Greek Word Studies Index
This page contains on site in depth
definitions of Greek words, alphabetized by the English word, followed by
the Strong's number (which links to a brief definition) and the Greek word
in depth definition. For example, take the English word "approve".
and scroll down to "approve" where you will an entry like the one
below. Click "dokimazo" for the in depth definition. This is a
dynamic, ongoing project (even words that are listed are frequently
updated/revised which is the advantage of "electronic printing" over printed
material) so check back frequently for new words and updates of old words.
As you study these definitions you will note that they differ from the usual
Greek lexicon such as Vine's Lexicon and generally include the derivative
root word or words, links to every NT use in the NASB, list of English words
that translate the specific Greek word, illustration of use in
representative verses, comments from traditional lexicons, use in the
Septuagint, and at times even devotional thoughts, quotes, hymns, practical
Greek Quick Reference Guide
Simple explanations of the meaning of Greek verb tense, voice and mood with
Utilizing Web Tools to perform Word Study
a step by step exercise in how to perform a simple
Greek word study
knowing any Greek) using
as an example the wonderful word "redemption". You will learn how
to utilize some of the excellent Reference material available free of charge on
the WWW, including more than 20 Biblically oriented search engines on one page
(For compilation of search engines
by Bob Smith
Entire book available online at
Peninsula Bible Church
which includes numerous sermons
Dr. Ray Stedman
to search Dr. Stedman's excellent
books and sermons) covering virtually every book in
Dr Stephen R Lewis'
Hermeneutics - The Study of the Interpretation of
Scriptures - 152 page Pdf - he has a very interesting overview of the history of Bible
interpretation beginning on page 22.
This synopsis gives you a good sense of how the
Word has been handled over the last 2000 years beginning with the Early Church
fathers (if you don't already know, you might be surprised at how they began
to interpret the Word!), the Middle Ages (I sometimes think how God's Word of
truth and life was handled and mishandled in this lengthy period had something
to do with the "dark" in "Dark Ages"! Judge for yourself), the Reformation Era
and then into the Modern era. A very enlightening and informative "trip".
The Greeks Had a Word for It
This link is a practical discussion on the value of Greek Word Studies for the
of Bible Interpretation)
Helpful Hints on Hebrew
What Every Bible Student Needs to Know About Hebrew from ("Basics of Bible
Interpretation"). Smith quips
only Hebrew I know, as the saying goes, is the man who has the tailor shop
around the corner. And this doesn't help much toward understanding the Hebrew
language, because usually he doesn't know it either. But Strong's Exhaustive
Concordance comes to my rescue for whatever I, personally, can gain of the
meaning of Hebrew terms."
In this same source Dave Roper adds that most of us have
"never encountered anything quite like Hebrew. Certainly the script is
peculiar. It reads from right to left, and there are a host of other rather
obvious disparities. However, the real difference is less obvious, and it is
this difference that is the real crux of the matter: Hebrew is a vehicle for
expressing a uniquely Eastern viewpoint. The problem then, is not merely one
of understanding another language, but of understanding another way of looking
at life and things. It is this point that most English readers do not fully
appreciate. There are many specialized language tools which can be used to
define terms and better understand nuances of meaning, but these in themselves
are inadequate, simply because they can't reproduce this cultural dimension.
In fact, I don't know that it can be adequately reproduced. The only way to
fully understand a people is to get fully involved in their language,
literature, and customs. Unfortunately, that just isn't possible for most
folks. Few have the time or inclination to learn the requisite number of dead
Semitic languages and then immerse themselves in the literature. (Some who
did, it appears, never came up!) There are, however, some basic perspectives
which, when maintained, will enable anyone to more fully appreciate and more
accurately interpret the Old Testament."
(Click for discussion of 4 major areas that
can provide insights into the OT Hebrew mindset).
Figures of Speech
Chapter 7 in "Basics of Bible Interpretation" =
Figures of Speech.
Quoting from that source on the value of understanding figures of speech,
specifically metaphors, Max Muller observes
"It is not
too much to say...that the whole dictionary of ancient religion is made up of
metaphors. With us these metaphors are all forgotten. We speak of spirit
without thinking of breath, of heaven without thinking of sky, of pardon
without thinking of a release, of revelation without thinking of a veil. But
in ancient language every one of these words, nay, every word that does not
refer to sensuous objects, is still in a chrysalis stage, half material and
half spiritual, and rising and falling in its character according to the
capacities of its speakers and hearers."
Hermeneutics by Stephen Lewis -
scroll down to page 88 for "Methods for
distinguishing between literal and figurative" - see also next page for
topic "VIII FIGURES OF SPEECH"
(b) Discussion of
- see especially Read Literally
(c) Excellent discussion by Dr Tony Garland on
(d) 1895 textbook by Milton Terry (Caution: Amillennial) -
Chapter X - Figurative Language
AT Robertson's (ATR) Word Pictures
There are multiple choices on the Web
for A T Robertson's Word Pictures but I prefer
Studylight.org because it is (1) Faster and
(2) the cross references links are to the NASB.
6 volume work offers
insights on the Greek text of virtually every NT verse. Some knowledge of
Greek is helpful for optimal utilization, but it is still useful even without
that knowledge. The notes on many verses function much like a "commentary".
Click to download
Greek fonts for Greek
script to be properly displayed on your computer.
You should also be aware that Robertson is not a believer in a literal
interpretation of the 1000 in Revelation 20, commenting that...
Here we confront the same problem found in the 1260 days. In this book of
symbols how long is a thousand years? All sorts of theories are proposed, none
of which fully satisfy one. Perhaps Peter has given us the only solution open
to us in 2Pe 3:8
when he argues that “one day with the Lord is as a thousand years and a
thousand years as one day.” It will help us all to remember that God’s clock
does not run by ours and that times and seasons and programs are with him.
This wonderful book was written to comfort the saints in a time of great
trial, not to create strife among them. (Robertson's comment on Revelation
lucid, logical, fair-minded discussion of Millennium by Dr Tony Garland) (Comment: The only problem with invoking
to "allegorically" or "spiritually" interpret the 1000 years is that John does
not use the term of comparison "like" or "as" but flatly states
Vincent's New Testament Word Studies
Highly respected Greek
word studies by Marvin Vincent covering all 27 NT books. Vincent is generally
conservative and sound with interesting insights into Greek words that
cannot be found in other resources. He is always worth checking but
remember that he is a "commentary" so as always you need to be an
Expository Dictionary of the NT
Marvin Vincent's notes often
will make the statement:
See (specific cross reference)
Vincent's cross reference notation, you must return to the main menu
Vincent's New Testament Word Studies
where the NT books are listed.
Then go to the specific Book and chapter that you are interested in and
scroll to the verse that corresponds to Vincent's cross reference (or do a
control + find to search the page).
Vincent's New Testament Word Studies
requires more "keystrokes" but will occasionally yield an insight not
found in Robertson's Word Pictures or Vines Expository Dictionary of the
is conservative and often has insightful comments (but
be an Acts 17:11
(see entry #12)
overlook the value of a simple study of Webster's dictionary when doing
GREEK WORD STUDIES.
For the plain definition of a word, I prefer the 1828 edition as it is more
Bibliocentric than modern editions.
For studying the derivation of a word a
modern source is more useful -
Take a moment and do the following exercise - I guarantee you will derive
some incredible insights on 2 words commonly found
in Scripture. Click the link to
Webster's and look up
Note the comment regarding the Origin of this word. Now type
and note the origin as well as the definitions.
What a vivid picture of what anxiety and worry can do to
our psyche! Now you have some additional insight into why Jesus spent so
much time exhorting us not to worry or be anxious in the Sermon on the Mount.
(study Mt 6:25-34-note) He knew the negative
impact worry and
have on our spiritual life. So utilize Webster's frequently in your Word
Studies and you will frequently be rewarded with similar picturesque
Related Resource: Greek word study
worry = merimna
More "bibliocentric" or Scripture
saturated than the more recent editions of Webster's
to see if it has a specific definition for a word you are
The distinct advantage of this site is that it produces a
of several dictionaries including:
Easton's Bible Dictionary,
Revised Unabridged Dictionary
(this resource frequently using Scripture to illustrate the meaning!).
In addition it will also give you a link to
to check for synonyms. Another potentially useful resource is the web
Preceptaustin.org makes frequent use of the Septuagint (LXX) which often
provides useful insights on Old Testament passages that cannot be gleaned
from other resources.
Ferdinand Hitzig, an Hebrew authority used to say to his class.
“Have you a Septuagint? If not, sell
all you have, and buy one.”
What is the Septuagint
(usually abbreviated LXX)?
In simple terms the Septuagint (LXX) is the Greek translation of the Hebrew
The Hebrew scholar Gesenius explains that...
At the time when the old Hebrew language was gradually becoming extinct, and
the formation of the O. T. canon was approaching completion, the Jews began
to explain and critically revise their sacred text, and sometimes to
translate it into the vernacular languages which in various countries had
become current among them. The oldest translation is
Greek of the Seventy (more correctly Seventy-two) Interpreters (LXX), which
was begun with the Pentateuch at Alexandria under Ptolemy Philadelphus, but
only completed later. It was the work of various authors, some of whom had a
living knowledge of the original, and was intended for the use of
Greek-speaking Jews, especially in Alexandria. (Gesenius, F. W. Gesenius'
Hebrew grammar. Page 17)
The International Standard Bible
Encyclopedia adds some interesting details regarding the importance of
the Septuagint (LXX):
The Greek version of the Old Testament commonly known as the Septuagint
holds a unique place among translations. Its importance is many sided. Its
chief value lies in the fact that it is a version of a Hebrew text earlier
by about a millennium than the earliest dated Hebrew manuscript extant (916
AD), a version, in particular, prior to the formal rabbinical revision of
the Hebrew which took place early in the 2nd century AD. It supplies the
materials for the reconstruction of an older form of the Hebrew than the
Masoretic Text reproduced in our modern Bibles.
It is, moreover, a pioneering work; there was probably no precedent in the
world’s history for a series of translations from one language into another
on so extensive a scale.
It was the first attempt to reproduce the Hebrew Scriptures in another
It is one of the outstanding results of the breaking-down of international
barriers by the conquests of Alexander the Great and the dissemination of
the Greek language, which were fraught with such vital consequences for the
history of religion. The cosmopolitan city which he founded in the Delta
witnessed the first attempt to bridge the gulf between Jewish and Greek
thought. The Jewish commercial settlers at Alexandria, forced by
circumstances to abandon their language, clung tenaciously to their faith;
and the translation of the Scriptures into their adopted language, produced
to meet their own needs, had the further result of introducing the outside
world to a knowledge of their history and religion.
Then came the most momentous event in its history, the starting-point of a
new life; the translation was taken over from the Jews by the Christian
church. It was the Bible of most writers of the New Testament. Not only are
the majority of their express citations from Scripture borrowed from it, but
their writings contain numerous reminiscences of its language. Its words are
household words to them. It laid for them the foundations of a new religious
It was a potent weapon for missionary work, and, when versions of the
Scriptures into other languages became necessary, it was in most cases the
Septuagint and not the Hebrew from which they were made.
Preeminent among these daughter versions was the Old Latin which preceded
the Vulgate (Jerome’s Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.), for the most part a direct
translation from the Hebrew, was in portions a mere revision of the Old
Latin; our Prayer-book version of the Psalter preserves peculiarities of the
Septuagint, transmitted through the medium of the Old Latin.
The Septuagint was also the Bible of the early Greek Fathers, and helped to
mold dogma; it furnished proof-texts to both parties in the Arian
controversy. Its language gives it another strong claim to recognition.
Uncouth and unclassical as much of it appears, we now know that this is not
wholly due to the hampering effects of translation. “Biblical Greek,” once
considered a distinct species, is now a rather discredited term. The
hundreds of contemporary papyrus records (letters, business and legal
documents, etc.) recently discovered in Egypt illustrate much of the
vocabulary and grammar and go to show that many so-called “Hebraisms” were
in truth integral parts of the koine, or “common language,” i.e. the
international form of Greek which, since the time of Alexander, replaced the
old dialects, and of which the spoken Greek of today is the lineal
The version was made for the populace and written in large measure in the
language of their everyday life. (Orr, J., M.A., D.D. The International
Standard Bible encyclopedia: 1915 edition - if
you are interested in further study read Click
Why study the Septuagint (LXX)?
The Hebrew Masoretic text
(mentioned above) is the original language text used
by virtually all popular English versions when translating the Old Testament
into English. Virtually all modern English Bible translations utilize the original Hebrew text rather than the
Septuagint to translate the Old Testament. This fact however by no means
depreciates the value of the Septuagint (LXX) in
the study of the Old Testament Scriptures.
Remember that Jesus
and his disciples most often used the Septuagint (LXX) manuscripts rather than
the original Hebrew Old Testament scrolls. Why? First, the Septuagint (LXX) was
widely available and secondly the majority of the culture used Greek as the
common language. Without getting too technical, it is
notable that when quoting OT passages in the NT the New Testament writers chose
to quote the Greek text (Septuagint) over the Hebrew text approximately 93% of the time.
One can conclude that the "men moved by the Holy Spirit (who) spoke from God"
clearly were confident that the Septuagint (LXX) manuscripts were authentic and
reliable resources in their writings. It follows that the modern student
can likewise use the Septuagint (LXX) with complete confidence.
reiterate, the Septuagint (LXX) was the "version" most often quoted by Jesus and
the New Testament writers. Stated another way, most of the New Testament quotes
of the Old Testament are not taken directly from the Hebrew but the Greek
translation of the Hebrew.
In view of the widespread use of the Septuagint (LXX) by Jesus and the NT
writers, it is surprising that the
value of the Septuagint especially for exposition and interpretation by
pastors and teachers has been underestimated and underutilized. It would
be interesting to know how many pastors routinely study the Septuagint
when preparing expositional messages from the Old Testament.
Below are some specific ways the Septuagint (LXX) can be profitably
LXX in Greek Word Studies
Since many of the Greek Words in the
Septuagint are also used in the Greek New Testament, by studying the Septuagint
one can often glean wonderful insights not available by restricting one's study
to the NT Greek. '
LXX as a "Mini-Commentary"
This aspect of the LXX will probably only
apply to those who do more in depth Bible study and have some familiarity with
the original languages. In my experience as a Bible teacher for over 20 years,
when one studies the Old Testament in a modern version like the NASB
and the parallel
passages in the Greek Septuagint, the Septuagint often functions like a
"mini-commentary", not altering the meaning of the verse but adding color,
vibrancy and life that would otherwise go unnoticed and unappreciated. As an
aside, I don't find simply using Brenton's English translation of the LXX to be
helpful. One needs to go to the original Greek texts (which can be done with
relative ease utilizing computer programs such as
Logos Bible Software [Libronix] and
both of which have a Greek lexicon that defines words found only in the O.T). This type of ancillary study
will of course take more time, but the reward in the form of instructive
insights is worth the investment. if you are a
pastor/teacher of God's Word, it behooves you to consider
utilizing these resources to supplement your sermon and lesson preparation.
Do the Experts Say about the Value of the Septuagint (LXX)?
Deissmann in his book "The Philology of the Greek Bible"
makes the following statement regarding the significance of the Septuagint
daughter belongs of right to the mother; the Greek Old and New Testaments
form by their contents and by their fortunes an inseparable unity. The
oldest manuscript Bibles that we possess are complete Bibles in Greek. But
what history has joined together, doctrine has put asunder; the Greek
Bible has been torn in halves. On the table of our theological students
you will generally see the Hebrew Old Testament lying side by side with
the Greek New Testament. It is one of the most painful deficiencies of
Biblical study at the present day that the reading of the Septuagint has
been pushed into the background, while its exegesis has been scarcely
Deissmann goes onto add that
A single hour lovingly devoted to the
text of the Septuagint will further our exegetical knowledge of the
Pauline Epistles more than a whole day spent over a commentary.
Everett F. Harrison, "The Importance of the
Septuagint for Biblical Studies, Part I," Bibliotheca Sacra
112: 448 (1955): 344-355 (HTML Format)
here for Pdf)
Everett F. Harrison, "The Importance of the
Septuagint for Biblical Studies, Part II," - The Influence of the
Septuagint on the New Testament Vocabulary" - Bibliotheca Sacra
113: 449 (1956): 37-45 (HTML format).
here for Pdf)
Can One Find Resources on the Septuagint (LXX)?
1) Study of the Septuagint (LXX) is most efficiently performed using
one of the commercial Bible software products, especially
Logos Bible Software- Logos 4/5 [Note: Libronix
is no longer being updated]
2) English translation of the
Septuagint (LXX) by Sir Lawrence Brenton is available
This translation is interesting but does not yield as many insights into the
OT passage as can be gleaned from studying the original Greek translation of
the Hebrew. If you use Internet
Explorer, you might consider placing the "Apostles'
Bible" as an icon on your toolbar.
First, open Internet Explorer.
check in front of "Links" which should activate a bar directly beneath
Place your mouse pointer over the Explorer icon "e" (the icon
directly in front of the http//... address), hold down the left mouse button
and drag the "e" icon to the "Links" bar which should automatically place
this shortcut to the Apostles' Bible on the Link for quick access.
To rename this icon (I usually shorten the
name as I have links to multiple sites I use in Bible study) by placing your
mouse over the "e" icon on the Link bar, holding down the right mouse button
and selecting Rename. For example, I've renamed it as LXX. You can do the
same for any website you frequently access.
Two other free programs that have
Brenton's Translation are
Page for TheWord)
both of which include some excellent features and a ever growing library
of free resources.
3) Logos has ceased producing new resources for Libronix as of
Spring, 2012. While the links below still work and you can still make
personal books with Libronix, Logos 4/5 personal books are far
easier to compile and unlike Libronix personal books, Logos 4/5 personal
books function like any purchased resource.
There are an increasing number of books that you can compile into Personal
Books in Logos 4/5 - click
User Contributed Personal Books.
4) Online Interlinear Versions:
I don't find these resources as convenient as the commercial products
mentioned above and therefore seldom use them. They will be described for
for our purposes is the
translation + parallel version of
either Greek New Testament or the Greek Old
Testament (The Septuagint
= "LXX") or the
English translation +
parallel version of the
. Note that in order to properly display the Hebrew and Greek characters
you will need to download the fonts which is very quick and simple (Click).
source for Greek text of the LXX is the
where the LXX can be viewed by searching OT and clicking the box "C"
to the left of the verse which in turn links with the Hebrew (parsed) and the
LXX (not parsed).
1 Step Approach
to Study of a Verse in the Septuagint (LXX)
HERE to go to search engine
on this page or
HERE for same search box on
page and enter Ps 1 and select Septuagint as shown below. Click
enter to retrieve Psalm 1:1-6 with each verse in the NASB in
parallel with the Greek (Septuagint). (Note:
characters will only be displayed correctly if you have downloaded
their Hebrew font -click
Go down to Step (3) below to see comments on how this tool might
aid your study of the OT.
3 Step Approach
to Study Verse
in the Septuagint (LXX)
Click to open a new
window and then type in Ps 1:1 in the "Look
Up a Bible Verse"
search box and you'll retrieve a result that looks like the example
Now click on link above the verse "Original
which opens up a window that looks like the one below and of
course includes the English and the original Hebrew (the
Hebrew characters will only be displayed correctly if you have
downloaded their Hebrew font -click
also change "ps
1:1" to "ps
will retrieve the entire Psalm 1 in English and Greek). The result
will appear as shown below but the Greek letters will only be
displayed correctly if you have the fonts (click to download).
Now even if you do not know how to read Greek you can click on the
links of each word and read the Greek definition. To get a sense of
can help add to your understanding of an OT word click on
which translates the Hebrew word for "scoffers"
which gives "scoffers"
an interesting nuance. (Note: this is
probably not the best example because the Hebrew word that is
linked to "scoffers" in the studylight.org site is incorrect
-- click "scoffers"
in this note for the correct Hebrew word).