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Commentaries, Word Studies, Devotionals, Sermons, Illustrations
Old and New Testament.




Updated April 28, 2015

The Study Dictionary from

Simultaneously Search the following resources

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (ISBE)
Easton's Bible Dictionary (EBD)
Smith's Bible Dictionary (SBD)
Strong's Dictionary of Greek and Hebrew Words
Relevant Maps
Definition of the word - click link at bottom of page (referred to as "Word Study") - very nice.


Enter Search Term

Hint: You may need to check alphabetic index for specific terms. E.g., a search for "temple" does not yield an article in ISBE, but under "T" you will find "Temple, A1" and Temple, A2" with lengthy articles.
Most of the Dictionaries and Encyclopedias below are from


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Articles are well written. Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry (CARM) has compiled a small but useful collection of theological terms (like amillenialism, antinomianism, Arianism, Calvinism, Sola Fide, etc.). These terms are not  generally found in Bible dictionaries


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1911 Encyclopedia Britannica


Contains over 40 million words in nearly 40,000 articles


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Fausset's Bible Dictionary


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Holman's Bible Dictionary


This is a more modern dictionary with crisp, succinct definitions.


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The 1901 Jewish Encyclopedia


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King James Dictionary


Lists more than 6,500 words whose definitions have changed since 1611.


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Lists more than 20,000 topics with Bible references. Excellent resource to prepare a Bible study on a specific topic.


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Trench's Synonyms of the New Testament


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Vine's Expository Dictionary of the  NT


This is the old standby classic resource for Greek word studies.

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See also:




Many definitions have Biblical references. Excellent English dictionary


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Web Bible Encyclopedia

Enter search term in box below to retrieve "hits" but note that not all "hits" are specific for the "web encyclopedia" so is not quite as helpful as searches in the preceding dictionaries (but there are pictures and maps with some of the definitions). This site is also developing a "WEB BIBLE", using the KJV with links from "key words" in the text to specific definitions of those words. To get an idea of how it might be useful when it is fully developed go to WEB BIBLE and under "Old Testament" select Genesis & chapter 15. Click on "Abram" (in blue) (then click Abraham) for the linked definition.

Enter one or more keywords to search.
Case-insensitive. Wildcards are supported: “*” “?”

Search for: Results per page:
Match: any search words all search words


The Visual Bible

Search Engine for Maps and Images at the Visual Bible

by: Topic, Bible Reference, Word or Phrase

Note: Type in Corinth, hit Search and results open in a new window. Now click one of the maps to enlarge and you will see a watermark ("Faith Images"). I have discussed this issue with the webmaster and he states that (1) all the maps and images can be freely used in any non-profit setting (talks, websites, etc), (2) the watermark is scheduled to be removed in the future and (3) finally when you download the map or image it will not have the watermark. Some information including email address is required to enable the free download. Note that when you enlarge a map or image, other resource options will appear, some of which include well written articles in the Tyndale Bible Dictionary.

Or Click Here  for a listing of all 182 maps

One nice feature of this search engine is that maps and images will be retrieved that relate to the specific Bible references. For example, perform a search on "Acts 16" and you will retrieve the Scripture passage in addition to a map of Paul's third missionary journey and a picture of the river where Lydia was converted as she listened to Paul proclaim the Gospel..



This one page compilation of resources for study of scripture -- includes Greek & Hebrew word study tools like Vine's Greek Lexicon, A T Robertson's Word Pictures, Vincent's Word Studies, etc. Search engines for Ray Stedman, John Piper, etc

Summary of the Names of God -- meaning, Scriptural occurrences, application.

Angel of the LORD
The name of God is Jehovah - The name of God is Yahweh
The name of God is Elohim - My Creator   
The name of God is El Elyon - Most High God (Sovereign Over All)
The name of God is El Roi - God Who Sees
The name of God is El Shaddai - God Almighty
The name of God is Jehovah Ezer -  The LORD our Helper
The name of God is Jehovah Jireh - The LORD Will Provide
The name of God is Jehovah Rapha - The LORD our Healer
The name of God is Jehovah Roi - The Lord is My Shepherd Pt 1
The name of God is Jehovah Roi - The Lord is My Shepherd Pt 2

The name of God is Jehovah Sabaoth - LORD of hosts (of armies) Pt 1

The name of God is Jehovah Sabaoth - LORD of hosts (of armies) Pt 2
The name of God is Jehovah Mekeddeshem - LORD Who Sanctifies
The name of God is Jehovah Nissi -The LORD Our Banner
The name of God is Jehovah Rapha - LORD Who Heals

The name of God is Jehovah Shalom - The LORD our Peace Pt 1
The name of God is Jehovah Shalom - The LORD our Peace Pt 2
The name of God is Jehovah Shammah - The LORD is There

Name of the LORD is a Strong Tower - Summary Chart of the Names of God
Proverbs 18:10 - a simple inductive study
Our Stronghold - sermon by C H Spurgeon on Proverbs18:10

Name of the LORD is a Strong Tower: Summary Chart Pr18:10
Name of the LORD: Why Should You Study It?

Gateway's Parallel Bible

Click  versions you want to parallel. Select "Lookup passage(s) in multiple versions ". Uncheck footnotes to keep the page less cluttered. Gateway now has the full text of Amplified Version which is very literal (click here for comparison) and can function as a virtual "mini-commentary" on each verse! I find it very useful to consult after I have done my own Inductive Bible Study. Gateway also has audio versions for KJV, NASB & NIV (latter  by Max McLean.) Audio versions in Chinese, Portuguese, Italian & Spanish.

Now part of the "Next Bible" which allows simultaneous searches of multiple resources. The NET Notes attached to each Bible verse function somewhat like a "word study" commentary, especially on the OT Hebrew words. For example go to Psalms1 and study it inductively (Click  for guide to performing a simple inductive study on Psalm 1) -- then read it again with the Net notes to see what additional insights you glean.


Insightful & picturesque paraphrase to supplement a more literal translation such as NASB -- e.g., compare Roman's 12:2 in the Phillip's and the NASB translations.

(NASB) And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, that you may prove what the will of God is, that which is good and acceptable and perfect.

(PHILLIPS) Don't let the world around you squeeze you into its own mould, but let God re-mould your minds from within, so that you may prove in practice that the plan of God for you is good, meets all his demands and moves towards the goal of true maturity.

Although not a comprehensive analysis Phillips has two interesting lists of most of the more direct OT Verses found in the NT & a "reverse" list of the OT books & verses used in the NT.


10,000 excellent Biblical Illustrations categorized alphabetically & by specific Scriptures - Old Testament & New Testament. Search for illustrations below...

Use the letters above to list illustration topics. Illustrations tied to a book of the Bible will be under the first letter of the book name or the 1,2,3 for 1 John, 2 John, etc.

Their database is searchable but be aware it searches the entire site of Biblical Studies Foundation (  (which is one of the most complete sites of sound doctrine on the Web) and not just the illustrations


In left hand column click a site for a brief synopsis of the content. See related Downloadable Sermon & Illustration Database

Source 1 Images can be printed & converted to transparencies for overhead projection. In my teaching I have found that relevant  illustrations can provide a quick visual summary of the chapter for your students. Obviously this tool is most applicable in the "people, place & event rich" Old Testament.

Source 2 -  B&W images from both OT and NT

Source 3 - Gustave Dore for 212 of his beautiful engraved illustrations which make nice overhead transparencies for illustration

Source 4 -
Google Image Search. E.g., type in "Abraham Genesis" (without the quote signs) which retrieves over 100 images, including classic works by Rembrandt, Michelangelo, etc. (Search only with "Mature Content Filter is ON")

   • Advanced Image Search
Image Search Help


The Face of the Ancient Near East

The Ancient Near East  —  Biblical Regions  —  Modern States and the Ancient Near East  — Mesopotamia: Homeland of Abraham  —  Egypt: Land of Bondage  —  Syria and Lebanon  — International Routes, The King's Highway  —  Geography and Trade Routes of the Middle East

Natural Regions of Palestine

National Regions of Ancient Palestine  —  Physical Geography of Palestine  —  Topography of Palestine; Cross Sectional Views of Longitudinal Zones  —  Northern Coastal Plains  —  Plain of Dor, Plain of Sharon, Samaria, et al.  —  Philistine Plain, Shephelah, Judah, and the Dead Sea —  Arabah, Negeb, Wildernesses of Zin and Paran  —  The Old City of Jerusalem Today  — Modern Political Divisions of Ancient Palestine  —  Climate Patterns of Ancient Palestine


Before Abraham

Selected Neolithic and Chalcolithic Settlements  —  The Table of Nations (1)  —  The Table of Nations (2)  —  Ancient Near East in the 3rd Millennium

The World of the Patriarchs

Ancient Near East in the Time of the Patriarchs  —  The Land of Canaan from Abraham to Moses —  Palestine in the Middle Bronze Age  —  The Migration of Abraham  —  Abraham in Canaan —  Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob  —  Travels of Jacob  —  The Journeys of Joseph

The Egyptian Experience

Expulsion of the Hyksos  —  Egypt and Palestine in the Late Bronze Age  —  Sites in the Amarna Archive (Akhetaton; Tell el-Amarna)  —  Campaigns of Thutmose III and Amenhotep II  — Canaan in the 14th Century: The Tell el-Amarna Tablets  —  The Egyptian Empire and the Hittites —  Egyptian Empire and Balance of Power, ca. 1400 BCE  —  The Route of the Exodus

The Exodus

Events during the Sojourn at Kadesh-Barnea  —  Journey of the Spies  —  The Journey from Kadesh-Barnea to the Plains of Moab

Conquest and Settlement

Ancient Near East from 1200-100 BCE  —  The Conquest of Canaan  —  The Sea Peoples  — The Levant from 1200-1000 BCE  —  The Conquest by Joshua  —  Joshua's Central and Southern Campaigns  —  Joshua's Northern Campaign  —  The Limits of Israelite Settlement  — Israel in Canaan from Joshua to Samuel to Saul  —  The Tribal Allotments of Israel  —  The Division of the Land Among the Tribes  —  Levitical Cities and Cities of Refuge (1)  —  The Levitical Cities (2)  —  The Judges of Israel  —  The Period of the Judges  —  Ehud and the Oppression of the Moabites  —  Deborah's Victory over the Canaanites  —  Gideon's Battles with the Amalekites  —  Jephthah and the Ammonites  —  Samson the the Philistines  —  The Battle at Ebenezer and the Loss of the Ark  —  The Ministry of Samuel and Anointment of Saul  —  The Kingdom of Saul and His Wars  —  Saul, 1000 BCE  —  David's Flight from Saul

The Kingdom of David and Solomon

David's Rise to Power  —  David in Conquest of Canaan  —  David's Wars of Conquest  — Kingdom of David and Solomon  —  The United Monarchy under Solomon (1)  —  The United Monarchy under Solomon (2)  —  Solomon's Economic Enterprises  —  Solomon's Building Activities  —  Solomon's Temple  —  Jerusalem in the Time of David and Solomon

The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah

The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah (1)  —  The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah (2)  —  The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah (3)  —  The Campaign of Shishak  —  Conflicts between Israel and Aram-Damascus  —  The Omride Dynasty  —  The Golden Ages of the 9th & 8th centuries BCE —  Phoenician Trade and Civilization  —  Trade Routes throughout the Middle East  —  Travel Routes throughout Palestine  —  Elijah and Elisha  —  The Revolt of Jehu  —  The Rise of Assyria —  Israel & Judah in the days of Jeroboam II and Uzziah  —  The Assyrian Empire under Tiglath-Pileser III  —  The Syro-Ephraimite War  —  Tiglath-Pileser III's Campaigns  —  Fall of Samaria and Deportation of Israelites  —  The Fall of the Kingdom of Israel  —  Assyrian Districts after the Fall of Samaria  —  Prophets of the 8th Century BCE

Judah Alone amid International Powers

Hezekiah's Preparation for Revolt  —  Judah under King Hezekiah  —  Hezekiah's Jerusalem  — Sennacherib's Campaign against Judah  —  Assyria in the 7th century BCE  —  The Rise of the Neo-Babylonian Empire  —  The Reign of Josiah  —  The Districts of Judah under King Josiah —  The Golden Age of King Josiah; Nebuchadnezzar's Campaigns against Judah

The Babylonian Exile

Judah during the Exile  —  The Kingdom of Judah  —  Exile; Palestine in the Post-Exilic Period —  Jewish Exiles in Babylon  —  Jewish Refugees in Egypt

The Persian Period

World Powers of the 6th century BCE  —  The Conquests of Cyrus the Great  —  The Persian Empire  —  The Return of the Jewish Exiles to Judah  —  Judah in the 5th century BCE  — Palestine after the Exile

The Hellenistic Period

Alexander the Great's Empire  —  The Division of Alexander's Empire ca. 275 BCE  — Palestine under the Ptolemies  —  The Seleucid Empire and Antiochus III  —  Campaigns of Antiochus IV against Egypt  —  The Maccabees in 168 BCE  —  Selected Events in the Maccabean Revolt  —  Jewish Expansion under the Hasmonean Dynasty  —  Pompey's Campaign against Jerusalem


Rome's Emergence as a World Power

Early Rome  —  Roman Expansion in the 3rd & 2nd centuries BCE  —  Civil Wars amidst Roman Expansion in 1st century BCE  —  Roman Empire in the Age of Augustus

The Romans, Palestine, and Herod the Great

Roman Rule in Palestine 63-40 BCE  —  The Kingdom of Herod the Great  —  Herod's Building Program

The World of Jesus

The Division of Herod's Kingdom  —  Palestine under the Herods  —  Palestine in the Time of Jesus (1)  —  Palestine in the Time of Jesus (2)  —  Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls

The Life and Ministry of Jesus

Jesus' Birth and Early Childhood  —  The Birth, Childhood, and Baptism of Jesus  —  John the Baptist  —  Galilee in the Time of Jesus  —  Jesus' Ministry in Galilee and Journey to Jerusalem —  The Ministry of Jesus around the Sea of Galilee  —  The Ministry of Jesus beyond Galilee  — Jesus' Ministry according to John  —  Jesus' Journeys from Galilee to Judea  —  Jesus in Judea and Jerusalem  —  Jerusalem in the New Testament Period  —  The Passion Week in Jerusalem

Early Expansion of the Church

The Kingdom of Herod Agrippa I  —  The Kingdom of Agrippa II  —  Pentecost and the Jewish Diaspora  —  Expansion of the Early Church in Palestine  —  Paul's Conversion and Early Ministry  —  Paul's Journeys  —  The First Missionary Journey of Paul  —  The Second Missionary Journey of Paul  —  The Third Missionary Journey of Paul  —  Paul's Arrest and Imprisonment  —  Paul's Voyage to Rome

The First Jewish Revolt

Distribution of Roman Legions under Tiberius  —  The First Jewish Revolt  —  Titus's Campaigns —  Herod's Temple

The Early Christian Church

Churches of the Revelation  —  The Roman Empire ca. 117 CE  —  Palestine from 73-135 CE —  The Bar Kokhba Revolt, 132-135 CE  —  Hadrian's Jerusalem  —  Christian Expansion in the 2nd & 3rd Century

This is a powerful narrative chronicling the courage & cost our spiritual ancestors paid to "Retain the standard of sound words" & to "guard, through the Holy Spirit... the treasure which has been entrusted to" all saints. (2Ti 1:13, 14-notes)  I would recommend obtaining the video which can be purchased from Pilkington & Sons @ 1-888-316-8608 (or 1-800-784-6010). You won't regret purchasing this video --  I guarantee you will want to share this powerful historical drama with all those who love the Word of God. This video will challenge you to heed  Jude's exhortation to "contend earnestly for the faith which once for all delivered to the saints." (Jude 1:3) (This outstanding video can also be ordered from The Berean Call)


List of links to assorted Christian books - Desiring God by John Piper, Pursuit of God by A. W. Tozer, etc.


Click for links to over 150 booklets covering a variety of topics, as diverse as how to deal with depression, divorce, anger, how to have a revival, how to deal with pornography, finishing well, how to share your faith without arguing, how to have a "quiet time" with God, how to understand the "dinosaur dilemma", what the Bible says about women in ministry, does the Bible teach eternal security?, 10 reasons to believe series, what is Messianic prophecy, what the Bible says about hell (a "hot" topic of debate in many theological circles), counseling from a Biblical perspective, how to know the will of God, how to know who to marry, etc.. Each booklet presents a Word centered, God glorifying, Christ exalting discussion of the subject. Each subject takes about an hour (+/-) to read & printed copies can be ordered free of charge if you for example find a topic you might like to share with a brother or sister. This is a list you will want to look over to gain a sense of what is available so that you will be able to go there when a specific need arises.

Note: If you subscribe to receive Our Daily Bread (at no charge) from RBC, you can also request to be placed on the mailing list to receive the latest Discovery Series Booklets which come out every month or so.


Free Bible Computer Programs

E-Sword: is one of the most useful free Bible program available. There are excellent search features and window popups when pointer held over verse references and Strong's numbers. Click here to see illustration of the features. Another nice feature especially for a free program is the ability to point and click on a word in either the Bible or Commentary view, and the definition, if found, will appear in the Dictionary view. NASB is available for a $20 unlock fee. 


Here is another site with free Biblical resources for e-sword. Click here - I highly recommend Tony Garland's superb, conservative commentary on the book of Revelation (Click to download). If you interpret the Prophetic Scriptures literally, then you will enjoy this resource. So many of the commentaries on Revelation leave you more confused than you were before you consulted them. Garland's "magnum opus" on the Revelation ( = link to download file and install to e-Sword) will leave you edified and excited about the return of our Lord. Now you can't not read the Revelation of Jesus Christ. This excellent commentary removes all excuses that the Revelation is too confusing and cannot be understood. If you accept the premise that the literal reading of Scripture makes the most sense, you will truly enjoy this commentary. On the other hand, if you do not believe that literal interpretation of the Scripture is the simplest and safest approach, then you will not enjoy this commentary and the Revelation will continue to remain a confusing morass of strange symbols and sights.


TheWord - Bible Study Program for your Computer - Excellent program that rivals Esword and in surpasses it in a number of ways. Definitely worth trying (it's free). TheWord is similar in some ways to E-sword below. I have used both and prefer THEWORD. Many of the resources are free, but some of the newer commentaries are paid modules. This resource has a tool that I use probably 100's of times a day if I am writing commentaries. The tool is a Scripture pop-up (you select the version you prefer). So if I am reading a blog and it has a Scripture reference, one can simply mouse over the reference and hit control + C (copy) and the reference pops up. You can adjust the program to close the reference automatically or keep it open until you force it to close. You can also hold the mouse pointer over the reference (chap/verse) and use you mouse wheel to scroll to the previous or following passages which allows you to quickly check contest. Or you can copy just the chapter and the entire chapter pops up (e.g., If you are studying Eph 2:8-10, but you wanted to see the entire chapter, you would select just the "Eph 2" portion of the reference and the entire chapter pops up. You can change the font size of the pop up so if you are old like me you can easily read the reference. And this tool works anywhere the Scripture is found - internet page, email, Microsoft Word document, another Bible program, etc.  In sum, this little tool is a jewel if you want to actually read the Scripture or copy it to a Word document or Web page on which you are working.

Click to see links that will take you to a large number of resources compatible with TheWord. In my opinion the best resource (an all of them are free) is Wordmodules Downloads.

BlueLetterBible - Charts and Miscellaneous Resources:

Parallel Passages in New Testament quoted from Old Testament - v- the actual number of OT quotes varies from 885 to 889. Every book of the Old Testament is quoted except Obadiah, Nahum, Zephaniah, and Esther with a single quote from Song of Solomon. Here's a test - which NT book has the most OT quotations? You may be surprised.

Nice chart on the "Harmony of the Gospels" - although this type of chart is not inspired it does help one piece together the life of Jesus chronologically.

Names of the Son of God, Jesus Christ our Lord - a chart that so beautifully shows He is our "all in all" (Col 3:11)

Our Lord's Miracles

Charts and Maps by Clarence Larkin

Bible Timeline from Creation to 4th Century AD Very attractively done but unfortunately does not have specific dates for Biblical books or characters

Timeline of the Apostle Paul: nice tabular format paralleling secular events in Rome (especially Roman emperors) with Paul's life. When you utilize this type of chart realize that there is not complete agreement among very good scholars on some of the dates in Paul's life. So avoid foolish & ignorant speculation for they will lead to quarrels. Click here for another nice Pauline Timeline is found at The Unbound Bible. To walk through each of Paul's missionary journeys city by city click the following links for the map beneath which are the cities (1st Journey - begin @ Antioch) (2nd Journey) (3rd Journey)

Chronology of Acts and the Epistles: realize that there is not absolute agreement on these dates

Cult Apologetics - some simple resources to turn to when you get that unexpected knock at your door & it's not the postman

Redi-Answers on Jehovah's Witnesses Doctrine
Redi-Answers on Mormon Doctrine
Jehovah's Witness at Your Door—A Quick Reference Guide

Exposι of Jehovah's Witnesses

Exposι of Mormonism
Mormon at Your Door—A Quick Reference Guide

Mormon Claims Answered by Marvin Cowan
Foolish Faith: What Today's Information Age Says About God by Judith Etinger

Includes various topics Radio Carbon Dating, Dinosaurs, Is the Bible Text Reliable? What the Greatest Lawyers say about the Resurrection

Pilgrimage Through the Watchtower by Kevin Quick

The Changing World of Mormonism by Jerald & Sandra Tanner


Brenton's English Translation of the LXX (Apostle's Bible)

This offsite link provides access to Brenton's Translation of the Septuagint translation (the Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament, often abbreviated LXX). The majority of the NT quotations from the OT are taken from the LXX and not the Hebrew, so it behooves the serious student of God's Word to be familiar with this English translation of the Greek OT text.   If you use Internet Explorer, I would suggest making "Apostles' Bible" a shortcut on your toolbar. Here's how - Open Internet Explorer. Click "View". Click "Toolbars". Place a check in front of "Links" which should activate a bar directly beneath "Address". Now open Apostles' Bible.. Now place mouse pointer over the explorer icon "e" (the icon directly in front of the http//... address), hold down the left mouse button and drag the "e" icon to the "Links" bar which should automatically place this shortcut to the Apostles' Bible on the Link for quick access. To rename this icon (I usually shorten the name as I have links to multiple sites I use in Bible study) by placing your mouse over the "e" icon on the Link bar, holding down the right mouse button and selecting Rename. For example, I've renamed it as LXX. You can do the same for any website you frequently access.




Download InstaVerse for free. It is a nifty, easy to download and install (no restart), simple to use Bible Verse pop up tool that will allow you to read every cross reference in this study quickly, in context and in the Version you prefer (Note: Only KJV is free. NAS, ESV, NIV, et al available for purchase) When you hold the mouse pointer over the Scripture reference, the passage pops up immediately and can even be highlighted. InstaVerse works anywhere on the Web as well as offline in Word for Windows, in email such as Outlook, etc. It can be enabled or disabled easily (Menu > Disable). Try the free version. It really will be amazed and edified. (click here) Note it won't work if there is not a space between book name and chapter (Mt 1:1 won't pop up but Mt 1:1 will)





This free too is available from the good folks at and it is my favorite web tool. If you have Scripture annotations on your site, you MUST add this great tool so your visitors can easily read the actual Word of God rather than just read the chapter/verse, which they may or may not remember. It is easy to add to your site and there are literal and paraphrase versions available. In addition there is a tool that can be added which gives your visitors the freedom to choose the version with which they are most familiar.








NAS   = New American Standard
Amp   = Amplified Version
ASV   = Authorized Standard Version 1901
ESV   = English Standard Version
RSV   = Revised Standard Version
KJV   = King James Version
NKJV = New King James Version
NRSV = New Revised Std Version
NAB   = New American Bible
NJB    = New Jerusalem Bible
NIV     = New International Version
NCV    = New Century Version
ICB     = International Children's Bible
NLT  = New Living Translation
Phillips = J B Phillips Paraphrase
GNT  = Good News Translation
CEV  = Contemporary English Version
TLB  = The Living Bible
Msg   = The Message

** MORE INTERPRETATIVE: For the most objective, non-biased and "pure" inductive study, do not use paraphrased versions as your primary resource for they provide no way to determine whether or not the translator's  interpretation of the original Greek and Hebrew is accurate. The more literal versions such as NAS, ESV, KJV, NKJV more accurately  render the words of the original biblical authors and are therefore recommended for inductive Bible study. Although more literal, the Amplified is not recommended as your primary text, but can be helpful once you have done your study because in many verses it functions like a "mini-commentary". Consultation (after your own inductive study) with some paraphrases (e.g.,  NLT and Phillips) may also yield insights into the meaning of the passage. Note that the NIV is a thought-for-thought (dynamic equivalence) translation which can be helpful for new believers, but it is not recommended for in depth bible study because of the inconsistent way in which it renders the Hebrew and Greek texts. In some cases, the NIV includes significant interpretation which leaves the reader without any indication of the other possible ways to understand that particular verse. Although every translation has some degree of interpretation, the NAS is the least interpretative and has the advantage over the NIV in that it identifies words in italics that are not in the original language but which have been added by the translators to make the passage more readable and/or understandable. Do not base your interpretation on the words in italics.

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Last Updated February 21, 2015