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Completely Revised and Updated April 25, 2014

1) Greek Word Studies Index

This page contains on site in depth definitions of Greek words, alphabetized by the English word, Strong's number and the Greek word. For example, Click and scroll to approve. Then click dokimazo for the definition. This is a dynamic, ongoing project (even words that are listed are frequently updated/revised) so check back frequently for new words and updates of old words.

2) Hebrew Word Studies Index


In depth studies similar to the Greek Word studies (1). This is a work in progress (April 25, 2015 >400 word studies) and new Hebrew words are added frequently.


3) Greek Quick Reference Guide

This table presents simple explanations of the meaning of the Greek verb tense, voice and mood with Scriptural examples.

4) Web Tools to perform a Greek Word Study

Click for a step by step exercise in how to perform a simple Greek word study (without knowing any Greek) using as an example the wonderful word "redemption". You will learn how to utilize some of the excellent Reference material available on the WEB.

5) Vine's Expository Dictionary of the NT 

Vine has over 3,400 entries and is the classic "old standby" for Greek word definitions. To determine the Greek definition, enter the English word in the following search box. If you know the Strong's Number, you can enter it (See #10 to see how to determine the Strong's Number).

Search for…
Enter query in the box below
Choose a letter to browse:
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  
N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  


6)  Trench's Synonyms of the New Testament

Bishop Trench compares 108 Greek synonyms to help discern their distinctions. For example, select "L" and then "Love" for a discussion of the differences between agapao and phileo (both are also in resource #1)


Choose a letter to browse:
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  L  M  
N  O  P  R  S  T  U  V  W  Z  

7) Berry's Synonyms of the New Testament

Berry is similar to Trench (#6) but the discussions are very brief and there are only 61 word studies.

Choose a letter to browse:
A  B  C  D  F  G  H  I  
L  M  N  O  P  R  S  T  W  

8) Girdlestone's Synonyms of the Old Testament

This 1897 work on the Hebrew synonyms examines 127 Hebrew terms (e.g., altar, almighty, atonement, etc). Using the Septuagint (see #18 below), Girdlestone explains the relation of the Hebrew word to the corresponding Greek word in the NT. This work is designed to be used by those who understand little or no Hebrew. Choose a letter to see if Girdlestone has a discussion of an English word.


Choose a letter to browse:
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  
L  M  N  O  P  R  S  T  U  V  W  


10) Thayer's Greek Lexicon - full definition


Most Greek definitions on the WEB provide only the abbreviated Thayer's definition. This resource gives the full Thayer definition and also has another lexicon called "HELPS" which has brief, but often helpful notes on the Greek words (e.g., click to see the interesting HELPS note on 5485 - grace). See the search box below to determine the Strong's number. Hold your pointer over the word for the Strong's Number. Once you have the number select the appropriate range and then click on the number for Thayer's full definition.


0001 - 0999
1000 - 1999
2000 - 2999
3000 - 3999

4000 - 4999
5000 - 5624

How to Determine Strong's Number - Enter Verse. Hold pointer over word of interest and the Number that pops up is Strong's Number.

in:    using: 

11) Liddell-Scott Greek Lexicon


This Greek Lexicon in contrast to Vine's and Thayer's gives definitions of Greek words as they were used in Classical Greek writings. While these definitions are partially in Greek, the English portion of the definition can be helpful.


To see the Liddell-Scott entry for a Greek word, determine Strong's number using the search box in #10  and enter that number in the search box below, which will retrieve the abbreviated Thayer's definition, beneath which is the Liddell-Scott entry. In addition beneath this definition there is a listing of the frequency of use of the Greek word in 3 Bible translations (KJV, NAS, HCSB). Click a NT book to retrieve the full verse with the highlighted words representing the English translation. Examining a Greek word in multiple passages can give you a good sense of its NT meaning, but you may need to check the context (click the verse to go to a page allowing you to examine the context). For practice, enter Strong's # 5485 which is charis or grace. Scroll Liddell-Scott's entry to the verse frequency table which allows you to quickly determine which NT book uses the word "grace" most often (Which book is it?). Click that book to scroll the verses noting what you learn about grace from each passage. This can be an edifying and enlightening exercise.




12) Abbreviated Brown-Driver-Briggs (BDB) Hebrew Lexicon


Determine the Hebrew Strong's Number (see search box in #10 to determine). Enter the number in the box below to retrieve the abbreviated BDB definition, beneath which is a frequency list of all uses of the word in 3 Bible translations (KJV, NAS, HCSB). You can quickly scan to see which OT book uses that Hebrew word most often. Click on an OT book to see how the word is translated into English. Examining a Hebrew word in multiple passages can give you a good sense of its OT meaning, but you may need to check the context (click the verse to go to a page allowing you to examine the context). 




13) Brown-Driver-Briggs (BDB) Hebrew Lexicon


This Hebrew Lexicon gives a more detailed definition of the Hebrew word. To see the BDB entry for a Hebrew word, you need to determine the Strong's Number (see search box in #10 for how to determine the number). Select the appropriate range from the list below and click the specific Number for BDB's full definition.



0001 - 0999
1000 - 1999
2000 - 2999
3000 - 3999
4000 - 4999
5000 - 5999
6000 - 6999
7000 - 7999
8000 - 8674


14) Basics of Bible Interpretation by Bob Smith


a) Table of Contents

b) The Greeks Had a Word for It - This link is a practical discussion on the value of Greek Word Studies for the lay person (chapter from Basics of Bible Interpretation)

c) Helpful Hints on Hebrew -  Bob Smith writes that "The only Hebrew I know, as the saying goes, is the man who has the tailor shop around the corner. And this doesn't help much toward understanding the Hebrew language, because usually he doesn't know it either. But Strong's Exhaustive Concordance comes to my rescue for whatever I, personally, can gain of the meaning of Hebrew terms." Dave Roper adds that most of us have "never encountered anything quite like Hebrew. Certainly the script is peculiar. It reads from right to left, and there are a host of other rather obvious disparities. However, the real difference is less obvious, and it is this difference that is the real crux of the matter: Hebrew is a vehicle for expressing a uniquely Eastern viewpoint. The problem then, is not merely one of understanding another language, but of understanding another way of looking at life and things. It is this point that most English readers do not fully appreciate. There are many specialized language tools which can be used to define terms and better understand nuances of meaning, but these in themselves are inadequate, simply because they can't reproduce this cultural dimension. In fact, I don't know that it can be adequately reproduced. The only way to fully understand a people is to get fully involved in their language, literature, and customs. Unfortunately, that just isn't possible for most folks. Few have the time or inclination to learn the requisite number of dead Semitic languages and then immerse themselves in the literature. (Some who did, it appears, never came up!) There are, however, some basic perspectives which, when maintained, will enable anyone to more fully appreciate and more accurately interpret the Old Testament."


d) Figures of Speech - Bob Smith quotes Max Muller on the value of understanding figures of speech observing that "It is not too much to say...that the whole dictionary of ancient religion is made up of metaphors. With us these metaphors are all forgotten. We speak of spirit without thinking of breath, of heaven without thinking of sky, of pardon without thinking of a release, of revelation without thinking of a veil. But in ancient language every one of these words, nay, every word that does not refer to sensuous objects, is still in a chrysalis stage, half material and half spiritual, and rising and falling in its character according to the capacities of its speakers and hearers."


Related Resources that Deal with Figurative Language:


a) Interpretation of Scripture - Literal Interpretation


b)  Interpreting Symbols - excellent discussion by Dr Tony Garland

i) The Importance of Meaning
The Art and Science of Interpretation
The Rise of Allegorical Interpretation
Understanding Symbols and Figures

v)  Understanding Numbers (Abuse of, Literal and Symbolic understanding of)


c) Interpretation of Figurative Language - Steve Lewis


c) Figurative Language  - 1895 textbook by Milton Terry


d) Hermeneutics - The Study of the Interpretation of Scriptures - by Dr Stephen R Lewis  - scroll to page 88 for "Methods for distinguishing between literal and figurative" - see also next page for topic "VIII FIGURES OF SPEECH." See page 22. for summary of how God's Word has been interpreted over the last 2000 years beginning with the Early Church fathers (if you don't already know, you might be surprised at how they began to interpret the Word!), the Middle Ages (I sometimes think how God's Word of truth and life was handled and mishandled in this lengthy period had something to do with the "dark" in "Dark Ages"! Judge for yourself), the Reformation Era and then into the Modern era. A very enlightening and informative "trip".


15) AT Robertson's Word Pictures

Robertson's 6 volume work offers insights on the Greek text of virtually every NT verse. Some knowledge of Greek is helpful, but it is still useful even if you cannot read Greek.  You should also be aware that Robertson is not a believer in a literal interpretation of the 1000 in Revelation 20, commenting that "Here we confront the same problem found in the 1260 days. In this book of symbols how long is a thousand years? All sorts of theories are proposed, none of which fully satisfy one. Perhaps Peter has given us the only solution open to us in 2Pe 3:8 (note) when he argues that “one day with the Lord is as a thousand years and a thousand years as one day.” It will help us all to remember that God’s clock does not run by ours and that times and seasons and programs are with him. This wonderful book was written to comfort the saints in a time of great trial, not to create strife among them. (Robertson's comment on Revelation 20:2-see lucid, logical, fair-minded discussion of Millennium by Dr Tony Garland) (Comment: The only problem with invoking 2Pe 3:8 [note] to "allegorically" or "spiritually" interpret the 1000 years is that John does not use the term of comparison "like" or "as" but flatly states 1000 years.)

Matthew Mark Luke John
Acts Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians
Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians
1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy 2 Timothy
Titus Philemon Hebrews James
1 Peter 2 Peter 1 John 2 John
3 John Jude Revelation


16) Vincent's New Testament Word Studies

Highly respected Greek word studies by Marvin Vincent covering all 27 NT books. Vincent is generally conservative and sound with interesting insights into Greek words that cannot be found in other resources. He is always worth checking but remember that he is a "commentary" so as always you need to be an Acts 17:11 Berean.

Marvin Vincent's notes often will make the statement:  See (specific cross reference) To see Vincent's cross reference notation, you must return to the main menu of Vincent's New Testament Word Studies where the NT books are listed. Then go to the specific Book and chapter that you are interested in and scroll to the verse that corresponds to Vincent's cross reference (or do a control + find to search the page).

Matthew Mark Luke John
Acts Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians
Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians
1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy 2 Timothy
Titus Philemon Hebrews James
1 Peter 2 Peter 1 John 2 John
3 John Jude Revelation

17) Webster's 1828 Dictionary or modern Merriam-Webster

Don't overlook the value of a simple study of Webster's dictionary when doing GREEK WORD STUDIES. For the plain definition of a word, I prefer the 1828 edition as it is more Bibliocentric than modern editions. Webster's 1828 Dictionary is more "bibliocentric" (often uses Scripture to illustrate definitions) than the modern editions of Webster's.


Click Modern Merriam-Webster Dictionary - enter word after address to search


Webster's 1828 Dictionary
Enter query in the box below

In order to see the potential value of the English dictionary, take a moment and do the following exercise. I am sure that you will derive some useful insights on 2 words commonly found in Scripture. Click the Modern Merriam-Webster Dictionary (the 1828 version does not have info on the origin of words) and look up anxious. Note the comment regarding the Origin of this word. Now type in worry and note the origin as well as the definitions. What a picture of what anxiety and worry can do to us! Now you have some additional insight into why Jesus spent so much time exhorting us not to worry or be anxious in the Sermon on the Mount. (study Mt 6:25-34-note) He knew the negative impact worry and anxiety could have on our spiritual life and our life in general. So utilize Webster's frequently in your Word Studies and you will often be rewarded with useful insights. Here are the onsite word studies on anxious (merimnao) and worry (merimna).


18) Greek Septuagint (LXX) makes frequent use of the Septuagint (LXX) which often provides useful insights on Old Testament passages that cannot be gleaned from other resources. Ferdinand Hitzig, an Hebrew authority used to ask his class "Have you a Septuagint? If not, sell all you have, and buy one.”


What is the Septuagint (usually abbreviated LXX)?

In simple terms the Septuagint (LXX) is the Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament.


The Hebrew scholar Gesenius explains that "At the time when the old Hebrew language was gradually becoming extinct, and the formation of the O. T. canon was approaching completion, the Jews began to explain and critically revise their sacred text, and sometimes to translate it into the vernacular languages which in various countries had become current among them. The oldest translation is the Greek of the Seventy (more correctly Seventy-two) Interpreters (LXX), which was begun with the Pentateuch at Alexandria under Ptolemy Philadelphus, but only completed later. It was the work of various authors, some of whom had a living knowledge of the original, and was intended for the use of Greek-speaking Jews, especially in Alexandria. (Gesenius, F. W. Gesenius' Hebrew grammar. Page 17)


The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia adds some interesting details regarding the importance of the Septuagint (LXX):


The Greek version of the Old Testament commonly known as the Septuagint holds a unique place among translations. Its importance is many sided. Its chief value lies in the fact that it is a version of a Hebrew text earlier by about a millennium than the earliest dated Hebrew manuscript extant (916 AD), a version, in particular, prior to the formal rabbinical revision of the Hebrew which took place early in the 2nd century AD. It supplies the materials for the reconstruction of an older form of the Hebrew than the Masoretic Text reproduced in our modern Bibles.


It is, moreover, a pioneering work; there was probably no precedent in the world’s history for a series of translations from one language into another on so extensive a scale.


It was the first attempt to reproduce the Hebrew Scriptures in another tongue.


It is one of the outstanding results of the breaking-down of international barriers by the conquests of Alexander the Great and the dissemination of the Greek language, which were fraught with such vital consequences for the history of religion. The cosmopolitan city which he founded in the Delta witnessed the first attempt to bridge the gulf between Jewish and Greek thought. The Jewish commercial settlers at Alexandria, forced by circumstances to abandon their language, clung tenaciously to their faith; and the translation of the Scriptures into their adopted language, produced to meet their own needs, had the further result of introducing the outside world to a knowledge of their history and religion.


Then came the most momentous event in its history, the starting-point of a new life; the translation was taken over from the Jews by the Christian church. It was the Bible of most writers of the New Testament. Not only are the majority of their express citations from Scripture borrowed from it, but their writings contain numerous reminiscences of its language. Its words are household words to them. It laid for them the foundations of a new religious terminology.


It was a potent weapon for missionary work, and, when versions of the Scriptures into other languages became necessary, it was in most cases the Septuagint and not the Hebrew from which they were made.


Preeminent among these daughter versions was the Old Latin which preceded the Vulgate (Jerome’s Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.), for the most part a direct translation from the Hebrew, was in portions a mere revision of the Old Latin; our Prayer-book version of the Psalter preserves peculiarities of the Septuagint, transmitted through the medium of the Old Latin.


The Septuagint was also the Bible of the early Greek Fathers, and helped to mold dogma; it furnished proof-texts to both parties in the Arian controversy. Its language gives it another strong claim to recognition.


Uncouth and unclassical as much of it appears, we now know that this is not wholly due to the hampering effects of translation. “Biblical Greek,” once considered a distinct species, is now a rather discredited term. The hundreds of contemporary papyrus records (letters, business and legal documents, etc.) recently discovered in Egypt illustrate much of the vocabulary and grammar and go to show that many so-called “Hebraisms” were in truth integral parts of the koine, or “common language,” i.e. the international form of Greek which, since the time of Alexander, replaced the old dialects, and of which the spoken Greek of today is the lineal descendant.


The version was made for the populace and written in large measure in the language of their everyday life. (Orr, J., M.A., D.D. The International Standard Bible encyclopedia: 1915 edition - if you are interested in further study read Click Septuagint-1 and Septuagint-2)

Why study the Septuagint (LXX)?


The Hebrew Masoretic text (mentioned above) is the original language text used by virtually all popular English versions when translating the Old Testament into English. Virtually all modern English Bible translations utilize the original Hebrew text rather than the Septuagint to translate the Old Testament. This fact however by no means depreciates the value of the Septuagint (LXX) in the study of the Old Testament Scriptures.


Remember that Jesus and his disciples most often used the Septuagint (LXX) manuscripts rather than the original Hebrew Old Testament scrolls. Why? First, the Septuagint (LXX) was widely available and secondly the majority of the culture used Greek as the common language. Without getting too technical, it is notable that when quoting OT passages in the NT the New Testament writers chose to quote the Greek text (Septuagint) over the Hebrew text approximately 93% of the time. One can conclude that the "men moved by the Holy Spirit (who) spoke from God" clearly were confident that the Septuagint (LXX) manuscripts were authentic and reliable resources in their writings.  It follows that the modern student can likewise use the Septuagint (LXX) with complete confidence.


To reiterate, the Septuagint (LXX) was the "version" most often quoted by Jesus and the New Testament writers. Stated another way, most of the New Testament quotes of the Old Testament are not taken directly from the Hebrew but the Greek translation of the Hebrew.


In view of the widespread use of the Septuagint (LXX) by Jesus and the NT writers, it is surprising that the value of the Septuagint especially for exposition and interpretation by pastors and teachers has been underestimated and underutilized. It would be interesting to know how many pastors routinely study the Septuagint when preparing expositional messages from the Old Testament.


Below are some specific ways the Septuagint (LXX) can be profitably utilized.


LXX in Greek Word Studies


Since many of the Greek Words in the Septuagint are also used in the Greek New Testament, by studying the Septuagint Greek, one can often glean wonderful insights not available by restricting one's study to the NT Greek. '


LXX as a "Mini-Commentary"


This aspect of the LXX will probably only apply to those who do more in depth Bible study and have some familiarity with the original languages. In my experience as a Bible teacher for over 20 years, when one studies the Old Testament in a modern version like the NASB and the parallel passages in the Greek Septuagint, the Septuagint often functions like a "mini-commentary", not altering the meaning of the verse but adding color, vibrancy and life that would otherwise go unnoticed and unappreciated. As an aside, I don't find simply using Brenton's English translation of the LXX to be helpful. One needs to go to the original Greek texts (which can be done with relative ease utilizing computer programs such as Logos Bible Software [Libronix] and Hermeneutika both of which have a Greek lexicon that defines words found only in the O.T). This type of ancillary study will of course take more time, but the reward in the form of instructive insights is worth the investment.  if you are a pastor/teacher of God's Word, it behooves you to consider utilizing these resources to supplement your sermon and lesson preparation.


What Do the Experts Say about the Value of the Septuagint (LXX)? 


Adolph Deissmann in his book "The Philology of the Greek Bible" makes the following statement regarding the significance of the Septuagint (LXX):


The daughter belongs of right to the mother; the Greek Old and New Testaments form by their contents and by their fortunes an inseparable unity. The oldest manuscript Bibles that we possess are complete Bibles in Greek. But what history has joined together, doctrine has put asunder; the Greek Bible has been torn in halves. On the table of our theological students you will generally see the Hebrew Old Testament lying side by side with the Greek New Testament. It is one of the most painful deficiencies of Biblical study at the present day that the reading of the Septuagint has been pushed into the background, while its exegesis has been scarcely begun...A single hour lovingly devoted to the text of the Septuagint will further our exegetical knowledge of the Pauline Epistles more than a whole day spent over a commentary.


Related Resources...


Everett F. Harrison, "The Importance of the Septuagint for Biblical Studies, Part I," Bibliotheca Sacra 112: 448 (1955): 344-355 (HTML Format) (or here for Pdf)


Everett F. Harrison, "The Importance of the Septuagint for Biblical Studies, Part II," - The Influence of the Septuagint on the New Testament Vocabulary" - Bibliotheca Sacra 113: 449 (1956): 37-45 (HTML format). (or here for Pdf)


Where Can One Find Resources on the Septuagint (LXX)?


1) Study of the Septuagint (LXX) is most efficiently performed using one of the commercial Bible software products, especially Hermeneutika or Logos Bible Software- Logos 4/5


2) English translation of the Septuagint (LXX) by Sir Lawrence Brenton is available online at Apostles' Bible. This translation is interesting but does not yield as many insights into the OT passage as can be gleaned from studying the original Greek translation of the Hebrew. If you use Internet Explorer, you might consider placing the "Apostles' Bible" as an icon on your toolbar. Here's how:


First, open Internet Explorer.

Click "View".

Click "Toolbars".

Place a check in front of "Links" which should activate a bar directly beneath "Address".

Apostles' Bible.

Place your mouse pointer over the Explorer icon "e" (the icon directly in front of the http//... address), hold down the left mouse button and drag the "e" icon to the "Links" bar which should automatically place this shortcut to the Apostles' Bible on the Link for quick access.

To rename this icon (I usually shorten the name as I have links to multiple sites I use in Bible study) by placing your mouse over the "e" icon on the Link bar, holding down the right mouse button and selecting Rename. For example, I've renamed it as LXX. You can do the same for any website you frequently access.


Two other free programs that have Brenton's Translation are E-Sword and TheWord or (Main Page for TheWord) both of which include some excellent features and a ever growing library of free resources.


3) Logos has ceased producing new resources for Libronix as of Spring, 2012. While the links below still work and you can still make personal books with Libronix, Logos 4/5 personal books are far easier to compile and unlike Libronix personal books, Logos 4/5 personal books function like any purchased resource. There are an increasing number of books that you can compile into Personal Books in Logos 4/5 - click User Contributed Personal Books.


4) Online Interlinear Versions:


I don't find these resources as convenient as the commercial products mentioned above and therefore seldom use them. They will be described for completeness.


Interlinear for our purposes is the English translation + parallel version of either Greek New Testament or the Greek Old Testament (The Septuagint = "LXX") or the English translation + parallel version of the Hebrew .

alternative source for Greek text of the LXX is the BlueLetterBible where  the LXX can be viewed by searching OT and clicking the box "C" to the left of the verse which in turn links with the Hebrew (parsed) and the LXX (not parsed).


1 Step Approach to Study of a Verse in the Septuagint (LXX)

Click HERE to go to search engine on this page or HERE for same search box on Reference Search page and enter Ps 1 and select Septuagint as shown below. Click enter to retrieve Psalm 1:1-6 with each verse in the NASB in parallel with the Greek (Septuagint). (Note: the Hebrew characters will only be displayed correctly if you have downloaded their Hebrew font -click here) Go down to Step (3) below to see comments on how this tool might aid your study of the OT.

                      OT Source
Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS)
Septuagint (LXX)




3 Step Approach to Study Verse
in the Septuagint (LXX)

(1) Click to open a new window and then type in Ps 1:1 in the "Look Up a Bible Verse" search box and you'll retrieve a result that looks like the example below.

(2) Now click on link above the verse "Original Hebrew" which opens up a window that looks like the one below and of course includes the English and the original Hebrew (the Hebrew characters will only be displayed correctly if you have downloaded their Hebrew font -click here)


Psalms 1:1

Manuscripts  OTBiblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) Septuagint (LXX)
NTNestlé-Aland 26 1894 Textus Receptus 1991 Byzantine
New Search | HELP 

(3) Select the button "Septuagint (LXX)" and also change "ps 1:1" to "ps 1" (which will retrieve the entire Psalm 1 in English and Greek). The result will appear as shown below but the Greek letters will only be displayed correctly if you have the fonts (click to download). Now even if you do not know how to read Greek you can click on the links of each word and read the Greek definition. To get a sense of how the LXX can help add to your understanding of an OT word click on loimwn below which translates the Hebrew word for "scoffers" which gives "scoffers" an interesting nuance. (Note: this is probably not the best example because the Hebrew word that is linked to "scoffers" in the site is incorrect -- click "scoffers" in this note for the correct Hebrew word).


19) Observe, Interpret and Assiduously Apply the Bible


Inductive Bible study - Why study the Bible Inductively?


key words
mark key words
interrogate with the 5W/H questions
term of conclusion
term of explanation
term of contrast
expression of time
term of comparison// simile// metaphor


Observe With a Purpose
Keep Context King
Read Literally
Compare Scripture with Scripture
Consult Conservative Commentaries



Overview to Inductive Bible Study - PowerPoint Presentation (2002) 

Note: All underlined Greek & English words are linked to definitions to aid your study even if you cannot read Greek!

Enter Scripture

                      OT Source
Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS)
Septuagint (LXX)

                         NT Source
Nestlé-Aland 26 Greek Text
1894 Textus Receptus
1991 Byzantine Greek Text


[14] Greek Alphabet

Greek script, English transliteration & pronunciation guide.









NAS   = New American Standard
Amp   = Amplified Version
ASV   = Authorized Std Version 1901
ESV   = English Standard Version
CSB   = Homan Christian Standard
RSV   = Revised Standard Version
KJV   = King James Version
NKJV = New King James Version
NRSV = New Revised Std
NAB   = New American Bible
NJB    = New Jerusalem Bible
NIV     = New International Version
NCV    = New Century Version
ICB     = International Children's
NLT  = New Living Translation
Phillips = J B Phillips Paraphrase
GNT  = Good News Translation
CEV  = Contemporary English
TLB  = The Living Bible
Msg   = Message (Be a Berean!)

** MORE INTERPRETATIVE: For the most objective, non-biased and "pure" inductive study, do not use paraphrased versions as your primary resource for they provide no way to determine whether or not the translator's  interpretation of the original Greek and Hebrew is accurate. The more literal versions such as NAS, ESV, CSB KJV, NKJV more accurately  render the words of the original biblical authors and are therefore recommended for inductive Bible study. Although more literal, the Amplified is not recommended as your primary text, but can be helpful once you have done your study because in many verses it functions like a "mini-commentary". Consultation (after your own inductive study) with some paraphrases (e.g.,  NLT and Phillips) may also yield insights into the meaning of the passage. Note that the NIV is a thought-for-thought (dynamic equivalence) translation which can be helpful for new believers, but it is not recommended for in depth bible study because of the inconsistent way in which it renders the Hebrew and Greek texts. In some cases, the NIV includes significant interpretation which leaves the reader without any indication of the other possible ways to understand that particular verse. Although every translation has some degree of interpretation, the NAS is the least interpretative and has the advantage over the NIV in that it identifies words in italics that are not in the original language but which have been added by the translators to make the passage more readable and/or understandable. Do not base your interpretation on the words in italics.


DISCLAIMER These links are listed for your convenience and their inclusion does not necessarily signify that I agree with everything written on each site. The best policy is to - Examine everything carefully. Hold fast to that which is good. Abstain from every form of evil. (1Th 5:21-22-note, cf Acts 17:11-note) Note: Examine, Hold fast and Abstain are all present imperative which is a command calling for this to be one's lifestyle, only possible as we dependent, yield, surrender to the Holy Spirit's enabling power.


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Last Updated February 21, 2015