Zechariah Commentaries & Sermons


Commentaries, Sermons, Illustrations, Devotionals

Click chart to enlarge
Chart from recommended resource Jensen's Survey of the OT - used by permission
Zechariah Chart from Charles Swindoll
Another Zechariah Chart

("Yahweh Remembers")
Click for EXCELLENT TIMELINE of Zechariah - Go to Page 43
Other Timelines on Zechariah
Zec 1:1-6 Zec 1:7-6:8 Zec 6:9-6:15 Zec 7:1-8:23 Zec 9:1-11:17 Zec 12:1-14:21
to Me
Zec 1:3
Two Oracles
Zechariah 1-6

Zechariah 7-8

Zechariah 9-14


Ethical Prophecy

1) Rebuke
2) Reminder
3) Restoration
4) Return

Predictive Prophecy

1) Burden Against the Nations
2) Burden For Israel

Question of
the Fasts
Rejection of
Reign of
of Salvation
of Salvation
Present Things
Oracles (Burdens)
Future Things
Behold the man...the Branch Love, Truth
and Peace
The Day
of the Lord
"My house will be built
in Jerusalem

Zec 1:16
"Let your hands be strong"
Zec 8:9

Zec 14:20
Written During the Building
of the Temple

Written after the Temple
Was Completed

circa 480-470BC

Key words: Branch (Zec 3:8, 6:12), jealous, king (9x in 9v), shepherd (10x in 9v), saw/seen (or "lifted up my eyes"), Jerusalem, LORD of hosts (of armies) = Jehovah Sabaoth (53x), "word of the LORD came" (5x) See discussion on marking key words. To help your study print out the Observation Worksheet on Zechariah (Go to page 13) with double spaced text for marking Key Words, making lists, taking notes that you can later transfer to your Bible

See Introduction to Zechariah by Dr John MacArthur: Title, Author, Date, Background, Setting, Historical, Theological Themes, Interpretive Challenges, Outline by Chapter/Verse. Excellent overview. (See also Van Dine's excellent overview of Zechariah including chapter/section summaries)

God's Seven Feasts of Israel Related to the Jewish Calendar (click to enlarge) 

Interesting Facts About Zechariah.

Messiah in Zechariah

  • The Branch or Sprout (Zec 3:8f; Zec 6:12f; Heb. 6:20-7:1
  •  Entry of Zion’s Lowly King (Zec 9:9-17; Mt. 21:4-5; Jn 12:13- 16)
  •  Sale of Jesus by Judas (Zec 11:4-14; Mt 27:9)
  •  Mourning over the Pierced One (Zec 12:10; Jn 19:37)
  •  Fountain opened for sin (Zec 13:1)
  •  The Smitten Servant (Zec 13:7-9)
  •  Glory of Jerusalem the Center of World Worship (Zec 2:10-11; Zec 14:8f, Zec 14:20f)
  •  At His Second Coming He will be crowned King (Zec 14:5, 9; Rev. 11:15; 21:27)

    See also Table on Messianic Prophecies in Zechariah

Zechariah in the New Testament

  • Zech. 1:8 with Rev. 6:1-8
  • Zech. 3:2 with Jude 9
  • Zech. 3:9 with Rev. 5:6
  • Zech. 8:16 with Eph. 4:25
  • Zech 9:9 with Matt. 21:5; Jn. 12:14ff
  • Zech. 11:12f with Matt. 27:9f
  • Zech. 12:10 with Jn. 19:37; Rev. 1:7
  • Zech. 13:7 with Matt. 26:31; Mk. 14:27
  • Zech. 14:11 with Rev. 22:3

From William Orr's Thirty-Nine Keys to the Old Testament:

1. STATISTICS: Writer, Zechariah (Zec 1:1) whose name means "GOD is Renown," was of the priestly tribe, possibly born in Babylon. He returned with the first expedition; called to encourage the builders with a view of the glorious future; time, 520-518 B.C.; key thought, GOD is in this work; key verse, Zec 14:9.

2. THEME: The first returning group of exiles was 50,000 strong, but had been hindered and finally stopped building. GOD spoke through Zechariah (and Haggai) to stir up their hearts and renew their labors. While Haggai's burden seemed to be the religious life of the people, Zechariah's was to concentrate on the national and political. His ministry extended over two years and he was used to bring to completion the restoration of the temple. His main ministry looked far into the future envisioning both the first coming of the Messiah and His return in power and great glory.

3. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS: Book is divided: eight visions (given in a single night) dealing with a large variety of subjects (Zech 1:1-21 through Zec 6:1-15); four given directly to a questioning company from Babylon (Zec 7:2, 3) answering their problems; two burdens (Zec 7:1-14 and Zec 8:1-23) concerning future oppression and eventual triumph (Zec 9:1-17 through Zec14:1-21).

The expression "Thus saith the Lord" is found 89 times; the term "The Lord of hosts" 36 times. Zechariah contains more specific promises relative to the crucifixion than any other Old Testament book except Psalms (Zec 9:9; 11:12, 13; 13:6, 7).

4. OUTSTANDING TEACHINGS: In spite of meager circumstances and coming opposition for the chosen people, GOD is still to

triumph and with Him, His people. A detail to remember is the intermingling of the work of the MESSIAH, first as suffering SAVIOUR, then as resistless Sovereign. GOD's watchful interest in other nations is clearly demonstrated both in relation to their sin and idolatry, and with reference to their treatment of Israel. A delightful picture of the future is presented in the coming happiness of Zion with streets full of children (8:3-5) and all nations of the world coming to the Jews to learn of their GOD (Zec 8:22, 23).

5. KEY TO UNDERSTANDING: Life is not concerned with time alone. There is an overruling power which works in time to prepare for eternity. The Jewish nation is but an example of the great passion of the heart of GOD for the sons of men.


J Vernon McGee's Outline of Zechariah

I. APOCALYPTIC VISIONS (messianic and millennial), Zechariah 1- 6

A. Introduction and message of warning, Zechariah 1:1-6

B. Ten visions (all in one night), Zechariah 1:7-6:15

1. Riders under myrtle trees, Zec 1:7-17

2. Four horns, Zec 1:18, 19

3. Four smiths, Zec 1:20, 21

4. Man with measuring line, Zec 2:1-13

5. Joshua and Satan, Zec 3:1-7

6. The Branch, Zec 3:8-10

7. Lampstand and two olive trees, Zec 4:1-14

8. Flying scroll, Zec 5:1-4

9. Woman in the ephah, Zec 5:5-11

10. Four chariots, Zec 6:1-15


A. Question concerning a religious ritual (fasting), Zechariah 7:1-3

B. Threefold answer, Zechariah 7:4-8:23

1. When the heart is right, the ritual is right, Zec 7:4-7

2. When the heart is wrong, the ritual is wrong, Zec 7:8-14

3. God’s purpose concerning Jerusalem unchanged by any ritual, 8:1-23


A. First burden: Prophetic aspects connected with first coming of Christ, Zechariah 9-11

B. Second burden: Prophetic aspects connected with second coming of Christ, Zechariah 12-14


I. APOCALYPTIC VISIONS (messianic and millennial), Zechariah 1-6

A. Introduction and message of warning, Zechariah 1:1-6

  • Zec 1:1 — (See WRITER.) The date was November 520 B.C. He was contemporary with Haggai.
  • Zec 1:2 — The returned remnant is warned not to follow in the footsteps of the pre-captivity fathers.
  • Zec 1:3 —“LORD of hosts” occurs 52 times. “Hosts” is the Hebrew tsaba (Sabaoth), meaning service, strength, warfare. “It implies the boundless resources at His command for His people’s good” (Fauset).
  • Zec 1:4 — Their fathers had not heeded the former prophets.
  • Zec 1:5 — Where were their fathers? Buried in Babylon.
  • Zec 1:6 — “Take hold” means overtake. The prophet’s words were accurately fulfilled.

B. Ten visions (all in one night), Zechariah 1:7 — 6:15

1. Riders under myrtle trees, Zec 1:7-17

  • Zec 1:7 — Date: February 24, 520 B.C. (the Hebrew year begins in the April of our year).
  • Zec 1:8-11 — In the vision Zechariah sees a man on a red horse with other red horses behind him. They were speckled because they were in the shadow of myrtle trees. The “man riding upon a red horse” is “the angel of the LORD” in Zec 1:9 and Zec 1:11. “A red horse” is a picture of war. These red horses are the gentile nations that have ruled the world by warfare for 2500 years. They were at peace (Zec 1:11) in Zechariah’s day, and it was a right time to build the temple. They had no concern for the desperate plight of God’s people — neither then nor now.
  • Zec 1:12-17 — God is displeased with the nations who are at peace and ignore Jerusalem’s plight. God is jealous for Jerusalem; the nations are indifferent to her. God had returned to Jerusalem (Zec 1:16) with mercies, and the nations have a responsibility also. Is he the God of the Jews only? Is he not also of the Gentiles? Yes, of the Gentiles also. (Romans 3:29-note)
  • The promise of Zec 1:17 looks forward to the future kingdom age.

2. Four horns, Zec 1:18, 19

  • Zec 1:18 — A horn represents a gentile ruler (cp. Daniel 7:24-note;Revelation 17:12-note).
  • Zec 1:19 — The 4 gentile world powers: Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome.

3. Four smiths, Zec 1:20, 21

  • Zec 1:20 — “Artisan” is a craftsman or smith.
  • Zec 1:21 — These 4 smiths perhaps represent the judgment of Ezekiel 14:21-note —For thus saith the Lord GOD, How much more when I send my four severe judgments upon Jerusalem, the sword, and the famine, and the evil beast, and the pestilence, to cut off from it man and beast? Compare with the 4 horsemen of the Apocalypse of Revelation 6-note

4. Man with measuring line, Zec 2

  • Zec 2:1 — See Jeremiah 31:38, 39; Ezekiel 40:3-5; Revelation 11:1, 2-note. When God begins to measure the temple and Jerusalem, He is getting ready to move again in behalf of both.
  • Zec 2:2 — Jerusalem is to be rebuilt in Zechariah’s day.
  • Zec 2:10 — Jerusalem is to be rebuilt and restored in the kingdom, and the Lord Jesus Christ will reign there in person.
  • Zec 2:11 — The nations will come there to worship (see 14:16; Isaiah 2:1-5-note).

5. Joshua and Satan, Zec 3:1-7

  • Zec 3:1 — Joshua is representative of the nation Israel. Satan seeks to destroy the nation (Revelation 12:1-6-note).
  • Zec 3:2 — “A brand plucked out of the fire” means they are rescued for future service.
  • Zec 3:3-7 — Neither Joshua nor Israel were contenders with Satan while clothed in their own righteousness. They must be clothed with the righteousness of Christ. Even a new patch on the old garment will not avail.

6. The Branch, Zec 3:8-10

  • Zec 3:8 — “The Branch” is a familiar figure of Christ in His many offices. Here He is the servant. Israel rejected Him the first time because they trusted their own righteousness (see Romans 10:3, 4-note).
  • Zec 3:10 — This refers to the kingdom age.

7. Lampstand and two olive trees, Zec 4

  • Zec 4:2 — The lampstand is identical to the one that was in the tabernacle and has the same meaning. It is a perfect type of Christ, the Light of the world (see author’s book, The Tabernacle, God’s Portrait of Christ).
  • Zec 4:3 — The 2 olive trees are the “something new has been added.” The olive trees (Zec 4:11-14) are obviously Zerubbabel and Joshua at that time. The final fulfillment is in Revelation 11:3-12-note.
  • Zec 4:6 — The interpretation for Zechariah’s day, for the future, and also for our day is a great principle — “Not by brawn nor by brain, but by My Spirit, saith the Lord” (my paraphrase). God’s work is done only in the power of the Holy Spirit. The oil represents the Holy Spirit. The 2 olive trees speak of witnessing. Effective witnessing is done only in the power of the Holy Spirit.
  • Zec 4:7 — “The headstone” is Christ.
  • Zec 4:8-10 — The present and practical application is that Zerubbabel will be given power to finish the temple. It will be an occasion for joy, for “who hath despised the day of small things?”

8. Flying scroll, Zec 5:1-4

  • Zec 5:1 — “A scroll” speaks of the Word of God (cp. Ezekiel 2:9-note, Ezek 3:1-4-note).
  • Zec 5:3 — The scroll represents the Ten Commandments.
  • “Curse” — God will judge according to law. There is judgment, not blessing.
  • On one side are the commandments that have to do with a man’s relationship to God — “every one that sweareth” represents the first 4 commandments. On the other side are the commandments that have to do with a man’s relationship to his fellowman — “for every one that stealeth” represents the last 6 commandments.

9. Woman in the ephah, Zec 5:5-11

  • Zec 5:5, 6 — The ephah corresponds to our bushel. This means that sin has filled up the measure and must be judged.
  • Zec 5:7 — A woman in an ephah is a type of that which is evil (Matthew 13:33; Revelation 2:20-note). The lead weight means that iniquity is sealed within the measure.
  • Zec 5:8 — “Wickedness” is the wicked one, the man of sin.
  • Zec 5:9-11 — Two winged women carry the measure (with the woman in it) to Babylon. Israel’s great sin was idolatry. Babylon is the fountainhead of idolatry. This sin is to be forsaken and returned to Babylon. Babylon is to be judged (see Revelation 17, 18-note).

10. Four chariots, Zec 6

  • Zec 6:1-5 — These 4 multicolored chariots are the angels who execute the judgment of God on the gentile nations (see Revelation 7:1-3-note; Rev 9:14, 15-note).
  • Zec 6:9-15 — After the judgment of the nations comes the glory of Christ in the setting up of His kingdom (Daniel 2:44, 45-note).
  • Zec 6:10 — “Heldai” means robust; “Tobijah” means God’s goodness; “Jedaiah” means God knows.
  • Zec 6:11 — Joshua is a type of Christ.
  • Zec 6:12 — “The Branch” here reveals Christ in His glory, the second coming of Christ.


A. Question concerning a religious ritual (fasting), Zechariah 7:1-3

  • Zec 7:1 — The date here is December 4, 518 B.C.
  • Zec 7:2 — A delegation had come to Jerusalem from Babylon.
  • Zec 7:3 — They bring a problem to the priests: Should they continue to fast?

B. Threefold answer, Zechariah 7:4-8:23

1. When the heart is right, the ritual is right, Zec 7:4-7

  • Zec 7:4 — God will answer their question.
  • Zec 7:5 — God never gave fast days; He gave feast days. It was their own idea to fast. They never fasted unto the Lord.
  • Zec 7:6 — Before the 70-year captivity, their feasting was not unto God either, and He sent them into captivity.
  • Zec 7:7 — Before the captivity, God judged Jerusalem when the heart of the people was far from Him — though they went through the rituals. A ritual is right when the heart is right. Lange wrote, “God’s eye of grace and our eye of faith meet in the sacraments [rituals].”

2. When the heart is wrong, the ritual is wrong, Zec 7:8-14

  • Zec 7:8 — This is God’s answer.
  • Zec 7:9, 10 — Conduct denies confession. It is not our hymn singing on Sunday but our action on Monday that is the real test.
  • Zec 7:11-14 — The people before the captivity went through the ritual, but their lives were wrong.

3. God’s purpose concerning Jerusalem unchanged by any ritual, Zec 8

  • Certain words are emphasized by repetition: “LORD of hosts” 18 times in this chapter; “Jerusalem” 6 times; “Zion” twice; “Jealous” 3 times; “Remnant” twice; “Thus saith the LORD” 10 times. Some Bible students see in this chapter the restatement of the Ten Commandments.
  • Zec 8:1-8 — God’s ultimate purpose is not changed concerning His people, the land, and Jerusalem.
  • Zec 8:3 — Jerusalem will be the world capital (Isaiah 2:1-5-note).
  • Zec 8:4-8 — His people will dwell in Jerusalem.
  • Zec 8:9-19 — The Remnant from Babylon are to hear the prophets Haggai and Zechariah in view of the perspective of the glorious future (note Zec 8:9). Also they are to keep the Commandments (see Zec 8:16, 17). Fasts will be turned back into feast days (Zec 8:18, 19).
  • Zec 8:20-23 — Jerusalem will become the religious capital as well as the center of God’s government (note again Isaiah 2:1-5-note)

III. PROPHETIC burdens, Zechariah 9-14

A. First Burden: Prophetic aspects connected with first coming of Christ, Zechariah 9-11

Zechariah 9

  • Zec 9:1-8 — Judgment came upon:
  • Hadrach and Damascus (Zec 9:1) (Hadrach was north of Damascus)
  • Tyre, Sidon and Hamath (Zec 9:2-4) (Hamath is inland and north of Sidon)
  • The Philistines (Zec 9:5-8)
  • Zec 9:9 — This is quoted in connection with the so-called triumphal entry of Christ into Jerusalem (cp. Matthew 21:5; John 12:15). The parts omitted by Matthew are: “Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout…he is just, and having salvation [victory].” This part of the verse will be fulfilled at His second coming. The rest of the verse was fulfilled at His first coming.
  • Zec 9:10 — Peace can come to the earth only when Christ comes the second time.
  • Zec 9:11-17 — The Lord will at that time deliver His people.

Zechariah 10 — Judah and Israel are to be scattered again, but they will be finally regathered.

  • Zec 10:1 — “Rain” is literal rain. The rainfall is to be restored to the land when God regathers them.
  • Zec 10:2, 3 — This is a condemnation of the sweet-talking false prophets.
  • Zec 10:4 — This is a reference to Christ in both His first and second comings.
  • Zec 10:6 — By His mercy the Lord will regather them.
  • Zec 10:9-12 — The Lord will not only scatter them (Zec 10:9), but He will regather them.

Zechariah 11 — The Lord Jesus Christ is to be rejected as the King at His first coming.

  • Zec 11:1-6 — False shepherds deceived the people. Possibly this is a reference to Rome as the conqueror.
  • Zec 11:7-14 — The true Shepherd with 2 staves: “Beauty” is literally grace — He is the Savior and will save His people. “Bands” is literally union — He will unite Judah and Israel.
  • Zec 11:8, 9 He rejects false shepherds
  • Zec 11:12, 13 — This is a reference to the betrayal of Christ by Judas. See Matthew 26:15; 27:3-10; Acts 1:17-20.
  • Zec 11:15-17 — The Antichrist is a false shepherd.

B. Second burden: Prophetic aspects connected with second coming of Christ, Zechariah 12-14

Zechariah 12 — The final siege of Jerusalem and the lifting of the siege. “Jerusalem” is mentioned 10 times. “In that day” is mentioned 7 times and is a reference to the day of the LORD, specifically the Great Tribulation Period.

  • Zec 12:1-3 — Jerusalem is to be a constant irritant to all the nations that presume to make decisions that affect it. God’s policy for the nations is “hands off” Israel (too bad the United Nations is not aware of this). All the nations in the Great Tribulation will march against Jerusalem — and be destroyed.
  • Zec 12:4-9 — Jerusalem will be delivered in the final siege by the coming of the Lord personally.
  • Zec 12:10-14 — They will know Him by the print of the nails in His hands. This is the One they rejected and delivered to be crucified. This will be a real day of atonement.

Zechariah 13 — What will the return of Christ mean to Israel?

  • Zec 13:1 — The Remnant will turn to the redemption of Christ for their salvation.
  • Zec 13:2-5 — The false prophet and his followers will be taken (see Revelation 19:20-note). This is the end of all false religion.
  • Zec 13:6, 7 — The nail-scarred Christ will be present. His followers will not desert Him but will rally around Him.
  • Zec 13:8, 9 — These are those who come out of the Great Tribulation and have washed their robes in the blood of the Lamb.

Zechariah 14 — Features and facts connected with the coming of Christ to the earth.

  • Zec 14:1-7 — This is the consummation of the campaign of Armageddon and the return of Christ.
  • When Christ returns to this earth, He will touch down on the Mount of Olives (Zec 14:4). This is the same place from which He ascended into heaven. There will be great physical changes in the topography of the land. There will be a great earthquake at His coming (Zec 14:5). There will be changes in the lighting of the earth (Zec 14:6, 7).
  • Zec 14:8 — There will be a new waterway through Jerusalem, making it a seaport city.
  • Zec 14:9 — The Lord Jesus Christ will reign over the earth.
  • Zec 14:10, 11 — The land will become the land of milk and honey.
  • Zec 14:12 — This is a living death against the enemies of God.
  • Zec 14:16-21 — The people of the earth, both Jew and Gentile, will go to Jerusalem to celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles. This feast will mean that every man is dwelling safely under his own vine and fig tree. True holiness will be on the earth. Every pot and pan will be holy.


A M Hodgkin

Christ in All the Scriptures - Table of Contents

Zechariah - We have already seen the connection of this prophet with Haggai. He was probably a priest as well as a prophet. (See Neh 12:12,16).

His first prophecy [Zech 1:1-6] occurred just after the time of discouragement, when the people had begun to rebuild the Temple [cp. Ezra 4:23,24], and he warns them not to disappoint God, as their fathers had done. He has a special word of encouragement to the ruler Zerubbabel, who must have been conscious of his own weakness, and that it was indeed a ''day of small things.'' ''Not by might, nor by power, but by My Spirit, saith the Lord of Hosts'' (Zech 4:6-10). He promised that the mountains of difficulty should be removed, and that he who had laid the foundation should have the joy of bringing forth the headstone with rejoicing, crying, ''Grace, grace,'' unto it.

Christ is both the Foundation-stone and the Headstone of the corner. [1Cor 3:10,11; 1Pet 2:6-8]

Eight Visions.

Zechariah’s second prophecy consists of eight visions concerning God’s final dealings with Israel.

First, of Myrtle Trees, a picture of Israel today, outcast but never forgotten by Jehovah.

Second, of Horns and Smiths, foretelling the overthrow of Israel’s enemies.

Third, of the Measuring Line. This shows the future prosperity of Jerusalem. The presence of Jehovah as a wall of fire round about His people will make walls unnecessary, the extent of the city will make them impossible.

Fourth, of Joshua, a picture of Israel cleansed and restored to the priestly position of access to God.

Fifth, of the Candlestick, or, as it should be, lamp-stand, Israel as God’s light-bearer. The two olive-trees in this vision refer in the first place to Zerubbabel the ruler and Joshua the priest, and thus through them to both offices fulfilled in the person o£ the Messiah.

Sixth, the Flying Roll, government of the earth.

Seventh, the Ephah, restriction of wickedness.

Eighth, the Chariots, the administrative forces of righteousness

(Dr. Campbell Morgan, Westminster Record for September 1907).

Then follows the symbolic act of crowning the High Priest (Zechariah 6:9–11). By this act the two great offices of priest and king are united in his person, type of the person and work of the Man whose name is the Branch (Zechariah 6:12; 3:8), who shall sit on His throne of glory as a Priest, the Builder of the eternal Temple of the Lord, and “bear the glory.”

“Thy king cometh unto Thee.” More than any other of the Minor Prophets, Zechariah foretells the Savior. Twice He is announced as the Branch; God speaks of Him as My Servant (Zechariah 3:8). We have the prediction of His entry into Jerusalem, riding upon an ass’s colt (Zechariah 9:9). In contrast to the false shepherds we see Him as the Good Shepherd, saving His flock, caring for the poor of the flock (Zechariah 9:16; 11:11). We see Him as the Smitten Shepherd, with the sheep scattered (Zechariah 13:7). In the words “Awake, O sword, against My Shepherd, and against the Man that is My fellow, saith the Lord of Hosts,” we have a specially clear revelation of Christ, both in His Divine and human nature; the Man, the smitten Shepherd, is spoken of by God as His fellow, on an equality with Him and yet distinct in His personality.

Zechariah speaks of “the blood of the Covenant” (Zechariah 9:11), which our Lord applied to His own blood. “This is My blood of the New Covenant, which is shed for many unto remission of sins” (Matthew 26:28, r.v.). We have the prophecy of His betrayal by Judas for thirty pieces of silver, even to the fact that the money was “cast to the potter in the house of the Lord” (Zechariah 11:12–13).

Zechariah prophesies the conversion of his people to the Lord in the day that the Spirit is poured out upon them, and when they shall look on Him whom they have pierced, and the sin of the nation shall be washed away through that fountain opened through their Messiah’s death on Calvary (Zechariah 12:10; 13:1). He speaks of the wounds with which He was wounded in the house of His friends (Zechariah 13:6). The third part of the remnant shall be brought through the fire and purified in the time of Jacob’s trouble (Zechariah 13:9).

The last chapter foretells the Great Day of the Lord, which is always associated with the coming of Christ to judgment. He who ascended from the slopes of Olivet shall so come in like manner as those who watched Him saw Him go. “And His feet shall stand upon the mount of Olives ... and the Lord my God shall come, and all the saints with thee.... It shall be one day which shall be known to the Lord ... at evening time it shall be light.... And the Lord shall be King over all the earth: in that day shall there be One Lord, and His name One.”

See also...

The Old Testament Presents... Reflections of Christ - ZECHARIAH - Paul R. Van Gorder

Inductive Bible Study on Zechariah
"They shall be My people, and I will be their God."
Below is Link to Lesson 1 of 7

Commentary on Zechariah
Visions and Prophecies of Zechariah:
The Prophet of Hope and of Glory
An Exposition

Part 1: The Visions and the Answer to the Deputation from Bethel

Part 2: The Prophecies

Below is another source because the above source has numerous typos...

Part 1: The Visions and the Answer to the Deputation from Bethel

Part 2: The Prophecies

Commentary on Zechariah

Be cautious (Acts 17:11-note): Does not always interpret the Scripture literally and sometimes replaces Israel with the Church (note) critique

Resources that Reference Zechariah

Related to Zechariah

Sermon Notes on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Flagstaff Christian Fellowship
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

162 pages when compiled into one Word Document! Excerpts are included from each sermon to give you a sense of how Pastor Cole preaches the text in hope that you will be stimulated to read (or listen to) the entire message to supplement your personal reading and study of this great prophetic book. Too many avoid this great book because it is filled with symbolism and eschatology. Even the great Martin Luther who penned two commentaries on Zechariah published his first one in 1526 and stopped at the end of Zechariah 13 without explanation! Luther's second commentary on Zechariah was written one year after his first but still had minimal explanation of Zechariah 14. In fact in the second commentary Luther wrote these words regarding Zechariah 14 "Here, in this chapter, I give up. For I am not sure what the prophet is talking about." (from "Lectures on Zechariah" 1527). In fact someone has written that there are at least seven different interpretations of Zechariah 14! Of course, there is only one correct interpretation (See related note below)

  • Zechariah 1:1-6 Returning to the Lord
    Excerpt from Introduction - 

    Clark Clifford, who was White House counsel during the Truman Administration, was at a White House banquet one night when one of the guests turned to the woman next to him. “Did I get your name correctly?” he asked. “Is your name Post?”
    “Yes, it is,” the woman said.
    “Is it Emily Post?”
    “Yes,” she replied.
    “Are you the world-renowned authority on manners?” the man asked.
    “Yes,” Mrs. Post said. “Why do you ask?”
    “Because,” the man said, “you have just eaten my salad.” (“Bits & Pieces,” [1/85], pp. 14-15.)

    Knowing something and applying it are two different matters. It is possible to be an expert on manners and yet eat the wrong salad! It is possible to be an expert on the Bible and yet not apply that knowledge in your daily life. Perhaps you noticed the title of this message, “Returning to God,” and thought, “This one won’t apply to me. It will be great for someone who does not know Christ, but I do know Christ. It will also hit the mark with a backsliding believer, but I’m not backsliding. So I’ll eavesdrop on the message, but there won’t be much in it for me.” The people to whom Zechariah brought this “word of the Lord” (1:1) were probably a lot like you. They were, for the most part, believers who would have voiced their allegiance to God. They were a remnant of 50,000 Jews who had made the difficult commitment to return to Jerusalem from the Babylonian captivity in 538 B.C. In 536 B.C. they had begun reconstruction of the devastated temple. But opposition had mounted, and for 16 years the work had been set aside. Meanwhile, the people got caught up in the busyness of life. It was probably not an intentional decision. They meant no harm to God. But God raised up the prophet Haggai to ask the question, “Is it time for you yourselves to dwell in your paneled houses while this house lies desolate?” (Hag. 1:4). The people responded to Haggai’s message and began to work again on the temple. Two months into the project, “in the eighth month of the second year of Darius, the word of the Lord came to Zechariah the prophet” (Zech. 1:1). That date is significant! Two months into any volunteer project of this magnitude, people need a word from the Lord! They need hope and encouragement. They need the motivation that comes from knowing that this project is worthwhile. That is especially so when the people are a bunch of refugees returning to a devastated country, still surrounded by hostile neighbors.

  • Zechariah 1:7-17 When God Seems to Have Forgotten You
    Excerpt from Cole's Conclusion

    A Jewish fable tells of a rabbi who went on a journey with the prophet Elijah. At nightfall, they came to the cottage of a poor man and his wife, whose only earthly treasure was a cow. The man and his wife welcomed the strangers, fed them their best food, and put them to bed in their own bed, while the hosts lay down before the kitchen fire. But in the morning the poor man’s cow was dead. The next evening the rabbi and Elijah came to the house of a wealthy merchant. He treated them coldly, fed them bread and water, and put them to bed in a cow shed. In the morning, Elijah thanked him for what he had done and sent for a mason to repair one of the rich man’s walls, which was falling down, as a return for his kindness. The rabbi could not keep his silence. He asked the prophet to explain the treatment of the two hosts. The prophet replied, “In regards to the poor man, it had been decreed that his wife would die that night, but in reward for his kindness, God took the cow instead of his wife. In regards to the rich miser, I repaired his wall because a chest of gold was concealed near the place, and if the miser had repaired it himself, he would have discovered the treasure.” The moral of the tale was: Do not say to the Lord, “What are You doing?” But say in your heart, “Must not the Lord of all do rightly?” We don’t always see the big picture as God does! When it seems as if the wicked are at ease and you are forgotten, be encouraged by Christ’s powerful presence, His prayer for you, and His promises for your welfare.

  • Zechariah 1 & 2:1-13 God Our Strong Defender & Benefactor
    Excerpt from Cole's Conclusion:

    How you apply this message personally depends on where you are at. If you profess to know God, but are living with the daughter of Babylon, God’s word to you is, “Get out of there quickly!” “If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him” (1 John 2:15)! If you are dwelling in Jerusalem, but discouraged over the trials you are experiencing, God’s word to you is, “Sing for joy and be glad, for behold, I am coming and I will dwell in your midst” (Zech. 2:10). Rest in the promise that you are the apple of His eye and that He will judge those who harm you. If you are not one of God’s people, His word to you is, “Submit your life to Jesus Christ now, before He comes in judgment and it is too late!” No matter how great your sins, He invites you to trust in Christ as your sin-bearer, to join yourself to the Lord and become one of His people.

  • Zechariah 3:1-10 How Can Sinners Serve a Holy God?
    Excerpt from Cole's Conclusion:

    When John Wesley was six years old, he awoke one night to the horror of being in a burning house. Everyone else had gotten to safety, but somehow he had been forgotten. At the very last moment, just before the roof collapsed, a neighbor climbed through the window and pulled the terrified child to safety. He always saw himself as a brand plucked from the burning. After his conversion, which came after years of trying to earn salvation by his good works, he realized even more how much God had rescued him from the eternal flames of hell. If God has not rescued you from your sins, you must let go of your good works and allow God to cleanse you by His sovereign grace through Christ alone. If He has rescued you, it is so that you can now serve Him as you walk in His ways.

  • Zechariah 4:1-14 Preventing Spiritual Burnout
    Excerpt from Cole's Conclusion: (Based especially on the words "Not by might nor by power, but by My Spirit,’ says the LORD of hosts." (Zech 4:6)

    I’m no mechanic, but I do know that you can’t run a car without oil or you’ll burn up the engine quickly. I am a pastor, and I also know that you can’t serve the Lord without the continual supply of the oil of God’s Spirit or you’ll burn out. The solution to burnout is not to quit working for the Lord. Working for the Lord—being His lampstand—is  the greatest thing you can do with your life. The solution to burnout is to see the great importance of God’s work and then to open your life to the continual, abundant supply of God’s Spirit as you do His work. Have you checked your spiritual dipstick lately?

  • Zechariah 5:1-11 What God Thinks About Sin
    Excerpt from Cole's introduction:

    President Calvin Coolidge was not known for his talkativeness. A story, perhaps apocryphal, says that one Sunday he attended a worship service without his wife. When he returned home, she asked him what the minister had talked about. “Sin,” replied silent Cal. “What did the preacher say about sin?” his wife persisted. Coolidge replied, “He was against it.” Coolidge’s answer is a succinct summary of Zechariah 5, which tells us what God thinks about sin. In a nutshell, He is against it. Zechariah’s sixth and seventh night visions tell us, God will be relentless in judging all sin.

    A major mistake that God’s people can make is to think that if we are doing God’s work, it buys us some indulgences against our sins. Israel was rebuilding the temple, and Zechariah wanted to encourage them in that work. But God also wanted to warn them that His people must be holy, even as He is holy. Rebuilding the temple was a great work, but it didn’t earn them any credit in the sin department. Just because they were God’s chosen nation didn’t mean that God would tolerantly overlook their sin. God would deal with all sinners in Israel and He would ultimately purge the nation of all wickedness. As God’s people in this age, we need to take heed to this central message of our text. Sometimes pastors start thinking that because they are so devoted to the Lord’s work, He will be tolerant of their sins. Or they think that as a “reward” for their many hours of hard service, they have earned a free pass to indulge in certain sins. So they fall into pornography, sexual immorality, or greed. Sometimes those who give large donations to a local church think that their gifts buy them influence or, even worse, a license to sin. But our text underscores the message of all Scripture, that we are to be holy as the Lord Himself is holy. God will judge all sin, including the sins of those who call themselves His people.

    Satan often deceives us into thinking that sin will get us what we really want in life, and that holiness is boring or that it robs us of fun. But the Bible is consistently clear that unchecked sin is like leprosy, spreading gradually but inevitably to disfigure and finally kill its victims. It defiles all that come into contact with it. On the other hand, holiness brings true and lasting joy, and the family of a man who fears God will be blessed (Ps. 128). Another deceptive tactic of the enemy is to get us to think that because God’s judgment is delayed, it will not happen at all. We look around and see people who flaunt their sin and yet seem to be prospering. We also see godly people who seem to suffer terribly. If we forget the clear teaching of the Bible, that God’s judgment against sin will be relentless and thorough, and that He is the unfailing rewarder of those who seek Him (Heb. 11:6), we become vulnerable toward temptation and sin.

    In one sense, the focus of Zechariah’s night visions shifts at this point. The first five visions gave hope and encouragement to God’s people as they worked on the temple rebuilding project. God’s word through His prophet was, “I have not forgotten My chosen people in spite of how it may seem. I will remember them and bless them at My appointed time.” But visions 6-8 deal with the theme of God’s judgment on sin, both the sins of the pagan nations (6:1-8), but also the sins of Israel. In one sense, the idea of God judging all sin doesn’t sound encouraging! But as I said, if we see sin as the Bible sees it, and holiness as the Bible portrays it, then the idea of God purging all sin from our lives and from the face of the earth sounds wonderful. As 2 Peter 3:13 puts it, “But according to His promise we are looking for a new heavens and a new earth, in which righteousness dwells.” That is a beautiful description of heaven, which will be a place where no sin can corrupt and spoil Paradise! With that as a backdrop, let’s look at Zechariah’s sixth vision:

  • Zechariah 6:1-15 The Coming King-Priest
    Excerpt from Cole's conclusion:
    A Gallup poll some time ago revealed that 62 percent of Americans have no doubts about Jesus’ return. Among those who say that religion is very important in their lives, the number jumped to 79 percent. Probably 100 percent of us in this church believe that Jesus is coming to judge the earth and reign as King. But the question is, are we living as if we believe it? Are we living in obedience to Him and giving ourselves to the unfinished task of proclaiming His salvation to those who are yet “far off”?
  • Zechariah 7:1-14 Avoiding Spiritual Sclerosis
    Excerpt from introduction:

    I had to throw away a magazine article recently. I just couldn’t live with it in my house. It told how I could avoid heart disease and arteriosclerosis. The gist of it was that if I will stop eating the foods that I enjoy and start eating all sorts of things that I don’t especially care for, I may be able to avoid the hardening of the arteries that results from too much cholesterol. I realized that with an article like that in my home, I could never again enjoy a breakfast of bacon and eggs, with an English muffin smothered in real butter. The article went in the trash! I’m kidding, of course. But I’m serious when I say that many people get spiritual sclerosis—hardening of the spiritual arteries—because they trash the warnings of God’s Word. I have both bad news and good news. The bad news is that like arteriosclerosis, spiritual sclerosis creeps up on you gradually as a result of certain bad spiritual habits that are as easy to fall into as eating too much fatty food. The good news is that, contrary to arteriosclerosis, you don’t have to give up everything you enjoy and begin doing all sorts of things you hate to avoid spiritual sclerosis. Zechariah 7 describes the malady. Two years have passed since Zechariah’s eight night visions (Zech 1:7-6:8). Work on the rebuilding of the temple is progressing nicely. In two more years it would be completed. At this time, a delegation from the town of Bethel arrives to seek the favor of the Lord and to ask a practical question of the priests and prophets in Jerusalem. Zechariah’s reply is recorded in chapters 7 and 8. The question involved the keeping of certain Jewish fasts. In Zech 7:3, they mention the fast of the fifth month. In Zech 7:5 Zechariah also mentions the fast of the seventh month. In Zech 8:19, there is mention of two additional fasts, one in the fourth month and another in the tenth month. All were related to the fall of Jerusalem in 586 B.C. In the tenth month, Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem; in the fourth month, he penetrated the city; in the fifth month, the temple was burned; and, in the seventh month, Gedaliah, the Jewish governor, was assassinated and the remnant fled (see 2 Kings 25:1-30). For the past 68 years, the Jews had observed these dates as fasts. But now, with the temple going up and Jerusalem being rebuilt, this delegation wondered whether they should continue to observe these fasts.

  • Zechariah 8:4-5 A Snapshot of God's Kingdom
    Excerpt from introduction:

    If someone were to ask, “What does the kingdom of God look like?” we might think of heavenly choirs singing praises to the accompaniment of harps. There is no doubt that glorious worship will be an important part of God’s kingdom. But I would guess that few, if any, of us would ever think to describe His kingdom as our text does: “Old men and old women will again sit in the streets of Jerusalem, each man with his staff in his hand because of age. And the streets of the city will be filled with boys and girls playing in its streets” (Zech. 8:4-5).

    This is not Zechariah’s personal idea of what the kingdom of God will look like, but the direct word of the Lord of hosts (Zech 8:4). This word was intended originally to encourage the remnant that was struggling to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem after the exile. It fit into the overall theme of Zechariah, that God remembers His chosen people, and that He will bless them in His time. But the words also apply to God’s people in every generation who seek to live under the lordship of Jesus Christ as we await His glorious return and His coming kingdom. The text gives us a valuable snapshot of God’s kingdom that we need to live out in our family and personal relationships: When the Lord dwells in our midst, we will treat the elderly and children properly.

    Sadly, those words do not describe a large segment of American society. In 1984, child abuse was the leading cause of death in children under the age of 15 (Focus on the Family, 2/84, p. 10). I suspect that it has not gotten better since then. A 1981 Congressional report noted that abuse of the elderly occurs with a frequency only slightly less than child abuse (Christianity Today, 6/12/81, p. 24). Most such abuse occurs within the confines of the home. Our streets, especially in large cities, are not safe, especially for women, children, or the elderly. Some years ago, we were visiting Marla’s elderly grandmother, who had lived in the same house in Riverside, California, for about 40 years. Our kids wanted to play in her front yard, but I couldn’t let them do it because we couldn’t watch them. It just wasn’t safe. Marla’s grandmother commented on how different it had been 25 years before, when Marla used to play in that same front yard, and no one ever gave a thought to any possibility of danger.

    By way of contrast, the picture of our text is a city where the elderly are at rest and the children at play, unafraid of attack or harm. Since these two groups represent the most vulnerable in any society, if they are securely at rest, everyone else will also enjoy peace. How a society treats its elderly and its young children may be a good measure of how close that society is to the Lord. When He dwells in our midst, He describes the result as this scene of peaceful joy for the aged and the young. These verses imply that relationships are one of God’s most precious blessings. Sin damages and can destroy family relationships. Truth and holiness (Zech 8:3) strengthen relationships. As Zech 8:6 shows, these ideal conditions are not humanly possible, but will come about only when we rely on God’s strength.

  • Zechariah 8:1-23 Blessed to Bless
    Excerpt from introduction:

    2Kings 7:1-20 tells a fascinating story of four lepers who sat at the gate of Samaria at a time when the city was under siege. Things had gotten so bad inside the city that women were eating their own children to survive. But Elisha the prophet had predicted something that seemed utterly impossible, that the next day food would be plentiful and affordable in Samaria. Meanwhile, the four lepers evaluated their dismal situation. If they stayed at the gate of Samaria, they would starve. If they went over to the enemy camp, they may be killed, which would be no worse than starving. But there was the outside chance that the enemy would take pity on them and give them some scraps of food. So they took their chances and went over to the enemy camp. When they got there, they were shocked to find the camp deserted. The Lord had caused the enemy to hear the sound of a great army of chariots and horses so that they fled in a panic, leaving all of their supplies behind. The four beggars ate all that they could eat. They hauled away and hid several loads of silver and gold and clothes. But then their consciences began to gnaw at them. They said, “We’re not doing right. This is a day of good news, but we are keeping silent” (2 Kings 7:9). So they went and told the starving city where they could find abundant supplies to satisfy their needs. That story illustrates the main message of Zechariah 8, summed up by the Lord’s words in Zech 8:13: “I will save you that you may become a blessing.” God’s people are blessed to bless others. God pours out His grace on us so that we will slop it over on others who are starving and dying without hope. Because God has promised to bless us abundantly, we should be a blessing to others. (Editorial Question - How are you doing as the divinely appointed "Blesser" representing the most High God?).....An African proverb states, “There is only one crime worse than murder on the desert, and that is to know where the water is and not tell.” God has led us to Christ, the living water. He has blessed us with His salvation and He promises to bless us even more abundantly in the future. But He didn’t save us so that we can sit in the lifeboat feeling warm and cozy, oblivious to the lost of the world. He saved us so that we may become a blessing to others. If you’re saved, but you don’t have your focus on blessing others, you’ve only got half the picture. He blessed you so that you may become a blessing.

  • Zechariah 9:1-17 Those Whom God Helps

    Excerpt from introduction -
    One of the most familiar verses in the Bible is, “God helps those who help themselves.” The problem is, that “verse” is not in the Bible! There is a true sense to that bit of folk wisdom, in that the Bible exhorts us to be disciplined and hardworking in all that we do. To goof off all semester and then ask God to get you through a test is not a wise plan! Diligent study and prayer are God’s means for academic success. But there is another sense in which the aphorism, “God helps those who help themselves,” goes completely against Scripture. Because of the fall, our human tendency is to trust primarily in ourselves and only secondarily, if at all, in the Lord. Thus we are quick to take the credit for any successes that come our way. We may give a passing tip of the hat to God for His part, but the primary glory goes to us for all our hard work or genius. But to the extent that we fail to give all the credit to God, we rob Him of glory. When it comes to the matter of deliverance from God’s judgment (salvation), the Bible allows no tolerance for our boasting in anything that we do. “For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; not as a result of works, that no one should boast” (Eph. 2:8-9). “But by His doing you are in Christ Jesus, … that, just as it is written, ‘Let him who boasts, boast in the Lord’” (1 Cor. 1:30-31). Zechariah 9 illustrates a principle that runs all through Scripture and is essential for you to understand and apply: God brings down the proud, but He helps those who are helpless, who depend on His deliverance.

  • Zechariah 9:9-10 Rejoice! Your King is Coming!
    Excerpt from introduction:

    You have probably had the experience that I have often had, where you are looking for something in the closet or garage, but you couldn’t find it because you had the wrong concept of what you were looking for. You thought that it was in a square brown box, but it really was in an oblong yellow box. So you stared right at it, and perhaps even moved it out of the way, but you missed it because your mental picture of it was wrong. Most Jews in Jesus’ day missed Him as their Messiah and King because they were expecting a different kind of Savior. They thought that Messiah would be a mighty political deliverer, who would lead Israel to military victory over Rome. They were not looking for a lowly Savior, riding on the foal of a donkey. They could not conceive of a suffering Savior, who offered Himself as the sacrifice for sinners. And so, tragically, they missed the coming of their King! Many people still miss Jesus because of wrong expectations. They’re looking for a Savior like Aladdin’s Genie, who will grant their every wish, but it hasn’t happened. They want a Savior who will instantly solve their deepest problems, but those problems have not gone away. Or, they expect a church where everyone always loves one another. But a church member treated them wrongly, so they dropped out in bitter disappointment. In order joyously to welcome Jesus as our King, we need to understand properly who He is. Our text is one of the great Messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. Even most Jewish commentators down through the centuries have agreed that this is a prophecy about Messiah (Charles Feinberg, God Remembers [American Board of Mission to the Jews], pp. 167-168). Zechariah 9:9-10 teaches us that…Because Jesus Christ is King and He is coming to reign, we who are subject to Him should rejoice greatly. The news that a king is coming is not necessarily a cause for great joy. The first part of this chapter predicts the coming of Alexander the Great, who ruthlessly conquered Israel’s neighbors. The news of his coming would have struck terror into the hearts of those in his path. He often slaughtered all the men in a city and sold the women and children into slavery. He was not concerned about the well-being of his subjects, but only about his own power and dominion. It is also difficult to accept the news of a coming king because there is a sense in which all of us want to rule our own lives. We can accept governmental interference to a limited degree, as long as it doesn’t get too close. But if a king started trying to control every aspect of our lives—how we do business, how we relate to others, including our families, and even how we speak and think—we resist the very thought! We certainly would not rejoice at the news of the coming of that kind of king! But that is precisely the kind of King that Jesus is! He is rightfully Lord of all people and of all aspects of all people’s lives. Regarding this King, Zechariah exhorts, “Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout in triumph, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your king is coming to you.” The rest of verses 9 & 10 describe this King and explain why His coming gives cause for great joy. If we understand who this King is and what His coming will mean for all the earth, we will rejoice greatly at the news of His coming.

  • Zechariah 10:1-12 Praying in the Promises
    Excerpt from introduction:

    At the historic battle of Waterloo, the Duke of Wellington led the British forces against the mighty Napoleon. News of the battle’s outcome traveled by sailing vessel to the south coast of England and was signaled by semaphore overland to London. On top of Winchester Cathedral, the signalman began to spell out the eagerly awaited message. The words came across, “Wellington defeated ….” At this point a thick fog settled in. The semaphore could no longer be seen, and the discouraging news of Wellington’s defeat spread through London. But later the fog lifted and again the signaling semaphore atop the cathedral became visible. This time it spelled out the complete message: “Wellington defeated the enemy!”

    If you have known the Lord for any time at all, then you have experienced something like that in your praying. You have prayed earnestly for something important. But it seemed as if God was not answering, or even worse, that His answer spelled defeat. Perhaps you are still in the fog and don’t understand why God seemed to do the opposite of what you prayed. I feel that way about several of my long-term prayer requests. At times you may wonder if God’s promises are really true. But the Bible is clear that someday the fog will lift and we will see that all of God’s promises are yes in Christ (2 Cor. 1:20). From our limited vantage point, it may not seem so. But seen from the perspective of God’s prophetic plan for history, we can see that God always fulfills His promises for His people. It may not be in our time or in our way. But God always keeps His promises. This should encourage us to pray.

  • Zechariah 11:1-17 The Tragedy of Rejecting Christ
    Excerpt from conclusion:

    Jesus told the story (Luke 14:16-24) of a man giving a dinner, who sent out invitations. But those he invited made up excuses for why they could not attend. “I have bought a piece of land and need to go out and look at it.” “I have bought some oxen and need to try them out.” “I have married a wife and need to spend time with her.” Those excuses are not sinful activities in and of themselves. There is nothing wrong with purchasing land or oxen, or with getting married. What’s wrong is when we value those activities more than we value dinner with Jesus! Even so, those who know the gospel invitation need to be warned about the tragedy of rejecting the invitation. Those who are familiar with the things of God can reject Christ because they value other legitimate things more than they value the Good Shepherd.

    Lucy and Linus were talking. Linus said, “I’ve been thinking. Charlie Brown has really been a dedicated baseball manager. He’s devoted his whole life to the team. We should give him a testimonial dinner.” Lucy replies, “Is he that deserving? How about a testimonial snack?”Make sure that you don’t just give Jesus a testimonial snack!

  • Zechariah 12:1-14 God, The Mighty Savior
    Excerpt from introduction:

    Just outside of Madrid is a famous old monastery, the Escorial. The kings of Spain have been buried there for centuries. The architect who built the church made an arch so low that it frightened the king. Fearing that it would collapse, he ordered the architect to add a column to uphold the middle of the arch. The architect protested that it was not necessary, but the king insisted and so the column was built. Years later, the king died and the architect then revealed that the column was a quarter of an inch short of touching the arch, and that the arch had not sagged in the slightest. I have heard that tour guides still pass a lath between the arch and the column as mute proof of the architect’s knowledge (Donald Barnhouse, Let Me Illustrate [Revell], p. 245).

    That arch illustrates our salvation, which comes totally from the Lord. It stands because of God, not because of anything that fallen sinners can add to it. But, like the Spanish king, people want to add something to help God out. The idea that salvation is totally from God is an affront to our pride. So even many that profess to believe in Christ as Savior are prone to think that their salvation rests at least partially on something that they must do, rather than completely on what God has done. We keep adding our columns, but God’s Word clearly shows that God’s salvation does not need our human support. God’s mighty power will save His people according to His purpose.

    Zechariah 12-14 contains the second “burden” that the prophet received from God (see 9:1). This burden focuses on Israel, and specifically on Jerusalem (22 times in these chapters). The phrase “that day” occurs 17 times and “the nations” occurs 14 times, pointing to the period of time when God brings His purpose for Israel and the nations to culmination. As we saw last week, chapter 11 predicts Israel’s rejection of Jesus, the Good Shepherd, and her subjection during the Tribulation to the worthless shepherd. This will plunge the nation into a time of severe testing, described by Jeremiah (Jer 30:5-7-note) as “the time of Jacob’s distress.” Daniel (Daniel 12:1-note) calls it “a time of distress such as never occurred since there was a nation until that time.” This time of testing culminates in the Battle of Armageddon (Joel 3:9-16; Rev. 16:16-21; Zech. 12:1-9; 14:2-3), when God will gather all the nations against Jerusalem to battle. At the last minute, just before Israel is annihilated, God will supernaturally rout the enemy and deliver His people. Our text describes the physical deliverance of Israel in Zechariah 12:1-9, and the spiritual deliverance of Israel in Zechariah 12:10-14. The great military victory that God will achieve for His helpless people illustrates the great spiritual salvation that He also brings. Both sections emphasize the truth that God is mighty to save His people according to His purpose.....(And from the conclusion) Why did God give this remarkable prophecy to people who lived at least 2,500 years before it would take place? It was not so that they could draw up prophecy charts and read books about how soon these things would take place. He gave these prophecies to comfort His people as they went through trials and faced threatening enemies with the solid truth that He is a mighty Savior, and that no one can touch His elect apart from His purpose. That’s how He wants us to apply it. If you have not yet repented of your sins and trusted in Christ as your Savior, God may have kept you alive until now so that today you would look on Him whom you pierced and mourn. If you have trusted in Christ, He wants you to know that no enemy, whether “tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword,” or even death itself, will be able to separate you from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord” (Rom. 8:35-39)!

  • Zechariah 13:1-9 God's Fountain for Cleansing
    Excerpt from introduction:

    You’ve been working out in the yard on a hot summer day. Your sweaty body has attracted the dirt like a magnet. You’re caked with grime. You need to attend a wedding that afternoon, so you go inside, put on your best clean clothes, and head out the door. Wait a minute! What’s missing? A shower! Nobody would just change clothes without first washing off the dirt and sweat. When you’re hot and dirty, nothing feels better than a shower. This physical picture has a spiritual analogy, but there’s a difference. The entire human race reeks of sin in the presence of the holy God. But because we all smell the same, we tend not to notice how foul we really smell. Many go their entire lives without sensing their need for cleansing from sin. Others may think that their good works cover the foul odor of their sin, and so they put on their clean clothes without showering. But the Bible has great news:

    God has graciously provided a fountain for sinners to be cleansed so that they may become His holy people.

    That’s the message of Zechariah 13, which is closely connected with chapter 12. We saw there how God promised to save His people according to His purpose. The primary interpretation of these verses is with reference to the Jews (“the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem,” Zech 12:10; 13:1). God promises to pour out on them “the Spirit of grace and of supplication, so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced; and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son” (Zech 12:10). When 13:1 begins, “In that day,” it refers to that day of great mourning in Jerusalem (Zech 12:11). Just prior to the second coming of Jesus Christ, God will pour out His Spirit on the Jews, so that, as Paul puts it, “all Israel will be saved” (Rom. 11:26). But since the Gentiles have now been made partakers of the New Covenant through the gospel (Rom. 11:12-24; 15:8-12), the promises of Zechariah 12 & 13 apply to all people. For us, as well as for the Jews, God has opened a fountain for sin and for impurity.

  • Zechariah 14:1-21 The Triumph of the Coming King
    Excerpt from introduction:

    The older you get, the less you look forward to birthdays. They are just another reminder that “the old gray mare ain’t what she used to be”! (That applies to the old gray stud, too!) But kids love birthdays! When our kids were young, for weeks in advance of their birthdays they would excitedly look forward to that day. They would tell strangers they met, “I’m five but I’m almost six!” They looked forward to the party and the presents. Having a birthday meant that you could go to school and tell the other kids, “You’re only five, but I’m six!” Even though the other kid may turn six in a few weeks, it gave you the competitive edge!

    There is a day mentioned repeatedly in the Bible that we should be anticipating with eagerness. It is called “the day of the Lord.” It is a major theme of this chapter (Zech 14:1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 20, & 21). The day of the Lord is not a 24-hour day, but that future period of time when the Lord will bring judgment to the wicked and salvation to His faithful. The New Testament makes clear that the hallmark of this day will be the second coming of Jesus Christ to earth. He will destroy the nations that are on the verge of destroying Israel, and establish His millennial reign over all the earth from Jerusalem. But before He comes, Jesus prophesied that there will be a time of tribulation such has never occurred before, nor ever will occur after. I used to believe that the church will be raptured before the tribulation, but I now am not so sure about that. But whether we are raptured beforehand or go through the tribulation, we certainly must be prepared for persecution. At the end of the tribulation, there will be cataclysmic events in the heavens, all the nations of the earth will mourn, and then “they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky with power and great glory.” He will send forth His angels to gather His elect from all over the earth (see Matt. 24:21-31). Then Jesus will rule the nations with a rod of iron (Rev. 12:5; 19:15). Zechariah 14 refers to this coming “day of the Lord.” Although some seek to explain the chapter in terms of past historical invasions of Israel or the ongoing spiritual battles of the church, I think that in light of the context of Zechariah, this chapter is best explained in reference to the Jews and to events that are yet future. It refers to the great final battle, elsewhere called the Battle of Armageddon (Rev. 16:16; 19:11; see Ezek. 38 & 39). When Israel is surrounded by the armies of the nations and on the verge of annihilation, the Lord Jesus will return in power and glory. When Christ returns as King, He will defeat His enemies and establish His righteous kingdom over all the earth.

Expository Notes
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation


Sermon Notes on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation
In Depth Commentary

Interesting simple translation

Exegetical Studies in Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Note: Annual $50 or monthly $5 Fee required to view entire article but gives access to literally thousands of searchable conservative theological journals updated through 2015 - an excellent resource!

James Rosscup's comment on Feinberg's book God Remembers A Study of Zechariah (studies below are from Bibliotheca Sacra) is worth noting as it might encourage you to purchase the annual fee which gives full access to these papers. Rosscup says that Feinberg's book "is a reprint of one of the best premillennial expositions by the late evangelical Old Testament scholar. Feinberg taught Zechariah for many years at Dallas Seminary and Talbot Seminary in Hebrew exegesis classes. He, Barker and Unger have the best longer premillennial commentaries of a verse by verse nature on the book." (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)

Suggestion - Consider paying the monthly fee to access all the articles below and compile them into a Word Document (which totals 136 pages).


I. An Exhortation to Repentance, Zec 1:1-6.

II. The Prophet’s Night-Visions, Zec 1:7-6:15.

a. The Vision of the Horses, Zec 1:7-17

b. The Vision of the Horns and Smiths, Zec 2:1, 2, 3, 4

c. The Vision of the Surveyor, Zec 2:5-17

d. The Vision of Joshua the High Priest and the Angel of Jehovah, Zec 3:1-10

e. The Vision of the Candlestick and the Two Olive Trees, Zec 4:1-14.

f. The Vision of the Flying Roll, Zec 5:1-4.

g. The Vision of the Woman in the Ephah, Zec 5:5-11.

h. The Vision of the Four Chariots, Zec 6:1-8.

i. The Coronation of Joshua, Zec 6:9-15.

III. The Question and the Answer concerning Fasting, Zec 7:1-8:23.

a. The Question, Zec 7:1, 2, 3.

b. The Rebuke, Zec 7:4, 5, 6, 7.

c. The Warning from the Past, Zec 7:8-14.

d. The Restoration of God’s Favor, Zec 8:1-17.

e. The Abrogation of the Fasts, Zec 8:18-23.

IV. The Future of the World Powers, Israel, and the Kingdom of Messiah, Zec 9-14.

A. The First Burden, Zec 9-11.

1. Judgment on the Land of Hadrach, Zec 9:1-8.

2. Israel’s King of Peace, Zec 9:9,10.

3. The King’s Mission in Relation to Israel, Zec 9:11-17.

4. Additional Blessings for Israel, Zec 10:1-12.

5. The Rejection of the Good Shepherd and the Rule of the Wicked One, Zec 11:1-17.

B. The Second Burden, Zec 12-14 .

1. Israel’s Conflict and Deliverance, Zec 12:1-14 .

2. Israel Cleansed of Her Sin, Zec 13:1-6 .

3. The Shepherd Smitten and the Sheep Scattered, Zec 13:7, 8, 9 .

4. The Great Consummation: Israel’s Deliverance & God’s Earthly Kingdom, Zec 14:1-21

Feinberg concludes his studies...

"And throughout the prophecy there is presented to us on every page the spotless, blemishless Holy One of Israel, the Lord Jesus Christ, the Messiah and King of Israel. See Him in..."

  • Chapter one as the Riding One;
  • Chapter two as the Measuring One;
  • Chapter three as the Cleansing One;
  • Chapter four as the Empowering One;
  • Chapter five as the Judging One;
  • Chapter six as the Crowned One;
  • Chapter seven as the Rebuking One;
  • Chapter eight as the Restoring One;
  • Chapter nine as the Kingly One;
  • Chapter ten as the Blessing One;
  • Chapter eleven as the Shepherding One;
  • Chapter twelve as the Returning One;
  • Chapter thirteen as the Smitten One;
  • Chapter fourteen as the Reigning One.

Come, let us worship at His feet!


Commentary on Zechariah
The Annotated Bible

(Note: This resource is not the same as Gaebelein's commentary below) Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Commentary on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Note: Links below are from Archive.org which does not allow copy and paste. Here is a link to Google's version which allows copy and paste = Studies in Zechariah

  • Zechariah Forward
  • Zechariah Introduction
  • Zechariah 1 - Opening Address. Night Visions and Meaning. The First Night Vision.
  • Zechariah 2 - The Second Night Vision. The 4 horns and 4 smiths. The Third vision. The Man measuring Jerusalem. Restoration and glory of Jerusalem foretold
  • Zechariah 3 - The Fourth Vision. Joshua accused by Satan. The Branch. The Stone with Seven Eyes. The coming peace.
  • Zechariah 4 - The Fifth Vision. The Candlestick and the Two Olive Trees. The Great Mountain Becoming a Plain. Zerubbabel the Prince Finishing the House of the Lord.
  • Zechariah 5 - The Vision of the Flying Roll. The Vision of the Woman in the Ephah.
  • Zechariah 6 - The Last Night Vision of the Prophet. The Vision of the Four Chariots Coming Between the Mountains of Brass. The Crowning of Joshua with Crowns.
  • Zechariah 7 - The Question Put to the Prophet Concerning the Fast. The Rebuke Given and their Failure Shown.
  • Zechariah 8 - The Gracious Answer to their Questions. Promises of Blessing, Restoration, Prosperity and Salvation. No More Fast Days. Nations to be Added to Jerusalem.
  • Zechariah 9 - The Second Part of the Prophecies. The First Burden. Judgment upon Hadrach, Hamath, Tyre and Sidon. His People Kept. The King of Peace and Righteousness Announced. Victory over the Enemies.
  • Zechariah 10 - More Blessings Promised to Judah and Israel. The Nation Victorious. Judah and Ephraim Blessed, Gathered and Restored, and Their Enemies Overcome.
  • Zechariah 11 - Scenes of Overthrow and Slaughter. The Shepherd With the Two Slaves. Beauty and Bands. He is Rejected. The Thirty Pieces of Silver. The Foolish Shepherd and His Punishment.
  • Zechariah 12 - The Second Burden From Chapter 12-14. Jerusalem and the Nations. The Conflict of the End. The Chiefs of Judah and the Strength Promised to the Feeble. Nations Destroyed. Outpouring of the Spirit and Looking Upon Jehovah, the Pierced One. The Great National Mourning.
  • Zechariah 13 - The Fountain Against Sin and Uncleanness Opened. Idols and False Prophets Destroyed. The Smitten Shepherd and the Sheep Scattered. The Remnant Saved. Two-thirds Cut Off and a Third Part Refined by Fire.
  • Zechariah 14 - The Last Conflict. Jerusalem Surrounded by Armies and Besieged and Taken. Jehovah's Intervention. The Escape of the Remnant. Living Waters Flowing Out of Jerusalem. The Enemies Punished. The Remnant of Nations Live as Worshipers in Jerusalem. Jerusalem the Holy City.

Commentary on Zechariah

Be cautious (Acts 17:11-note): Does not always interpret the Scripture literally (instead spiritualizing) and sometimes replaces Israel with the Church (note)

Related to Zechariah

Commentary on Zechariah

Sermons and Study Notes

Commentary on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Commentary on Zechariah

James Rosscup writes "This 1858 work supplies much help on matters of the text, word meaning, resolving some problems, etc. Some have found it one of the most contributive sources in getting at what a text means." (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)

Commentary on Zechariah

Not Recommended for study of those passages in Zechariah which clearly have a future fulfillment. Henry like so many of the pre-1900 commentators does not always interpret the Scripture literally and sometimes replaces Israel with the Church (note)

Comment on this Commentary: Matthew Henry's comments on the OT like John Gill's (and like Adam Clarke's and John Calvin's) are not always literal (see related discussion on Gill's comments on the OT prophets). For example, his interpretation of "I will gather the nations" (Zech 14:2) is that "The city shall be taken by the Romans, who have nations at command". There is absolutely no mention of the Romans in the original text nor is their a suggestion of such in the context. Henry sees this prophecy as historically fulfilled in the Roman destruction of Jerusalem in 70AD. He goes on to comment on Zec14:4, Zec14:5 that "These verses are dark and hard to be understood", which is indeed the case when one rejects the literal interpretation. And thus Henry is forced to resort to a (speculative) allegorical approach (See Garland's Rise of Allegorical Interpretation) and arrives at an absurd, nonsensical comment writing that "The valley of the mountains (in Zech 14:5) is the gospel-church"! So why is Henry even listed? Matthew Henry is included because he occasionally has practical, poignant devotional thoughts and/or pithy points of application. But "Caveat emptor!" The best rule to apply in the interpretation of the OT (especially the prophetic) passages is to remember the maxim that if the plain sense of the text (the literal sense) makes good sense, seek to make no other sense lest it turn out to be nonsense!

Contrast the wise insights of another older writer Charles Simeon (who wrote around 1832)...

It is a matter of general complaint, that the minor prophets are difficult to be understood: and this is true to a considerable extent: but we apprehend that it arises very much from our not sufficiently bearing in mind the subjects on which they wrote. We do right in looking for many things applicable to the Messiah, and to his Church and kingdom: but we err in not having more respect to the Jewish Church (Ed: Used in sense not of the NT church but of believing Jews) as it existed in the times when the prophets wrote; and as it shall exist at a period yet future, when that people shall be gathered in from their present dispersion, and be restored to their own land. We complain that we cannot unlock those Scriptures; but we neglect to take the key that alone will fit the wards. If we kept the Jews more in view, many of the difficulties would vanish; and innumerable beauties would be seen in passages that are now passed over as devoid of interest. We believe verily that the day is fast approaching, in which “God will shew them marvellous things,” not a whit inferior to those which He wrought for them when He brought them out of Egypt: and it is their privilege to be looking forward to that period, with earnest and assured expectation of the blessings prepared for them. (Micah 7:8-10 Address of the "Jewish Church" to Her Enemies)

Zechariah Commentary

Zechariah Commentary
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Zechariah Commentary
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Commentary Critical and Explanatory
on Zechariah

Note: JFB is one of the more literal, conservative older commentaries (prior to 1900). Sample excerpt of eschatological (prophetic, apocalyptic) passage Zechariah 14:2 - "gather all nations, etc. — The prophecy seems literal (compare Joel 3:2). If Antichrist be the leader of the nations, it seems inconsistent with the statement that he will at this time be sitting in the temple as God at Jerusalem (2Thessalonians 2:4); thus Antichrist outside would be made to besiege Antichrist within the city. But difficulties do not set aside revelations: the event will clear up seeming difficulties (Ed: Interesting statement!). Compare the complicated movements, Daniel 11:1-45." Comment on Zech 14:11 - "no more utter destruction — (Jer 31:40). Literally, “no more curse” (Rev 22:3; compare Malachi 4:6), for there will be no more sin. Temporal blessings and spiritual prosperity shall go together in the millennium: long life (Isaiah 65:20-22), peace (Isaiah 2:4), honor (Isaiah 60:14-16), righteous government (Isaiah 54:14; Isaiah 60:18). (Zechariah 14 - Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible)

Click Below for Unabridged Version

Sermon/Commentary Notes on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Keil & Delitzsch
Commentary on Zechariah

See caveat regarding this commentary

Rosscup - This is the best older, overall treatment of a critical nature on the Old Testament Hebrew text verse by verse and is a good standard work to buy. The student can buy parts or the whole of this series. Sometimes it is evangelical, at other times liberal ideas enter...In prophecy it is amillennial. (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works).


Sermons on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation


Sermons on Zechariah

Thru the Bible
Commentary on Zechariah
Mp3 Audio
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Exegetical Commentary on Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Rosscup: Here is an evangelical commentary well-done in 493 pp. Introductions gather much that is most pertinent for expositors. In Hag 2:7, “precious things” are Gentiles’ tributes (Isa. 60:5; 61:6) in the future kingdom. Merrill sees Zech. 14 as related to Christ’s Second Advent and the coming of the Messianic Kingdom, in premillennial fashion. Fairly full exegetical detail meets readers verse by verse, yet Merrill’s comments are readable for others than scholars, except the technical notes in special sections will be more for the latter. Problem passages usually draw careful remarks, as in seeing Zech 12:10 as referring to the Lord, and in a future day. (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)

Our Daily Homily

Commentaries, Sermons, Devotionals
on Zechariah

The Theological Journal Library on galaxie.com Note: Also gives you access to one of the best conservative resources on Zechariah by Charles Feinberg's 20 part series in Bibliotheca Sacra. (See list of articles) An annual $50 or monthly $5 subscription (click here) is required to view the entire article but will give you access to literally thousands of conservative articles. Click the following links to search by topic, author, or bible reference.



Walter Kaiser in The Preacher's Commentary, Vol 23 - excellent for preaching -

Rosscup on Kaiser's work: A careful evangelical gives contemporary outlines usable to pastors. He has occasional illustrations and serious explanation of the text. He is premillennial, as on Zechariah 14, and packs in much expositional help, relating it strategically to life. (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)

Exploring the Minor Prophets John Phillips -

Rosscup on John Phillips - A respected popular expositor on a number of biblical books here has two introductory chapters, then a chapter of about 20–30 pp. on each prophet (50 on Zech.). Several charts aid readers, and a detailed outline runs before each exposition. The exposition is in general surveys of sections, at times taking a view on a main problem. In Hosea 1:2, he feels that God had Hosea marry an immoral woman but Phillips offers no help on the moral issue. Phillips is premillennial, seeing Israel’s future kingdom blessings as in the millennium after Christ’s Second Coming (Hosea 3:5; Joel 3:14ff; Amos 9:15; Zeph. 3:9ff; Zech 2:10–13; 14:1–21). In Mal. 2:15 he has “one” refer to God making husband and wife into one, and in 4:5 he thinks the Elijah will be fulfilled in one of the two witnesses in Rev. 11. The work helps on broad coverage, and is quite readable for preachers, church teachers, students and lay people wanting a general devotional sweep. (Ibid)





GENE GETZ - short video discussions of principles in each section

  • Zechariah 1:1-6; True Spirituality: We are to develop a personal and heart relationship with God, not simply an outward expression of our beliefs. Video
  • Zechariah 1:7-17; The Incarnation: We must never compromise the divine truth that, in order to provide for our eternal salvation, God became a man and dwelled among us. Video
  • Zechariah 3:1-10; Walking Worthy: Since we have been chosen by God and saved by grace through faith, we are responsible to live in His revealed will. Video
  • Zechariah 5:1-6:8; The Impact of Sin: Because sin is a universal disease that separates all people from God, to enter His presence we must confess our sins and receive forgiveness by believing in Christ's death and resurrection. Video
  • Zechariah 6:9-15; The Family of God: As members of God's spiritual family, we are to participate in building God's holy temple until Jesus Christ returns. Video
  • Zechariah 7:1-14; Reality Not Ritual: We should evaluate both our past and present religious rituals and human relationships to determine our true heart motives. Video
  • Zechariah 8:1-23; Vital Relationships: We are to live in proper relationship with our fellow believers so we will have joyful and fulfilling relationships with God. Video
  • Zechariah 9:9; A Humble Servant: Though a day is coming when the Lord Jesus Christ will rule and reign as King of kings, we are to imitate His life as a humble servant when He came the first time. Video
  • Zechariah 9:16-11:17; Good Shepherds: Though Jesus Christ will someday be the Shepherd-King over Israel, as spiritual leaders in the church we are to follow His example as shepherd-servants. Video
  • Zechariah 12:10-13:1; The Blood of Christ: Whether we are Jews or Gentiles, in order to be saved we must personally and sincerely believe that Jesus Christ died and shed His blood to wash away our sins. Video
  • Zechariah 13:2-9; The Great Commission: As the church of Jesus Christ, we must diligently fulfill our responsibilities to carry out the Great Commission until Christ comes again. Video




Prophecy: Zechariah 11:12 And I said to them, “If it is good in your sight, give me my wages; but if not, never mind!” So they weighed out thirty shekels of silver as my wages.

Fulfillment: Matthew 26:14-15 Then one of the twelve, named Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests, 15 and said, “What are you willing to give me to deliver Him up to you?” And they weighed out to him thirty pieces of silver.


Prophecy: Zechariah 11:13 Then the LORD said to me, “Throw it to the potter, thatmagnificent price at which I was valued by them.” So I took the thirty shekels of silver and threw them to the potter in the house of the LORD.

Fulfillment: Matthew 27:5-7 And he threw the pieces of silver into the sanctuary and departed; and he went away and hanged himself. 6 And the chief priests took the pieces of silver and said, “It is not lawful to put them into the temple treasury, since it is the price of blood.” 7 And they counseled together and with the money bought the Potter’s Field as a burial place for strangers.

NOTE: Notice that in both prophecy and fulfillment we find stated that (1) it was silver; (2) there were 30 pieces (Matt. 27:3); (3) they were thrown down; (4) they were cast down in the House of the Lord; and (5) the money was used to purchase the potter’s field. (Ed: Listen to this old Hank Williams song - 30 Pieces of Silver)


Prophecy: Zechariah 13:7 "Awake, O sword, against My Shepherd, And against the man, My Associate," Declares the LORD of hosts. "Strike the Shepherd that the sheep may be scattered; And I will turn My hand against the little ones.

Fulfillment: Matthew 26:56 “But all this has taken place that the Scriptures of the prophets may be fulfilled.” Then all the disciples left Him and fled. (See also Mark 14:27)


Prophecy: Zechariah 12:10 “And I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced; and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him, like the bitter weeping over a first-born.

Fulfillment: John 19:34-37 but one of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately there came out blood and water. 35 And he who has seen has borne witness, and his witness is true; and he knows that he is telling the truth, so that you also may believe. 36 For these things came to pass, that the Scripture might be fulfilled,” Not a bone of Him shall be broken. “ 37 And again another Scripture says, “They shall look on Him whom they pierced.”

Note: For a more complete list see Table on Messianic Prophecies in Zechariah


  • The Minor Prophets -Excerpt -
    KEY CHAPTERS: Zechariah builds to a tremendous climax in chapter 14 where he discloses the last siege of Jerusalem, the initial victory of the enemies of Israel, the cleaving of the Mount of Olives, the Lord’s defense of Jerusalem with His visible appearance on Olivet, judgment on the confederated nations, the topographical changes in the land of Israel, the Feast of Tabernacles in the Millennium, and the ultimate holiness of Jerusalem and her people.82

    CHRIST AS SEEN IN ZECHARIAH: Perhaps no Old Testament book is more Messianic than Zechariah. In an often-quoted statement, George L. Robinson has called the Book of Zechariah “the most Messianic, the most truly apocalyptic and eschatological of all the writings of the Old Testament” (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1956, 5:3136). The messianic emphasis of Zechariah accounts for its frequent citation by New Testament authors.83 Zechariah presents Messiah or Christ in both of his advents and as both Servant and King, as Man and God, as the Angel of the Lord (3:1), the Righteous Branch (3:8), the Stone with the seven eyes (3:9), the Crucified Savior or the pierced One (12:10), the coming and humble King (9:9-10), the smitten Shepherd who will be abandoned (13:7), and the coming Judge and righteous King (14).


  • Holman Christian Standard Bible Study Bible - To access the conservative study notes click on "Library" in the left column and then under "Categories" click on "Study Bible Notes." Click in Reader and View in Reader. Enter the text of interest and any available study notes will be shown. Note that you do not have to register to use the excellent study notes (you can copy and paste notes). You do have to sign in if you want to add your own notes or highlight the notes..

    Here is an excerpt from the HCSB Study Note on Zechariah 14:1-21 - The book of Zechariah ends in classic prophetic fashion. The nations attack Jerusalem, God intervenes and blesses Jerusalem miraculously, God announces curses for Jerusalem's enemies, and the peoples of the world go up to Jerusalem to worship. Everything from cooking pots to horses' bells is set apart as holy to the lord, a privilege previously extended only to the temple and priests (Ex 28:36-38) but actually intended for the entire nation of Israel (Ex 19:6). For the prophet's audience, this would have been unimaginable, yet invigorating.


LOUISIANA PRECEPTS - ancilliary aids for Precept Inductive Study of Zechariah














  • The Messianic Hope of Israel - The Hope Scheduled in Zechariah
    The Witness of Zechariah - Zechariah, Haggai's younger colleague, has a peculiarly rich testimony to bear to both the sufferings and glories of the Messiah. His book divides itself into two main parts. Zechariah 1-6: The prophetic visions here partake of an apocalyptic nature. Zechariah 7-14, contain more direct utterances. The entire book has for its background, chapters 1-8, the Persian era; Zechariah 9-10, the Grecian era; Zechariah 6 the Roman era; Zechariah 12-14 take us to the time of the end.

    In the first group of visions (Zechariah 1-6), the Messiah stands forth as "the Branch" (Zechariah 3:8; 6:12). He is the one GOD falls back upon in the face of the failure of Israel. Out of the dead and barren condition of Judaism springs this fruitful Branch. But He is also the Foundation and Top-Stone (Zechariah 3:9; 4:7). GOD works from CHRIST and to CHRIST. All the counsels of GOD centre in Him.

    The second group of prophecies (Zechariah 7-14) bring before us in a wonderful way the ministry of the Messiah as recorded in the Gospel according to Matthew. He is seen as the true Shepherd (Zechariah 11:7, 10, 11). The flock is exploited by false and hireling shepherds. The poor of the flock, however, who waited upon GOD, recognized the One who was the shepherd to be hearkened to.

    In Zechariah 9 we have the official presentation of the Messiah to Jerusalem on the day called: "Palm Sunday." All the four evangelists give space to it. It was the beginning of the Passion week.

    The Jerusalem rebuilt by the remnant returned from exile would witness this royal entry. He would come as king of Peace, not riding on a war-house, but on a peaceable ass. As Professor F. Delitzsch has pointed out, the language of Zechariah 9:9 implies that "the royal glory rises upon the dark ground of suffering. The coming King is Tsadik and Nosha, a righteous one whom GOD has helped out of tribulation and struggle to salvation and victory; hence He is also called ani, that is, bowed, pressed down through sorrow. We still see Him as the Sufferer. His lowliness is not yet transformed into pure and full glory. Therefore He does not come loftily on a noble steed or in a grand coach of state like the kings of this world, but upon a peaceful animal; not upon one belonging to another, but upon a colt which has never been ridden (compare Matthew 21:2), for He is a King of humble mind, of tender heart, and whose final object is peace" (Zechariah 9:10).

    However, in Zechariah 11:12, 13, He is valued the price of a slave (Exodus 21:32)! It is the story of His base betrayal. Deep were His sorrows, but deeper still awaited Him! In Zechariah 13:5, 6, we see Him wounded in the house of His friends, those for whose sake He had been a bondman (see Zechariah 13:6).

    But the One who was wounded in the house of His friends, was also smitten by the sword of JEHOVAH. He was JEHOVAH's Shepherd and the Man, His Fellow (Zech 13:7). He is thus very GOD of very GOD, and very Man of very Man. During the night of His betrayal our LORD claimed to be the One spoken of here (Matthew 26:30, 31). The sword of JEHOVAH is His judicial stroke (see Jeremiah 47:6-7). It speaks of GOD's action when He died. At the hand of man CHRIST suffered for righteousness. But being "made sin" for us He Himself "knew no sin," He made expiation for sin. He was made to feel all that sin is, all that sin deserves, in the sight of a holy, sin-hating GOD. Psalm 69 speaks of the first; Psalm 22, of the second.

    JEHOVAH says of Him, when in His deepest humiliation: "My Fellow." The SPIRIT addressing Him in Psalm 45 and Hebrews 1 speaks of "Thy fellows." He took their place with all its consequences that they might share His place with all its consequences.

    In Zechariah 12 we see Israel's final conversion. In that day they will recognize that in piercing JESUS they pierced the very heart of JEHOVAH - as He says: "They shall look upon Me (i.e. JEHOVAH) whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for Him, as one mourneth for an only son, and shall be in bitterness for Him, as one that is in bitterness for his firstborn."

    Then will Israel experience a threefold cleansing.

    (1) The sight of the wounds of JESUS will purge the conscience. The Blood of JESUS has made expiation.

    (2) The fountain there opened for sin and uncleanness cleanses the walk and the state by the washing of water by the Word (Zechariah 13:1).

    (3) But there is besides the fire-baptism (Zechariah 13:9). We need the discipline which helps us to practically turn from the things which we have judged. The Father chastens us to make us partakers of His holiness (Hebrews 12). For there is but one way of salvation and sanctification, for this age and for that which is to come, for Jew or Gentile, i.e. through repentance and faith, apprehending the atoning sacrifice, and experiencing the power of the Word and Spirit, and submitting to the disciplinary dealings of the guiding and chastening hand of GOD.


    a. The Man among the myrtles (Zechariah 1) - Though Israel may be like a valley of myrtles, signifying a depressed condition, the theophanic Angel (the Messiah) is in the midst of the myrtles in the valley. The hosts of the LORD are at His disposal. He is the Intercessor on behalf of the tribulated people, for Israel, and now for the church, for she too is often in the valley of depression.

    b. JEHOVAH's Servant, the Branch (Zechariah 3:8)  - This is an echo of Isaiah 4:2. When He is brought forth Truth will be despised no more. Israel's land will have been atoned for (verse 10). Universal peace and brotherhood will prevail; conditions of Eden-like fertility will return.

    c. The Stone with the seven eyes upon it (Zechariah 3:9) - If the prophecy concerning the Branch looks on to the future. when Messiah will be revealed in glory, the Stone-prophecy has a present application. The Stone has already been laid as a divine foundation (see 1 Peter 2:7). And the preciousness of this Stone attaches to all who build upon it. It is an immovable foundation. The floods cannot overthrow it. The gates of hell will never prevail against it, nor upon that divinely built on it. And that Stone is sovereign. It has seven eyes, the eyes of divine omniscience. The Messiah has all authority in Heaven and on earth (see Zechariah 4:10). All power is in His hands, and the fulness of the Godhead dwelleth in Him bodily.

    d. The first coming of the Messiah (Zechariah 9-10) - These chapters fill up the gap prophetically between the Testaments, as they cover the period of the Grecian and Syrian domination over Jerusalem. Thus verses1-10 give us the victorious inroads of the armies of Alexander the Great, by which the coast line of Palestine was subjugated. But he was not allowed to tamper with the city and the temple of Jerusalem. The reason for this is given in verse 9. The Messiah will have to enter that city. Between verses 9 and 10 runs the Christian dispensation. The prophetical forecast of Jewish history in the days of the Maccabees is resumed in verses 13-17.

    e. The Betrayal (Zechariah 11:12, 13) "A goodly price!" was given for Him!

    f. His crucifixion (Zechariah 13:5, 6)  - "He shall say": It is Messiah speaking (Zechariah 6) , the true Prophet (Deuteronomy 18), the One who was here in bondsman's form from His youth (verse 5). Being rejected He became a Husbandman - a "Sower" (Matthew 13), a Vine-dresser (Luke 13), and wounded in the house He had come to serve in love.

    g. Smitten of GOD (Zechariah 13:7) JEHOVAH bruised Him (Isaiah 53:10). GOD brought Him into the dust of death (Psalm 22:15). These are more than martyr sufferings.

    h. His glorious Coming again (Zechariah 14:1-3, 5) When Jerusalem will suffer her last and worst siege. "All nations" against the Jewish people!

    i. Standing on Olivet (Zechariah 14:4, 5) The very spot from which He ascended.

    j. Israel's recognition of Him (Zechariah 12:10) k. His universal reign (Zechariah 14:9) l. His royal Priesthood (Zechariah 6:13)




Excerpt: What's the big idea? Meaning “Yahweh remembers,” Zechariah’s name was appropriate to the purpose of his prophecies.2 His book brims over with the hope that God would remember His promises to His people, even after all the time they spent outside the land. The prophet used a simple structure of eight visions (Zechariah 1:1–6:15), four messages (Zech 7:1–8:23), and two oracles (Zech 9:1–14:21) to anticipate the completion of the temple and, ultimately, the future reign of the Messiah from Jerusalem. Like many of the prophets, Zechariah saw isolated snapshots of the future; therefore, certain events that seem to occur one right after the other in Zechariah’s prophecy actually often have generations or even millennia between them.

For a people newly returned from exile, Zechariah provided specific prophecy about their immediate and distant future—no doubt a great encouragement. Their nation would still be judged for sin (Zech 5:1–11), but they would also be cleansed and restored (Zech 3:1–10), and God would rebuild His people (Zech 1:7–17). Zechariah concluded his book by looking into the distant future, first at the rejection of the Messiah by Israel (Zech 9:1–11:17), and then at His eventual reign when Israel will finally be delivered (Zech 12:1–14:21).






RICH CATHERS - most messages have illustrations that you might find useful in teaching classes or presenting sermons



Be a Berean - Not always a literal interpretation. Caveat Emptor!









Rosscup: This work came out in 1856. It is competent in exegetical detail of a reformed nature, explaining much in the books, but disappointing to premillennialists in passages on the future kingdom. (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)




















  • Zechariah 11:12-13 The Price of a Slave
  • Zechariah 12:8-10 Mourning for the One Who was Pierced
    Excerpt on comment on Zech 12:10: The fulfillment says Keil will “not terminate till the remnant of Israel shall turn as a people to Jesus the Messiah, whom its fathers crucified. On the other hand, those who continue obstinately in unbelief will see Him at last when He returns in the clouds of heaven, and shriek with despair (Rev. 1:7; Matt. 24:30).” It is with a deep penetrating conviction and mourning that will take place. But for so many it will be too late to be saved. According to Romans 11:25-29 there is a day coming when many in Israel will recognize her Messiah and turn to Him. The change in person from “mourn for Him” to “mourn for Me” is common in prophetic literature. The outpouring of the Spirit prompts the people to mourn for sin in private (Zech 12:10) and public (Zech 12:11). This profound sense of spiritual poverty and mourning leads to a cleansing from all sin because the precious fountain has been opened.



  • Zechariah 13:7 Smite the Shepherd
    Excerpt - The result of that smiting would be the scattering of the sheep. Now in Matthew's account of this, Jesus adds "this night you will all fall away because of me this night; for it is written, 'I will strike the Shepherd,'" (Matthew 26:31). Therefore it is very clear that Zechariah was predicting the Garden of Gethsemane. Gethsemane's struggle was the smiting of the Shepherd, and the result would be the scattering of the sheep. You can see how true that is if you look forward a bit to Verse 50, where it says of the disciples, "And they all forsook him, and fled," (Mark 14:50 RSV). This is the scattering of the sheep. Jesus did understand what was to happen that night in the Garden of Gethsemane. He is still thinking of himself as the shepherd when he says these words to the disciples, "But after I am raised up, I will go before you to Galilee." Remember in John 10, where Jesus says, "I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep," (John 10:11 RSV). He says of this shepherd, "When he has brought out all his own, he goes before them," (John 10:4a RSV). He is reassuring his disciples that after the dark event of Calvary, there will come the glory of the resurrection. He will go before them as the shepherd, still guarding his flock, still watching over them, and he will meet them again in Galilee.


  • Zechariah 13:1, 6-7 The Precious Fountain Opened
    Excerpt - The smiting of the Shepherd is according to the will of God. The smitten one is the Shepherd of Yahweh. "The shepherd of Jehovah, whom Jehovah describes as a man who is His next one (neighbor), cannot of course be a bad shepherd, who is displeasing to Jehovah, and destroys the flock, or the foolish shepherd. . . . The idea of nearest one (or fellow) involves not only similarity in vocation, but community of physical or spiritual descent, according to which He whom God calls His neighbor cannot be a mere man, but can only be one who participates in the divine nature, or is essentially divine. The shepherd of Jehovah, whom the sword is to smite, is therefore no other than the Messiah, who is also identified with Jehovah in Zech 12:10; or the good shepherd, who says of Himself, 'I and My Father are one' (John 10:30)" (soource unknown). Jesus Christ is the Shepherd of Israel, appointed by God Himself (John 10:11). He alone can be called "Yahweh"'s fellow" for he was God as well as man (Jn. 1:1), even the true God (Jn 5:20), although One with the Father Himself (Jn 5:30) He assumed our nature with the purpose that He might suffer for our sins. Yahweh calls His True Prophet as opposed to the false prophets (Zech 13:2-6), the Messiah, My Shepherd (Zech 13:7-9). Not only does the prophet give us a picture of the smitten Shepherd, but also the scattering of the sheep and the saved remnant.



GEORGE KLEIN - Excerpt from his commentary on Zechariah 14

Wolters concludes that there are seven distinct interpretations of Zech 14. The following represents a brief summary of Wolters’s detailed analysis of these seven views.

First, the oldest view comes from the Church Fathers, many of whom concluded that chap. 14 was fulfilled in the Maccabean uprising in the early second century BC. Wolters notes that the Dutchman, Hugo Grotius (1583–1645), likewise adopted a Maccabean interpretation.

Second, a more common interpretation applies Zech 14 to the entire period of history beginning with the New Testament era and culminating at the second coming of Christ. Luther is the most prominent adherent of this approach.

Third, another method sees the fulfillment of chap. 14 in Zechariah’s past. Calvin exemplifies those who advocate this method of interpretation. Calvin applies the message of the chapter to postexilic Israel.

The fourth and fifth approaches both apply Zech 14 to the end times. The difference between these two interpretations is the degree of literalness with which they interpret the chapter. The fourth view takes the statements in chap. 14 figuratively, making room for significant latitude in explaining Zechariah’s statements. The late Thomas McComiskey represents the fourth approach. The fifth interpretation includes but is not limited to dispensational perspectives. Representatives of this approach include Charles Feinberg, Merrill Unger, Kenneth Barker, and Eugene Merrill. Both the fourth and fifth interpretations of chap. 14 maintain that the entire chapter is prophetic; that is, its fulfillment is still in the future. Perhaps the single greatest difference between the fourth and fifth views is the way each takes the references to Israel. The fourth view affirms the eschatological perspective but claims that the Church inherits the Old Testament promises to Israel, including those in Zech 14. The fifth approach differentiates between biblical promises to Israel and those made to the Church, irrespective of where the prophecies lie in the biblical canon.

The sixth and seventh interpretations both grow out of modern critical methodologies. The sixth view takes Zech 9–14 to be preexilic, a view long since abandoned by critical scholarship. This approach represents little more than a relic of an untenable position. Scholars such as Ewald believed that Zech 14 predicted that Jerusalem would not fall to Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BC. When Jerusalem did fall, according to the sixth view, Zechariah’s prophecy was discredited.

The seventh and final view catalogued by Wolters focuses on the apocalyptic character of the chapter. But the view of apocalyptic maintained by this interpretation claims that the language of Zech 14 disallows any claim about a future fulfillment. Wolters suggests that Hanson, Meyers and Meyers, Petersen, and many other contemporary scholars reflect this view.

Wolters assesses the strengths and weaknesses of each position but declines to advocate a particular approach. He notes that each of the seven viewpoints contains multiple variations. He also emphasizes an important, but obvious, point: “There is nothing approaching a consensus among interpreters of Zech 14—not even among interpreters of the same confessional persuasion.” In conclusion, Wolters warns interpreters against undue dogmatism in handling Zech 14.

Although Wolters offers limited analysis of the seven hermeneutical approaches to chap. 14, a word is in order here. Despite the history of interpretation, there is no warrant for continued confidence in any hermeneutical approach that sees a historical fulfillment to the chapter. No matter how freely one might interpret the affirmations made by Zechariah, it remains hopeless to find any past events that even begin to capture the essence of Zechariah’s prophecies. Likewise, the final two critical approaches fail to persuade for numerous reasons, not the least of which is their almost cynical understanding of the text.

The only satisfactory interpretation views chap. 14 as a series of momentous prophecies focusing on the future, the eschatological day that Zechariah regularly referred to with the words “on that day.” The remaining issue is how literally should one read Zech 14. One should not expect a consensus on the question of how literally to read Zechariah’s oracles. Nor can the issue receive adequate discussion here. In short, it seems best to attempt to read the prophet’s language as normally as makes sense in this context. The word literal is so burdened with negative connotations and misconceptions that it does not aid a discussion about the issue. Furthermore, even the most strident advocate of a literal hermeneutic cannot apply this approach consistently. Unger, for instance, notes with no explanation that the “Canaanite’ in Zechariah 14:21 is a “figure of a morally and spiritually unclean person.” On the other hand, if Zechariah predicts a glorious future for Jerusalem, is it appropriate to interpret the passage as though it only refers to the New Testament portrayal of “heaven,” with no consideration given to national Israel whatsoever? A preferable hermeneutic reads Zechariah’s statements in a normal, straightforward fashion, unless forced to do otherwise by some compelling literary or theological factor. For example, when Zechariah declares, “never again will it [Jerusalem] be destroyed,” such affirmations normally read as applying to the city of Jerusalem’s security in the eschatological future. Other statements from Zech 14 may prove even more controversial.

As mentioned above, the apocalyptic language, coupled with the universal scope of the prophecies in chap. 14, render any attempt to find a past historical fulfillment to the chapter impossible. Numerous statements in chap. 14 have no equivalent in history. For instance, the following prophecies from chap. 14 demand an eschatological fulfillment: God will “gather all the nations to Jerusalem to fight against it” (Zechariah 14:2); “it will be a unique day … known to the LORD” (Zechariah 14:7); “the LORD will be king over the whole earth” (Zechariah 14:9); “never again will it [Jerusalem] be destroyed” (Zechariah 14:11); and “the survivors from all the nations that have attacked Jerusalem will go up year after year to worship the King, the LORD Almighty” (Zechariah 14:16).

The sevenfold reverberation of the eschatological formula “on that day” (bayyôm—hahûʾ) (vv. 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 20, 21) also makes the futuristic outlook of chap. 14 certain. The messianic implications of Zech 9–11 focus on events surrounding Christ’s first advent. Zechariah 9:9 epitomizes this emphasis: “See, your king comes to you, righteous and having salvation, gentle and riding on a donkey.” Chapters 12–14 encompass Christ’s second advent when he establishes the eternal kingdom of God. The theological climax of the Messiah’s arrival appears in 14:9: “The LORD will be king over the whole earth. On that day there will be one LORD, and his name the only name.” (from George Klein - Zechariah: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition - New American Commentary)

Sermons on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Pastor Morgan uses frequent illustrations and stories.

Defender's Study Bible Notes
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Introduction to Zechariah

Zechariah's book is the longest and most important of the three post-exilic prophecies. The other post-exilic books are Haggai and Malachi. Haggai came before Zechariah and Malachi came after. There are more Messianic prophecies in Zechariah than in any of the other minor prophets.
Zechariah began his prophetic ministry very soon after Haggai did (compare Haggai 1:1 and Zechariah 1:1). Both prophets urged the people to resume their lagging temple rebuilding project. In contrast to Haggai's very brief ministry, it is probable that the ministry of Zechariah continued for several decades.
Zechariah, meaning "Jehovah Remembers," was both a priest and a prophet, being a grandson of another prophet, Iddo, and a member of the original company that had come to Jerusalem with the governor Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 12:4, 16; Zechariah 1:1). It is interesting that some twenty-eight other Zechariahs are mentioned in the Old Testament, but this Zechariah is mentioned elsewhere only in Ezra 5:1 and 6:14, where Ezra confirms that both Haggai and Zechariah were instrumental in getting the discouraged Jews back to the job of building the temple.
Some critics have argued that a "second Zechariah" was author of the last six chapters of the book, but there is no historical basis for such a notion. Both divisions of the book are quoted in the New Testament, with no suggestion of different sources. The subject matter of chapters 1-8 is quite different from that of chapters 9-14, a fact which is quite sufficient to explain the differences in style and vocabulary. It is also probable that Zechariah wrote the second section at a much later time in his life than the first section.
The first six chapters of the book are largely occupied with ten remarkable visions, all apparently occurring on the same night. These visions and their symbolic figures relate sometimes to the current situation in Jerusalem, but often to the far distant future. Zechariah 7-8 records special messages from the Lord through Zechariah to the Jewish people and their priests and leaders.
Finally, Zechariah 9-14 is largely Messianic, dealing with both the first and second comings of Christ, rejected at His first coming, gladly acknowledged at His second coming. These chapters also deal, necessarily, with God's judgments on the nations and their eventual unification under the leadership of Israel in the Messianic kingdom.

Zechariah 1:1
second year of Darius. Compare Haggai 1:1. Zechariah began his written prophetic ministry just two months after Haggai, although Haggai was much older and continued writing less than four months altogether (Haggai 2:10).

Zechariah. Zechariah, meaning "Jehovah remembers," was the most prolific writer among the "minor prophets." He is mentioned along with Haggai in Ezra 5:1 and 6:14. He is also mentioned by Nehemiah as coming to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 12:16; 11:4), except that Nehemiah calls him the son of Iddo instead of the grandson, as does Ezra. Evidently Berechiah died early, leaving Zechariah to be raised and trained by Iddo. Both Iddo and Zechariah were priests as well as prophets (Nehemiah 12:1, 16).

Zechariah 1:7
word of the Lord. This verse begins a series of eight visions. Since the next specific reference to a date occurs after all of them (Zechariah 7:1), it is likely that they were given in rapid succession, probably all on the same night, and that their respective messages are related sequentially in terms of the future events they foresee.

Zechariah 1:8
a man. The "man" is clearly the same as "the angel of the Lord" (Zechariah 1:11), and thus can be identified as none other than the preincarnate Christ, the second person of the Trinity. He continues to communicate with Zechariah in all the visions, guiding him in understanding their messages.

red horse. The "red horse" suggests conflict and war (compare Revelation 6:4) which eventually will be visited upon the nations that have been abusing the people of God, as well as on the apostates among Israel. In the company led by the Angel—evidently a part of the angelic host of heaven—were more red horses, but also some white and some speckled. Presumably these suggest there is mercy mixed with judgment in the mission of the heavenly army.
myrtle trees. The "myrtle trees" must represent the people of Israel in context, for the Angel had come to stand in their midst. The Hebrew for "myrtle" is the masculine equivalent of Hadassah, which was the Jewish name of Esther before she was made queen of Persia. In fact, it was not many years later when Esther would be saving the Jews in the Persian empire from Haman's planned genocide.

the bottom. "The bottom" is translated from a Hebrew word used only this once in Scripture, and its meaning is uncertain. It seems to be suggesting that "the myrtle trees [Israel] in the bottom" are somehow in deep trouble and danger, but the Angel of Jehovah will intervene for them.

Zechariah 1:10
walk to and fro. Like Satan and his angels (e.g., Job 1:7; 1 Peter 5:8), God's holy angels walk about on the earth on behalf of His people. Perhaps they are, in effect, "the eyes of the Lord" (2 Chronicles 16:9). See also Zechariah 6:7.

Zechariah 1:12
angel of the Lord. The Angel of the Lord (i.e., the Second Person of the Trinity) here prays as an Intercessor or Mediator to the Lord of Hosts (i.e., the First Person) on behalf of His people. He is, indeed, "our Advocate with the Father" (1 John 2:1).

threescore and ten years. The seventy years of prophesied exile had passed, and the Jewish remnant had come back home, but they still had not rebuilt the temple, as they had been commissioned to do. These visions given to Zechariah are intended to empower him (along with Haggai, whose testimony must soon end) to encourage and constrain them to complete it.

Zechariah 1:17
shall yet choose Jerusalem. The chosen people are not going to be "unchosen." God has repeatedly punished them for disobedience, but "will yet choose Israel, and set them in their own land" (Isaiah 14:1). See also Jeremiah 30:11.

Zechariah 1:20
four carpenters. To supplement the preceding vision, in which God had assured Israel of ultimate deliverance from those who had afflicted them, this second vision becomes more specific, showing four horns scattering the people, then four carpenters in turn fraying each of these. Most likely, Zechariah would understand these to refer to the famous dream image of Nebuchadnezzar, interpreted by Daniel and, no doubt, well known to the Jews of the exile (Daniel 2:36-44), forecasting four great kingdoms embracing the times of the Gentiles. Some of these had been fulfilled already (Babylon and Persia, with Greece beginning to threaten in the distance, as intimated in Zechariah 9:13), and history would show the fourth to be Rome. Each of these would, in turn, be cut down—Babylon by Persia, Persia by Greece, Greece by Rome, and Rome in its final extension ultimately by Christ Himself. Eventually, these "horns of the Gentiles" would be utterly cast out.

Zechariah 2:1
man with a measuring line. The man with the measuring line is the same as "the angel that talked with me" (Zechariah 2:3) and "the Lord" in Zechariah 2:5. As in the first two visions, this is the preincarnate Christ.

Zechariah 2:5
wall of fire. The measuring line was used to measure what Jerusalem would become in the future kingdom age under the Messiah, "inhabited as towns without walls for the multitude of men and cattle therein" (Zechariah 2:4). Jerusalem will no longer need walls, for the shekinah glory will be in her midst, in the person of Christ, and He will be as a "wall of fire" around her. Her enemies will all be gone, as revealed in the second vision.

Zechariah 2:6
land of the north. Babylon was east of Jerusalem, but the Assyro/Babylonian/Persian empire—including Syria—had always invaded Judah from the north, and the influence of the entire complex of empires was essentially north of Israel. Although the returned exiles had already departed from Babylon, they needed to abandon completely the beliefs and practices of Babylon and the other pagan nations.

Zechariah 2:7
daughter of Babylon. God's people are urged to come out of Babylon and all her baleful heritage throughout the centuries (compare Genesis 11:9; Jeremiah 50:6; Revelation 18:4; 2 Corinthians 6:14-18). Israel has been spread over the world like "the four winds" (Zechariah 2:6), but still needs to abandon the pagan ways learned from Babel—as do all "the nations" (Zechariah 2:8).

Zechariah 2:8
apple of his eye. From a Hebrew word used only this once in Scripture, evidently meant here to refer to "the pupil of the eye."

Zechariah 2:11
my people. Note Zechariah 14:9; Isaiah 2:2-3; Revelation 21:3; etc.

Zechariah 2:12
the holy land. Note that Judah is here called "the holy land," its only occurrence.
choose Jerusalem again. See note on Zechariah 1:17.

Zechariah 3:1
Joshua the high priest. In the tradition of the Levitical priesthood and Aaron, the first high priest appointed for Israel by God, Joshua had come to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel sixteen years earlier, and as their mediator, represented the Israelite nation before God.

Satan standing. Satan—as in the well-known attack on Job (Job 1:6-12)—is always tempting men to sin and, when they do, accuses them before God, as "the accuser of our brethren" (Revelation 12:10). His hatred toward men ("created in the image of God" which he was not) is exceeded only by his hatred of God. He himself wants to be god of the universe, and so seeks to defeat all God's purposes for His other creatures.

Zechariah 3:2
rebuke thee, O Satan. The first basis of God's rebuke to Satan is not in any attempt to justify Israel's wickedness, but merely that God had chosen Jerusalem, and that was that! What God does is right, by definition.

Zechariah 3:3
filthy garments. Joshua's "filthy garments" represented the sinfulness of the people of Judah (Isaiah 1:4-6; 64:6).

Zechariah 3:4
change of raiment. The "filthy garments" or sins were removed, not by Joshua, but by God, who "caused thine iniquity to pass from thee," and who then replaced them with "garments of salvation" (Isaiah 61:10).

Zechariah 3:8
my servant the BRANCH. "The BRANCH" is one of the specifically designated names given by the Lord to His promised Messiah. It is He by whose work Joshua (and his people) can have their iniquity removed and their unclean garments exchanged for robes of righteousness. See other references to "the BRANCH of the Lord" (Isaiah 4:2; 11:1; Jeremiah 23:5; 33:15; Zechariah 6:12).

Zechariah 3:9
behold the stone. The "stone" must also speak of Christ, the "tried stone," the "head-stone of the corner" (Isaiah 28:16; Psalm 118:22). The "seven eyes" on the stone would thus indicate, through the perfect number seven, the omniscience and omnipresence of the Messiah thus symbolized, through the Holy Spirit. He is also the "Lamb as it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent forth into all the earth" (Revelation 5:6). On this basis alone can iniquities be removed.

Zechariah 4:2
seven lamps thereon. Contrast the candlestick in the tabernacle (Exodus 25:31-40).

Zechariah 4:3
two olive trees. The "two olive trees" are said by the angel to represent "the two anointed ones, that stand by the Lord of the whole earth" (Zechariah 4:14), and are commonly identified by expositors as Joshua and Zerubbabel. They may have been so interpreted by the people of Jerusalem, whom Zechariah was encouraging to build the temple, but this could not have been the primary meaning (according to Revelation 11:3-4). Zerubbabel and Joshua, with their great ministry of building God's temple, were actually types of two great witnesses, said to be still "standing before the God of the earth" five hundred years later in John's day (Revelation 11:3-4), and who will be given "power" to "prophesy" for 3½ years to the whole world during the future tribulation period. As to their identity, standing in God's presence for 2500 years, then to be sent to prophesy, die and be resurrected on earth in the last days, see the notes on Revelation 11:3-12. There it is indicated they must be Enoch and Elijah, the only two men in history who ascended to heaven without dying in their natural bodies (Genesis 5:24; Hebrews 11:5; 2 Kings 2:11).

Zechariah 4:6
nor by power. This assurance would encourage the governor to proceed with the building of the temple, regardless of the great opposition the project had generated. The promise likewise should encourage Christians in every future time not to rely on political power, strength of numbers or human stratagems to do the work of God, but on God's Spirit. The New Testament frequently stresses this great truth (e.g., 1 Corinthians 1:26-31).

Zechariah 4:10
small things. Though the new temple was small in relation to the former temple (Haggai 2:3; Ezra 3:12), it was a necessary beginning and its ramifications would eventually encompass the whole world. No work done in the name of Christ as led by His Spirit in harmony with His Word is trivial in the eyes of God, for He can use small things to accomplish great things.

Zechariah 5:2
flying roll. This strange vision revealed a great scroll, with judgments written on both sides, flying throughout the earth to indicate the whole earth is under "the curse of the law" (Galatians 3:13).

Zechariah 5:3
cut off. Those who rejected God's grace, as shown in the previous visions, continuing in their sins, unrepentant and unforgiven, would be "cut off." The two sins mentioned in Zechariah 5:4, taking God's name in falsifying the truth and stealing, involving the central commandment in each of the two tables of the law, in effect stand for breaking any of God's commands.

Zechariah 5:7
talent of lead. The talent was the largest measure of weight, as the ephah was the largest measure of volume, both symbolizing the system of weights and measures which provides the very heart of the world's commerce.
woman. As the circular weight was momentarily lifted from the mouth of the ephah, it revealed a woman evidently seeking to escape the container.

Zechariah 5:8
wickedness. Although commerce (business, trade, finance, shipping, etc.) is not necessarily wicked, it can easily and quickly become such as it degenerates into covetousness and the worship of mammon. Ever since Babel, it has been the cause of most crime and most wars. Its "resemblance" is found "through all the earth" (Zechariah 5:6) and is seen here as a seductive woman attempting to escape her confinement in order to seduce the returned exiles away from their spiritual call to rebuild God's temple and reestablish His worship in "the holy land" (Zechariah 2:12), persuading them to build instead lives of luxury for themselves (compare Haggai 1:3-11).

Zechariah 5:11
land of Shinar. "Shinar" is Babel, where Nimrod first built his great anti-God empire based upon pantheistic evolutionism and idolatrous covetousness, thence to become the earth's "mother of harlots" (Revelation 17:5). In the last days, this Babylonian system of anti-God commercialism—perhaps apostate religion and political union of the Gentile nations will swiftly, on "wind-borne wings," as it were, be carried back to its ancient home in Babylon. Babylon will then quickly be reestablished as the world's center of government, culture and commerce, the capital of the Beast. See notes on Revelation 17 and notes on Revelation 18. Babylon has already been partially rebuilt by the Iraqi government.

Zechariah 6:1
two mountains. This eighth and last vision in the sequence of visions given to Zechariah, evidently all on the same night, climaxes the others by indicating that God is sending out His heavenly hosts to assure that the prophecies of the first seven will be fulfilled. Both the promised blessings on Israel and the judgments on the nations are sure to be accomplished. Although the promises came forth from God's heavenly throne, they appear in the vision as emanating from His promised future earthly throne in Jerusalem, between two "mountains of brass"—that is, mountains of great value.

Zechariah 6:3
grisled. That is, "gray-colored."

Zechariah 6:5
four spirits. These "spirits" are angels (Psalm 104:4), possibly the four angels mentioned in either Revelation 7:1 or 9:14. Like the "two anointed ones" that "stand by the Lord of the whole earth" (Zechariah 4:14), they await the exact time when God sends them forth. That they are angels of judgment is shown by the symbol of chariots and horses.

Zechariah 6:7
the bay. "Bay" should actually read "strong," and may refer to the "red horses" which are mentioned in Zechariah 6:2, but not Zechariah 6:6-7. The color red may have been deleted to indicate that God will make all war and bloodshed to cease when He restores Israel (Micah 4:1-3).

walked to and fro. Three times it is stressed that the "strong" horses will "walk to and fro through the earth," indicating that God will assuredly see that His will is accomplished everywhere, even in the areas still under Babylon's influence.

Zechariah 6:11
the head of Joshua. This symbolic crowning of Joshua (same name as "Jesus"), appropriately follows the completion of the eight visions, since the kingdom age will follow the cleansing of the world and the restoration of Israel. It is significant that the crowning is applied to Joshua the high priest rather than to Zerubbabel, the governor and descendant of kings. There could be no other king of Judah until "the Branch" comes (Jeremiah 33:15-17, compared with Jeremiah 22:30). The kingly line of Judah and the priestly line of Levi had always been kept distinct, yet here Joshua the priest would symbolically become "a priest upon the throne" (Zechariah 6:13).

Zechariah 6:12
The BRANCH. Confirming the prophecy of Jeremiah (see note on Zechariah 6:11), "the man whose name is The Branch" will come to occupy David's throne and to build the millennial temple. But He will also be "a priest for ever" (Psalm 110:4), our eternal Priest-King. Joshua would build the restoration temple, along with Zerubbabel, and this becomes a type of Christ as both priest and king. The crowns themselves were to be laid up in the temple as a memorial (Zechariah 6:14).

Zechariah 7:1
king Darius. Two years after Zechariah was given the eight visions, he received another word from God, this time rebuking the Jews still in Babylon for instituting a formal fast day without authorization from God and without true repentance. Like many modern religionists, "they made their hearts as an adamant stone" (Zechariah 7:12) whenever they heard God's Word.

Zechariah 7:2
house of God. Possibly this delegation came from Bethel (which means "House of God"). Elsewhere in the Old Testament, the temple is always spoken of as "the house of the Lord." The delegation wanted to know if they should continue to mourn and fast in commemoration of the temple's destruction, now that it was being rebuilt.

Zechariah 7:5
did ye at all fast unto me? This was a rhetorical question. The fact that they asked it indicated that these fasts were a burden to them. As a matter of fact, the Lord had never commanded them in the first place. The only regular fast specified by God was that on the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 23:26-32).

Zechariah 7:12
adamant stone. See note on Ezekiel 3:9. The Hebrew word for "adamant" basically means "pricking" and is often translated "briers." When used in connection with a stone, however, it means a "pricking" stone, one which can engrave metals or glass. It is translated "diamond" in Jeremiah 17:1.

Zechariah 8:3
city of truth. The name "Jerusalem" means "City of Peace." It will also be the "City of Truth," as well as peace, but only when He who is "the Truth" (John 14:6) is dwelling there.

Zechariah 8:4
very age. In the coming kingdom age, when the Lord Jesus "will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem" (Zechariah 8:3), the longevity of the antediluvians will be restored. "There shall be no more … an old man that hath not filled his days: for the child shall die an hundred years old" (Isaiah 65:20).

Zechariah 8:5
boys and girls. At the end of the tribulation period, there will be "few men left" (Isaiah 24:6) who are allowed to remain on the earth after the judgment of those still living (Matthew 25:31-46). However, in view of the idyllic environmental and political conditions that will prevail during the following millennium, the population will multiply so rapidly that people will become "as the sand of the sea" (Revelation 20:8) by the end of that age.

Zechariah 8:12
the remnant of this people. Here again is the doctrine of the remnant (see Micah 2:12; 5:7; Romans 9:27). These promises will be literally fulfilled in the future kingdom age, after Christ (that is, Messiah) comes again.

Zechariah 8:19
cheerful feasts. The various fasts which the Jews had been observing during their exile (strictly on their own, more out of self-pity than love for God—Zechariah 7:4-6), will be gladly observed in the millennial kingdom as "cheerful feasts," rather than mournful fasts.

Zechariah 8:23
languages of the nations. In that day, the Lord has said: "I will gather all nations and tongues; and they shall come, and see my glory" (Isaiah 66:18). Not only will men of all languages come to Jerusalem, but even their separate languages will be forgotten, for God has also said: "Then will I turn to the people a pure language [almost certainly the Hebrew language, in which He first gave forth His Word], that they may all call upon the name of the Lord, to serve Him with one consent" (Zephaniah 3:9). The number ten undoubtedly is merely representative of all still living—perhaps the remaining Gentile population will be only ten times the Jewish population.

Zechariah 9:1
burden. The second portion of the book of Zechariah, beginning here at chapter 9, has been attributed by many critics to some other author than Zechariah, primarily because of its remarkable Messianic prophecies. However, there are numerous points of similarity between the two portions, in both theme and vocabulary. Furthermore, both sections are quoted in the New Testament, the authors always regarding the passages as inspired Scripture. Until the rise of modern evolutionary liberalism, both Jews and Christians, ancient and modern, have unanimously accepted the entire book as a canonical unit. In this section, received by the prophet much later in his life than the eight visions of his youthful ministry, he is given a "burden" of judgment soon to fall on the nations still opposing Israel (see also Zechariah 12:1).
Hadrach. Hadrach was long believed by critics to be a mythical region. In the late nineteenth century, however, a number of references to it have been found in archaeological records. It was a Syrian city, along with Damascus and Hamath (Zechariah 9:2).

Zechariah 9:3
Tyrus. See notes on Ezekiel 26. The original mainland city of Tyre, capital of Phoenicia, was taken by Nebuchadnezzar, but the Tyrians then built an almost impregnable city on a nearby island, becoming very rich through her maritime trade. She continued strong throughout the Persian period as well.

Zechariah 9:4
smite her power. The Greeks, under Alexander the Great, finally demolished and burned the new Tyre after building a broad causeway out to the island city.

Zechariah 9:6
pride of the Philistines. Even though subjugated by Nebuchadnezzar, the Philistines remained a proud nation during the Chaldean and Persian periods, though paying tribute to these kings as a semi-independent group of city-states. However, as Alexander swept down the coast after defeating the Persians, then the Syrians, then the Phoenicians (all this in about 335 b.c., some 150 years after Zechariah's prophecy), he next routed the Philistines. The chief city, Gaza, was completely destroyed when its king defied Alexander. The other cities evidently surrendered with little resistance. Ashdod and presumably the others were taken over by foreigners, so that they soon were occupied by a mixed, or bastard, population. Eventually these were all incorporated into the dominant Jewish population of the region, as the Jebusites had been long before (Zechariah 9:7). See also Jeremiah 47.

Zechariah 9:9
behold, thy King. This is clearly a Messianic prophecy, quoted as such in Matthew 21:4-5; and John 12:14-15. The event is also described in Mark and Luke, all four writers clearly regarding it as of profound significance.

having salvation. The King who comes is fully righteous and able to bring salvation. Nevertheless, He is also "lowly" (or "afflicted") and will enter Jerusalem in a manner not like kings would, with chariots and horses, but on a lowly donkey, thus identifying Himself with the poor.

foal of an ass. This terminology indicates the ass on which He would ride is not yet broken, for it is still following its mother. Yet, when the time came, the unbroken ass would willingly obey its Creator.

Zechariah 9:10
cut off. The lowly King will cause all wars to cease, and will become ruler over all the earth, but this obviously did not happen when He came fulfilling the first part of this prophecy, entering Jerusalem on a young donkey. As with numerous prophecies, especially Messianic prophecies, there is a blending of the events of His first and second comings. A frequently used illustration is that of an observer looking at two far-off mountain peaks. Unaware that there is a great valley between the peaks, he assumes they are part of the same mountain, describing the two together.

ends of the earth. Zechariah here, in effect repeats and reinforces such earlier Messianic prophecies as Psalm 72:8; Micah 5:4; etc.

Zechariah 9:13
Greece. When Zechariah wrote this prophecy, the Greek nation had not yet risen to military prominence, but he knew from Daniel's prophecies (Daniel 2:39; 8:3-7, 20-21) that Greece would eventually displace Medo-Persia as the dominant world power. Sooner or later, little Israel must confront mighty Greece. According to Josephus, the Jewish historian, when Alexander had defeated the Philistines and headed toward Jerusalem, Alexander was led to spare and even honor the Jews when Jaddua, the high priest, met him and showed him these prophecies of Daniel that he was fulfilling. Later, after the break-up of Alexander's empire, the Maccabean Jews did have to battle continually with his successors in Syria, but the Lord preserved them and enabled them to endure.

Zechariah 10:1
showers of rain. "Ask, and it shall be given you" (Matthew 7:7). This promise of rain, although specifically referring to the restoration of the ancient rainfall cycle to Israel, after long centuries of aridity, indicates that it is appropriate to pray for rain when rain is needed. Although rainfall is a natural phenomenon, controlled by natural causes, God can providentially organize the complex of causes in such a way that, when properly combined, they will yield rainfall. The same would be true of any other natural phenomenon. Such providential miracles—not requiring a suspension of the divinely-established laws of nature, but rather special organizing of the forces which produce the phenomenon—are frequently encountered in Scripture (note James 5:17-18).

Zechariah 10:4
came forth the corner. The "corner" (i.e., "cornerstone") speaks of the coming Messiah (note Psalm 118:22; 1 Peter 2:7). He is also "the nail in a sure place" (Isaiah 22:23), and the great "battle bow" (note Zechariah 9:13), as well as every "oppressor" (or better "suppressor") of wickedness.

Zechariah 10:6
house of Judah. Both the southern tribes, represented by Judah, and the northern kingdom, represented by Joseph, will be brought again to their land and placed there permanently.

Zechariah 10:8
hiss for them. That is, like a shepherd whistles for his sheep.

Zechariah 11:7
two staves. The ancient Semitic shepherd commonly had two staves, one for driving off wild beasts attacking his flock, the other to help guide the sheep through difficult places. This Good Shepherd, however, cares for His sheep with a staff named "Beauty" (literally "grace," by which He keeps them safe from their enemies) and one named "Bands" (by which He keeps His true flock united in Him).

Zechariah 11:8
Three shepherds. Many speculations have been published concerning the identity of these false shepherds. Since the primary context of this section (Zechariah 9-11) centers in the first coming of Messiah, His rejection, and His triumphant second coming (note especially Zechariah 9:9-10; 11:12-13), especially as these events affect Israel, they most likely represent Jewish leaders who have led their people away from the true God and His Christ. Since there were three groups of such leaders—prophets (or teachers), priests, and kings—the false shepherds probably represent false prophets, false priests and false kings. Israel and Judah have had an abundance of each, especially around the time of Christ. In fact, they were responsible, humanly speaking, for having Him crucified.

one month. The suddenness of the "cutting off" of these false shepherds probably refers prophetically to the destruction of the temple and the city of Jerusalem by the Romans, followed by the age-long dispersion of the Jewish people over all the world, climaxed in a.d. 135. There have been no Jewish prophets, priests or kings since (note Hosea 3:4). This evidently is also the dominant theme of the first six verses of this chapter. Even though the restoration of the temple had been completed and some were hoping the Messianic age was about to begin, Zechariah could foresee through divine inspiration that the true Shepherd of Israel would be rejected and His flock would be scattered (Zechariah 13:7).

Zechariah 11:10
cut it asunder. The Shepherd had made a covenant with the Gentiles (in this verse, "people" is plural) not to harm Israel while they served the true God. This covenant of gracious protection was finally broken after repeated rebellion, climaxed by Israel's rejection of their Messiah.

Zechariah 11:12
thirty pieces of silver. For the fulfillment of this remarkable prophecy five hundred years later, see Matthew 26:14-16. "Thirty pieces of silver" was the value placed on the fatal goring of a man's slave by his neighbor's ox (Exodus 21:32). The value of this divine Servant to His nation was greater than the wealth of the entire world, yet its leaders appraised His death as worth only the price of a dead slave.

Zechariah 11:13
a goodly price. This is spoken in sarcasm, Zechariah acting out this visual prophecy and contemptuously rejecting the insulting price at which His shepherding ministry had been valued, speaking, of course, in the name of the true Shepherd who would come some day to His people, as described in Zechariah 9:9.

cast them to the potter. In addition to the price itself, the disposition of this blood money was also accurately foretold. See Matthew 27:3-10, where the prophecy is attributed to Jeremiah (for the reason for this seeming "mistake," see the note on Matthew 27:9).

Zechariah 11:17
idol shepherd. Because Israel will reject her Good Shepherd, God will send a foolish shepherd (Zechariah 11:15) who will seek to destroy them (Zechariah 11:16). He becomes an "idol" shepherd by demanding they worship him instead of the true Shepherd (Matthew 24:15-16; 2 Thessalonians 2:3-4; Revelation 13:14-15). He is, of course, the Beast, or Antichrist.

Zechariah 12:1
word of the Lord for Israel. These words introduce the last section of the book of Zechariah (chapters 12-14), one of the most remarkable prophetic sections in the Bible. Its climax is the great victory of God over all His enemies, and the fulfillment of all His promises to Israel. As such, it appropriately begins with a reminder that the God of Israel is none other than the mighty Creator of the universe and of every human being.

Zechariah 12:3
burdensome stone. For many centuries, Jerusalem and its people have been "an astonishment, a proverb, and a byword, among all nations" (Deuteronomy 28:37), "a reproach and a proverb, a taunt and a curse, in all places" (Jeremiah 24:9). But "in that day," it will become "a burdensome stone" to all these peoples, and God will judge the nations in relation to their treatment of Israel. Many such nations have already been judged (ancient Assyria, imperial Rome, Czarist Russia, Nazi Germany). The kingdom of the Beast will have its turn as well.

Zechariah 12:9
destroy all the nations. "In that day" is generally synonymous with "the day of the Lord." Certainly in this context, it points forward to the great end-time invasion of Israel by the multi-national armies of the Beast (see also Isaiah 63:1-6; Micah 5:5-15; Matthew 24:15-21; Revelation 12:13-15; 13:7; 16:13-16; 19:19; etc.).

Zechariah 12:10
the spirit of grace. This is the final reference to "grace" in the Old Testament (the first is in Genesis 6:8). Despite the widespread opinion that "grace" is strictly a New Testament concept, there are at least sixty-eight occurrences of "grace" and ninety-eight of "graciously" in the Old Testament. The related concept of "lovingkindness" or "mercy" (same Hebrew word) occurs over two hundred times.

pierced. This is the great day when Christ returns in glory, and Israel will finally recognize Him as her Messiah, seeing the spear wound yet in His side (Zechariah 12:10 is quoted in John 19:37 and Revelation 1:7) and the nail prints in His hands (Zechariah 13:6). By His "Spirit of grace and of supplications" God will open their eyes and hearts, and "all Israel shall be saved" (Romans 11:26).

Zechariah 12:11
great mourning. When their national age-long sin is finally recognized and confessed, there will indeed be great mourning, but also great joy (Zephaniah 3:14-20).

Hadadrimmon. Hadadrimmon was a town in the valley of Megiddo (same as Armageddon). The last of the godly kings of Israel and Judah, good King Josiah, was slain by the Egyptian army at Megiddo (2 Chronicles 35:20-25), and there was great mourning. There may also be a possible suggestion of great mourning at Armageddon over the multitudes slain there when Christ returns (Revelation 14:14-20).

Zechariah 13:1
a fountain opened. There will be living waters emerging from Jerusalem in that day (Zechariah 14:8), but the fountain mentioned in this verse is "for sin and uncleanness." It can only refer to the cleansing blood of the Savior (Ephesians 1:7; Revelation 1:5; etc.), which is, for the first time, applied here to the whole nation of Israel. Possibly their national repentance will be couched in the words of Isaiah 52:13-53:12.

Zechariah 13:6
wounds in thine hands. Most expositors say this question is addressed to the "false prophet" discussed in Zechariah 13:3-5, on the assumption that his wounds were somehow caused by mutilation in his occult rituals. This seems unlikely since, in the post-Armageddon context of this section, any false prophets operating during the tribulation period would already have been "cut off" (Zechariah 13:2) and dispatched to the lake of fire along with their masters, the Beast and his False Prophet (Revelation 19:20; Matthew 25:41). Zechariah 12:11-13:5 seem rather to be a parenthetical section inserted between two profoundly moving descriptions of Messiah's wounds (Zechariah 12:10; 13:6), the sight of which will result in Israel's conversion, great mourning and cleansing, accompanied by their purging the land of any remaining idols and false prophets, together with the evil spirits possessing and energizing them.

John MacArthur agrees with Morris that this section refers to Messiah - God spoke of the True Shepherd, that mighty Man who is His intimate associate, thus He identified Christ as His co-equal, affirming the deity of Christ (cf. Jn 1:1; 10:30; 14:9). Strike the Shepherd. In 11:17, it was the worthless shepherd who was to be struck; now it is the Good Shepherd (cf. 12:10) whose death was designed by God from before the foundation of the world (cf. Is 53:10; Ac 2:23; 1Pe 1:18–20). sheep … scattered. See notes on Mt 26:31; Mk 14:27, where Jesus applies this prophecy to the disciples who defected from Him after His arrest (Mt 26:56; Mk 14:50), including Peter’s denial (Mt 26:33–35, 69–75). the little ones. The same as the “afflicted of the flock” (11:7). The reference is to the remnant of believers, among the Jews, who were faithful to the Messiah after His crucifixion. Turning God’s hand “against” them could mean they would suffer persecution, which they did (cf. Jn 15:18, 20; 16:2; Jas 1:1), or it could be translated “upon” and refer to God’s protection of the faithful. (MacArthur Study Bible - see also Dr MacArthur's sermon - Zechariah 13:1-9 The Cleansing of Israel)

I was wounded. It seems more appropriate to the whole amazing scene here described to understand these words as addressed to the one on whom they had looked and for whom they were mourning (Zechariah 12:10). Not only had His side been pierced, but also His hands (see Psalm 22:16), and these wounds remained even in His resurrected body (John 20:24-28). With great sadness, He replies that these everlasting wounds had been inflicted at the urging of those who should have been His friends, the leaders of the nation He had come to redeem. This interpretation is strengthened by the fact that the succeeding verse is explicitly applied to the wounding of Messiah.

Zechariah 13:7
smite the shepherd. This verse is quoted in Matthew 26:31 and Mark 14:27, by Christ Himself. He, the Good Shepherd, would give His life for the sheep (John 10:11) but, in the trauma of these world-changing events, His sheep would be scattered for a while. The "sword" would "smite the shepherd," and they would be scattered for two thousand years, but the time would come when they would return to Him, exactly as Zechariah has predicted.

Zechariah 14:4
mount of Olives. As Christ ascended from Mt. Olivet, there He shall stand again (Acts 1:11-12).

shall cleave. The great splitting of the Mount of Olives, beneath which are known to exist even now great fault lines, will probably result from the global earthquake of Revelation 16:18-19.

Zechariah 14:5
the earthquake. This earthquake is also mentioned in Amos 1:1, and must have been a terrible catastrophe, to be remembered so long—approximately three hundred years by the time of Zechariah. Geologists have generally confirmed this.

the saints with thee. When the Lord Jesus—the Messiah—does return at this time, He will, indeed, be accompanied by a host of "saints" (or "holy ones"). These will include both angels and redeemed men and women in their resurrection bodies (see 2 Thessalonians 1:7, 1 Thessalonians 3:13; 4:16-17; Revelation 19:7-14).

Zechariah 14:6
that day. The phrase "in that day" refers to "the day of the Lord," the period when God is judging and cleansing the earth and its inhabitants. It occurs twenty-one times in the book of Zechariah—first in Zechariah 2:11, last in Zechariah 14:21.

Zechariah 14:7
shall be light. The strange atmospheric phenomena described in Zechariah 14:6-7 may be related in some way to the great earthquake, but may as well be entirely supernatural, events properly heralding the personal presence of the Creator.

Zechariah 14:8
living waters. Emerging from a great aquifer beneath Jerusalem, and released by the earthquake, two great rivers will flow, one to the Dead Sea, one to the Mediterranean. See the more detailed account of these waters in Ezekiel 47:1-12. There were similar rivers in Eden, flowing out from God, and there will also be such in the New Jerusalem (Genesis 2:10-14; Revelation 22:1-2). All of these are literal models of the great spiritual prototype, the living water from Christ Himself (Isaiah 44:3; John 4:14; 7:37-39; Revelation 22:17).

Zechariah 14:9
one Lord. No more will men worship the creation rather than the Creator, by way of thousands of pantheistic, polytheistic delusions. All will know and obey the one God, our Creator/Savior, through Jesus Christ (Philippians 2:9-11; Ephesians 1:21; etc.).

Zechariah Translation and Study Notes
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Recommended: NETBible notes are in the right panel. You can also select the tab for "Constable's Notes." As you scroll the Bible text in the left panel, the notes are synchronized and will scroll to the same passage. Also has a nice parallel Bible feature (see Tab = "Parallel"). Select a different Bible translation (see Tab = "Bible"). Open Greek/Hebrew tab. Mouse over shows corresponding English word and has short definition at bottom of right panel.

Below are some samples (from the eschatological passages in Zechariah 12-14) of the type of information one can glean from the NET notes...

Zechariah 12:2 - The image of a cup that brings dizziness is that of drunkenness. The Lord will force the nations to drink of his judgment and in doing so they will become so intoxicated by his wrath that they will stumble and become irrational.

Zechariah 12:3 - Heb “heavy stone” (so NRSV, TEV, NLT); KJV “burdensome stone”; NIV “an immovable rock.”...In Israel’s and Judah’s past they had been uprooted by various conquerors such as the Assyrians and the Babylonians. In the eschaton, however, they will be so “heavy” with God’s glory and so rooted in his promises that no nation will be able to move them.

Zechariah 12:6 - On that day (referring to the day of the Lord) the Davidic monarchy will be restored and the Lord’s people will recognize once more the legitimacy and divine sanction of David’s dynasty. But there will also be a democratizing that will not give Jerusalem and its rulers undue priority over the people of the countryside (v. 7).

Zechariah 12:8 - The statement the dynasty of David will be like God is hyperbole to show the remarkable enhancements that will accompany the inauguration of the millennial age.

Zechariah 12:10 - The Hebrew term בְּכוֹר (bÿkhor, “firstborn”), translated usually in the LXX by πρωτότοκος (prototokos), has unmistakable messianic overtones as the use of the Greek term in the NT to describe Jesus makes clear (cf. Col 1:15, 18). Thus, the idea of God being pierced sets the stage for the fatal wounding of Jesus, the Messiah and the Son of God (cf. John 19:37; Rev 1:7). Note that some English translations supply “son” from the context (e.g., NIV, TEV, NLT).

Zechariah 12:11 - “Hadad-Rimmon” is a compound of the names of two Canaanite deities, the gods of storm and thunder respectively. The grammar (a subjective genitive) allows, and the problem of comparing Israel’s grief at God’s “wounding” with pagan mourning seems to demand, that this be viewed as a place name, perhaps where Judah lamented the death of good king Josiah (cf. 2 Chr 35:25). However, some translations render this as “for” (NRSV, NCV, TEV, CEV), suggesting a person, while others translate as “of” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NLT) which is ambiguous.

Zechariah 12:12 - By the time of Zechariah the line of descent from David had already been transferred from the Solomon branch to the Nathan branch (the clan of the family of Nathan). Nathan was a son of David (2 Sam 5:14) through whom Jesus eventually came (Luke 3:23-31). Matthew traces Jesus’ ancestry back through Solomon (Matt 1:6-16) but apparently this is to tie Joseph into the Davidic (and thus messianic) line. The “official” descent of Jesus may be viewed as passing through Solomon whereas the “physical” descent came through Nathan.

Zechariah 12:13 - The Shimeites were Levites (Exod 6:16-17; Num 3:17-18) who presumably were prominent in the postexilic era. Just as David and Nathan represented the political leadership of the community, so Levi and Shimei represented the religious leadership. All will lament the piercing of the Messiah.

Zechariah 13:1 - This reference to the fountain opened up…to cleanse them from sin and impurity is anticipatory of the cleansing from sin that lies at the heart of the NT gospel message (Rom 10:9-10; Titus 3:5). “In that day” throughout the passage (Zech 13:1, 2, 4) locates this cleansing in the eschatological (church) age (John 19:37).

Zechariah 13:3 - Death (in this case being run…through with a sword) was the penalty required in the OT for prophesying falsely (Deut 13:6-11; 18:20-22).

Zechariah 13:4 - The “hairy garment of a prophet” (אַדֶּרֶת שֵׁעָר, ’adderet shear) was the rough clothing of Elijah (1 Kgs 19:13), Elisha (1 Kgs 19:19; 2 Kgs 2:14), and even John the Baptist (Matt 3:4). Yet, אַדֶּרֶת alone suggests something of beauty and honor (Josh 7:21). The prophet’s attire may have been simple the image it conveyed was one of great dignity.

Zechariah 13:6 - Heb “wounds between your hands.” Cf. NIV “wounds on your body”; KJV makes this more specific: “wounds in thine hands.” These wounds on your chest. Pagan prophets were often self-lacerated (Lev 19:28; Deut 14:1; 1 Kgs 18:28) for reasons not entirely clear, so this false prophet betrays himself as such by these graphic and ineradicable marks.

Zechariah 13:8 - The fractions mentioned here call to mind the affliction of God’s people described by Ezekiel, though Ezekiel referred to his own times whereas Zechariah is looking forward to a future eschatological age. Ezekiel spoke of cutting his hair at God’s command (Ezek 5:1-4) and then of burning a third of it, striking a third with a sword, and scattering the rest. From this last third a few hairs would survive to become the nucleus of a new Israel. It is this “third” Zechariah speaks of (v. 9), the remnant who will be purified and reclaimed as God’s covenant people.

Zechariah 14:1 The eschatological day of the Lord described here (and through v. 8) is considered by many interpreters to refer to the period known as the great tribulation, a seven year time of great suffering by God’s (Jewish) people culminating in the establishing of the millennial reign of the Lord (vv. 9-21). For other OT and NT references to this aspect of the day of the Lord see Amos 9:8-15; Joel 1:15–2:11; Isa 1:24-31; 2:2-4; 4:2-6; 26:16–27:6; 33:13-24; 59:1–60:22; 65:13-25; Jer 30:7-11; 32:36-44; Ezek 20:33-44; Dan 11:40; 12:1; Matt 24:21, 29; 25:31-46; Rev 19:11-16.

Zechariah 14:2  The statement the Lord will go to battle introduces the conflict known elsewhere as the “battle of Armageddon,” a battle in which the Lord delivers his people and establishes his millennial reign (cf. Joel 3:12, 15-16; Ezek 38–39; Rev 16:12-21; 19:19-21).

Zechariah 14:3 - This seismic activity provides a means of escape from Jerusalem so that the Messiah (the Lord), whose feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, may destroy the wicked nations in the Kidron Valley (the v. of Jehoshaphat, or of “judgment of the Lord”) without harming the inhabitants of the city.

Zechariah 14:5 - The earthquake in the days of King Uzziah, also mentioned in Amos 1:1, is apparently the one attested to at Hazor in 760 b.c.

Zechariah 14:7 -  In the evening there will be light. The normal pattern is that light breaks through in the morning (Gen 1:3) but in the day of the Lord in judgment it would do so in the evening. In a sense the universe will be “de-created” in order to be “recreated.”

Zechariah 14:8 -  Living waters will flow out from Jerusalem. Ezekiel sees this same phenomenon in conjunction with the inauguration of the messianic age (Ezek 47; cf. Rev 22:1-5; also John 7:38).

Zechariah 14:9 - The expression the Lord will be seen as one with a single name is an unmistakable reference to the so-called Shema, the crystallized statement of faith in the Lord as the covenant God of Israel (cf. Deut 6:4-5). Zechariah, however, universalizes the extent of the Lord’s dominion – he will be “king over all the earth.”

Zechariah 14:16 -  Having imposed his sovereignty over the earth following the Battle of Armageddon, the Lord will receive homage and tribute from all who survive from all the nations. The Feast of Tabernacles was especially associated with covenant institution and renewal so it will be appropriate for all people to acknowledge that they are vassals to the Lord at that time (cf. Deut 31:9-13; Neh 8:12-18; 9:1-38).

Zechariah 14:17 -  The reference to any…who refuse to go up to Jerusalem makes clear the fact that the nations are by no means “converted” to the Lord but are under his compulsory domination.

Zechariah 14:20 - In the glory of the messianic age there will be no differences between the sacred (the bowls before the altar) and the profane (the cooking pots in the Lord’s temple) – all will be dedicated to his use.

Zechariah 14:21 - This is not to preclude the Canaanite (or anyone else) from worship; the point is that in the messianic age all such ethnic and religious distinctions will be erased and all people will be eligible to worship the Lord.

Sermons on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Scroll Down the Page for the actual sermon transcript.

Devotionals for Zechariah
Sermon and teaching illustrations
Radio Bible Class

on Zechariah

Be cautious (Acts 17:11-note): Does not always interpret the Scripture literally and sometimes replaces Israel with the Church (note)

Commentary on Zechariah

James Rosscup writes "This work originally appeared in 1860. The present publication is set up in two columns to the page with the text of the Authorized Version reproduced at the top. Scripture references, Hebrew words, and other citations are relegated to the bottom of the page. The work is detailed and analytical in nature. Introduction, background and explanation of the Hebrew are quite helpful. Pusey holds to the grammatical-historical type of interpretation until he gets into sections dealing with the future of Israel, and here Israel becomes the church in the amillennial vein." (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)

Notes on Zechariah

Reference Notes on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Sermons on Zechariah
Generally Conservative, Literal Interpretation

Charles Simeon (1759-1836), a British pastor who lived and preached long before dispensationalism was a popular, simply allowed the text to say what it says normally and in plain English and in so doing arrived at a literal interpretation of the text (e.g., see his sermon The Millennial Glory). For John Piper on Simeon see Brothers We Must Not Mind a Little Suffering (Mp3 even better)

Sermon Notes on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Commentary Notes by Chapter

Commentary on Zechariah
The Expositor's Bible

James Rosscup writes "Though old this is well-written and often cited, with many good statements on spiritual truths. Users will find much that is worthwhile, and sometimes may disagree, as when he sees the Jonah account as allegorical (Ed: See Tony Garland's article on the Rise of Allegorical Interpretation)." (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)


Devotionals on Zechariah
Morning and Evening
Faith's Checkbook

Sermons on Zechariah

The list below represents all of Spurgeon's sermons on Zechariah

Horner (see his conservative commentary listed above) wrote that "Spurgeon preached two sermons on this verse (Zech 8:13), both of which express his firm conviction in national Israel’s future restoration and conversion. In 1863 he declared (Click for excerpt from his sermon "Once a Curse...)

Sermon Notes on Zechariah

Sermons on Zechariah
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Moody Bible Institute
Conservative, Literal, Futuristic Interpretation

Sermons on Zechariah
Conservative, Evangelical, Literal



DISCLAIMER: Before you "go to the commentaries" go to the Scriptures and study them inductively (Click 3 part overview of how to do Inductive Bible Study) in dependence on your Teacher, the Holy Spirit, Who Jesus promised would guide us into all the truth (John 16:13). Remember that Scripture is always the best commentary on Scripture. Any commentary, even those by the most conservative and orthodox teacher/preachers cannot help but have at least some bias of the expositor based upon his training and experience. Therefore the inclusion of specific links does not indicate that we agree with every comment. We have made a sincere effort to select only the most conservative, "bibliocentric" commentaries. Should you discover some commentary or sermon you feel may not be orthodox, please email your concern. I have removed several links in response to concerns by discerning readers. I recommend that your priority be a steady intake of solid Biblical food so that with practice you will have your spiritual senses trained to discern good from evil (Heb 5:14-note).