Exodus is the Book of Redemption.
A M Hodgkin
OT Reflections of Christ - Exodus
- Paul Van Goder
The chosen people are in hopeless
bondage in the land of Egypt, having no power to deliver themselves.
But God says: ''I have seen the affliction of My people, I have
heard their cry, I know their sorrows, I am come down to deliver
them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up unto a
good land'' (Ex 3:7,8). It is a beautiful picture of the soul
redeemed from the bondage of [sin] into the glorious liberty of the
children of God. God is revealed to us as the Deliverer and Leader
of His people, a God near at hand, dwelling among them, concerned
with the affairs of their daily life.
His commission to Moses opens with the glorious vision of the
Angel of Jehovah (note) appearing in the Burning Bush. A common little thorn bush
of the dessert, ablaze with God! What a picture of the Incarnation.
God manifesting Himself in a visible tangible form (1John 1:1-note). When
Moses asks His Name, He says, ''I AM THAT I AM; say unto the
children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you'' (Ex 3:14). Where do
we find that Name again? Jesus said: ''I am the Bread of Life; I am
the Light of the World; I am the Door; I am the Good Shepherd; I am
the Resurrection and the Life; I am the Way, the Truth, and the
Life; I am the True Vine.'' Again, in response to the words, ''When Messias cometh, that is Christ...'', Jesus said, ''I am He.'' And
once He applies that name to Himself in all its simple majesty:
''Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I AM.'' It was
then that the Jews ''took up stones to cast at Him.'' Why? The
answer comes out in the accusation of the Jews to Pilate, ''We have
a law, and by our law He ought to die, because He made Himself the
Son of God.'' [All of the above statements are found in the Gospel
The Passover Lamb
In the Passover Lamb we have a picture of the Redemption that is in
Christ Jesus. With many of the types we feel that we may not have
interpreted them rightly, but with some we can have no doubt, for
God has told us the meaning. It is so in this case, and in most of
the types of Exodus. ''Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us:
therefore let us keep the feast'' (1Cor 5:7,8, cf Jn 1:29, 36).
Ex 12:6. It was a slain lamb-- not a living one-- that availed the
Israelites in the hour of judgment.
1Cor 2:2. I determined
not to know anything among you save Jesus Christ, and Him crucified.
Ex 12:5. The lamb was to be without blemish.
Ex 12:7. Its blood was to be shed and applied to the door-posts.
1Pet 1:18,19-note. Ye were...
redeemed... with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without
blemish and without spot.
Ex 12:46. No bone of it was to be broken.
John19:36; The the
Scripture might be fulfilled,, A bone of Him shall not be broken.
Ex 12:3, 20. In every home that night there was one dead, either the
first-born or the lamb in stead of the first-born. Ro 6:23-note. The
wages of sin is death.
Ro 5:8-note. While we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.
Ex 12:2. The Israelites were to reckon their life as a nation from
the day of the Passover. ''It shall be the first month of the year
to you.'' John 3:7. Ye must be born again.
Gal 4:3-6. We were in bondage... But God sent forth His Son... to
redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the
adoption of sons.
Ex 13:2. All the first born-- those who had been redeemed by the
blood of the lamb-- were to be sanctified (ie., set apart) unto the
1Cor 6:19,20-note . Ye are not
your own: ye are bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your
body, and in your spirit, which are God's.
The word pasach (06452),
over,'' in Ex 12:13,23, 27 is used in three other
passages of Scripture, namely 2Sa 4:4, translated ''became lame'';
1Kings 18:21, trans. ''halt,'' 1Ki 18:26, ''leaped''; and Isaiah 31:5,
''As birds flying, so will the Lord of Hosts protect Jerusalem; He
will protect and deliver it. He will pass over and preserve it.''
How does a mother bird-- the word is in the feminine-- protect her
nest? Not by passing over it in the sense of passing by it, but by
fluttering over it, spreading her wings in protection. Thus, Jehovah
Himself preserved His people on that awful night when the Destroyer
was abroad in the land of Egypt. It was by the Lord's command that
the Destroyer executed His judgment upon Egypt. ''All the first-born
in the land of Egypt shall die.'' Being in Egypt, Israel came under
Egypt's doom. But Jehovah Himself stood on guard, as it were, at
every blood-sprinkled door. He became their Saviour. Nothing short
of this is the meaning of the Passover.
The first-born in Egypt were saved from death by the lamb slain in
their stead. God's word to them was: ''When I see the blood, I will
pass over you.'' The blood of the lamb made them safe, their trust
in God's promise made them sure. In the same way, we may have
salvation through Jesus, the Lamb of God, slain in our stead, and
assurance through believing God's record that He ''hath given to us
eternal life, and this life is in His Son'' (1John 5:10-13).
The Living Bread and Living Water--
Next, we have a double picture of Christ as the Living Bread and the
source of the Living Water, and again we are left in no uncertaintly
as to the application of the types. When Israel murmured, the Lord
said to Moses, ''Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you'' (Ex
16:4). The Lord applied this type to Himself and said, ''I am that
Bread of Life. Your fathers did eat manna in the wilderness, and are
dead... I am the Living Bread which came down from heaven: if any
man eat of this Bread, he shall live for ever: and the Bread that I
will give is My flesh, which I will give for the life of the world''
(John 6:48-51). How beautifully this follows on from the teaching
about the Passover, which Jesus also applied to Himself when He was
eating the Passover Feast with His disciples. He took the bread,
which was a recognised part of that feast, and gave thanks and brake
it, saying, ''Take, eat; this is My body. And He took the cup, and
gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; for
this is My blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for
the remission of sins'' (Mat 26:26-28). When He spoke to His
disciples about eating His flesh and drinking His blood, they
murmured and said, ''This is an hard saying.'' And Jesus said,
''Doth this offend you? What and if ye shall see the Son of Man
ascend up where He was before? It is the Spirit that quickeneth; the
flesh profiteth nothing'' (John 6:60-63). We see clearly by these
words that it is a personal, spiritual appropriation of Christ in
His death which avails, and nothing outward. We also see the vital
necessity of this appropriation: ''Except ye eat the flesh of the
Son of Man and drink His blood, ye have no life in you.'' We must
each for ourselves know the blood which has been shed applied to our
souls spiritually for the remission of our sins, and daily-- as the
Israelites gathered the manna-- we must know what it is to feed upon
the Bread of Life.
Then, in the history of Israel, there immediately follows The
Smitten Rock. ''Thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come
water out of it, that the people may drink'' (Ex 17:6). ''They drank
of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was
Christ'' (1Cor 10:4). ''Whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall
give him shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him
shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life''
Moses was a type of Christ, as specially seen in two points:
In delivering the whole people from an awful bondage. The bondage of
sin from which Christ delivers us is far more terrible than the
bondage of Egypt.
In the giving of a new law. [The law that Christ gives is superior
to the law of Moses, as] Christ Himself shows in the Sermon on the
Mount (Mt 5-7-note) -- a law which touches the springs of
character and conduct, rather than the outcome; a law which He has
summed up for us, first in two commandments, and finally in one word
[For more complete
studies of the Tabernacle, see
Christ in the Tabernacle, by W.W. Rugh
Diagram of the Tabernacle]
With the Tabernacle (and with its services), again, we are not left
in doubt as to the true meaning. In the Epistle to the Hebrews we
are distinctly told that it was ''a copy and shadow of the heavenly
things'' (Heb 8:5, RV). It was the outward sign of God's presence in
the midst of the meeting-place between God and man. As such, it was
a true picture of the Incarnation. ''The Word became flesh, and
tabernacled among us, and we beheld His glory'' (John 1:14, RV,
margin). ''The Tabernacle of God is with men'' (Rev 21:3). As a
whole, it was a type of Christ, and every part of it shows forth
something of His glory (Ps 29:9, margin). Every detail of its
design was given to Moses by God in the mount. ''As Moses was
admonished of God when he made the Tabernacle: for, See, saith He,
that thou make all things according to the pattern shown thee in the
mount'' (Heb 8:5). And over fifty times, it is recorded of Moses,
''As the Lord commanded Moses, so did he.'' What have we each seen
in the Tabernacle? How did it appear viewed from without? A long
black, unattractive tent of badgers' skins. But when we come inside,
we find ourselves surrounded by shining gold: looking up to the
curtained roof, we see the wings of the cherubim woven in blue and
purple and scarlet and fine twined linen. All the beauty within is
revealed by the light of the golden candlestick. So it is with
Christ Himself. The natural man, beholding Him, sees no beauty that
he should desire Him. But to those who know the Lord Jesus Christ,
His beauty satisfies their souls.
The Tabernacle was protected by a court of pure white linen, held up
by sixty pillars, and entered by a curtain of coloured material,
called the Gate. The walls of the Tabernacle were made of boards of
shittim wood overlaid with gold, resting in massive silver sockets
sunk into the sand. These sockets were made from the
redemption-money paid by every Israelite, thus the whole fabric
rested upon a foundation of redemption (1Pet 1:18,19). The entrance
[of the Tabernacle itself] was protected by a curtain called the
Door, and the two parts of the Tabernacle-- the Holy Place and the
Most Holy Place [or, Holy of Holies]-- were divided by another
curtain-- the Veil. Spread over the solid framework of the
Tabernacle were four sets of curtains, which formed its only roof,
and hung down over the sides, covering it completely.
Now, draw a straight line from the center of the Gate to the
Mercy-Seat [in the middle of the Holy of Holies]. You go through the
Altar, through the Laver, through the Door; you pass the Table of
Shewbread on your right hand, and the Golden Lampstand on your left;
through the Altar of Incense, through the Veil, to the Ark, covered
by the Mercy-Seat... This is the true Pilgrim's Progress, from the
camp outside to the immediate presence of God.
The Court was entered by the Gate (John 10:9). This was a curtain. A
curtain is the very easiest means of entrance; it is not like a
wooden door at which you have to knock, you can lift it silently. At
the time, no one need know of the transaction which takes place
silently between the soul and its Saviour. It may be like Nicodemus,
coming by night. But when the curtain is dropped again, you are
completely inside, not half in and half out as in a doorway-- but
completely shut off by a sharp dividing line. Inside that Gate, you
are completely surrounded by the spotless white curtains of the
Court. ''Complete in Him''; ''made the righteousness of God in
Him.'' Here, you are immediately confronted by the brazen Altar of
Burnt Offering. ''One Sacrifice for sins for ever'' (Heb 10:12).
Then, the Laver [which speaks of] cleansing, as the result of the
Atonement (Zech 13:1). Thus far, every Israelite might enter. Have
we come thus far? Have we entered by the Gate, and accepted the
Sacrifice, and known the Cleansing?
Only the Priests might enter the Tabernacle itself. If we have
proved the power of the Cross, Christ calls us to be priests, set
apart for His Service. We may enter still farther. The Holy Place is
entered by the Door. This again is Christ Himself. He is the means
of entrance into every fresh position of blessing. Every spiritual
blessing comes with a fresh view of Christ and what He can be to us.
He is the one entrance, as well for the first step, as the last. The
Gate, the Door, the Veil, they were all of the same materials and
colours, and the number of square cubits (20 by 5, or, 10 by 10)--
though the Gate was stretched out wide as if to emphasize the
breadth of the universal proclamation, ''Whosoever will may come.''
In the Holy Place, were two great gifts-- Food and Light: ''I am the
Bread of Life''; ''I am the Light of the World.'' Then the Golden
Altar of Incense (Heb 7:25): Christs' continual Intercession by
which alone our prayers can ascend to God.
So far, and no farther, the Priests might enter. Into the Holy of
Holies only one man, only one day in the year, might enter, and that
not without blood. ''But Christ being come an High Priest of good
things to come... by His own blood... has entered into heaven
itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us.'' (Heb 9), and
He also has opened up for us a way of access by His blood into the
Holiest, into the very presence of God here and now, as we read in
Heb 10:20, ''Through the veil, that is to say His flesh.'' The veil
was rent in twain from the top to the bottom at the moment of His
death (Mat 27:51). ''From the top to the bottom,'' the way of access
opened by God Himself. [Within the Veil, we find...]
The Ark, containing the unbroken Law--
Here again, we see Christ, who alone kept [the Law] completely. The
Ark was covered by the Mercy-Seat, or, as it should be translated,
the Propitiatory Covering. The word in Heb 9:5 and Rom 3:24,25 is
The Propitiation-- Christ.
This is the meeting-place betwen God and man (Ex 25:22). Above it
rested the Shekinah-glory, the symbol of God's presence. It arose
from the Mercy-Seat, a pillar of fire by night and a cloud by day,
spreading out over the whole camp as a protection, and guiding the
children of Israel on their march.
The Great High Priest--
In Aaron, we have a picture of our Great High Priest. His garments
were all typical. The three ornaments of his dress, which were
engraved with a signet, teach a very precious lesson. The onyx
stones on his shoulder and the breastplate on his heart were
engraved with the names of the children of Israel, that he might
bear them before the Lord continually. The plate of the mitre, on
his forehead was engraved with ''Holiness to the Lord'' to bear the
iniquity of their holy things ''that they might be accepted before
the Lord.'' On his shoulders, on his forehead, and on his heart.
What do we see here but the perfect strength and perfect wisdom and
perfect love of our High Priest put forth on our behalf? The Good
Shepherd lays the lost sheep ''on His shoulder.'' Christ is ''made
unto us Wisdom.'' ''Greater love hath no man than this, that a man
lay down his life for his friends.''
Many of us see the uselessness of an outward priesthood-- of any man
to come between us and God. But are we equally clear in valuing the
inner Reality? Do we feel our utter need of the Lord Jesus as our
Great High Priest, and recognise that we cannot draw nigh to God
except through His one availing sacrifice?
Aaron, the type, fell short, for he was a sinful man. Jesus Christ
is a perfect High Priest. As man, He was tempted in all points like
as we are, yet without sin. He is able to sympathize and to succour
[ie., help us in our need] because He has been through it all. He is
able to understand our need to the uttermost because He was perfect
man. He is able to meet our need to the uttermost because He is
perfect God. He was able to bear the whole world's sin in His
Atonement on the Cross. He is able to bear the whole world's need in
intercession upon the Throne.