to her. Remember the silence of Jesus, and expound this text
Sometimes also the Lord does not speak to his people: we cannot get a
cheering word from him; and then we sigh for a promise, and long for a visit
of his love; but if he be thus silent, let us know that he is only silent in
his love. It is not the silence of wrath, but of love. His love is not
changed, even though he does not comfort us.
“His thoughts are high, his love is wise,
His wounds a cure intend;
And though he does not always smile,
He loves unto the end.”
When he does not answer our prayers with his hand, he yet hears them with
his heart. Denials are only another form of the same love which grants our
petitions. He loves us, and sometimes shows that love better by not giving
us what we ask than he could do if he spoke the sweetest promise which the
ear has ever heard. I prize this sentence: “He shall rest in his love.” My
God, thou art perfectly content with thy church after all, because thou
knowest what she is to be. Thou seest how fair she will be when she comes
forth from the washing, having put on her beautiful garments. Lo, the sun
goes down, and we mortals dread the endless darkness; but thou, great God,
seest the morning, and thou knowest that in the hours of darkness dews will
fall which shall refresh thy garden. Ours is the measure of an hour, and
thine the judgment of eternity, therefore we will correct our short-sighted
judgment by thine infallible knowledge, and rest with thee.
HE WILL REJOICE OVER YOU
He will rejoice over you with singing (He will rejoice over you with
shouts of joy-NAS) - "He
shouts for joy over you." (NET); "He
will exult over you with loud singing."
(ESV); "He will delight in you with shouts of joy." (HCSB); "He will take
great delight in you." (NIV)
Maclaren - We are often told that the Jehovah of the Old Testament is
a stern and repellent God, and the religion of the Old Testament is gloomy
and servile. But such a misconception is hard to maintain in the face of
such words as these.
F B Meyer - It is much to hear a lark sing, as
if its throat must be torn by the torrent of melody; more to hear a child
sing as it comes down a woodland path in spring, checkered with sunlight
falling on blue hyacinths and yellow primroses; more still to hear an angel
sing, as the lone messenger of God breaks into melody to cheer himself on
some distant journey from the Home of Song; more still to have heard our
Saviour sing in the days of His earthly ministry, when He joined His
disciples in the Jewish Hallel (Mt 26:30, Mk 14:26): but what will it not be
when the great God Himself breaks into song, to celebrate an accomplished
work, an emancipated world, a redeemed race, a Bride won for His Son!
means to be glad, be joyful, be in "a state of an attitude or feeling of
favorable circumstance. This joy may be expressed in song, shouts, or even
joyous shrieks and calls." (Swanson)
translates rejoice with the verb
which means in active voice to make glad or cheer up someone (eg, used in Ps
19:8 of God's precepts rejoicing the heart), but as used here in the passive
voice means to be merry, to rejoice, to celebrate, to be jubilant (Acts
2:26). For example,
Gil - 44v - 1Chr 16:31; Ps 2:11; 9:14; 13:4f; 14:7; 16:9; 21:1; 31:7;
32:11; 35:9; 48:11; 51:8; 53:6; 89:16; 96:11; 97:1, 8; 118:24; 149:2; Pr
2:14; 23:24f; 24:17; Song 1:4; Isa 9:3; 25:9; 29:19; 35:1f; 41:16; 49:13;
61:10; 65:18f; 66:10; Hos 10:5; Joel 2:21, 23; Hab 1:15; 3:18; Zeph 3:17;
Zech 9:9; 10:7. NAS Usage: cry(1), exult(1), glad(3), rejoice(38),
Isaiah records a promise to Israel, but applicable to all God's children...
the bridegroom rejoices over the bride, so your God will rejoice over you."
of joy ("with loud singing" ESV) (07440)(rinnah
from ranan = to give a ringing cry, shout with joy [Zeph 3:14, Job
3:7, 20:5, Ps 63:5], moan, yell) describes a ringing cry, a joyful
cry, joyful singing (2Chr 20:22). In some contexts rinnah is a pleading, a
cry communicating some request (1Ki 8:28). Sometimes rinnah is a shout or
loud communication of warning (1Ki 22:36). Rinnah can be a cry of joy at the
destruction of the wicked (Pr. 11:10; Isa 14:7)
Rinnah - 33v - 1Kgs 8:28; 22:36; 2Chr 6:19; 20:22; Ps 17:1; 30:5;
42:4; 47:1; 61:1; 88:2; 105:43; 106:44; 107:22; 118:15; 119:169; 126:2, 5f;
142:6; Pr 11:10; Isa 14:7; 35:10; 43:14; 44:23; 48:20; 49:13; 51:11; 54:1;
55:12; Jer 7:16; 11:14; 14:12; Zeph 3:17 NAS Usage: cry(12), joy(2),
joyful shout(1), joyful shouting(9), joyful singing(1), rejoice(1), shout of
joy(3), shouts of joy(3), singing(1). Here are some representative uses of
For His anger is but for a moment, His favor is for a lifetime; Weeping may
last for the night, But a shout of joy comes in the morning. (Ps
The sound of joyful shouting and salvation is in the tents of the
righteous; The right hand of the LORD does valiantly. (Ps 118:15)
Those who sow in tears shall reap with joyful shouting. (Ps 126:5)
John Piper: Can you imagine what
it would be like if you could hear God singing? Remember that it was merely
a spoken word that brought the universe into existence. What would happen if
God lifted up his voice and not only spoke but sang?...When I think of the
voice of God singing, I hear the booming of Niagara Falls mingled with the
trickle of a mossy mountain stream. I hear the blast of Mt. St. Helens
mingled with a kitten's purr. I hear the power of an East Coast hurricane
and the barely audible puff of a night snow in the woods. And I hear the
unimaginable roar of the sun 865,000 miles thick, one million three hundred
thousand times bigger than the earth, and nothing
but fire, 1,000,000
degrees centigrade, on the cooler surface of the corona. But I hear this
unimaginable roar mingled with the tender, warm crackling of the living room
logs on a cozy winter's night. And when I hear this singing I stand
dumbfounded, staggered, speechless that he is singing over me. He is
rejoicing over my good with all His heart and with all His soul (cf.
Jeremiah 32:41)! (Zephaniah
3:17 - The Pleasure of God in the Good of His People)
Wiersbe - Our God is a “singing”
God. God the Father sings to the Jewish remnant entering the kingdom (Zeph
3:17). God the Son sang at the close of the Passover Feast, and then went to
the garden to pray (Matt. 26:30). He also sang after His triumphant
resurrection from the dead (Ps. 22:22; Heb. 2:12). God the Spirit sings
today through the hearts and lips of Christians who praise God in the Spirit
M Henry - He is....mighty, is
almighty, is able to do all that for us that we need and can desire...O the
condescensions of divine grace! The great God not only loves his saints, but
he loves to love them, is pleased that he has pitched upon these objects of
his love. He will joy over them with singing. He that is
grieved for the sin
of sinners rejoices in the graces and services of the saints, and is ready
to express that joy by singing over them. The Lord takes plea-sure in those
that fear him, and in them Jesus Christ will shortly be glorified and
As a bridegroom rejoices over his bride
(cf. Isa 62:4), the Lord will exult over His people with gladness and song,
resting in quiet ecstasy over His people in whom is all His delight (cf.
Dt30:9; Isa54). This is a love too great for words.
Henry Morris - Except for the time
when Jesus sang a hymn with His disciples at the last supper (Matthew
26:30), this is the only place in the Bible where we read of God actually
singing. This beautiful verse also reveals Him as a mighty God, a saving
God, a loving God, a rejoicing God and a resting God. The great millennial
kingdom age will be a time of joy and singing and a time of resting, even
Scofield - For the LORD's own, His
final word is not of anger, as with the unbelieving nations, but of love, as
expressed in this beautiful verse. When it comes to His people, chastised
and forgiven, the LORD rests His case in love and rejoicing.
Keith Mathison - Stop and
consider this for a moment. The Lord God Almighty, the Creator of heaven and
earth, the Holy One of Israel, rejoices over the remnant. He exults over the
faithful with loud singing. Loud singing! Rejoicing! This is not Aristotle’s
“Unmoved Mover.” This is not the abstract god of the philosophers. This is
our God, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the Father of our Lord Jesus
Christ. And this God, the living God, rejoices over His faithful remnant
with gladness and loud singing. Does this remind you of any New Testament
passage? Consider the parable of the prodigal son (Luke 15:11–32). The
father in this parable, who represents God, sees his prodigal son returning
home, and what does he do? He runs to him, embraces him, and kisses him.
This was not something a dignified, elderly Jewish man did at the time.
Jesus tells us there is joy in heaven when a sinner repents (Luke 15:7). It
is not only the angels who rejoice. God rejoices as well. Zephaniah 3:17
vividly reminds us that our Father in heaven is not some distant deist god
who cares nothing for us. It is a picture of profound and deep personal
love, the kind of love that would sacrifice all for our sake. The kind of
love that did sacrifice all for our sake. To Him be all glory, honor, and
Spurgeon - The last word is,
however, the most wonderful of all: “He will joy over thee with singing.”
Think of the great Jehovah singing! Can you imagine it? Is it possible to
conceive of the Deity breaking into a song: Father, Son and Holy Ghost
together singing over the redeemed? God is so happy in the love which He
bears to his people that He breaks the eternal silence, and sun and moon and
stars with astonishment hear God chanting a hymn of joy. Among Orientals a
certain song is sung by the bridegroom when he receives his bride: it is
intended to declare his joy in her, and in the fact that his marriage has
come. Here, by the pen of inspiration, the God of love is pictured as
married to his church, and so rejoicing in her that he rejoices over her
with singing. If God sings, shall not we sing? He did not sing when he made
the world. No; he looked upon it, and simply said that it was good. The
angels sang, the sons of God shouted for joy: creation was very wonderful to
them, but it was not much to God, Who could have made thousands of worlds by
His mere will. Creation could not make Him sing; and I do not even know that
Providence ever brought a note of joy from Him, for He could arrange a
thousand kingdoms of providence with ease. But when it came to redemption,
that cost Him dear. Here He spent eternal thought, and drew up a covenant
with infinite wisdom. Here He gave his Only-begotten Son, and put him to
grief to ransom His beloved ones. When all was done, and the Lord saw what
became of it in the salvation of His redeemed, then He rejoiced after a
divine manner. What must the joy be which recompenses Gethsemane and
Calvary! Here we are among the Atlantic waves. The Lord God receives an
accession to the infinity of His joy in the thought of His redeemed people.
“He shall rejoice over thee with singing.” I tremble while I speak of such
themes, lest I should say a word that should dishonor the matchless mystery;
but still we are glad to note what is written, and we are bound to take
comfort from it. Let us have sympathy with the joy of the Lord, for this
will be our strength.
3:18 "I will gather those who grieve about the appointed feasts
(cp La 2:6) -- They came
from you, O Zion; The reproach of exile is a burden on them.
gather: Zeph 3:20; Jeremiah 23:3; 31:8,9; Ezekiel 34:13; 36:24; Hosea
1:11; Romans 11:25,26; grieve: Ps 42:2-4; 43:3; 63:1,2; 84:1,2;
137:3-6; Lamentations 1:4,7; 2:6,7; Hosea 9:5
This is a difficult verse to translate.
Here are several modern translations...
NET Zephaniah 3:18 "As for those who
grieve because they cannot attend the festivals– I took them away from you;
they became tribute and were a source of shame to you.
CSB Zephaniah 3:18 I will gather those who have been driven from the
appointed festivals; They will be a tribute from you, and reproach on her.
ESV Zephaniah 3:18 I will gather those of you who mourn for the festival, so
that you will no longer suffer reproach.
GWN Zephaniah 3:18 "I will gather those among you who are troubled because
of the festivals. They bear a burden of disgrace.
NAB Zephaniah 3:18 as one sings at festivals. I will remove disaster from
among you, so that none may recount your disgrace.
NIV Zephaniah 3:18 "The sorrows for the appointed feasts I will remove from
you; they are a burden and a reproach to you.
I will gather - Jehovah Who had
chastised Israel and caused the nation to be exiled and then dispersed
throughout the nations, will in the end gather them together. John
Phillips says "True Israelites-the believing remnant who will have been
scattered, hiding, living in fear for their lives during the days of the
antichrist, and grieving over the termination of the temple services-will be
The 6 "I will" statements by
Jehovah in Zephaniah 3:18-20 (I will gather, I will deal, I will save, I
will appoint, I will bring you back, I will give you) clearly demonstrate
God's heart for Israel and the fact that He is definitely NOT
"finished" with them as a nation. For anyone who has been taught the false