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Zechariah Commentaries
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Updated 12/14/13

ZECHARIAH
("Yahweh Remembers")
Click for EXCELLENT TIMELINE of Zechariah - Go to Page 42
Zec 1:1-6 Zec 1:7-6:8 Zec 6:9-6:15 Zec 7:1-8:23 Zec 9:1-11:17 Zec 12:1-14:21
Return
to Me
Zec 1:3
Messianic
Kingdom
Visions
The
Branch
Four
Messages
Two Oracles
or
Burdens
Zechariah 1-6

Zechariah 7-8

Zechariah 9-14


Apocalyptic

Ethical Prophecy

1) Rebuke
2) Reminder
3) Restoration
4) Return

Predictive
Prophecy

1) Burden Against the Nations
2) Burden For Israel

Call
to
Repentance
Eight
Visions
(Picture)
Crowning
of
Joshua
Question of
the Fasts
(Calendar)
First
Burden:
Rejection of
Messiah
Second
Burden:
Reign of
Messiah
The
Way
of Salvation
Messianic
Kingdom
Visions
The
Bringer
of Salvation
Commands
Concerning
Present Things
Oracles (Burdens)
Concerning
Future Things
Behold the man...the Branch Love, Truth
and Peace
The Day
of the Lord
PICTURES PROBLEMS PREDICTIONS
ISRAEL'S
FORTUNE
ISRAEL'S
FASTING
ISRAEL'S
FUTURE
"My house will be built
in Jerusalem
"

Zec 1:16
"Let your hands be strong"
Zec 8:9
"HOLY
TO THE LORD
"

Zec 14:20
PLACE:
JERUSALEM
Written During the Building
of the Temple
520-518BC
Written after the Temple
Was Completed
circa 480-470BC

Key words: Branch (Zec 3:8, 6:12), jealous, king (9x in 9v), shepherd (10x in 9v), saw/seen (or "lifted up my eyes"), Jerusalem, LORD of hosts (of armies) = Jehovah Sabaoth (53x), "word of the LORD came" (5x) See discussion on marking key words. To help your study print out the Observation Worksheet on Zechariah (Go to page 13) with double spaced text for marking Key Words, making lists, taking notes that you can later transfer to your Bible

See Introduction to Zechariah by Dr John MacArthur: Title, Author, Date, Background, Setting, Historical, Theological Themes, Interpretive Challenges, Outline by Chapter/Verse. Excellent overview. (See also Van Dine's excellent overview of Zechariah including chapter/section summaries)

Messiah in Zechariah

• The Branch or Sprout (Zec 3:8f; Zec 6:12f; Heb. 6:20-7:1
• Entry of Zion’s Lowly King (Zec 9:9-17; Mt. 21:4-5; Jn 12:13- 16)
• Sale of Jesus by Judas (Zec 11:4-14; Mt 27:9)
• Mourning over the Pierced One (Zec 12:10; Jn 19:37)
• Fountain opened for sin (Zec 13:1)
• The Smitten Servant (Zec 13:7-9)
• Glory of Jerusalem the Center of World Worship (Zec 2:10-11; Zec 14:8f, Zec 14:20f)
• At His Second Coming He will be crowned King (Zec 14:5, 9; Rev. 11:15; 21:27)

 Zechariah in the New Testament

Zech. 1:8 with Rev. 6:1-8
Zech. 3:2 with Jude 9
Zech. 3:9 with Rev. 5:6
Zech. 8:16 with Eph. 4:25
Zech 9:9 with Matt. 21:5; Jn. 12:14ff
Zech. 11:12f with Matt. 27:9f
Zech. 12:10 with Jn. 19:37; Rev. 1:7
Zech. 13:7 with Matt. 26:31; Mk. 14:27
Zech. 14:11 with Rev. 22:3

Adapted from Jensen's Survey of the Old Testament or Logos
Adapted from Talk Thru the Bible or Logos

From William Orr's Thirty-Nine Keys to the Old Testament:
1. STATISTICS: Writer, Zechariah (Zec 1:1) whose name means "GOD is Renown," was of the priestly tribe, possibly born in Babylon. He returned with the first expedition; called to encourage the builders with a view of the glorious future; time, 520-518 B.C.; key thought, GOD is in this work; key verse, Zec 14:9.
2. THEME: The first returning group of exiles was 50,000 strong, but had been hindered and finally stopped building. GOD spoke through Zechariah (and Haggai) to stir up their hearts and renew their labors. While Haggai's burden seemed to be the religious life of the people, Zechariah's was to concentrate on the national and political. His ministry extended over two years and he was used to bring to completion the restoration of the temple. His main ministry looked far into the future envisioning both the first coming of the Messiah and His return in power and great glory.
3. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS: Book is divided: eight visions (given in a single night) dealing with a large variety of subjects (Zech 1:1-21 through Zec 6:1-15); four given directly to a questioning company from Babylon (Zec 7:2, 3) answering their problems; two burdens (Zec  7:1-14 and Zec 8:1-23) concerning future oppression and eventual triumph (Zec 9:1-17 through Zec14:1-21).
The expression "Thus saith the Lord" is found 89 times; the term "The Lord of hosts" 36 times. Zechariah contains more specific promises relative to the crucifixion than any other Old Testament book except Psalms (Zec 9:9; 11:12, 13; 13:6, 7).
4. OUTSTANDING TEACHINGS: In spite of meager circumstances and coming opposition for the chosen people, GOD is still to
triumph and with Him, His people. A detail to remember is the intermingling of the work of the MESSIAH, first as suffering SAVIOUR, then as resistless Sovereign. GOD's watchful interest in other nations is clearly demonstrated both in relation to their sin and idolatry, and with reference to their treatment of Israel. A delightful picture of the future is presented in the coming happiness of Zion with streets full of children (8:3-5) and all nations of the world coming to the Jews to learn of their GOD (Zec 8:22, 23).
5. KEY TO UNDERSTANDING: Life is not concerned with time alone. There is an overruling power which works in time to prepare for eternity. The Jewish nation is but an example of the great passion of the heart of GOD for the sons of men.

OTHER RECOMMENDED RESOURCES:
Zechariah in the Annotated Bible - A C Gaebelein
Zechariah - J Vernon McGee - 14 page introduction and overview of the book-see outline below
The Message of Zechariah - G Campbell Morgan (good fodder for sermon preparation!)
Knowing God Through Zechariah - Radio Bible Class booklet
Analysis of Zechariah - James Van Dine (well done)

J Vernon McGee's Outline of Zechariah

I. APOCALYPTIC VISIONS (messianic and millennial), Zechariah 1- 6
A. Introduction and message of warning, Zechariah 1:1-6
B. Ten visions (all in one night), Zechariah 1:7-6:15
1. Riders under myrtle trees, Zec 1:7-17
2. Four horns, Zec 1:18, 19
3. Four smiths, Zec 1:20, 21
4. Man with measuring line, Zec 2:1-13
5. Joshua and Satan, Zec 3:1-7
6. The Branch, Zec 3:8-10
7. Lampstand and two olive trees, Zec 4:1-14
8. Flying scroll, Zec 5:1-4
9. Woman in the ephah, Zec 5:5-11
10. Four chariots, Zec 6:1-15


II. HISTORIC INTERLUDE, Zechariahs 7, 8
A. Question concerning a religious ritual (fasting), Zechariah 7:1-3
B. Threefold answer, Zechariah 7:4-8:23
1. When the heart is right, the ritual is right, Zec 7:4-7
2. When the heart is wrong, the ritual is wrong, Zec 7:8-14
3. God’s purpose concerning Jerusalem unchanged by any ritual, 8:1-23

III. PROPHETIC BURDENS, Zechariah 9-14
A. First burden: Prophetic aspects connected with first coming of Christ, Zechariah 9-11
B. Second burden: Prophetic aspects connected with second coming of Christ, Zechariah 12-14


COMMENT:
I. APOCALYPTIC VISIONS (messianic and millennial), Zechariah 1-6
A. Introduction and message of warning, Zechariah 1:1-6
Zec 1:1 — (See WRITER.) The date was November 520 B.C. He was contemporary with Haggai.
Zec 1:2 — The returned remnant is warned not to follow in the footsteps of the pre-captivity fathers.
Zec 1:3 —“LORD of hosts” occurs 52 times. “Hosts” is the Hebrew tsaba (Sabaoth), meaning service, strength, warfare. “It implies the boundless resources at His command for His people’s good” (Fauset).
Zec 1:4 — Their fathers had not heeded the former prophets.
Zec 1:5 — Where were their fathers? Buried in Babylon.
Zec 1:6 — “Take hold” means overtake. The prophet’s words were accurately fulfilled.


B. Ten visions (all in one night), Zechariah 1:7 — 6:15
1. Riders under myrtle trees, Zec 1:7-17
Zec 1:7 — Date: February 24, 520 B.C. (the Hebrew year begins in the April of our year).
Zec 1:8-11 — In the vision Zechariah sees a man on a red horse with other red horses behind him. They were speckled because they were in the shadow of myrtle trees. The “man riding upon a red horse” is “the angel of the LORD” in Zec 1:9 and Zec 1:11. “A red horse” is a picture of war. These red horses are the gentile nations that have ruled the world by warfare for 2500 years. They were at peace (Zec 1:11) in Zechariah’s day, and it was a right time to build the temple. They had no concern for the desperate plight of God’s people — neither then nor now.
Zec 1:12-17 — God is displeased with the nations who are at peace and ignore Jerusalem’s plight. God is jealous for Jerusalem; the nations are indifferent to her. God had returned to Jerusalem (Zec 1:16) with mercies, and the nations have a responsibility also. Is he the God of the Jews only? Is he not also of the Gentiles? Yes, of the Gentiles also. (Romans 3:29-
note)
The promise of Zec 1:17 looks forward to the future kingdom age.


2. Four horns, Zec 1:18, 19
Zec 1:18 — A horn represents a gentile ruler (cp. Daniel 7:24-
note;Revelation 17:12-note).
Zec 1:19 — The 4 gentile world powers: Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome.


3. Four smiths, Zec 1:20, 21
Zec 1:20 — “Artisan” is a craftsman or smith.
Zec 1:21 — These 4 smiths perhaps represent the judgment of Ezekiel 14:21-
note —For thus saith the Lord GOD, How much more when I send my four severe judgments upon Jerusalem, the sword, and the famine, and the evil beast, and the pestilence, to cut off from it man and beast? Compare with the 4 horsemen of the Apocalypse of Revelation 6-note


4. Man with measuring line, Zec 2
Zec 2:1 — See Jeremiah 31:38, 39; Ezekiel 40:3-5; Revelation 11:1, 2-
note. When God begins to measure the temple and Jerusalem, He is getting ready to move again in behalf of both.
Zec 2:2 — Jerusalem is to be rebuilt in Zechariah’s day.
Zec 2:10 — Jerusalem is to be rebuilt and restored in the kingdom, and the Lord Jesus Christ will reign there in person.
Zec 2:11 — The nations will come there to worship (see 14:16; Isaiah 2:1-5-
note).


5. Joshua and Satan, Zec 3:1-7
Zec 3:1 — Joshua is representative of the nation Israel. Satan seeks to destroy the nation (Revelation 12:1-6-
note).
Zec 3:2 — “A brand plucked out of the fire” means they are rescued for future service.
Zec 3:3-7 — Neither Joshua nor Israel were contenders with Satan while clothed in their own righteousness. They must be clothed with the righteousness of Christ. Even a new patch on the old garment will not avail.


6. The Branch, Zec 3:8-10
Zec 3:8 — “The Branch” is a familiar figure of Christ in His many offices. Here He is the servant. Israel rejected Him the first time because they trusted their own righteousness (see Romans 10:3, 4-
note).
Zec 3:10 — This refers to the kingdom age.


7. Lampstand and two olive trees, Zec 4
Zec 4:2 — The lampstand is identical to the one that was in the tabernacle and has the same meaning. It is a perfect type of Christ, the Light of the world (see author’s book, The Tabernacle, God’s Portrait of Christ).
Zec 4:3 — The 2 olive trees are the “something new has been added.” The olive trees (Zec 4:11-14) are obviously Zerubbabel and Joshua at that time. The final fulfillment is in Revelation 11:3-12-
note.
Zec 4:6 — The interpretation for Zechariah’s day, for the future, and also for our day is a great principle — “Not by brawn nor by brain, but by My Spirit, saith the Lord” (my paraphrase). God’s work is done only in the power of the Holy Spirit. The oil represents the Holy Spirit. The 2 olive trees speak of witnessing. Effective witnessing is done only in the power of the Holy Spirit.
Zec 4:7 — “The headstone” is Christ.
Zec 4:8-10 — The present and practical application is that Zerubbabel will be given power to finish the temple. It will be an occasion for joy, for “who hath despised the day of small things?”


8. Flying scroll, Zec 5:1-4
Zec 5:1 — “A scroll” speaks of the Word of God (cp. Ezekiel 2:9-
note, Ezek 3:1-4-note).
Zec 5:3 — The scroll represents the Ten Commandments.
“Curse” — God will judge according to law. There is judgment, not blessing.
On one side are the commandments that have to do with a man’s relationship to God — “every one that sweareth” represents the first 4 commandments. On the other side are the commandments that have to do with a man’s relationship to his fellowman — “for every one that stealeth” represents the last 6 commandments.


9. Woman in the ephah, Zec 5:5-11
Zec 5:5, 6 — The ephah corresponds to our bushel. This means that sin has filled up the measure and must be judged.
Zec 5:7 — A woman in an ephah is a type of that which is evil (Matthew 13:33; Revelation 2:20-
note). The lead weight means that iniquity is sealed within the measure.
Zec 5:8 — “Wickedness” is the wicked one, the man of sin.
Zec 5:9-11 — Two winged women carry the measure (with the woman in it) to Babylon. Israel’s great sin was idolatry. Babylon is the fountainhead of idolatry. This sin is to be forsaken and returned to Babylon. Babylon is to be judged (see Revelation 17, 18-
note).


10. Four chariots, Zec 6
Zec 6:1-5 — These 4 multicolored chariots are the angels who execute the judgment of God on the gentile nations (see Revelation 7:1-3-
note; Rev 9:14, 15-note).
Zec 6:9-15 — After the judgment of the nations comes the glory of Christ in the setting up of His kingdom (Daniel 2:44, 45-
note).
Zec 6:10 — “Heldai” means robust; “Tobijah” means God’s goodness; “Jedaiah” means God knows.
Zec 6:11 — Joshua is a type of Christ.
Zec 6:12 — “The Branch” here reveals Christ in His glory, the second coming of Christ.


II. HISTORIC INTERLUDE, Zechariah 7, 8
A. Question concerning a religious ritual (fasting), Zechariah 7:1-3
Zec 7:1 — The date here is December 4, 518 B.C.
Zec 7:2 — A delegation had come to Jerusalem from Babylon.
Zec 7:3 — They bring a problem to the priests: Should they continue to fast?


B. Threefold answer, Zechariah 7:4-8:23
1. When the heart is right, the ritual is right, Zec 7:4-7
Zec 7:4 — God will answer their question.
Zec 7:5 — God never gave fast days; He gave feast days. It was their own idea to fast. They never fasted unto the Lord.
Zec 7:6 — Before the 70-year captivity, their feasting was not unto God either, and He sent them into captivity.
Zec 7:7 — Before the captivity, God judged Jerusalem when the heart of the people was far from Him — though they went through the rituals. A ritual is right when the heart is right. Lange wrote, “God’s eye of grace and our eye of faith meet in the sacraments [rituals].”


2. When the heart is wrong, the ritual is wrong, Zec 7:8-14
Zec 7:8 — This is God’s answer.
Zec 7:9, 10 — Conduct denies confession. It is not our hymn singing on Sunday but our action on Monday that is the real test.
Zec 7:11-14 — The people before the captivity went through the ritual, but their lives were wrong.


3. God’s purpose concerning Jerusalem unchanged by any ritual, Zec 8
Certain words are emphasized by repetition: “LORD of hosts” 18 times in this chapter; “Jerusalem” 6 times; “Zion” twice; “Jealous” 3 times; “
Remnant” twice; “Thus saith the LORD” 10 times. Some Bible students see in this chapter the restatement of the Ten Commandments.
Zec 8:1-8 — God’s ultimate purpose is not changed concerning His people, the land, and Jerusalem.
Zec 8:3 — Jerusalem will be the world capital (Isaiah 2:1-5-
note).
Zec 8:4-8 — His people will dwell in Jerusalem.
Zec 8:9-19 — The
Remnant from Babylon are to hear the prophets Haggai and Zechariah in view of the perspective of the glorious future (note Zec 8:9). Also they are to keep the Commandments (see Zec 8:16, 17). Fasts will be turned back into feast days (Zec 8:18, 19).
Zec 8:20-23 — Jerusalem will become the religious capital as well as the center of God’s government (note again Isaiah 2:1-5-
note)


III. PROPHETIC burdens, Zechariah 9-14
A. First Burden: Prophetic aspects connected with first coming of Christ, Zechariah 9-11


Zechariah 9
Zec 9:1-8 — Judgment came upon:
Hadrach and Damascus (Zec 9:1) (Hadrach was north of Damascus)
Tyre, Sidon and Hamath (Zec 9:2-4) (Hamath is inland and north of Sidon)
The Philistines (Zec 9:5-8)
Zec 9:9 — This is quoted in connection with the so-called triumphal entry of Christ into Jerusalem (cp. Matthew 21:5; John 12:15). The parts omitted by Matthew are: “Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout…he is just, and having salvation [victory].” This part of the verse will be fulfilled at His second coming. The rest of the verse was fulfilled at His first coming.
Zec 9:10 — Peace can come to the earth only when Christ comes the second time.
Zec 9:11-17 — The Lord will at that time deliver His people.


Zechariah 10 — Judah and Israel are to be scattered again, but they will be finally regathered.
Zec 10:1 — “Rain” is literal rain. The rainfall is to be restored to the land when God regathers them.
Zec 10:2, 3 — This is a condemnation of the sweet-talking false prophets.
Zec 10:4 — This is a reference to Christ in both His first and second comings.
Zec 10:6 — By His mercy the Lord will regather them.
Zec 10:9-12 — The Lord will not only scatter them (Zec 10:9), but He will regather them.


Zechariah 11 — The Lord Jesus Christ is to be rejected as the King at His first coming.
Zec 11:1-6 — False shepherds deceived the people. Possibly this is a reference to Rome as the conqueror.
Zec 11:7-14 — The true Shepherd with 2 staves: “Beauty” is literally grace — He is the Savior and will save His people. “Bands” is literally union — He will unite Judah and Israel.

Zec 11:8, 9 He rejects false shepherds
Zec 11:12, 13 — This is a reference to the betrayal of Christ by Judas. See Matthew 26:15; 27:3-10; Acts 1:17-20.
Zec 11:15-17 — The Antichrist is a false shepherd.


B. Second burden: Prophetic aspects connected with second coming of Christ, Zechariah 12-14
Zechariah 12 — The final siege of Jerusalem and the lifting of the siege. “Jerusalem” is mentioned 10 times. “In that day” is mentioned 7 times and is a reference to the day of the LORD, specifically the Great Tribulation Period.
Zec 12:1-3 — Jerusalem is to be a constant irritant to all the nations that presume to make decisions that affect it. God’s policy for the nations is “hands off” Israel (too bad the United Nations is not aware of this). All the nations in the Great Tribulation will march against Jerusalem — and be destroyed.
Zec 12:4-9 — Jerusalem will be delivered in the final siege by the coming of the Lord personally.
Zec 12:10-14 — They will know Him by the print of the nails in His hands. This is the One they rejected and delivered to be crucified. This will be a real day of atonement.


Zechariah 13 — What will the return of Christ mean to Israel?
Zec 13:1 — The
Remnant will turn to the redemption of Christ for their salvation.
Zec 13:2-5 — The false prophet and his followers will be taken (see Revelation 19:20-
note). This is the end of all false religion.
Zec 13:6, 7 — The nail-scarred Christ will be present. His followers will not desert Him but will rally around Him.
Zec 13:8, 9 — These are those who come out of the Great Tribulation and have washed their robes in the blood of the Lamb.


Zechariah 14 — Features and facts connected with the coming of Christ to the earth.
Zec 14:1-7 — This is the consummation of the campaign of Armageddon and the return of Christ.
When Christ returns to this earth, He will touch down on the Mount of Olives (Zec 14:4). This is the same place from which He ascended into heaven. There will be great physical changes in the topography of the land. There will be a great earthquake at His coming (Zec 14:5). There will be changes in the lighting of the earth (Zec 14:6, 7).
Zec 14:8 — There will be a new waterway through Jerusalem, making it a seaport city.
Zec 14:9 — The Lord Jesus Christ will reign over the earth.
Zec 14:10, 11 — The land will become the land of milk and honey.
Zec 14:12 — This is a living death against the enemies of God.
Zec 14:16-21 — The people of the earth, both Jew and Gentile, will go to Jerusalem to celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles. This feast will mean that every man is dwelling safely under his own vine and fig tree. True holiness will be on the earth. Every pot and pan will be holy.

CHRIST IN ALL THE SCRIPTURES:
CHRIST IN ZECHARIAH
A M Hodgkin

Christ in All the Scriptures - Table of Contents

Zechariah - We have already seen the connection of this prophet with Haggai. He was probably a priest as well as a prophet. (See Neh 12:12,16).

His first prophecy [Zech 1:1-6] occurred just after the time of discouragement, when the people had begun to rebuild the Temple [cp. Ezra 4:23,24], and he warns them not to disappoint God, as their fathers had done. He has a special word of encouragement to the ruler Zerubbabel, who must have been conscious of his own weakness, and that it was indeed a ''day of small things.'' ''Not by might, nor by power, but by My Spirit, saith the Lord of Hosts'' (Zech 4:6-10). He promised that the mountains of difficulty should be removed, and that he who had laid the foundation should have the joy of bringing forth the headstone with rejoicing, crying, ''Grace, grace,'' unto it.

Christ is both the Foundation-stone and the Headstone of the corner. [1Cor 3:10,11; 1Pet 2:6-8]


Eight Visions.
Zechariah’s second prophecy consists of eight visions concerning God’s final dealings with Israel.

 

First, of Myrtle Trees, a picture of Israel today, outcast but never forgotten by Jehovah.

 

Second, of Horns and Smiths, foretelling the overthrow of Israel’s enemies.

 

Third, of the Measuring Line. This shows the future prosperity of Jerusalem. The presence of Jehovah as a wall of fire round about His people will make walls unnecessary, the extent of the city will make them impossible.

 

Fourth, of Joshua, a picture of Israel cleansed and restored to the priestly position of access to God.

 

Fifth, of the Candlestick, or, as it should be, lamp-stand, Israel as God’s light-bearer. The two olive-trees in this vision refer in the first place to Zerubbabel the ruler and Joshua the priest, and thus through them to both offices fulfilled in the person o£ the Messiah.

 

Sixth, the Flying Roll, government of the earth.

 

Seventh, the Ephah, restriction of wickedness.

 

Eighth, the Chariots, the administrative forces of righteousness
(Dr. Campbell Morgan, Westminster Record for September 1907).

 

Then follows the symbolic act of crowning the High Priest (Zechariah 6:9–11). By this act the two great offices of priest and king are united in his person, type of the person and work of the Man whose name is the Branch (Zechariah 6:12; 3:8), who shall sit on His throne of glory as a Priest, the Builder of the eternal Temple of the Lord, and “bear the glory.”


“Thy king cometh unto Thee.” More than any other of the Minor Prophets, Zechariah foretells the Savior. Twice He is announced as the Branch; God speaks of Him as My Servant (Zechariah 3:8). We have the prediction of His entry into Jerusalem, riding upon an ass’s colt (Zechariah 9:9). In contrast to the false shepherds we see Him as the Good Shepherd, saving His flock, caring for the poor of the flock (Zechariah 9:16; 11:11). We see Him as the Smitten Shepherd, with the sheep scattered (Zechariah 13:7). In the words “Awake, O sword, against My Shepherd, and against the Man that is My fellow, saith the Lord of Hosts,” we have a specially clear revelation of Christ, both in His Divine and human nature; the Man, the smitten Shepherd, is spoken of by God as His fellow, on an equality with Him and yet distinct in His personality.


Zechariah speaks of “the blood of the Covenant” (Zechariah 9:11), which our Lord applied to His own blood. “This is My blood of the New Covenant, which is shed for many unto remission of sins” (Matthew 26:28, r.v.). We have the prophecy of His betrayal by Judas for thirty pieces of silver, even to the fact that the money was “cast to the potter in the house of the Lord” (Zechariah 11:12–13).


Zechariah prophesies the conversion of his people to the Lord in the day that the Spirit is poured out upon them, and when they shall look on Him whom they have pierced, and the sin of the nation shall be washed away through that fountain opened through their Messiah’s death on Calvary (Zechariah 12:10; 13:1). He speaks of the wounds with which He was wounded in the house of His friends (Zechariah 13:6). The third part of the remnant shall be brought through the fire and purified in the time of Jacob’s trouble (Zechariah 13:9).


The last chapter foretells the Great Day of the Lord, which is always associated with the coming of Christ to judgment. He who ascended from the slopes of Olivet shall so come in like manner as those who watched Him saw Him go. “And His feet shall stand upon the mount of Olives ... and the Lord my God shall come, and all the saints with thee.... It shall be one day which shall be known to the Lord ... at evening time it shall be light.... And the Lord shall be King over all the earth: in that day shall there be One Lord, and His name One.”

 

See also...

The Old Testament Presents... Reflections of Christ - ZECHARIAH - Paul R. Van Gorder

Zechariah
Chapter and Verse - Hold pointer over link
New American Standard Bible
Click on a verse to go to verse in context

Zechariah 1:1
Zechariah 1:2
Zechariah 1:3
Zechariah 1:4
Zechariah 1:5
Zechariah 1:6
Zechariah 1:7
Zechariah 1:8
Zechariah 1:9
Zechariah 1:10
Zechariah 1:11
Zechariah 1:12
Zechariah 1:13
Zechariah 1:14
Zechariah 1:15
Zechariah 1:16
Zechariah 1:17
Zechariah 1:18
Zechariah 1:19
Zechariah 1:20
Zechariah 1:21
Zechariah 2:1
Zechariah 2:2
Zechariah 2:3
Zechariah 2:4
Zechariah 2:5
Zechariah 2:6
Zechariah 2:7
Zechariah 2:8
Zechariah 2:9
Zechariah 2:10
Zechariah 2:11
Zechariah 2:12
Zechariah 2:13
Zechariah 3:1
Zechariah 3:2
Zechariah 3:3
Zechariah 3:4
Zechariah 3:5
Zechariah 3:6
Zechariah 3:7
Zechariah 3:8
Zechariah 3:9
Zechariah 3:10
 
Zechariah 4:1
Zechariah 4:2
Zechariah 4:3
Zechariah 4:4
Zechariah 4:5
Zechariah 4:6
Zechariah 4:7
Zechariah 4:8
Zechariah 4:9
Zechariah 4:10
Zechariah 4:11
Zechariah 4:12
Zechariah 4:13
Zechariah 4:14
Zechariah 5:1
Zechariah 5:2
Zechariah 5:3
Zechariah 5:4
Zechariah 5:5
Zechariah 5:6
Zechariah 5:7
Zechariah 5:8
Zechariah 5:9
Zechariah 5:10
Zechariah 5:11
Zechariah 6:1
Zechariah 6:2
Zechariah 6:3
Zechariah 6:4
Zechariah 6:5
Zechariah 6:6
Zechariah 6:7
Zechariah 6:8
Zechariah 6:9
Zechariah 6:10
Zechariah 6:11
Zechariah 6:12
Zechariah 6:13
Zechariah 6:14
Zechariah 6:15
Zechariah 7:1
Zechariah 7:2
Zechariah 7:3
Zechariah 7:4
Zechariah 7:5
Zechariah 7:6
Zechariah 7:7
Zechariah 7:8
Zechariah 7:9
Zechariah 7:10
Zechariah 7:11
Zechariah 7:12
Zechariah 7:13
Zechariah 7:14
Zechariah 8:1
Zechariah 8:2
Zechariah 8:3
Zechariah 8:4
Zechariah 8:5
Zechariah 8:6
Zechariah 8:7
Zechariah 8:8
Zechariah 8:9
Zechariah 8:10
Zechariah 8:11
Zechariah 8:12
Zechariah 8:13
Zechariah 8:14
Zechariah 8:15
Zechariah 8:16
Zechariah 8:17
Zechariah 8:18
Zechariah 8:19
Zechariah 8:20
Zechariah 8:21
Zechariah 8:22
Zechariah 8:23
Zechariah 9:1
Zechariah 9:2
Zechariah 9:3
Zechariah 9:4
Zechariah 9:5
Zechariah 9:6
Zechariah 9:7
Zechariah 9:8
Zechariah 9:9
Zechariah 9:10
Zechariah 9:11
Zechariah 9:12
Zechariah 9:13
Zechariah 9:14
Zechariah 9:15
Zechariah 9:16
Zechariah 9:17
Zechariah 10:1
Zechariah 10:2
Zechariah 10:3
Zechariah 10:4
Zechariah 10:5
Zechariah 10:6
Zechariah 10:7
Zechariah 10:8
Zechariah 10:9
Zechariah 10:10
Zechariah 10:11
Zechariah 10:12
Zechariah 11:1
Zechariah 11:2
Zechariah 11:3
Zechariah 11:4
Zechariah 11:5
Zechariah 11:6
Zechariah 11:7
Zechariah 11:8
Zechariah 11:9
Zechariah 11:10
Zechariah 11:11
Zechariah 11:12
Zechariah 11:13
Zechariah 11:14
Zechariah 11:15
Zechariah 11:16
Zechariah 11:17
Zechariah 12:1
Zechariah 12:2
Zechariah 12:3
Zechariah 12:4
Zechariah 12:5
Zechariah 12:6
Zechariah 12:7
Zechariah 12:8
Zechariah 12:9
Zechariah 12:10
Zechariah 12:11
Zechariah 12:12
Zechariah 12:13
Zechariah 12:14
Zechariah 13:1
Zechariah 13:2
Zechariah 13:3
Zechariah 13:4
Zechariah 13:5
Zechariah 13:6
Zechariah 13:7
Zechariah 13:8
Zechariah 13:9
Zechariah 14:1
Zechariah 14:2
Zechariah 14:3
Zechariah 14:4
Zechariah 14:5
Zechariah 14:6
Zechariah 14:7
Zechariah 14:8
Zechariah 14:9
 
Zechariah 14:10
Zechariah 14:11
Zechariah 14:12
Zechariah 14:13
Zechariah 14:14
Zechariah 14:15
Zechariah 14:16
Zechariah 14:17
Zechariah 14:18
Zechariah 14:19
Zechariah 14:20
Zechariah 14:21

Precept Ministries
Inductive Bible Study
Zechariah
"They shall be My people, and I will be their God."
Below is Link to Lesson 1 of 7

Zechariah - They Shall be My People & I Shall be Their God - download lesson 1
Zechariah - double spaced with wide margins - see pages 13-40 of Pdf
Zechariah - Excellent Timeline/Chart on the Rulers and Prophets in the Time of Zechariah - see page 42

David Baron
Commentary on Zechariah
Visions and Prophecies of Zechariah:
The Prophet of Hope and of Glory
An Exposition

Zechariah: Preface (be sure to read Baron's thoughts on why he wrote this commentary)
Zechariah : General Index (Very detailed)

Zechariah : Index of Scriptures Quoted


Part 1: The Visions and the Answer to the Deputation from Bethel
Zechariah 1:1-6 Introduction: A Call to Repentance
Zechariah 1:7-17 The First Vision: The Angel of Jehovah Among the Myrtle Trees

Zechariah 1:18-21 The Second Vision: The Horns & the Carpenters

Zechariah 2:1-13 The Third Vision: The Man with the Measuring Line
Zechariah 3: The Fourth Vision: Joshua Before the Angel of Jehovah; The Body of Moses
Zechariah 3: The Body of Moses (Note to Chapter 3)
Zechariah 4: The Fifth Vision: The Candlestick

Zechariah 5:1-4 The Sixth Vision: The Flying Scroll

Zechariah 5:5-11 The Seventh Vision: The Ephah

Zechariah 6:1-8 The Eighth Vision: The Four Chariots

Zechariah 6:9-15 The Climax of the Vision: The Crowning of Joshua
Zechariah 7 Address to the Deputation from Bethel on...Observance of the Fasts: Negative Answer
Zechariah 8 Address to the Deputation from Bethel on...Observance of the Fasts: Positive Answer

Part 2: The Prophecies
Zechariah - Introduction to the Second Part of Zechariah: Examination of Modern Criticism

Zechariah 9 The Gentile World-Conqueror and Israel's Prince of Peace

Zechariah 10 What Israel's Shepherd-King Will Be and Do for His People

Zechariah 11 A Dark Episode: The Rejection of the True Shepherd and the Rule of the False

Zechariah 12 Israel's Final Conflict and Great Deliverance
Zechariah 13:1-6  Israel's Cleansing of the People from Sin and the Land from Idolatry - The Opened Fountain and Its Cleansing Power
Zechariah 13:7-9 The Smiting of the Shepherd and the Scattering of the Flock
Zechariah 14 The Glorious Consummation: Messiah's Visible Appearing as the Deliverer of Israel and the Establishment of God's Kingdom on Earth

 

Below is another source because the above source has numerous typos...
 

Part 1: The Visions and the Answer to the Deputation from Bethel
Zechariah 1:1-6 Introduction: A Call to Repentance
Zechariah 1:7-17 The First Vision: The Angel of Jehovah Among the Myrtle Trees

Zechariah 1:18-21 The Second Vision: The Horns & the Carpenters

Zechariah 2:1-13 The Third Vision: The Man with the Measuring Line
Zechariah 3: The Fourth Vision: Joshua Before the Angel of Jehovah; The Body of Moses
Zechariah 3: The Body of Moses (Note to Chapter 3)
Zechariah 4: The Fifth Vision: The Candlestick

Zechariah 5:1-4 The Sixth Vision: The Flying Scroll

Zechariah 5:5-11 The Seventh Vision: The Ephah

Zechariah 6:1-8 The Eighth Vision: The Four Chariots

Zechariah 6:9-15 The Climax of the Visions
Zechariah 7 Address to the Deputation from Bethel on...Observance of the Fasts: Negative Answer
Zechariah 8 Address to the Deputation from Bethel on...Observance of the Fasts: Positive Answer

Part 2: The Prophecies
Zechariah - Introduction to the Second Part of Zechariah: Examination of Modern Criticism

Zechariah 9 The Gentile World-Conqueror and Israel's Prince of Peace

Zechariah 10 What Israel's Shepherd-King Will Be and Do for His People

Zechariah 11 A Dark Episode: The Rejection of the True Shepherd and the Rule of the False

Zechariah 12 Israel's Final Conflict and Great Deliverance
Zechariah 13:1-6 The Opened Fountain and Its Cleansing Power
Zechariah 14 The Glorious Consummation: Messiah's Visible Appearing as the Deliverer of Israel and the Establishment of God's Kingdom on Earth

Adam Clarke
Commentary on Zechariah
Be cautious (Acts 17:11-note): Does not always interpret the Scripture literally
and sometimes replaces
Israel with the Church (note)
critique

Zechariah 1 Commentary
Zechariah 2 Commentary  
Zechariah 3 Commentary
Zechariah 4 Commentary
Zechariah 5 Commentary
Zechariah 6 Commentary
Zechariah 7 Commentary
Zechariah 8 Commentary
Zechariah 9 Commentary
Zechariah 10 Commentary
Zechariah 11 Commentary
Zechariah 12 Commentary
Zechariah 13 Commentary
Zechariah 14 Commentary

Bible.org Resources
Resources that Reference
Zechariah
Hint: Do a "control + find" on the page and search only Zech, not full name.
Recommended Resource

Zechariah 1
Zechariah 2
Zechariah 3
Zechariah 4
Zechariah 5

Zechariah 6
Zechariah 7

Zechariah 8
Zechariah 9
Zechariah 10

Zechariah 11
Zechariah 12
Zechariah 13
Zechariah 14

Verse

 

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Biblical Art
Related to Zechariah

Zechariah Art and Pictures 

Brian Bell
Sermon Notes on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Zechariah 1-2 Sermon Notes 

Zechariah 3-4 Sermon Notes  
Zechariah 5 Sermon Notes
 

Zechariah 6-7 Sermon Notes  

Zechariah 8 Sermon Notes  

Zechariah 9 Sermon Notes  

Zechariah 10-11 Sermon Notes  

Zechariah 12-13 Sermon Notes  

Zechariah 14 Sermon Notes

Steven Cole
Sermons
Flagstaff Christian Fellowship
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation
162 pages when compiled into one Word Document!
(Logos Personal Book Builder makes this a fully searchable excellent "expositional" commentary!)
Recommended

Zechariah 1:1-6 Returning to the Lord
Zechariah 1:7-17 When God Seems to Have Forgotten You
Zechariah 1 & 2:1-13 God Our Strong Defender & Benefactor
Zechariah 3:1-10 How Can Sinners Serve a Holy God?
Zechariah 4:1-14 Preventing Spiritual Burnout
Zechariah 5:1-11 What God Thinks About Sin
Zechariah 6:1-15 The Coming King-Priest
Zechariah 7:1-14 Avoiding Spiritual Sclerosis
Zechariah 8:4-5 A Snapshot of God's Kingdom
Zechariah 8:1-23 Blessed to Bless
Zechariah 9:1-17 Those Whom God Helps
Zechariah 9:9-10 Rejoice! Your King is Coming!
Zechariah 10:1-12 Praying in the Promises
Zechariah 11:1-17 The Tragedy of Rejecting Christ
Zechariah 12:1-14 God, The Mighty Savior
Zechariah 13:1-9 God's Fountain for Cleansing
Zechariah 14:1-21 The Triumph of the Coming King

Thomas Constable
Expository Notes

Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation
Recommended

Zechariah 1 Zechariah 2 Zechariah 3 Zechariah 4
Zechariah 5 Zechariah 6 Zechariah 7 Zechariah 8
Zechariah 9 Zechariah 10 Zechariah 11 Zechariah 12
Zechariah 13 Zechariah 14

Ron Daniel
Sermon Notes on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Zechariah 1:1-6

Zechariah 1:7-17

Zechariah 1:18-2:13

Zechariah 3

Zechariah 4

Zechariah 5

Zechariah 6

Zechariah 7-8

Zechariah 9:1-9

Zechariah 9:10-17

Zechariah 10:1

Zechariah 10:2
Zechariah 10:3

Zechariah 10:4

Zechariah 10:5-12

Zechariah 11:1-14

Zechariah 11:15-17

Zechariah 12:1-3

Zechariah 12:4-14

Zechariah 13

Zechariah 14:1-15

Zechariah 14:16-21

Edward Dennett
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation
In Depth Commentary

Zechariah the Prophet

Easy English
Interesting simple translation

Zechariah: God's Servant whose Name is The Branch

Charles Feinberg
Exegetical Studies in Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation
(136 pages when compiled into one Word Document)
(Logos Personal Book Builder makes this into a fully searchable excellent "expositional" commentary!)
Note: Annual $50 Fee required to view entire article but gives access to literally thousands
of searchable conservative theological journals updated through 2012 - an excellent investment!

James Rosscup's comment on Feinberg's book God Remembers A Study of Zechariah (studies below are from Bibliotheca Sacra) is worth noting as it might encourage you to purchase the annual fee which gives full access to these papers. Rosscup says that Feinberg's book  "is a reprint of one of the best premillennial expositions by the late evangelical Old Testament scholar. Feinberg taught Zechariah for many years at Dallas Seminary and Talbot Seminary in Hebrew exegesis classes. He, Barker and Unger have the best longer premillennial commentaries of a verse by verse nature on the book." (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 1 - Introduction - Author, Background, Style

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 2 - Zechariah 1:1-6

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 3 - Zechariah 1:7-17

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 4 - Zechariah 2:1-17

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 5 - Zechariah 3:1-10

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 6 - Zechariah 4:1-14

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 7 - Zechariah 5:1-11

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 8 - Zechariah 6:1-15

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 9 - Zechariah 7:1-7

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 10 - Zechariah 8:1-17

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 11 - Zechariah 8:18-23

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 12 - Zechariah 9:1-8

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 13 - Zechariah 9:1-8, Zechariah 9:9,10

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 14 - Zechariah 9:11-17

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 15 - Zechariah 10:1-12

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 16 - Zechariah 10:1-12
Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 17 - Zechariah 11:1-17

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 18 - Zechariah 12:1-4
Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 19 - Zechariah 13:1-9

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 20 - Zechariah 14:1-21

 

OUTLINE BASED ON EXEGETICAL STUDIES ABOVE

I. An Exhortation to Repentance, Zec 1:1-6.

 

II. The Prophet’s Night-Visions, Zec 1:7-6:15.

a. The Vision of the Horses, Zec 1:7-17

b. The Vision of the Horns and Smiths, Zec 2:1, 2, 3, 4

c. The Vision of the Surveyor, Zec 2:5-17

d. The Vision of Joshua the High Priest and the Angel of Jehovah, Zec 3:1-10

e. The Vision of the Candlestick and the Two Olive Trees, Zec 4:1-14.

f. The Vision of the Flying Roll, Zec 5:1-4.

g. The Vision of the Woman in the Ephah, Zec 5:5-11.

h. The Vision of the Four Chariots, Zec 6:1-8.

i. The Coronation of Joshua, Zec 6:9-15.

 

III. The Question and the Answer concerning Fasting, Zec 7:1-8:23.

a. The Question, Zec 7:1, 2, 3.

b. The Rebuke, Zec 7:4, 5, 6, 7.

c. The Warning from the Past, Zec 7:8-14.

d. The Restoration of God’s Favor, Zec 8:1-17.

e. The Abrogation of the Fasts, Zec 8:18-23.

 

IV. The Future of the World Powers, Israel, and the Kingdom of Messiah, Zec 9-14.

 

A. The First Burden, Zec 9-11.

1. Judgment on the Land of Hadrach, Zec 9:1-8.

2. Israel’s King of Peace, Zec 9:9,10.

3. The King’s Mission in Relation to Israel, Zec 9:11-17.
4. Additional Blessings for Israel, Zec 10:1-12.
5. The Rejection of the Good Shepherd and the Rule of the Wicked One, Zec 11:1-17.

 

B. The Second Burden, Zec 12-14 .

1. Israel’s Conflict and Deliverance, Zec 12:1-14 .

2. Israel Cleansed of Her Sin, Zec 13:1-6 .

3. The Shepherd Smitten and the Sheep Scattered, Zec 13:7, 8, 9 .

4. The Great Consummation: Israel’s Deliverance & God’s Earthly Kingdom, Zec 14:1-21

 

Feinberg concludes his studies...

 

"And throughout the prophecy there is presented to us on every page the spotless, blemishless Holy One of Israel, the Lord Jesus Christ, the Messiah and King of Israel. See Him in..."

 

Chapter one as the Riding One;
Chapter two as the Measuring One;
Chapter three as the Cleansing One;
Chapter four as the Empowering One;
Chapter five as the Judging One;
Chapter six as the Crowned One;
Chapter seven as the Rebuking One;
Chapter eight as the Restoring One;
Chapter nine as the Kingly One;
Chapter ten as the Blessing One;
Chapter eleven as the Shepherding One;
Chapter twelve as the Returning One;
Chapter thirteen as the Smitten One;
Chapter fourteen as the Reigning One.

 

Come, let us worship at His feet!

Arnold Fruchtenbaum
Israelology

Israelology: Part 1 of 6  Introduction: Definition of Terms
Israelology: Part 2 of 6  Israel Present (Note: Article begins on Page 2)
Israelology: Part 3 of 6  Israel Present (Continued)
Israelology: Part 4 of 6 - Israel Future (Part One)
Israelology: Part 5 of 6 - Israel Future (Part Two)
Israelology: Part 6 of 6 Other Relevant Topics - Illustrations of Israel (including marriage)

A C Gaebelein
Commentary on Zechariah
The Annotated Bible
(Note: This resource is not the same as Gaebelein's commentary below)
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Introduction Zechariah 1 Zechariah 2 Zechariah 3
Zechariah 4 Zechariah 5 Zechariah 6 Zechariah 7
Zechariah 8 Zechariah 9 Zechariah 10 Zechariah 11
Zechariah 12 Zechariah 13 Zechariah 14

A C Gaebelein
Commentary on Zechariah
1911
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation
Recommended

Note: Google post allows copy and paste = Studies in Zechariah

 

Zechariah Forward

 

Zechariah Introduction

 

Zechariah 1 - Opening Address. Night Visions and Meaning. The First Night Vision.

Zechariah 2 - The Second Night Vision. The 4 horns and 4 smiths. The Third vision. The Man measuring Jerusalem. Restoration and glory of Jerusalem foretold

Zechariah 3 - The Fourth Vision. Joshua accused by Satan. The Branch. The Stone with Seven Eyes. The coming peace.

 

Zechariah 4 - The Fifth Vision. The Candlestick and the Two Olive Trees. The Great Mountain Becoming a Plain. Zerubbabel the Prince Finishing the House of the Lord.

 

Zechariah 5 - The Vision of the Flying Roll. The Vision of the Woman in the Ephah.

 

Zechariah 6 - The Last Night Vision of the Prophet. The Vision of the Four Chariots Coming Between the Mountains of Brass. The Crowning of Joshua with Crowns.

 

Zechariah 7 - The Question Put to the Prophet Concerning the Fast. The Rebuke Given and their Failure Shown.

 

Zechariah 8 - The Gracious Answer to their Questions. Promises of Blessing, Restoration, Prosperity and Salvation. No More Fast Days. Nations to be Added to Jerusalem.

 

Zechariah 9 - The Second Part of the Prophecies. The First Burden. Judgment upon Hadrach, Hamath, Tyre and Sidon. His People Kept. The King of Peace and Righteousness Announced. Victory over the Enemies.

 

Zechariah 10 - More Blessings Promised to Judah and Israel. The Nation Victorious. Judah and Ephraim Blessed, Gathered and Restored, and Their Enemies Overcome.

 

Zechariah 11 - Scenes of Overthrow and Slaughter. The Shepherd With the Two Slaves. Beauty and Bands. He is Rejected. The Thirty Pieces of Silver. The Foolish Shepherd and His Punishment.

 

Zechariah 12 - The Second Burden From Chapter 12-14. Jerusalem and the Nations. The Conflict of the End. The Chiefs of Judah and the Strength Promised to the Feeble. Nations Destroyed. Outpouring of the Spirit and Looking Upon Jehovah, the Pierced One. The Great National Mourning.

 

Zechariah 13 - The Fountain Against Sin and Uncleanness Opened. Idols and False Prophets Destroyed. The Smitten Shepherd and the Sheep Scattered. The Remnant Saved. Two-thirds Cut Off and a Third Part Refined by Fire.

 

Zechariah 14 - The Last Conflict. Jerusalem Surrounded by Armies and Besieged and Taken. Jehovah's Intervention. The Escape of the Remnant. Living Waters Flowing Out of Jerusalem. The Enemies Punished. The Remnant of Nations Live as Worshipers in Jerusalem. Jerusalem the Holy City.

John Gill
Commentary on Zechariah
Be cautious (Acts 17:11-note): Does not always interpret the Scripture literally
(instead spiritualizing) and sometimes replaces
Israel with the Church (note)

Zechariah 1
Zechariah 2
Zechariah 3
Zechariah 4
Zechariah 5
Zechariah 6
Zechariah 7
Zechariah 8
Zechariah 9
Zechariah 10
Zechariah 11
Zechariah 12
Zechariah 13
Zechariah 14

L M Grant
Commentary on Zechariah

Introduction Zechariah 1 Zechariah 2 Zechariah 3
Zechariah 4 Zechariah 5 Zechariah 6 Zechariah 7
Zechariah 8 Zechariah 9 Zechariah 10 Zechariah 11
Zechariah 12 Zechariah 13 Zechariah 14

Joe Guglielmo
 Zechariah
Sermons and Sermon Notes

ZECHARIAH 1-3
ZECHARIAH 4-6
ZECHARIAH 7-8
ZECHARIAH 9-11
ZECHARIAH 12-14

ZECHARIAH 3:1-6 PLUCKED FROM THE FIRE!
ZECHARIAH 4:6-7  BUILDING YOUR TEMPLE
ZECHARIAH 7:4-10 HYPOCRISY!

ZECHARIAH 9:9 THE KING HAS COME! 
ZECHARIAH 12:10-14 GOD IS WAITING FOR YOU!

David Guzik
Commentary on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Zechariah 1
Zechariah 2
Zechariah 3
Zechariah 4
Zechariah 5

Zechariah 6
Zechariah 7
Zechariah 8
Zechariah 9
Zechariah 10

Zechariah 11
Zechariah 12
Zechariah 13
Zechariah 14

Ebenezer Henderson
Commentary on Zechariah
from "The Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets"
(originally published 1845)
General Preface

James Rosscup writes "This 1858 work supplies much help on matters of the text, word meaning, resolving some problems, etc. Some have found it one of the most contributive sources in getting at what a text means." (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)

Preface
Zechariah 1
Zechariah 2
Zechariah 3
Zechariah 4
Zechariah 5
Zechariah 6
Zechariah 7
Zechariah 8
Zechariah 9
Zechariah 10
Zechariah 11

Zechariah 12
Zechariah 13
Zechariah 14

Matthew Henry
Commentary on Zechariah
Be cautious (Acts 17:11-note): Does not always interpret the Scripture literally
and sometimes replaces
Israel with the Church (note)
Not Recommended-See Explanation Below

Comment on this Commentary: Matthew Henry's comments on the OT like John Gill's (and like Adam Clarke's and John Calvin's) are not always literal (see related discussion on Gill's comments on the OT prophets). For example, his interpretation of "I will gather the nations" (Zech 14:2) is  that "The city shall be taken by the Romans, who have nations at command". There is absolutely no mention of the Romans in the original text nor is their a suggestion of such in the context. Henry sees this prophecy as historically fulfilled in the Roman destruction of Jerusalem in 70AD. He goes on to comment on Zec14:4, Zec14:5 that "These verses are dark and hard to be understood", which is indeed the case when one rejects the literal interpretation. And thus Henry is forced to resort to a (speculative) allegorical approach (See Garland's Rise of Allegorical Interpretation) and arrives at an absurd, nonsensical comment writing that "The valley of the mountains (in Zech 14:5) is the gospel-church"! So why is Henry even listed? Matthew Henry is included because he occasionally has practical, poignant devotional thoughts and/or pithy points of application. But "Caveat emptor!" The best rule to apply in the interpretation of the OT (especially the prophetic) passages is to remember the maxim that if the plain sense of the text (the literal sense) makes good sense, seek to make no other sense lest it turn out to be nonsense!

Contrast the wise insights of another older writer Charles Simeon (who wrote around 1832)...

It is a matter of general complaint, that the minor prophets are difficult to be understood: and this is true to a considerable extent: but we apprehend that it arises very much from our not sufficiently bearing in mind the subjects on which they wrote. We do right in looking for many things applicable to the Messiah, and to his Church and kingdom: but we err in not having more respect to the Jewish Church (Ed: Used in sense not of the NT church but of believing Jews) as it existed in the times when the prophets wrote; and as it shall exist at a period yet future, when that people shall be gathered in from their present dispersion, and be restored to their own land. We complain that we cannot unlock those Scriptures; but we neglect to take the key that alone will fit the wards. If we kept the Jews more in view, many of the difficulties would vanish; and innumerable beauties would be seen in passages that are now passed over as devoid of interest. We believe verily that the day is fast approaching, in which “God will shew them marvellous things,” not a whit inferior to those which He wrought for them when He brought them out of Egypt: and it is their privilege to be looking forward to that period, with earnest and assured expectation of the blessings prepared for them.  (Micah 7:8-10 Address of the "Jewish Church" to Her Enemies)

Introduction
Zechariah 1
Zechariah 2
Zechariah 3
Zechariah 4

Zechariah 5
Zechariah 6
Zechariah 7
Zechariah 8
Zechariah 9

Zechariah 10
Zechariah 11
Zechariah 12
Zechariah 13
Zechariah 14

F B Hole
Zechariah Commentary

Zechariah 1 Zechariah 2 Zechariah 3 Zechariah 4
Zechariah 5 Zechariah 6 Zechariah 7 Zechariah 8
Zechariah 9 Zechariah 10 Zechariah 11 Zechariah 12
Zechariah 13 Zechariah 14

Barry Horner
Zechariah Commentary
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation
79 pages in Outline Format

Zechariah Commentary

H A Ironside
Zechariah Commentary
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Zechariah 1 Zechariah 2 Zechariah 3 Zechariah 4
Zechariah 5 Zechariah 6 Zechariah 7 Zechariah 8
Zechariah 9 Zechariah 10 Zechariah 11 Zechariah 12
Zechariah 13 Zechariah 14

Jamieson, Fausset, Brown
Commentary Critical and Explanatory
on Zechariah
 

Note: JFB is one of the more literal, conservative older commentaries (prior to 1900). Sample excerpt of eschatological (prophetic, apocalyptic) passage Zechariah 14:2 - "gather all nations, etc. — The prophecy seems literal (compare Joel 3:2). If Antichrist be the leader of the nations, it seems inconsistent with the statement that he will at this time be sitting in the temple as God at Jerusalem (2Thessalonians 2:4); thus Antichrist outside would be made to besiege Antichrist within the city. But difficulties do not set aside revelations: the event will clear up seeming difficulties (Ed: Interesting statement!). Compare the complicated movements, Daniel 11:1-45." Comment on Zech 14:11 - "no more utter destruction — (Jer 31:40). Literally, “no more curse” (Rev 22:3; compare Malachi 4:6), for there will be no more sin. Temporal blessings and spiritual prosperity shall go together in the millennium: long life (Isaiah 65:20-22), peace (Isaiah 2:4), honor (Isaiah 60:14-16), righteous government (Isaiah 54:14; Isaiah 60:18). (Zechariah 14 - Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible)

Introduction
Zechariah 1
Zechariah 2
Zechariah 3
Zechariah 4
Zechariah 5
Zechariah 6
Zechariah 7
Zechariah 8
Zechariah 9

Zechariah 10
Zechariah 11
Zechariah 12
Zechariah 13
Zechariah 14

S Lewis Johnson
Sermon/Commentary Notes on Zechariah
Mp3, Pdf, MS Word, HTML
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Zechariah 1:1-6 A Call to Repentance

Zechariah 1:7-17 Vision: The Man Among the Myrtles

Zechariah 1:18-2:1 Vision: The Four Horns and the Four Smiths

Zechariah 2:1-13 Vision: The Man With the Measuring Line

Zechariah 3:1-10 The Cleansing of the High Priest

Zechariah 4:1-14 The Vision of the Lampstands and the Olive Tree

Zechariah 5:1-4 The Flying Scroll

Zechariah 5:5-11 The Woman in the Ephah

Zechariah 6:1-8 The Vision of the Four Chariots

Zechariah 6:9-15 The Coronation of Joshua and the High Priest

Zechariah 7:1-14 The Question About Fasts

Zechariah 8:1-23 From Empty Fasts to Bountiful Feasts

Zechariah 9:1-9 Alexander the Great and Christ the Lowly

Zechariah 9:10-17 International Disarmament and Universal Peace

Zechariah 10:1-12 The Cornerstone, the Tent Peg & the Battle Bow

Zechariah 11:1-17 Israel's Rejection of Her Shepherd

Zechariah 12:1-14 The Conversion of Israel

Zechariah 13:1-9 Israel's National Cleansing

Zechariah 14:1-21 Jerusalem

Keil & Delitzsch
Commentary on Zechariah
See caveat regarding this commentary

Rosscup - This is the best older, overall treatment of a critical nature on the Old Testament Hebrew text verse by verse and is a good standard work to buy. The student can buy parts or the whole of this series. Sometimes it is evangelical, at other times liberal ideas enter...In prophecy it is amillennial. (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works).

Introduction
Zechariah 1:1-6 Introductory Admonition
Zechariah 1:7-6:15 The Night Visions
Zechariah 1:8-17 First Vision: The Rider Among the Myrtles
Zechariah 1:18-21 Second Vision: The Four Horns and the Four Smiths (Heb Bib. 2:1-4)
Zechariah 2 Third Vision: The Man with the Measuring Line (Heb Bib. 2:5-17)
Zechariah 3 Fourth Vision: The High Priest Joshua in the Presence of the Angel of the Lord
Zechariah 4 Fifth Vision: The Candlestick with the Two Olive Trees
Zechariah 5 Sixth Vision: The Flying Scroll, the Woman in the Ephah
Zechariah 6:1-8 Seventh Vision: The Four Chariots
Zechariah 6:9-15 The Crown Upon Joshua' Head
Zechariah 7 & 8 The Answer to the Question Concerning the Fasting
Zechariah 7 The Fast Days of Israel and Obedience to the Word of God
Zechariah 8 Renewal and Completion of the Covenant of Grace
Zechariah 9-14 Future of the World Powers, and of the Kingdom of God
Zechariah 9 & 10 Fall of the Heathen World and Deliverance and Glorification of Zion
Zechariah 9:1-10 Judgment Upon the Land of Hadrach and Zion's King of Peace
Zechariah 9:11-17 Israel's Redemption from Captivity and Victory over the Heathen
Zechariah 10 Complete Redemption of the People of God
Zechariah 11 Israel Under the Good Shepherd and the Foolish One
Zechariah 11:1-3 The Devastation of the Holy Land
Zechariah 11:4-14 A Symbolic Act
Zechariah 11:15-17 The Foolish Shepherd
Zechariah 12:1-13:6 Israel's Conflict and Victory, Conversion and Sanctification
Zechariah 12:10-14 The Lord Will Do Still More for His People
Zechariah 13:1-6 The Lord will Open to the Penitent of Israel the Fountain of His Grace
Zechariah 13:7-14:21 Judgment of Refinement for Israel and Glorious End of Jerusalem
Zechariah 14:1-5 The Judgment and the Deliverance
Zechariah 14:6-11 Complete Salvation
Zechariah 14:12-15 Punishment of the Hostile Nations
Zechariah 14:16-19 Conversion of the Heathen
Zechariah 14:20-21 Completion of the Kingdom of God in Glory

SAME RESOURCE FROM ANOTHER SOURCE
Introduction Zechariah 1 Zechariah 2 Zechariah 3
Zechariah 4 Zechariah 5 Zechariah 6 Zechariah 7
Zechariah 8 Zechariah 9 Zechariah 10 Zechariah 11
Zechariah 12 Zechariah 13 Zechariah 14

Logos.com Sermons
Sermons, Illustrations, Outlines on Zechariah

Zechariah 1 Sermons
Zechariah 2 Sermons
Zechariah 3 Sermons
Zechariah 4 Sermons

Zechariah 5 Sermons
Zechariah 6 Sermons
Zechariah 7 Sermons
Zechariah 8 Sermons

Zechariah 9 Sermons
Zechariah 10 Sermons
Zechariah 11 Sermons
Zechariah 12 Sermons

Zechariah 13 Sermons
Zechariah 14 Sermons

John MacArthur
Sermons on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Recommended
Zechariah -Intro, Date, Setting, Themes, Interpretative Challenges, Outline

Zechariah 1:1-6 The Prerequisite for Blessing

Zechariah 1:7-8 The Divine Plan for Jerusalem, Part 1

Zechariah 1:9-17 The Divine Plan for Jerusalem, Part 2

Zechariah 1:18-21 The Conquest of Israel's Enemy

Zechariah 2:1-13 The Future Glory of Jerusalem

Zechariah 3:1-10 The Cleansing of the Nation of Israel

Zechariah 4:1-14 Israel- The Light of the World

Zechariah 5:1-11 The End of Sinners and Sin

Zechariah 6:1-15 Establishing God's Kingdom on Earth

Zechariah 7:1-14 Ritual vs. Reality

Zechariah 8:1-23 Turning the Fast into a Feast

Zechariah 9:1-8 The Saga of Two Conquerors--Part 1
Zechariah 9:9-17 The Saga of Two Conquerors--Part 2
Zechariah 10:1-12 The Redemption of Israel
Zechariah 11:1-14 The Rejection of the True Shepherd
Zechariah 11:15-17 The False Shepherd
Zechariah 12:1-14 Israel's Final Deliverance
Zechariah 13:1-9 The Cleansing of Israel
Zechariah 14:1-21 The Day of the Lord

Alexander Maclaren
Sermons on Zechariah
Who is Alexander Maclaren (1826-1910)?

Zechariah 1:5-6:Dying Men and the Undying Word

Zechariah 2:4-5: The City Without Walls
Zechariah 3:1-10 A Vision of Judgment and Cleansing
Zechariah 3:7: The Right of Entry
Zechariah 4:1-10 The Source of Power
Zechariah 4:9 The Founder and Finisher of the Temple
Zechariah 6:13: The Priest of the World and King of Men

J Vernon McGee
Thru the Bible
Commentary on Zechariah

Mp3 Audio
Click to listen or
Right click and select "Save Target as"
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Recommended
Complete Commentary of Zechariah on one zip file

Zechariah - In Commentary
Zechariah - Outline

Zechariah 1:1- Commentary

Zechariah 1:4- Commentary

Zechariah 1-7- Commentary

Zechariah 1:12 Commentary

Zechariah 1:13 Commentary

Zechariah 1:16 Commentary

Zechariah 1:18 Commentary

Zechariah 1:20 Commentary
Zechariah 2:1 Commentary

Zechariah 2:2- Commentary

Zechariah 2:6- Commentary

Zechariah 2:10 Commentary

Zechariah 2:11 Commentary

Zechariah 3:1 Commentary

Zechariah 3:2-3 Commentary

Zechariah 3:4 Commentary

9 Zechariah 3:5-7 Commentary

Zechariah 3:8- Commentary
Zechariah 4 In Commentary

Zechariah 4:1- Commentary

Zechariah 4:3 Commentary

Zechariah 4:4- Commentary

Zechariah 4:7- Commentary

Zechariah 5 Intro

Zechariah 5:1 Commentary

Zechariah 5:2 Commentary

Zechariah 5:3-4 Commentary

Zechariah 5:5-11 Intro
Zechariah 5:5-11 Commentary

Zechariah 5 Commentary

Zechariah 6:1 Commentary

Zechariah 6:2-3 Commentary

Zechariah 6:4-8 Commentary

Zechariah 6:9-11 Commentary

Zechariah 6:12-14 Commentary

Zechariah 6:15 Commentary

Zechariah - Review

Zechariah 7:1-3 Commentary
Zechariah 7:4-7 Commentary

Zechariah 7:8 Intro

Zechariah 7:8 Commentary

 Zechariah 7:9-11 Commentary

Zechariah 7:12 Commentary

Zechariah 8 Intro

Zechariah 8:1-3 Commentary

Zechariah 8:3-4 Commentary
Zechariah 8:5-7 Commentary

Zechariah 8:8- Commentary

Zechariah 8:11 Commentary

Zechariah 8:15 Commentary

Zechariah 8:18 Commentary

Zechariah 9 Intro

Zechariah 9:1-4 Commentary

Zechariah 9:5-7 Commentary

Zechariah 9:8 Commentary

Zechariah 9:9 Commentary
 
Zechariah 9:9  Commentary

Zechariah 9:10 Commentary

Zechariah 9:11-17 Commentary

Zechariah 10:1 Commentary

Zechariah 10:2-3 Commentary

Zechariah 10:4-5 Commentary

Zechariah 10:6 Commentary

Zechariah 10:8-9 Commentary

Zechariah 10:10-12 Commentary

Zechariah 11:1-6 Commentary

Zechariah 11:7 Commentary

Zechariah 11:8-11 Commentary

Zechariah 11:12-14 Commentary

Zechariah 11:15-16 Commentary

Zechariah 11:11-17 Commentary

Zechariah 12 Intro

Zechariah 12:1 Commentary

Zechariah 12:2-5 Commentary

Zechariah 12:6-7 Commentary

Zechariah 12:8-9 Commentary

Zechariah 12:10 Commentary

Zechariah 12:11-14 Commentary

Zechariah 13 Intro

Zechariah 13:1 Commentary

Zechariah 13:2-3 Commentary
Zechariah 13:4-5 Commentary

Zechariah 13:6 Commentary

Zechariah 13:7-9 Commentary

Zechariah 14 Intro

Zechariah 14:1 Commentary

Zechariah 14:2-3 Commentary
  
Zechariah 14:4 Commentary

Zechariah 14:5-8 Commentary

Zechariah 14:9-10 Commentary

Zechariah 14:11-15 Commentary

Zechariah 14:16-21 Commentary

Eugene Merrill
Exegetical Commentary on Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation
Excellent-Recommended

Rosscup: Here is an evangelical commentary well-done in 493 pp. Introductions gather much that is most pertinent for expositors. In Hag 2:7, “precious things” are Gentiles’ tributes (Isa. 60:5; 61:6) in the future kingdom. Merrill sees Zech. 14 as related to Christ’s Second Advent and the coming of the Messianic Kingdom, in premillennial fashion. Fairly full exegetical detail meets readers verse by verse, yet Merrill’s comments are readable for others than scholars, except the technical notes in special sections will be more for the latter. Problem passages usually draw careful remarks, as in seeing Zech 12:10 as referring to the Lord, and in a future day. (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)

Preface to Haggai Zechariah Malachi
Zechariah - Intro - Historical & Literary Context

Zechariah 1:1—6:15 - The Night Visions

Zechariah 7:1—8:23 - Oracles Concerning Hypocritical Fasting

Zechariah 9:1-11:17 - Oracle Concerning YHWH’s Sovereignty

Zechariah 12:1-14:21 - Oracle Concerning Israel

F B Meyer
Our Daily Homily
Zechariah

Zechariah 1:8 Devotional Commentary
Zechariah 2:5 Devotional Commentary
Zechariah 3:2 Devotional Commentary
Zechariah 4:12 Devotional Commentary
Zechariah 5:10 Devotional Commentary
Zechariah 6:12 Devotional Commentary
Zechariah 7:5 Devotional Commentary
Zechariah 8:6 Devotional Commentary
Zechariah 9:11 Devotional Commentary
Zechariah 10:6 Devotional Commentary
Zechariah 11:7 Devotional Commentary
Zechariah 12:10 Devotional Commentary
Zechariah 13:7 Devotional Commentary
Zechariah 14:20 Devotional Commentary

Miscellaneous Resources
Commentaries, Sermons, Devotionals
on Zechariah

Enter Query below to search articles in 29 conservative Theological Journals - An annual $50 fee (click here) is required to view the entire article but will give you access to literally thousands of conservative articles. Search by book You can also search by chapter like: John 1 or Gen. 2 You can also search by simple or complex references like: James 1:2 or Hebrews 1:1-3,6; 5:4

Zechariah Minor Prophet With A Major Message -- By Stephen C. Ger

Israel’s Divine - Human Messiah An Examination Of Zechariah 13:6-7 -- Donald L. Odens
Note: This also give you access to one of the best conservative resources on Zechariah by Charles Feinberg's 20 part series in Bibliotheca Sacra. (See list of these articles)

The Literary Unity Of Zechariah --James A. Hartle

Literary Connectors And A Haggai-Zechariah-Malachi Corpus -- Ronald W. Pierce

Articles Online

Walter Kaiser in The Preacher's Commentary, Vol 23 - excellent for preaching - Rosscup on Kaiser's work: A careful evangelical gives contemporary outlines usable to pastors. He has occasional illustrations and serious explanation of the text. He is premillennial, as on Zechariah 14, and packs in much expositional help, relating it strategically to life. (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)

 

Zechariah: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture (New American Commentary - George Klein - excellent, literal, futuristic, conservative, millennial

 

James Montgomery Boice - conservative, literal, futuristic - excellent for preaching

 

Exploring the Minor Prophets John Phillips - Rosscup on John Phillips - A respected popular expositor on a number of biblical books here has two introductory chapters, then a chapter of about 20–30 pp. on each prophet (50 on Zech.). Several charts aid readers, and a detailed outline runs before each exposition. The exposition is in general surveys of sections, at times taking a view on a main problem. In Hosea 1:2, he feels that God had Hosea marry an immoral woman but Phillips offers no help on the moral issue. Phillips is premillennial, seeing Israel’s future kingdom blessings as in the millennium after Christ’s Second Coming (Hosea 3:5; Joel 3:14ff; Amos 9:15; Zeph. 3:9ff; Zech 2:10–13; 14:1–21). In Mal. 2:15 he has “one” refer to God making husband and wife into one, and in 4:5 he thinks the Elijah will be fulfilled in one of the two witnesses in Rev. 11. The work helps on broad coverage, and is quite readable for preachers, church teachers, students and lay people wanting a general devotional sweep. (Ibid)

 

Top 5 Commentaries on the Book of Zechariah - Ligonier - Caveat Emptor! - most are amillennial, not literal/futuristic, McComiskey seems to be an exception

Best Commentaries

See discussion of the Day of the Lord = Zech 14:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21

On Site

Two Terrible Trials

Jack C. Scofield
The Prophets and the Promise - 433 Page Book W J Beecher
The Commanding Importance of the Prophetic Scriptures Charles Feinberg
Zechariah - An Overview Grace Institute
Synthetic Bible Studies - Zechariah - recommended James Gray
Messianic Prophecies - notes on a number of Messianic prophecies in Zechariah (and other OT books) J Hampton Keathley III
The Minor Prophets J Hampton Keathley III

Holman Christian Standard Bible Study Bible  - Enter Scripture. The HCSB Study Bible notes are well done and can be accessed in the right panel entitled "STUDY BIBLE NOTES TOOL". Select "Study Bible Notes". To read all the notes on a given chapter click "READ" tab. Very nice!

Hint: Be sure and check the brief (5-15') pithy, practical videos by Dr Gene Getz which present powerful principles for life application! Instructions: Click Holman Christian Study Bible LINK. Type in the Scripture and click Video Player Tool in right column for Dr Getz's practical points related to that Scripture.

Holman Publishing

Zechariah -Intro, Date, Setting, Themes, Interpretative Challenges, Outline
In a Separate Article the Question is answered: When were the Bible books written?

John MacArthur
Recommended
An Introduction to the Book of Zechariah David Malick
An Introduction to the Book of Zechariah
An Argument of the Book of Zechariah
David Malick
The Prophet's Watchword: Day of the LORD- Zech 14:1, 2ff Richard Mayhue

G Campbell Morgan's devotional/practical thoughts make good fodder for sermon preparation!

Zechariah - Living Messages

G Campbell Morgan
Zechariah - Introductory Notes, Outlines J Vernon McGee
Outline Studies - Zechariah W G Moorehead

Zechariah -Intro, Date, etc.

NIV Study Notes

Keys to Zechariah

William Orr

Through the Bible Book by Book - Zechariah

Myer Pearlman
Knowing God Through Zechariah RBC Booklet

The Messianic Hope of Israel - The Hope Scheduled in Zechariah (see page 4)

Max I Reich
The Prophet Zechariah (Overview) Arend Remmers

Analysis of Zechariah - Well Done

James Van Dine
The Old Testament Presents... Reflections of Christ - ZECHARIAH Paul R. Van Gorder

SERMONS AND COMMENTARIES
ON ZECHARIAH

Zechariah Sermon Notes Rich Cathers

Zechariah the Prophet - In Depth Commentary - Literal, futuristic

Edward Dennett
Be a Berean - Not always a literal interpretation. Caveat Emptor!
Zechariah - Commentary for English Readers

Zechariah 1 Commentary for English Readers
Zechariah 2 Commentary for English Readers
Zechariah 3 Commentary for English Readers
Zechariah 4 Commentary for English Readers
Zechariah 5 Commentary for English Readers
Zechariah 6 Commentary for English Readers
Zechariah 7 Commentary for English Readers
Zechariah 8 Commentary for English Readers
Zechariah 9 Commentary for English Readers
Zechariah 10 Commentary for English Readers
Zechariah 11 Commentary for English Readers
Zechariah 12 Commentary for English Readers
Zechariah 13 Commentary for English Readers
Zechariah 14 Commentary for English Readers
C J Ellicott
Concise Bible Commentary on Zechariah James Gray

Zechariah Commentary

F B Hole
Zechariah Commentary - succinct overview in outline form on one page - a good resource to consult after you've done your own reading of the book Hampton Keathley IV
Keil and Delitzsch Commentary on Zechariah Keil and Delitzsch

Zechariah Commentary

William Kelly
Sermons, illustrations, etc on Zechariah Logos.com
Study Notes on Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi Middletown Bible
Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi - Commentary
Zechariah 1 Commentary
Zechariah 2 Commentary
Zechariah 3 Commentary
Zechariah 4 Commentary
Zechariah 5 Commentary
Zechariah 6 Commentary
Zechariah 7 Commentary
Zechariah 8 Commentary
Zechariah 9 Commentary
Zechariah 10 Commentary
Zechariah 11 Commentary
Zechariah 12 Commentary
Zechariah 12:10 Future Repentance and Blessing of Jerusalem
Zechariah 13 Commentary
Zechariah 14 Commentary - here Moore replaces Israel with the Church!

Rosscup: This work came out in 1856. It is competent in exegetical detail of a reformed nature, explaining much in the books, but disappointing to premillennialists in passages on the future kingdom. (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)

T V Moore
Zechariah  There Shall Be a Fountain Opened John Piper
Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi John Stevenson

ZECHARIAH
BY CHAPTER

Zechariah 1:11-17; 2-5-6 Yahweh Remembers and Brings Peace Will Pounds
Zechariah 1:7 The Month Sebat Manners and Customs by
James Freeman
Zechariah 3:1-5  The Best Dressed Man In Town Alan Carr
Zechariah 3 The Gospel According to Zechariah John Stevenson
Zechariah 3  Two Terrible Trials Jack C. Scofield
Zechariah 3:8 (cf Zech 6:12-13, 9:9-10, 12:10) Conceptions of Davidic Hope in Ezekiel, Zechariah, Haggai, and the Chronicles Greg Herrick
Zechariah 3:8 My Servant, the Branch and the Stone Wil Pounds
Zechariah 3:16-18 The Pollution Solution P G Matthew
Zechariah 4:1-16 Types of the Holy Spirit
Zechariah 4:1-6 By the Spirit of the Lord
Zechariah 4:1-6, 11-14 The Filling and the Anointing of the Holy Spirit
W A Criswell
Zechariah 6:12-13, 9:9-1- The Humble Crowned High Priest Will Pounds
Zechariah 7:5-6 Why Think About Worship Bruce Goettsche
Zechariah 9 Places where mentioned in Bible.org Bible.org
Zechariah 9:9 The King is Coming Ray Stedman
Zechariah 9:9 His Dominion Shall Be from Sea to Sea John Piper
Zechariah 9:9  The King Is Coming Alan Carr
Zechariah 9:9 Behold, Your King Cometh Barry Horner
Zechariah 11:12-13 The Price of a Slave
Zechariah 12:8-10 Mourning for the One Who was Pierced
Will Pounds
Zechariah 12:3 Heavy Stones
Zechariah 12:12 Separation of the Sexes
Manners and Customs by
James Freeman
Zechariah 13:7 Smite the Shepherd Ray Stedman
Zechariah 13:1, 6-7 The Precious Fountain Opened Will Pounds
Zechariah 14:5 The Earthquake John Kitto
Zechariah 14:20 Bells for Horses Manners and Customs by
James Freeman

Robert Morgan
Sermons on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Zechariah 1:1-6 God's Little Acre of Encouragement
Zechariah 1:1-6 The Grace of New Beginnings
Zechariah 1:1-17 Forward to the Future
Zechariah 3 Changing Your Mental Image of Yourself
Zechariah 5 & 6 A Sinless Tomorrow
Zechariah 6 Crown Him Lord of All
Zechariah 7 and 8 SDG: Soli Deo Gloria
Zechariah 9 The Secrets of Self-Confidence
Zechariah 12 Soon and Very Soon
Zechariah 13 On That Day
Zechariah 14 A Day is Coming

Henry Morris
Defender's Study Bible Notes
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation
Notes are Very Brief but Recommended

Zechariah 1 Commentary
Zechariah 2 Commentary
Zechariah 3 Commentary
Zechariah 4 Commentary
Zechariah 5 Commentary
Zechariah 6 Commentary
Zechariah 7 Commentary
Zechariah 8 Commentary
Zechariah 9 Commentary
Zechariah 10 Commentary
Zechariah 11 Commentary
Zechariah 12 Commentary
Zechariah 13 Commentary
Zechariah 14 Commentary

Net Bible Notes
Zechariah Commentary Notes
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Recommended: NETBible notes are in the right panel. You can also select the tab for "Constable's Notes." As you scroll the Bible text in the left panel, the notes are synchronized and will scroll to the same passage. Also has a nice parallel Bible feature (see Tab = "Parallel"). Select a different Bible translation (see Tab = "Bible"). Open Greek/Hebrew tab. Mouse over shows corresponding English word and has short definition at bottom of right panel.

Zechariah 1 Commentary
Zechariah 2 Commentary
Zechariah 3 Commentary
Zechariah 4 Commentary
Zechariah 5 Commentary
Zechariah 6 Commentary
Zechariah 7 Commentary
Zechariah 8 Commentary
Zechariah 9 Commentary
Zechariah 10 Commentary
Zechariah 11 Commentary
Zechariah 12 Commentary
Zechariah 13 Commentary
Zechariah 14 Commentary

Phil Newton
Sermons on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Scroll Down Each Page for the Sermon

Zechariah 1:1-6 A Call to Repentance
Zechariah 1:7-2:13 Visions Leading to Glory
Zechariah 3 Plucked from Fire
Zechariah 4-5 Visions of Power and Majesty
Zechariah 6 Our God Reigns

Zechariah 7 True Religion, Part 1

Zechariah 8 True Religion, Part 2

Zechariah 9-10 The Messianic King

Zechariah 11 The Good Shepherd Spurned

Zechariah 12-13 The Good Shepherd Pierced

Our Daily Bread
Devotionals for Zechariah
Sermon and teaching illustrations
Radio Bible Class

Zechariah 1:1-6 The First Word Of Salvation
Zechariah 2:12-5 A Wall of Fire
Zechariah 4:1-6 Go Light Your World
Zechariah 4:6 It's Done By The Spirit
Zechariah 4:10 Small is Beautiful
Zechariah 7:7 The Gift Of Obedience
Zechariah 8:14-17 Two Pats Of Butter
Zechariah 8:14-17 Commandment 9 -- To Tell the Truth
Zechariah 9:9  The Cross And The Crown
Zechariah 9:9 - Donkey Mentality
Zechariah 9:9 - Always Right
Zechariah 14:3 - Victory Day
Zechariah 14:7 - The Glorious Sunset

Pulpit Commentary
on Zechariah
Be cautious (Acts 17:11-note): Does not always interpret the Scripture literally
and sometimes replaces
Israel with the Church (note)

Introduction Zechariah 1 Zechariah 2 Zechariah 3
Zechariah 4 Zechariah 5 Zechariah 6 Zechariah 7
Zechariah 8 Zechariah 9 Zechariah 10 Zechariah 11
Zechariah 12 Zechariah 13 Zechariah 14

Edward B Pusey
Commentary on Zechariah
The Minor Prophets
(originally published 1860)
General Introduction

James Rosscup writes "This work originally appeared in 1860. The present publication is set up in two columns to the page with the text of the Authorized Version reproduced at the top. Scripture references, Hebrew words, and other citations are relegated to the bottom of the page. The work is detailed and analytical in nature. Introduction, background and explanation of the Hebrew are quite helpful. Pusey holds to the grammatical-historical type of interpretation until he gets into sections dealing with the future of Israel, and here Israel becomes the church in the amillennial vein." (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)

Introduction
Zechariah 1 Commentary
Zechariah 2 Commentary  
Zechariah 3 Commentary
Zechariah 4 Commentary

Zechariah 5 Commentary
Zechariah 6 Commentary
Zechariah 7 Commentary
Zechariah 8 Commentary
Zechariah 9 Commentary

Zechariah 10 Commentary
Zechariah 11 Commentary
Zechariah 12 Commentary
Zechariah 13 Commentary
Zechariah 14 Commentary

Dave Roper
Notes on Zechariah

Zechariah - Feast or Fast
Zechariah 1-3 Another Look At Yourself
Zechariah 4-6 The One Who Does It All
Zechariah 9 The Survival of the Unfit

Zechariah 11 The Big Sellout

C I Scofield
Reference Notes on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Introduction
Zechariah 1
Zechariah 2
Zechariah 3
Zechariah 4
Zechariah 5
Zechariah 6
Zechariah 7
Zechariah 8
Zechariah 9
Zechariah 10
Zechariah 11
Zechariah 12
Zechariah 13
Zechariah 14

Charles Simeon
Sermons on Zechariah
Horae Homileticae
Generally Conservative, Literal Interpretation

NOTE: If you are not familiar with the great saint Charles Simeon see Dr John Piper's discussion of Simeon's life - you will want to read Simeon's sermons after meeting him! - click Brothers We Must Not Mind a Little Suffering (Mp3 even better)

Zechariah 1:3,6 An Exhortation to Turn to God
Zechariah 1:5 God the Avenger of Sin
Zechariah 1:12, 13 Christ's Intercession for Jerusalem
Zechariah 2:5 God the Protection and Glory of His People
Zechariah 2:8 God's Sympathy with His People
Zechariah 3:1-5 The Restoration of the Jewish Church Predicted
Zechariah 4:6 All is of God
Zechariah 4:7 Zerubbabel a Type of Christ
Zechariah 4:10 The Day of Small Things
Zechariah 4:11-14 The Vision of the Olive Tree
Zechariah 6:12-13 Christ Saving By His United Offices
Zechariah 7:4-7 Outward Services Vain without Obedience
Zechariah 8:3-8 The Restoration of the Jews
Zechariah 8:20-23 The Conversion of the Gentiles
Zechariah 8:20-23 The Connexion Between the Conversion of the Jews and Gentiles
Zechariah 9:9 The Advent of Jesus a Ground of Joy
Zechariah 9:12 Christ a Strong Hold
Zechariah 9:17 The Glory of Christ
Zechariah 10:12 Christ the Strength of His People
Zechariah 11:8 The Mutual Abhorrence Between God and Sinners
Zechariah 11:12, 13 The Contempt Poured on Christ
Zechariah 12:10 The Means of Evangelical Repentance
Zechariah 13:1 Christ the Fountain Opened
Zechariah 13:7 Christ Smitten for Our Sins
Zechariah 13:9 God's Method of Dealing with His People
Zechariah 14:7 The Conversion of the Jews--Our Encouragement to Promote It
Zechariah 14:9 Christ's Reign on Earth
Zechariah 14:16-19 The Feast of Tabernacles
Zechariah 14:20, 21 The Millennial Glory

Chuck Smith
Sermon Notes on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation
Click here for sermon notes below, Select "Sermon Notes", Select "Zechariah"

Sermon Notes On...

Zechariah 4:1-7 How the Work of the Lord is Done
Zechariah 4:1-7 God's Method of Victory
Zechariah 4:1-6 How the Work of God is Done
Zechariah 4:6 The Secret of Strength
Zechariah 9:9 The King Cometh
Zechariah 10:7,12 Rejoicing in the Lord
Zechariah 10:9-12, 12:1-9 The Mid-East Crisis
Zechariah 11:12-13 What's Your Price
Zechariah 12:1 The Day of the Lord
Zechariah 12:10 In that Day
Zechariah 14:9 The Coming King

George A Smith
Commentary on Zechariah
The Expositor's Bible
1903
Preface
The Book of the Twelve
The Prophet in Early Israel
The Eighth Century in Israel
Influence of Assyria Upon Prophecy
The Seventh Century in Israel
The Early Years of Josiah (639-625): Jeremiah and Zephaniah
The Rest of the Century (625-586): The Fall of Nineveh; Nahum and Habakkuk
Israel Under the Persians (539-331BC)
From the Return from Babylon to the Building of the Temple (536-516BC)

James Rosscup writes "Though old this is well-written and often cited, with many good statements on spiritual truths. Users will find much that is worthwhile, and sometimes may disagree, as when he sees the Jonah account as allegorical (Ed: See Tony Garland's article on the Rise of Allegorical Interpretation)." (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works or Logos Format)

Zechariah 1-8 Introduction
Zechariah 1:1-6: The Prophet: Zech 1:1-6, Ezra 5:1, 6:14
Zechariah 1:7-6:1ff The Visions of Zechariah
Zechariah 1:7-17 The First Vision: The Angel-Horsemen
Zechariah 2:1-4 The Second Vision: The Four Horns and the Four Smiths
Zechariah 2:5-9 The Third Vision: The City of Peace
Zechariah 3 The Fourth Vision: The High Priest and Satan
Zechariah 4 The Fifth Vision: The Temple Candlestick and the Two Olive Trees
Zechariah 5:1-4 The Sixth Vision: The Winged Volume
Zechariah 5:5-11 The Seventh Vision: The Woman in the Barrel
Zechariah 6:1-8 The Eighth Vision: The Chariots of the Four Winds
Zechariah 6:9-15 The Result of the Visions: The Crowning of the King of Israel
Zechariah 1:7-6:8 The Angels of the Visions
Zechariah 7-8 The Seed of Peace
Zechariah 9-14 Introductory Comments
Zechariah 9-14 The Contents
Zechariah 9:1-8 The Coming of the Greeks
Zechariah 9:9-12 The Prince of Peace
Zechariah 9:13-17 The Slaughter of the Greeks
Zechariah 10:1,2 Against the Teraphim and Sorcerers
Zechariah 10:3-12 Against Evil Shepherds
Zechariah 11:1-3 War Upon the Syrian Tyrants
Zechariah 11:4-17, 13:7-9 The Rejection and Murder of the Good Shepherd
Zechariah 12:1-7 Judah Versus Jerusalem
Zechariah 12:8-13:6 Four Results of Jerusalem's Deliverance
Zechariah 14 Judgment of the Heathen and Sanctification of Jerusalem

SAME RESOURCE BUT THESE LINKS HAVE SCRIPTURE POP-UPS

Zechariah 1 Zechariah 2 Zechariah 3 Zechariah 4
Zechariah 6 Zechariah 8 Zechariah 9 Zechariah 11
Zechariah 12 Zechariah 13 Zechariah 14

C H Spurgeon
Devotionals on Zechariah
Morning and Evening
Faith's Checkbook

Zechariah 1:8 Devotional
Zechariah 1:12-13 Devotional
Zechariah 1:20 Devotional
Zechariah 4:7 Devotional
Zechariah 4:10 Devotional
Zechariah 6:13 Devotional
Zechariah 10:12 Devotional
Zechariah 11:2 Devotional
Zechariah 12:8 Devotional
Zechariah 13:9 Devotional
Zechariah 14:7 Devotional
Zechariah 14:8 Devotional
Zechariah 14:9 Devotional
Zechariah 14:20 Devotional

C H Spurgeon
Sermons on Zechariah
(All of his sermons on Zechariah)

Horner (see his conservative commentary listed above) wrote that "Spurgeon preached two sermons on this verse (Zech 8:13), both of which express his firm conviction in national Israel’s future restoration and conversion. In 1863 he declared (Click for excerpt from his sermon "Once a Curse...)

Zechariah 1:8-2:1 Two Visions
Zechariah 2:1-5 Man with the Measuring Line

Zechariah 2:8 The Lord’s Care of His People
Zechariah 3:1-5 Zechariah's Vision of the High Priest

Zechariah 3:2 God's Firebrands

Zechariah 3:9, 10 Done in a Day, But Wondered At Forever

Zechariah 4:1-3, 12-14 The Golden Lamp and Its Goodly Lessons
Zechariah 4:6 Independence of Christianity
Zechariah 4:10 Encouragement for the Depressed
Zechariah 4:10 Small Things Not to be Despised
Zechariah 6:13 Christ Glorified as the Builder of His Church
Zechariah 7:5 God or Self - Which?

Zechariah 6:13 The King-Priest

Zechariah 8:6 Marvelous! Marvelous!
Zechariah 8:13 Believers a Blessing
Zechariah 8:13 Once a Curse But Now a Blessing (see short excerpt below)

Zechariah 8:19 Sad Fasts Changed to Glad Feasts
Zechariah 8:21 A Call to Worship
Zechariah 9:9 The Lowly King

Zechariah 9:11 The Blood of Christ's Covenant

Zechariah 9:11, 12 Freedom Through Christ’s Blood

Zechariah 9:11, 12 Prisoners Delivered

Zechariah 9:11, 12 Prisoners of Hope
Zechariah 10:6 Perfect Restoration

Zechariah 10:12 Strength and Recovery

Zechariah 10:12 Spiritual Convalescence
Zechariah 12:10 The Bitterness of the Cross

Zechariah 12:10 Mourning at the Cross

Zechariah 12:10 Mourning for Christ

Zechariah 12:10 The Pierced One Pierces the Heart
Zechariah 12:10,11 How Hearts are Softened

Zechariah 12:12-14 Apart

Zechariah 13:1 The Open Fountain

Zechariah 13:1,2 The Double Cleansing

Zechariah 13:7 The Storm and the Shower

Zechariah 14:7 Light at Evening Time

Zechariah 14:6, 7 Light at Evening Time

Zechariah 14:20 A  Peal of Bells

C H Spurgeon
Sermon Notes on Zechariah

Zechariah 4:10
Zechariah 7:5-6
Zechariah 9:11-12
Zechariah 10:6
Zechariah 10:12
Zechariah 12:10a
Zechariah 12:10b
Zechariah 12:12-14

Ray Stedman
Sermons on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Zechariah: You Return To Me...I'll Return To You!
God Encourages: Zechariah, Malachi
Zechariah 9:9 The King is Coming
Zechariah 13:7 Smite the Shepherd

 

DISCLAIMER: Before you consult commentaries, sermons or other resources, first consult the Word of God, studying the Scriptures diligently (2Ti 2:15-note) and inductively (See inductive Bible study) in dependence on your Teacher, the Holy Spirit, Who Jesus promised would guide us into all truth (John 16:13).
 

THOUGHTS ON
INTERPRETATION
OF PROPHETIC BOOKS

 

In regard to the OT Prophetic books such as Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, and the 12 "Minor" Prophets, remember that the most accurate interpretation is derived by applying the following principles:

 

(1) Read the Scripture literally (unless the text is clearly figurative, e.g., Jesus said "I am the door..." Jn 10:9). If one interprets a text symbolically (allegorically, figuratively, spiritualizing) when that text makes good sense literally, one potentially opens themselves to the danger of inaccurate interpretation, for then the question arises as to who's "symbolic" interpretation is correct and how imaginative one should be in evaluating a "supposed symbol"? Many of the commentaries and sermons on the OT prophetic books unfortunately are replete with non-literal interpretations (except when it comes to Messianic Passages, which are usually interpreted literally). Therefore the watchword when reading any commentary on Old Testament prophecy is caveat emptor ("buyer beware"). Read all commentaries like the Bereans (Acts 17:11-note).

 

(2) Study the context which is always "king" in interpretation (don't take verses out of context.)

 

(3) Passages addressed to Israel should be interpreted as directed to the literal nation of Israel and should not be interpreted as addressed to the NT Church, an entity not mentioned in the Old Testament. The promises of Jehovah to the nation of Israel (e.g., see Millennial Promises) remain valid (Jer 31:35, 36, 37, Nu 23:19, Lk 21:33) and have not been passed on to the NT Church because Israel has "defaulted" (See study Israel of God). Remember that while Scripture has only one correct interpretation, there can be many legitimate applications (See Application), and therefore the OT prophetic books are extremely applicable in the lives of NT believers.

 

(4) Scripture is always the best commentary on Scripture. While an attempt has been made to list resources that adhere to these basic interpretative guidelines, not all the works listed in these collections have been read in detail. Therefore should you discover a resource you feel is NOT conservative and/or orthodox, please email your concerns.

 

Charles Feinberg has the following notes on The Interpretation of Prophecy...

 

We heartily concur in Dods’ pronouncement that

 

“To interpret prophecy has at no time been found easy.”

 

Those who have made a study of the prophetic Scriptures will know of what we speak when we distinguish two extremes in prophetic interpretation:

 

(1) There is the critical position. The advocates of this view begin with their fundamental axiom: a prophet always spoke out of a definite historical situation. At the most they allow the possibility of an immediate future fulfillment. This leads them to a fantastic twisting of the prophecies to make them fit the age of the prophet or the time immediately subsequent to it.

 

(2) At the other extreme is the position taken by some conservatives. One such writer, in speaking of the prophecies of another prophet of the Old Testament, claims we may read the future even in the past, so that while the prophet mentions a nation of the past, “we must discern one of the future.” After this fashion they make the primary sense of almost all prophecy entirely or principally future. This destroys, we believe, the effectiveness of the prophet’s message for his contemporaries. If the prophecy had no real relation to the prophet’s generation, then why need it have been uttered at that particular time and under just such circumstances?

 

Let us illustrate with the prophecy in the seventh chapter of Isaiah. The historical background must be taken into account, namely, the Syro-Ephraimitic coalition against Judah. The Messianic prophecy uttered in Isa 7:14, 15, 16 served a real purpose to the nation of that day. But it was not thereby exhausted. The terms of the prophecy are such that, although it ministered to the quieting of terror-stricken Judah, it could only be fulfilled in a future coming of the Messiah of Israel. The critical view seeks to find a solution in the time of the prophet with the birth of Isaiah’s son (Isa 8:3). Such an interpretation would serve a purpose in the national life of the time-although not a very unusual sign, to be sure-but how well does it fit with the content of the prophecy? It does not answer the demands of the prophecy at all. On the other hand, those who would disassociate the prophecy from the historical background, cannot explain why it was given at just that time and what good was accomplished by it in Judah’s plight. Our position is simply this: we note the historical background of each prophecy and relate the setting to the message; when the prophecy cannot thus be accounted for by an immediate reference, then a future fulfillment is to be sought for.

As to the interpretation of Zechariah specifically, many have been the complaints as to its obscurity. Hengstenberg quotes the Jewish commentator, Abarbanel, as saying, “The prophecies of Zechariah are so obscure that no expositors, however skilled, have ‘found their hands’ (Ps 76:5) in their explanations.” From Jarchi he gives this word, “The prophecy of Zechariah is very abstruse, for it contains visions resembling dreams, which want interpreting. And we shall never be able to discover the true interpretation until the teacher of righteousness (the Messiah, Joel 2:23) arrives.”1 Although Jerome expressed himself similarly, the difficulty in the minds of the Jewish Rabbis can be traced to a subjective cause; for the book is so full of the portrayal of a Messiah, other than they have pictured Him to be.

It is Hengstenberg again who has pointed out the method of a sane interpretation. He calls attention to two aids for the student of the book: “At the same time, it must not be overlooked that, although the obscurities are much greater in Zechariah than in the other prophets, on account of the predominance of symbolical and figurative language, yet there are two circumstances which facilitate the interpretation of the prophecies. In the first place, there is no prophetic book in the study of which we can obtain such decisive results, from a careful comparison of parallel passages, as we can in that of Zechariah, who rested so much upon the prophets who had written before him. And, secondly, since he lived after the captivity, his prophecy does not move over nearly so extensive a field as that of his predecessors.”2 Since Zechariah is a prophet of the restoration, much that was future to the pre-exilic prophets is now history for him. Prophecies of future glory cannot be explained as the return from Babylon, for that has already been accomplished. The restriction of the sphere of the vision serves to diminish the chance for error. As for the parallel passages, many have pointed out the evident allusions in the book to the prophecies in Isaiah, Jeremiah, Micah, Hosea, Amos, the Psalms, and Joel. (Exegetical Studies in Zechariah Part 1 -- By Charles Lee Feinberg BSac 97:386. April, 1940)
 

Related Resources:

 

Inductive Bible Study - Guidelines to Assure Accurate Interpretation

Inductive Bible Study Interpretation of Prophetic Scripture

Interpretative Views of the Revelation of Jesus Christ
Allegorical Interpretation - Tony Garland
Interpreting Symbols - Tony Garland
Basic Considerations in Interpreting Prophecy - John Walvoord

Millennium - Biblical descriptions of this time on earth, primarily from the OT prophets


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