Play and make it your prayer...
Does God have a proper name?
The prophet Isaiah records this declaration by God Himself...
Hemphill concludes: Most Bible scholars would agree that the name Yahweh, or Jehovah, as it is sometimes translated, would be the proper name of God. The other names, including the compound names, provide further revelation of His character and His activity. (Names of God)
Note that the 4 letters (tetra = 4) of YHWH are often referred to as the Tetragrammaton
Vowels were added to the "Tetragrammaton" (literally "four lettered name")
Note that when a Bible translation has LORD in all caps (actually capital L and small capital letters) it signifies...
First occurrence of
A full revelation of the meaning and character of the Name Jehovah is not given by God
I AM [hayah] that I AM [hayah]
God goes on to say to Moses...
What truths do you see in the fact that Jehovah is the God of the patriarchs?
2) Alludes to God's eternal covenant and the inherent promises (See Ex 2:24) (See also Abrahamic covenant)
Jehovah is God's Memorial Name -
What is the context
Moses tells us
Repeatedly (854x) the KJV Scriptures declare saith the LORD and only twice saith God
The name Jehovah affirms that God not only exists but that He communicates with us and desires to reveal Himself in such a way that we can come to know Him, ultimately only through "The Way", Who is Jesus, Who in turn (discussed below) is Jehovah.
Ge 15:18 On that day Jehovah made (cut) a covenant with Abram, saying, "To your descendants I have given this land, From the river of Egypt as far as the great river, the river Euphrates.
"I am the LORD (Jehovah) and I appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as God Almighty (El Shaddai), but by My Name, LORD (Jehovah), I did not make Myself known to them. (Exodus 6:2-3 see explanatory note)
John 12:41 These things Isaiah said, because he saw His (Jesus') glory (Isaiah 6) and he spoke of Him (Jesus).
Jesus declared to the Jews...
(v24) I said therefore to you, that you shall die in your sins; for unless you believe that I Am (Ego eimi) He, you shall die in your sins... (v58)Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was born, I Am (Ego eimi = present tense).
Again Jesus clearly declares...
Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today, yes and forever. (Immutable Christ)
I AM = Hayah = to be, exist (See Maclaren's eloquent explanation)
Jesus amplified the "I Am" with seven great I AM revelations - the Bread of Life, the Light of the Word, the Door, the Good Shepherd, the Way, the Truth, the Life, Resurrection & the Life, the Vine (John 6:35; 8:12; 10:9, 11; 11:25; 14:6; 15:1, 5)
Hemphill writes that...
Nathan Stone comments that I am that I am
Swanson writes that
God within His own being possesses the
The "IS-ness" of God is expressive both of His presence and His existence. He is in a sense in which no other being is. He is, and the cause of His being is in Himself. He is because He is.
Self Existence of God
All created entities have a beginning, including time itself (Ge 1:1, cp Jn 1:1). As creatures, we must reckon in terms of the past and future, but to the Creator of time, all is present. He is transcendent or beyond our comprehension.
I am Jehovah your God. Consecrate yourselves therefore, and be holy for I am holy (Lev 11:44, 10:3, 19:2, 20:7,26)
Jehovah may be transcendent but He is also personal as well as holy (set apart from the profane)
Jehovah possesses righteousness as a personal attribute, loves it in the abstract, and blesses those who practise it.
I, Jehovah do not change (Malachi 3:6)
When life takes unexpected turns or suffering sets in, be comforted knowing that Jehovah was not created, nor does His character change. His name refers to what He is and does from all eternity. Cast your burdens on the changeless, steadfast, everlasting I AM Who simply and yet profoundly "IS" and so is the unmoving center point around which all time and space revolves.
The respected Jewish commentator of the Middle Ages, Moses Maimonides, had these comments on Jehovah...
All the names of God which occur in Scripture are derived from His works except one, and that is Jehovah; and this is called the plain name, because it teaches plainly and unequivocally of the substance of God. In the name Jehovah the personality of the Supreme is distinctly expressed. It is everywhere a proper name denoting the person of God and Him only.”
Dr. Charles Ryrie writes Jehovah...
Smith and Cornwall summarize Jehovah writing that...
Spurgeon adds that
Or watch (and listen prayerfully to the words) of In The Presence Of Jehovah by Chonda Pierce - this will surely soften your heart and moisten your eyes. Here are the lyrics to allow you to follow along...
In and out of situations,
That tug-of-war at me
All day long I struggle
For answers that I need
But then I come into His presence,
All my questions become clear
And for a sacred moment,
No doubt can interfere
In the presence of Jehovah,
God Almighty, Prince of Peace
Troubles vanish, hearts are mended,
In the presence of The King.
Jehovah most clearly revealed Himself in a time of great need (read Exodus 3) for Israel was in bondage in Egypt and without hope from a human perspective. In response to their cry Jehovah revealed Himself as the I AM...
I AM...the answer to your affliction.
He still reveals Himself as Jehovah in our times of affliction and adversity.
Will you humble yourself and cry out to I AM?
Although originally given to Israel this promise is applicable to all of God's children for all are in covenant with I AM (cf Gal 3:29 Jn 1:12) --
Guide Me O Thou Great Jehovah
Jehovah Jesus (note) is the same even when the world is spinning seemingly out of control (He is in control) and many times our lives seem to be out of control. We can take those "out of control" thoughts captive and can rest in the absolute Truth that I AM never changes. He is the same regardless of the times, circumstances, etc.
Jesus is the 'I AM' Who by His Spirit is active in empowering us for daily living and difficult circumstances. In the Greek "ego eimi" is present tense, signifying continuous activity. Whatever your present tense NEED, Jesus is the "I AM" provision for that need.
Do you know God as active in your life to overcome doubt or depression? Do you know Him as the present tense answer to the healing of broken relationships? Do you know Him as the God who can deal with your anger and resentment, as the God who can change your life?
He is the "I AM" who is active to transform and empower daily living. Whatever your present tense need, Jesus is the "I AM" of God.
He always was. He always is. He always will be. We all need Someone in this life Who will never change. We need someone Who is always there because we live in a day of broken relationships, when those we had trusted have betrayed us or forsaken us. Jehovah is the same, yesterday, today, yes and forever.
Why do we look elsewhere?
Why not rest in Jehovah's unchangeableness?
"I Am" has never failed.
Jesus is Jehovah (note) I AM anything & everything you will ever need. If this is true then I must make the daily choice to come into His presence, to cry out to Him, to listen to Him and then to trust His guidance.
Jeremiah knew His God as "I Am" and even when all "hope" appeared lost, because He knew His Name and His character, he could confidently declare...
Jehovah is my portion (Hebrew = inheritance) says my soul. Therefore I have hope in Him
The writer of Hebrews writes to saints who are in need of stabilizing truth which he draws from the OT declaration by Jehovah:
Let your character be free from the love of money, being content with what you have; for He Himself (Jehovah in Deut 31:6) has said, "I WILL NEVER (ever) DESERT YOU, NOR WILL I (never) EVER FORSAKE YOU," so that we confidently say, "THE LORD (Jehovah in Deut 31:6) IS MY HELPER*, I WILL NOT BE AFRAID. WHAT SHALL MAN DO TO ME?" (He 13:5, 6-see notes Heb 13:5; 13:6). (Spurgeon's note)
*HELPER is Greek boethos (click boethos from boe = cry out for help + théo = run to) which gives us the incredible word picture of the great "I AM" Who is willing and able to run to our side when we cry out for help!
Now what must we do?
"This poor man cried and Jehovah heard him, and saved him out of all his troubles.... The righteous cry and Jehovah hears, and delivers them out of all their troubles."
"O JEHOVAH I remember Thy Name in the night and keep Thy law." (Ps 119:55)
The revelation and experiential (not just intellectual) knowledge of Jehovah and His character (which is inherent in His name) inspires trust.
Spurgeon encourages us to
As Guzik says...
by Annie Johnson Flint
“When Thou passest through the waters,”
Deep the waves may be & cold,
But JEHOVAH is our Refuge
And His promise is our hold;
For the LORD Himself hath said it,
He the faithful God & true;
“When thou comest to the waters,
Thou shalt not go down, but through.
Seas of sorrow, seas of trial,
Bitterest anguish, fiercest pain,
Rolling surges of temptation,
Sweeping over heart & brain,
They shall never overflow us,
For we know His word is true;
All His waves & all His billows
He will lead us safely through.
Threatening breakers of destruction,
Doubt’s insidious undertow,
Shall not sink us, shall not drag us
Out to ocean depths of woe;
For His promise shall sustain us,
Praise the LORD, Whose word is true!
We shall not go down or under,
He hath said, “Thou passest through.”
Ray Stedman makes an interesting observation that...
it has been pointed out often that here (Ge 2:4,5, 7, 8, 9) the name of God appears in a different form than in Genesis 1. We have for the first time the great name of God that appears in so much of the rest of the Bible, Jehovah (or in the Hebrew, Yahweh) Elohim, translated in our version, LORD God. There is a special reason for this change. In Chapter 1 we are dealing with the making of things, and God is presented to us under the name of Elohim, i.e., the Creator. But when man appears on the scene God appears also in a different character. He now appears under the title of Jehovah, which means essentially the covenant-making God, the God Who keeps a promise. It is particularly significant that when God first reveals Himself to this race of ours, it is as a God who intends to keep His promises. (The Making of Man - Genesis 2:4-17)
I was regretting the past
“When you live in this moment,
Spurgeon has the following exposition of the Name Jehovah...
“He fills his own eternal NOW,
In another sermon Spurgeon writes...
Warren Wiersbe has a very interesting analysis of Psalm 23 which begins with the name Jehovah...
See in depth article "On the Divine Name (Jahveh, Jehovah)" in volume 1 of the 8 volume work entitled "The History of Israel" by Heinrich Ewald (1843-1859)
Genesis 2:4 This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD (Yahweh/Jehovah) God (Elohim) made earth and heaven.
LORD...God - Two names of God should not confuse us. We do not have a pantheon of gods. We worship one God, Elohim, the Creator of the heavens and the earth, Who reveals Himself in such a manner (Jehovah) that we can know Him in a personal way.
Criswell has an excellent summary of Jehovah/Yahweh noting that...
Up to this point only elohim (Heb.), translated "God," indicating the transcendent God of Creation, has been used (1:1); but here the personal name occurs, introducing God in His redemptive capacity. The divine name Yahweh is identified as God's covenant name (Ex. 3:13, 14, 15, 16; 6:1, 2, 3), showing His personal relationship to those who believe. This is the appropriate time for the appearance of God as Redeemer -- at the very moment that man appears in history. Yahweh is man's tutor (Ge 1:9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17); He is man's benefactor, providing him with the garden in which to work out his stewardship; and He is man's provider, supplying man with a counterpart, i.e., a wife, equal to him in all things and indispensable to the continuity of the race (Ge 1:18-25). The precise pronunciation and spelling of the name Yahweh has been lost. Judaism in the postexilic period (fifth century B.C. and later) prohibited the pronunciation of the name, reasoning that the most certain way not to take God's name in vain was never to pronounce it at all (Ex. 20:7). The Jews substituted for this name in their reading tradition the title "Lord" (Adonai, Heb.), reminding the reader to say Adonai instead of Yahweh by writing the vowels of Adonai with the consonants of Yahweh. The result appears to be the hybrid form YeHoWaH, which many unfamiliar with the Jewish tradition came to pronounce "Jehovah." Today, Jews and Christians alike refer to Yahweh as Lord. The precise etymology of Yahweh is uncertain, but it evidently derives from the verb "to be" (hayah, Heb.). The explanation for the divine name is given in Ex. 3:14, 15, where God identifies Himself as "I AM WHO I AM" (see Ex. 3:14). This expression means that God is the self-existent One who is independent and autonomous. Another view interprets the name as causative, meaning "He causes to be." Thus, in addition to being an appropriate personal name for God as the covenant-making and covenant-keeping God of the Hebrews, it is a fitting name for the God of salvation, the Deliverer, the Friend of His people. Thus, the title Yahweh Elohim, "Lord God," together with implications throughout the creation narrative, pictures God as both transcendent and immanent. Though He is self-sufficient, He has chosen to bind Himself in covenant to His creation. (Criswell, W A. Believer's Study Bible: New King James Version. 1991. Thomas Nelson)
The Context Exodus 3:1-13:
Exodus 3:1 Now Moses was pasturing the flock of Jethro (See note - Moses' father in law also called Reuel) his father-in-law, the priest of Midian; and he led the flock to the west side of the wilderness, and came to Horeb, the mountain of God.
Comment: Remember that the background for this chapter is the fact that the children of Israel were slaves in Egypt and had been crying out to God for deliverance.
Horeb (description) - most interpret Horeb as synonymous with Mount Sinai (ISBE article on Sinai - discusses Horeb) (cf. Deut 5:2) which could be the 7,363 ft peak in the SW Sinai Peninsula, although the exact peak is open to question.
Now Moses - You never know what a day may bring, so keep your eyes and ears open to the leading of the Lord. Childlike curiosity completely changed Moses’ life. God calls busy people to serve Him, and He reveals Himself to them. God is faithful. He called Abraham, cared for Isaac, guided and protected Jacob, and He would be with Moses. He is the God of the individual as well as the nation, and He does not change from generation to generation. God is concerned and compassionate. He saw the affliction of His people, and He heard their cries. Then why didn’t He act sooner? Because He was following a perfect timetable Ge 15:16 ("Then in the fourth generation they shall return here, for the iniquity of the Amorite is not yet complete."). You must learn to wait on the Lord. See Ps 37 (Spurgeon's notes). God is long-suffering. The Lord answered all of Moses’ objections and gave one assurance after another to encourage him. Moses said, “I am not!” and God replied, “I AM!” Faith lays hold of what God is and obeys what God says. Faith sees the opportunities while unbelief sees the obstacles. Are you arguing with God about something He wants you to do?
Comment: The idea of appeared is clearly that God allowed something of Himself to be seen in the Theophany (Christophany), the Angel of the LORD. It is notable that God only appeared this way to individuals and never to large groups of people, to whom it was His glory that was revealed (although Judges 2:1ff may be an exception).
He looked - The NET Bible note says "The text again uses (a construction) traditionally rendered “and behold.” The particle goes with the intense gaze, the outstretched arm, the raised eyebrow – excitement and intense interest: “look, over there.” It draws the reader into the immediate experience of the subject." (Note )
Fire - Fire frequently accompanied the revelation of Jehovah (Yahweh) in Exodus in various contexts - delivering, guiding or purifying her (His "wife", Israel). Some like Philo (a Jewish writer in the first century AD) interpreted the burning bush allegorically (for more discussion of allegory and related topics see [i.] Art and Science of Interpretation; [ii.] The Rise of Allegorical Interpretation; [iii.] Understanding Symbols and Figures and [iv.] Understanding Numbers). Allegorical interpretation assigns so-called "deeper meanings" to biblical persons, events, things or institutions, thus minimizing and even destroying the literal and historical meaning. The allegorical method of interpretation is to be assiduously avoided! Moses saw a bush actually burning, but not consumed. Explanations such as Philo's allegorical interpretation or others that it was like a bush with brilliant berries or leaves do not do justice to a literal interpretation of the text. God said it. That settles it, whether I believe it or not!
Exodus 3:3 So Moses said, "I must turn aside now, and see this marvelous sight, why the bush is not burned up."
I must turn aside now - As Matthew Henry reminds us "Things revealed belong to us, and we ought diligently to enquire into them." Are you taking advantage of the things revealed to you by God in His holy Word? As someone has well said sin will keep you from the Bible or the Bible will keep you from sin. Bibles that are "falling apart" usually belong to people who are not. God has chosen to reveal Himself to us in ways just as miraculous and supernatural as He did to Moses. May God grant that each of us have the same reaction of "I must turn aside now and see this marvelous sight." Amen.
Exodus 3:4 When the LORD (Jehovah, Yahweh) saw that he turned aside to look, God (Elohim) called to him from the midst of the bush (remember this is still in the context of the Angel of the LORD), and said, "Moses, Moses!" And he said, "Here I am."
Moses, Moses - The repetition of the name of the person addressed always seems to indicate a message of special importance - here the repetition of Moses' name adds emphasis and makes the appeal direct and immediate. Other examples of repetition of one's name include: Abraham (Ge 22:11); Samuel (1Sa 3:10); Jerusalem (Mt 23:37) Martha (Lu 10:41) Simon (Lu 22:31), Saul (Acts 9:4, 22:7, 26:14). Furthermore, this same response (Here I am) was given to God by several other OT saints - Abraham (Ge 22:11), Jacob (Ge 46:2), and Samuel (1 Sa 3:4).
Exodus 3:5 Then He said, "Do not come near here; remove your sandals from your feet, for the place on which you are standing is holy ground."
Remove your sandals - Removing one’s sandals was a sign of respect toward a superior, or toward a person’s dwelling. Sandals were often removed before entering someone’s home, or before entering a sacred place like a temple. The removal of sandals in the East is still a sign of humility and reverence. It pictures one removing the dust and dirt of this world, so as not to profane that which was set apart from the world (i.e., Holy). The ground God says is "holy" or "set apart, distinct, unique" ground, because of the presence of the Holy One of Israel. Have you ever set aside a time and/or a place as "holy" (under grace and in the spirit not under law or in ritual) that you might have a reverent time of communing with the precious Holy One of Israel? Or are you too busy to "give Him the time of day" (and in so doing miss the very best portion of that entire day!)?
Exodus 3:6 He said also, "I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob." Then Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look (gaze) at God.
I am the God of your father... - It is significant that God first identified Himself in terms of His historic relationship to Israel's patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the recipients of the eternal covenant. This designation (the naming of the three patriarchs) obviously brings to mind His covenant and His immutable covenant promises. He is a covenant keeping God, unlike the so-called fickle, vain "gods" of this world. Moses' response of hiding his face reflects a combination of fear, reverence and humility.
Exodus 3:7 And the LORD said, "I have surely seen the affliction of My people who are in Egypt, and have given heed to their cry because of their taskmasters, for I am aware of their sufferings.
I have surely seen - Hebrew verb structure intensifies this statement so that there is no doubt that God has seen and no doubt that He will respond! Would it be that we all grow to trust that He sees our plight and in His timing He will deliver us either out of or through the fire!
Exodus 3:8 "So I have come down to deliver them from the power of the Egyptians, and to bring them up from that land to a good and spacious land (both good in quality and large in size), to a land flowing with milk and honey (hyperbole describing a land with an abundance of these products and so a very desirable land), to the place of the Canaanite and the Hittite and the Amorite and the Perizzite and the Hivite and the Jebusite.
I have come down - an idiom describing divine intervention and a frequent anthropomorphism in Genesis and Exodus which speaks of God's direct involvement, often in carrying out judgment but in the present context of bringing about deliverance
To deliver - (Hebrew = natsal) means to rescue, snatch out of danger, to save, to deliver from enemies or troubles or death. Deliverance often indicated the power of one entity overcoming the power of another and was frequently expressed as deliverance from the hand or power of another. The idea can be to deliver so that one is safe from danger and thus in a more favorable circumstance. The Septuagint (LXX) translates the Hebrew verb natsal with the Greek verb exaireo which means to pluck out, tear out, draw out or remove (Jesus used it to describe what we should do with our right eye if it makes us stumble "tear [exaireo] it out!"
Bring them...to a good and spacious land - God was reminding Moses He would fulfill His covenant promises to Abraham. An deep understanding of God's covenants, especially the Abrahamic, Mosaic and New, will greatly strengthen your trust in God and His Word, especially His covenant promises of provision, protection and prospects (future). I am not just referring to being able to list off the details of each covenant, but of truly understanding the foundational aspects of each covenant. God has chosen to reveal Himself in two testaments (virtually synonymous with the word covenant [Concise Oxford English Dictionary - testament = a covenant or dispensation]) (If you have never studied covenant in this way, you are strongly encouraged to study the notes beginning with Covenant: Why Study It? - even better order Precept's course on Covenant - download lesson 1 free. Kay Arthur also has an excellent book on Covenant [Our Covenant God: Learning to Trust Him and the also get the accompanying guide Our Covenant God Study Guide: Learning to Trust Him]. Whichever you choose to do, be sure to carefully read the Scriptures that relate to the specific aspects of covenant which you are studying. The word and the truth of covenant will take on an entirely new meaning and significance in your life. Guaranteed!)
Exodus 3:9 "And now, behold, the cry of the sons of Israel has come to Me; furthermore, I have seen the oppression with which the Egyptians are oppressing them.
Cry - The Hebrew word is a technical term describing the outcry that one might make for example to a judge. Jacobs writes that "God had seen the oppression and so knew that the complaints were accurate, and so he initiated the proceedings against the oppressors" (Jacobs, B. Exodus: The Second Book of the Law)
Oppressing - (Hebrew = lachats) means to oppress, to crush and conveys the idea of pressure with the oppression and thus a squeezing or pressuring. This word was used later for torturing or tormenting. The Greek Septuagint (LXX) translates the Hebrew verb lachats with thlibo (see word study) (see also picturesque related noun thlipsis = affliction) which literally conveys the idea of pressing or rubbing together and hence compressing or making narrow. Figuratively, thlibo means to oppress or afflict.
Exodus 3:10 "Therefore, come now (or "Go" - a command), and I will send (Septuagint = apostello - English "apostle") you to Pharaoh, so that you may bring My people, the sons of Israel, out of Egypt."
I will send... bring My people...out - The NET Bible Note comments that...
These instructions for Moses are based on the preceding revelation made to him. The deliverance of Israel was to be God’s work – hence, “I will send you.” When God commissioned people, often using the verb “to send,” it indicated that they went with his backing, his power, and his authority. Moses could not have brought Israel out without this. To name this incident a commissioning, then, means that the authority came from God to do the work (compare John 3:2).
Exodus 3:11 But Moses said to God, "Who am I, that I should go to Pharaoh, and that I should bring the sons of Israel out of Egypt?"
Who am I - Some commentators consider Moses' question, "Who am I?" as irrelevant as well as irreverent, because the covenant God had just promised that He Himself would deliver Israel. They reason that Moses' question was irreverent because it called into question God's judgment in His choice of such a lowly servant. To be sure later on Moses gave God excuses about his inability to speak or to stand before the Pharaoh. But who could imagine the created one arguing against the Creator? And yet don't we find ourselves reacting in a similar way when God asks us to do something like "Husbands, love your wives" or "Wives, respect your husbands" or "Children obey your parents"? We're just like Moses and we say "Who am I?" We each have our excuses why God's commands don't seem reasonable in our particular situation! Fallen human nature hasn't changed much since the days of Moses! We make excuses about our inability to love, to respect, or to obey and we question God's right or wisdom in calling us to do so.
Hemphill adds that...
We, like Moses, suffer from the mistaken idea that we can do God's work in our own strength. When God calls us to a task, we can rest assured that He has created us for this very purpose and will empower us to accomplish it. He is active in the present. I believe that Moses asked such an irrelevant and irreverent question because he suffered from a problem that affects men and women today. Until God approached Moses at the burning bush, He was only a God of history to Moses, not a God of the present. Perhaps Moses had absolute confidence that God had worked miraculously in the lives of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. He probably never would have considered calling these historical accounts into question. Yet, at the moment of truth, he struggled to believe that the God of history could work through his life to deliver Israel.
Warren Wiersbe interprets Moses' interaction with God in a totally different light writing...
We admire Moses for his humility, for forty years before he would have told God who he was! He was “learned...and mighty in words and in deeds” (Acts 7:22). But years of communion and discipline in the desert had humbled Moses. A person acting in the flesh is impulsive and sees no obstacles, but a person humbly walking in the Spirit knows the battles that lie ahead. God’s reply was to assure him: “I will be with you!” This promise sustained him for forty years, as it later did Joshua (Josh. 1:5). Who we are is not important; that God is with us is important, for without Him we can do nothing (John 15:5). (Wiersbe, W. W. Wiersbe's Expository Outlines on the New Testament. Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books)
Exodus 3:12 And He said, "Certainly I will be with you, and this shall be the sign to you that it is I who have sent you: when you have brought the people out of Egypt, you shall worship God at this mountain."
Certainly I will be with you - God responds to Moses’ first concern about his own inadequacies. Jehovah's promised presence is enough! And Jesus says the same thing to believers today who feel inadequate for the task to "Go therefore and make disciples" promising them "lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." (Mt 28:19-20, cf Heb 13:5-notes)
Worship - John Hannah writes that...
The purpose of the deliverance was that Israel might “worship God.” This purpose is stated frequently in Exodus (Ex 4:23; 7:16; 8:1, 20; 9:1, 13; 10:3, 7, 8, 11, 24, 26; 12:31). The Hebrew word for “worship” is the same word for “to be a slave” ('abad). Israel had been slaves ('abodim) of Egypt (Ex 6:6), and was in slavery ('abodah, Ex 2:23) in Egypt (“the land of slavery,” lit., “the house of slaves, ”bet abadim Ex 1:3, 14; 20:2). Having served as slaves to the Egyptians, Israel was now to serve the LORD, worshiping Him as His subjects. (Walvoord, J. F., Zuck, R. B., et al: The Bible Knowledge Commentary. 1985. Victor)
Exodus 3:13 Then Moses said to God, "Behold, I am going to the sons of Israel, and I shall say to them, 'The God of your fathers has sent me to you.' Now they may say to me, 'What is His name?' What shall I say to them?"
What is His name? - Moses second question/concern (the first was "Who am I?" which shifts to "Who are You?") is both both relevant and reverent and is really the only question that has any relevance in his life or in ours.
What is His Name? This should be our objective for the remainder of our life on earth, to grow in our knowledge of His Name which ultimately reflects His character and His attributes. Intimately, experientially knowing His personal name Jehovah should be the warp and woof of our lives, beloved. And in this task we shall never reach the end for the more we know, the more we know we don’t know!
And this is eternal life, that they may know Thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ Whom Thou hast sent. (John 17:3)
Paul declared the warp and woof of his life was...
that I may know Him (Jehovah Jesus), and the power of His resurrection and the fellowship of His sufferings, being conformed to His death in order that I may attain to the resurrection from the dead. (See notes Philippians 3:10; 11)
Wiersbe adds that...
This was no evasive question, for the Jews would want assurance that the Lord had sent Moses on his mission. God revealed His name, Jehovah—“I AM WHO I AM” or “I was, I am, I always will be!” Our Lord Jesus added to this name in the Gospel of John where we find the seven great I AM statements (John 6:35; 8:12; 10:9, 11; 11:25; 14:6;15:1, 2, 3, 4, 5). If God is “I AM,” then He is always the same, and His purposes will be fulfilled. God promised Moses that He would see to it that the work was done, in spite of the opposition of Pharaoh. (Ibid) (Bolding added)
Fretheim explains Moses' question of God this way reasoning that...
God’s commission is that Moses go to Pharaoh. Moses understands that this entails being sent to Israel. But Israel has not acknowledged his leadership; he in fact may be a stranger to most. Hence the importance of going to the elders first (Ex 3:16). Moses’ question is natural: Will the people listen to him? The name of the God for whom he speaks will establish his credentials. For this purpose the divine self-identification given in verse 6 is insufficient. The assumption seems to be that, if Moses has been commissioned to bring the people out of Egypt, Moses should have a divine name commensurate with this new development in God’s relationship with Israel. God’s double command (Ex 3:15, 16) that the new identification be repeated to the people shows its importance. (Fretheim, T. E. Exodus. Interpretation, a Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching. Louisville: John Knox Press)
Exodus 3:14 And God said to Moses, "I AM WHO I AM"; and He said, "Thus you shall say to the sons of Israel, 'I AM has sent me to you.'"
Is God-?' 'Does God-?'
I Am - The Hebrew verb for I AM is hayah means to exist or to be or become. The Septuagint (LXX) translates the Hebrew phrase with the Greek phrase "Ego eimi" where the verb eimi is in the present tense. This Greek phrase is exactly what Jesus used in His claims in John 8:24 and John 8:58 (see discussion below).
The most common translation is "I AM WHO I AM” (NASB ,ESV, GWT, ICB, NKJV, NRSV, TEV)
Other renderings include:
I AM WHO I AM and WHAT I AM, and I WILL BE WHAT I WILL BE (Amplified)
I AM THAT I AM (Darby, KJV)
I WILL BE WHAT I WILL BE (Marginal Readings of NIV, NRSV)
I Am He Who is (NJB)
I AM THE ONE WHO ALWAYS IS (NLT)
I WILL BE WHAT I WILL BE (NLT Marginal reading)
I AM THAT WHICH I AM (Young's Literal)
“I will cause to be what I will cause to be”
“I will be who I am / I am who I will be”
Gianotti reasons that...
If Moses indeed had a revelation from God, then the Israelites would want to have that verified with Moses relating something hitherto unknown about their God. Exodus 3:14 is God’s response to Moses’ concern about validating his mission to the Israelites with newly revealed information about God’s character. (The Meaning of the Divine Name YHWH - Bibliotheca Sacra: Volume 142, 1985 Charles Gianotti - Read his entire 15 page article free online).
Wiersbe explains God's answer to Moses this way...
What Moses asked was, “What does Your name mean? What kind of a God are You?” God explained that the name Jehovah is a dynamic name, based on the Hebrew verb “to be” or “to become.” He is the self-existent One who always was, always is, and always will be, the faithful and dependable God who calls Himself “I AM.” Centuries later, Jesus would take the name “I AM” and complete it: “I am the bread of life” (John 6:35), “I am the light of the world” (John 8:12), “I am the true vine” (John 15:1), and so on. (Wiersbe, W. W.. Be Delivered. Page18. Colorado Springs, CO: Chariot Victor Pub. 1998)
Guzik writes that...
Rightfully, Moses sensed he needed credentials before the people of Israel. Before, he thought he had the credentials because he was a prince of Egypt. 40 years of tending sheep took away his sense of self-reliance.
Abraham, in the encounter with Melchizedek called on God Most High (Genesis 14:22) - El Elyon
Abraham later encountered Almighty God (Genesis 17:1) - El Shaddai
Abraham came to know the Lord as Everlasting God (Genesis 21:33), and The-Lord-Will-Provide (Genesis 22:14) - Jehovah Jireh
Hagar encountered You-Are-the-God-Who-Sees (Genesis 16:13) - El Roi
Jacob met El Elohe Israel (Genesis 33:20) and El Bethel (Genesis 35:7).
Now, when Moses comes to the elders of Israel with a "new message" from God, it is logical to think they would ask, "What name did He reveal Himself to you under? What new revelation from God do you have?"
The name I Am has within it the idea of aseity - that God is completely independent; that He relies on nothing for life or existence (Isaiah 40:28, 29; John 5:26). God doesn't need anybody or anything - life is in Himself.
Also inherent in the idea behind the name I Am is the sense that God is "the becoming one"; God becomes whatever is lacking in our time of need. The name I Am invites us to fill in the blank to meet our need - when we are in darkness, Jesus says I am the light; when we are hungry, He says I am the bread of life, when we are defenseless, He says I am the Good Shepherd. God is the becoming one, becoming what we need. (Guzik - Enduring Word Commentary)
Hemphill commenting on I Am notes that...
Various scholars have suggested different translations of the name of God used in this passage. The name is from the imperfect stem of the Hebrew verb "to be." The imperfect tense denotes an action that started in the past, continues in the present, but is not yet complete. Many Bible scholars follow the simple translation that we have in our text, "I am who I am." One of our Old Testament scholars at Southwestern translates it this way: "I AM who I have always been." I like this translation because it affirms that the God who spoke from the burning bush is the same God who worked through the lives of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. It also implies His ability and desire to work through Moses in the present and the future. However we translate this name, we can be assured that it affirms God's self-existence and His eternality (Hemphill, K. Names of God)
Keil and Delitzsch suggest that...
The repetition of the same word [I am] suggests the idea of uninterrupted continuance and boundless duration.
Thomas Constable quotes several sources writing that...
“To the Hebrew ‘to be’ does not just mean to exist as all other beings and things do as well—but to be active, to express oneself in active being, ‘The God Who acts.’ ‘I am what in creative activity and everywhere I turn out to be,’ or ‘I am (the God) that really acts.’ (Sigmund Mowinckel, “The Name of the God of Moses,)
“I am that I am” means “God will reveal Himself in His actions through history.” (Charles Gianotti, “The Meaning of the Divine Name YHWH" Bib Sac)
Another writer paraphrased God’s answer, “It is I Who am with you.” In other words, the One Who had promised to be with the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob had sent Moses to them.
“The answer Moses receives is not, by any stretch of the imagination, a name. It is an assertion of authority, a confession of an essential reality, and thus an entirely appropriate response to the question Moses poses. (Durham) (Expository Notes)
Swanson writes that
I AM WHO I AM, i.e., a title of God with a focus on presence, care, concern, and relationship (Swanson, J. Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament)
I Am sent you - In His giving the name "I Am" to Moses to declare to the people, God was expressing the unchanging, eternal, self-existence of His being. He is ever able to act at will, to keep promises, to redeem Israel.
That is to say, the fire that burns and does not burn out, which has no tendency to destruction in its very energy, and is not consumed by its own activity, is surely a symbol of the One Being, whose being derives its law and its source from itself, who only can say—“I AM THAT I AM”—the law of his nature, the foundation of His being, the only conditions of His existence being, as it were, enclosed within the limits of His own nature.
You and I have to say, “I AM THAT WHICH I HAVE BECOME,” or “I AM THAT WHICH I WAS BORN,” or “I AM THAT” WHICH CIRCUMSTANCES HAVE MADE ME.”
He says, “I AM THAT I AM.” All other creatures are links; this is the staple from which they all hang. All other being is derived, and therefore limited and changeful; this being is underived, absolute, self-dependent, and therefore unalterable forevermore. Because we live, we die. In living, the process is going on of which death is the end. But God lives forevermore, a flame that does not burn out; therefore His resources are inexhaustible, His power unwearied. He needs no rest for recuperation of wasted energy. His gifts diminish not the store which He has to bestow. He gives and is none the poorer. He works and is never weary. He operates unspent; He loves and He loves forever. And through the ages, the fire burns on, unconsumed and undecayed. (Ed note: And all God's people said "Hallelujah!")
Exodus 3:15 And God, furthermore, said to Moses, "Thus you shall say to the sons of Israel, 'The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.' This is My name forever, and this is My memorial-name to all generations.
Septuagint of Exodus 6:3 reads...
J. A. Motyer emphasizes the association of God's Name with His character rendering Exodus 6:3...
Motyer concludes that
Gianotti Pastor, Hillside Bible Chapel, Orillia, Ontario, Canada agrees noting that...
The comments of the liberals and "higher" critics who say this verse is indicative of an error in Scripture should be totally discounted as errant comments! Admittedly, some texts may be difficult to resolve with other texts, but this reflects man's partial, finite understanding of the infinite God's inerrant Word! (See also related note on Exodus 6:3)
Guzik writes that...
Hemphill writes that...
Scofield comments that...
Although Jehovah was identified with the establishment of the Abrahamic covenant in Genesis 15:18, it was not until the time of the Exodus some 400 years later that the experiential knowledge of the name Jehovah was revealed to Israel. In other words, although Abraham and the other patriarchs Isaac and Jacob were clearly familiar with the name Jehovah as God's name associated with His covenant (Genesis 15:18) and had received specific covenant promises (Abraham received the son of promise, Isaac), they still did not possess a full knowledge of the meaning of Jehovah. In the redemptive events of the exodus from Egyptian bondage, Jehovah demonstrated not only His immutable (note) (unchangeable) character but also His faithfulness (note) to keep His covenant. In other words, in the Exodus which Jehovah supernaturally brought about, Israel received a revelation and experiential knowledge of Jehovah. Previously, as shepherds in Palestine, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob had known God experientially, primarily as El Shaddai (note) (God Almighty) the Name which revealed His power and sufficiency but they had not known Him experientially as the God Who would bring about redemption in order to keep His covenant promises. (See additional note)
Recall that the name Yahweh (Jehovah, LORD) was known to Abraham even before the Name El Shaddai, as we note in such passages as Genesis 12:8, 13:4, 15:7 (and to Jacob in Ge 38:13). Clearly in Exodus 6 Jehovah does not introduce a new Name but a new revelation of that Name. Remember that the OT Names of God were a revelation of some aspect of His character and/or attributes. And so in Exodus 6 we see Jehovah reveals His character as the Covenant keeping God, faithful to keep His promises and faithful to redeem Israel from bondage. In other words, God would make Himself known to Israel in actions by which He had not revealed Himself to the patriarchs and which they knew only as promises of the covenant.
If we remember that God is infinite, it is not at all surprising that the generation of the patriarchs might not "know" God experientially in the same way that a later generation would come to know Him.
John MacArthur agrees reasoning that...
The Jewish rabbi Rashi explains that this the text means
Some feel that the last clause in Exodus 6:3 might represent a rhetorical question which is permissible in the Hebrew and which would read "by my name JEHOVAH was I not also known to them?" Given the fact that God's Names are a revelation of His character, I think this is a less likely explanation.
Richards agrees writing that...
KJV Bible Commentary explains that...
Keil and Delitzsch add that
John 8:24 (Jesus in the Temple declared to the Jewish audience including scribes and Pharisees when they asked "Who are You?") "I said therefore to you, that you shall die in your sins; for unless you believe that I am (Ego eimi = present tense - "I am continually" is what Jesus is saying) He (note that "He" is in italics in NAS indicating that it is not in the original Greek text), you shall die in your sins." (Compare the paraphrase TEV [The English Version], noting how interpretative it is "you will know that 'I Am Who I Am'". Although the TEV is accurate in this interpretation, paraphrases [or the NIV = dynamic equivalence = not word for word] are not recommended for in depth Bible study.)
Commenting on John 8:24 MacArthur explains that "The Lord’s use of the absolute, unqualified phrase I am (the pronoun He does not appear in the Greek text) is nothing less than a direct claim to full deity. When Moses asked God His name He replied, “I AM WHO I AM” (Ex 3:14). In the Septuagint - LXX (the Greek translation of the Old Testament), that is the same phrase (ego eimi) Jesus used here (the Septuagint similarly uses ego eimi of God in Deut 32:39; Isaiah 41:4; 43:10, 25; 45:18; 46:4). Jesus was applying to Himself the Tetragrammaton (YHWH, often transliterated as Yahweh)—the name of God that was so sacred that the Jews refused to pronounce it. Unlike many modern cult groups (such as the Jehovah’s Witnesses - see notes), the Jews of Jesus’ day understood perfectly that He was claiming to be God. In fact, they were so shocked by His use of that name, in reference to Himself (cf. vv. 28, 58), that they attempted to stone Him for blasphemy (v. 59). (MacArthur New Testament Commentary: John 1-11. Page 348. Chicago: Moody Press)
John 8:58 Jesus said to them, "Truly, truly, (Amen, Amen - this should get their attention) I say to you, before Abraham was born, I am (Ego eimi = present tense - "I am continually" is what Jesus is saying)." 59 Therefore (term of conclusion) they picked up stones to throw at Him; but Jesus hid Himself, and went out of the temple. (See discussion of John 8:58 and Jehovah's Witnesses) (See related discussion of JW's and John 8:58 and John 10:30-33 and "I AM")
MacArthur comments that...
The NET Bible agrees writing that "I am is an explicit claim to deity. Although each occurrence of the phrase “I am” in the Fourth Gospel needs to be examined individually in context to see if an association with Exodus 3:14 is present, it seems clear that this is the case here (as the response of the Jewish authorities in the following verse shows).
See Related Study: Angel of the LORD
Whenever one reads LORD in all capital letters in the OT (in NAS but not capitalized in ESV), the Hebrew word is Jehovah. Jehovah also identifies Himself as "I Am" in Exodus 3:14. So Who is "I Am"? And Is "Jehovah" mentioned in the New Testament? In John's Gospel we read "These things Isaiah said, because he saw His glory and he spoke of Him." (Jn 12:41).
John in explaining the judicial hardening of Israel records
Here is Isaiah's record of this event in Isaiah 6:1-3 (See also Isaiah 6 Commentary) ...
Numerous commentators in this century and prior centuries have concluded from John's passage that Jesus is Jehovah or Yahweh in the context of Isaiah's vision. However as discussed more below, not every use of Jehovah in the OT can be identified as Jesus. .
MacArthur concludes that John 12:41 "is a reference to Isaiah 6:1-note. John unambiguously ties Jesus to God or Yahweh of the OT (see John 8:58). Therefore, since John 12:41 refers to Jesus, it makes Him the Author of the judicial hardening of Israel. That fits His role as Judge (see John 5:22, 23, 27, 30; 9:39). (The MacArthur Study Bible Nashville: Word) (Bolding added)
James Montgomery Boice commenting on John 12:41 writes that "The Gospel of John is a book filled with many extraordinary verses. But none is more extraordinary than (and few are equal to) the verse to which we come now. It is a verse in which John refers to one of the most glorious visions of God ever given to a human being—the vision received by Isaiah at the beginning of his ministry as a prophet, in which he saw Jehovah sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, with his train filling the temple—saying quite naturally, it would seem, that this applies to Jesus. John says, “Isaiah said this because he saw Jesus’ glory and spoke about Him” (Jn 12:41). (The Gospel of John: An Expositional Commentary) (Bolding added)
MacDonald - In Isaiah 6 the prophet was described as seeing the glory of God. John now added the explanation that it was Christ’s glory which Isaiah saw, and it was of Christ that he spoke. Thus, this verse is another important link in the chain of evidence that proves Jesus Christ to be God. (Believer's Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson) (Bolding added)
Edwin Blum in the respected Bible Knowledge Commentary agrees writing that "John wrote that this glory Isaiah saw was Jesus’ glory. The implication is startling: Jesus is Yahweh! (Walvoord, J. F., Zuck, R. B., et al: The Bible Knowledge Commentary. 1985. Victor) (Bolding added)
Adam Clarke - It appears evident, from this passage, that the glory which the prophet saw was the glory of Jehovah: John, therefore, saying here that it was the glory of Jesus, shows that he considered Jesus to be Jehovah. (Bolding added)
Jamieson et al write that John 12:41 is "a key of immense importance to the opening of Isaiah’s vision (Isaiah 6:1-13), and all similar Old Testament representations. “The Son is the King Jehovah Who rules in the Old Testament and appears to the elect, as in the New Testament the Spirit, the invisible Minister of the Son, is the Director of the Church and the Revealer in the sanctuary of the heart” [Olshausen]. (Jamieson, R., Fausset, A. R., & Brown, D. A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments) (Bolding added)
Life Application commentary - Isaiah had seen the Lord of glory, Who is none other than Jesus Himself—Jesus is God, yet He is also a distinct part of the mysterious Trinity, and He is also Jesus the Son. (Bolding added)
Matthew Poole - Isaiah’s sight of God’s glory is described, Isaiah 6:1, “I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, etc.” The evangelist expounds this of Christ, which is an evident proof of the Deity of Christ, that He is Jehovah; for it was Jehovah Whom the prophet there saw (Matthew Poole's Commentary on the New Testament) (Bolding added)
Believer's Study Bible - The passage undoubtedly refers to the magnificent vision of Isaiah (cf Isaiah 6:1-9), but also to the great Suffering Servant prophecy of Isaiah 53:1-12. Again the theme is sounded: the Messiah’s glory is revealed in His suffering. Since John declares that Isaiah saw the glory of Jesus, it is certain that this vision was a Christophany, i.e., a preincarnate appearance of the living Lord. (Bolding added)
Beasley-Murray - The glory of God that Isaiah saw in his vision (Isa 6:1-4) is identified with the glory of the Logos-Son (See John 1:1 Commentary), in accordance with John 1:18 and John 17:5. (John 8:56 is a little different; Abraham had a vision of the day of Jesus in the future, i.e., in the time of the coming kingdom of God). (Word Biblical Commentary : John. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, Incorporated)
John Calvin commenting on John 12:41 writes - Lest readers should think that this prediction was inappropriately quoted, John expressly states, that the prophet (Isaiah) was not sent as a teacher to a single age, but, on the contrary, that the glory of Christ was exhibited to him, that he might be a witness of those things which should take place under his reign. Now the Evangelist takes for granted, that Isaiah saw the glory of Christ. (Bolding added)
Jameison comments that "JEHOVAH, (is) a name implying His immutable constancy to His promises. From the Hebrew root, meaning "existence." "He that is, was, and is to be," always the same (see Heb 13:8-note; Rev 1:4- note; Rev 1:8-note; compare Ex 3:14, 15; 6:3). As He was unchangeable in His favor to Jacob, so will He be to His believing posterity. (Jamieson, R., Fausset, A. R., & Brown, D. A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments) (Bolding added)
Spurgeon comments "“Behold, He cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him” (Revelation 1:7). This judgment by Christ is by our apostle proved from an Old Testament prophecy which certainly refers to Jehovah Himself. Read Isaiah 45:23, and learn from it that our Lord Jesus is Jehovah, and let us joyfully adore Him as our Savior and God, to Whom be glory for ever and ever.
Spurgeon in his comments on Psalm 47:5 writes "The Lord with the sound of a trumpet. Jesus is Jehovah. The joyful strain of the trumpet betokens the splendor of his triumph, leading captivity captive, and well might the clarions ring out the tidings of Emmanuel’s victorious return."
Harry Bultema in his assessment of the heresies of Emanuel Swedenborg writes "The Trinitarians received, according to his (Swedenborg's) visions, the greatest punishment. He fairly burned with hatred against this foundation-doctrine (The Trinity), which the church universal has always stood for. We need not sniff and smell here the heresy from afar, it is avowed and thrust forward upon every occasion, supported with revelations and visions from heaven. This undermines the very foundation of Christianity, just what Satan wants. Christ claimed Himself to be God, John 5:17, 20; 10:33, 36; 8:58; 19:7. He has the names, attributes, works and honor of God. He is the Jehovah of the Old Testament as appears from the quotation of Isa 40:3: “Prepare ye the way of Jehovah.” John the Baptist prepared the way of Jehovah-Jesus, Jehovah is Jesus manifested in the flesh as a real man. This is the great mystery of godliness and it is as true as great, and we may safely say that Swedenborg did his best to rob Him of His divine glory. (Emanuel Swedenborg Part 1 -- By- Harry Bultema: Bibliotheca Sacra: Volume 096:383 - July 1939) (Ed Comment: Isaiah 40:3 can be used to refute the belief by Jehovah's Witnesses that Jesus is not Jehovah. Andrew Thomson writes "This is a useful text to quote to Jehovah’s Witnesses, as their New World Translation of Isaiah 40 uses the name ‘Jehovah’. So you can ask them whom John the Baptist prepared the way for, and, when they answer ‘Jesus’, you can show them from their own Bible that the passage in Isaiah 40 shows that Jesus is Jehovah." [Opening Up Isaiah])
OTHER REFERENCES TO
(1) Norman Geisler and Ron Rhodes comment on the perversion of Romans 10:13 - "for “WHOEVER WILL CALL UPON THE NAME OF THE LORD WILL BE SAVED.”"
MISINTERPRETATION - The New World Translation renders Romans 10:13, "Everyone who calls on the name of Jehovah will be saved." Jehovah's Witnesses cite this verse in arguing for the necessity of using God's proper name, Jehovah, in attaining salvation (Reasoning from the Scriptures, 1989, 149).
CORRECTING THE MISINTERPRETATION - The New World Translation mistranslates this verse. It is correctly rendered, "Whoever will call upon the name 'of the Lord' (Gk: kurios) will be saved" (NASB). In context, "Lord" refers to Jesus Christ, as is made clear in Ro 10:9 (note): "If you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you shall be saved." So, by their own argument, if Lord means "Jehovah"—and Lord refers to Jesus here—then Jesus must be Jehovah, a doctrine they emphatically reject. Likewise, if "Lord" (kurios) means Jehovah, then Jehovah's Witnesses should accept Jesus as Jehovah, since Philippians 2:10-11 (NIV) declares that "at the name of Jesus every knee should bow... and every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord (kurios)." Hence, if kurios is Jehovah, then Jesus is Jehovah. (Correcting the Cults- Expert Responses to Their Scripture Twisting)
(5) Robert Hawker (1753-1827) in his "Reflections" after his commentary on 1 Corinthians 12 has these words - "BLESSED GOD the SPIRIT! suffer my poor soul never to be ignorant of spiritual gifts! I know, indeed, 0 LORD, through thy divine quickenings, and gracious teachings, that like those Corinthians, I was once an ignorant, blind, and senseless Gentile; carried away unto the idols, and stumbling blocks of sin, and iniquity, which a fallen nature, under the dominion of Satan, had set up in my heart, Blessed be the LORD the SPIRIT, which brought me out of darkness, and hath enabled me to say, that JESUS is JEHOVAH, and my LORD! (Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary)
(6) Norman Geisler and Ron Rhodes write "That Jesus is Jehovah (Yahweh) is clear from the fact that the New Testament consistently applies to Jesus passages and attributes which in the Old Testament apply only to Jehovah (compare Ex 3:14 with John 8:58; Isa. 6:1-5 with John 12:41; Isa. 44:24 with Col. 1:16; Ezek. 43:2 with Rev. 1:15; Zech. 12:10 with Rev. 1:7) (Ed; See Scriptures below). (Correcting the Cults- Expert Responses to Their Scripture Twisting)
(7) Adrian Rogers comments on Isaiah 9:6
(8) John Trapp (1601-1669) English Anglican Bible commentator writing on Hebrews 4:8-note writes "That is, Joshua, who had his name changed when he was sent as a spy into Canaan, Nu 13:16, from Hoshea to Joshua, from "Let God save," to "God shall save." Under the law (which brings us, as it were, into a briery wilderness) we may desire, wish, and pray, that there were a Saviour, but under the Gospel we are sure of salvation. Our Jesus is Jehovah our Righteousness. (Hebrews 4 Commentary - John Trapp Complete Commentary)
(9) F B Meyer - When genius aspires to immortality, it leaves the artist’s name inscribed on stone or canvas: and so Inspiration, “dipping her pen in indelible truth, inscribes the name of Jesus on all we see—on sun and stars, flower and tree, rock and mountain, the unstable waters and the firm land; and also on what we do not see, nor shall, until death has removed the veil—on angels and spirits, on the city and heavens of the eternal world.” This thought comes out clearly in the sublime quotation made in Psalm 102:25. That inspired poem is obviously inscribed to Jehovah: “Of old Thou didst found the earth; And the heavens are the work of Thy hands.” (Ps 102:25 quoted in Heb 1:10 - Septuagint of Ps 102:25 reads "In the beginning thou, O Lord, didst lay the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands.") But here (in Hebrews 1:10), without the least apology, or hint of accommodating the words to an inferior use, it is applied directly to Christ. Mark the certainty of this inspired man that Jesus is Jehovah! How sure of the Deity of his Lord! And what a splendid tribute to His immutability! (Hebrews 1:4-5 Commentary)
(10) Adolph Saphir (a believing Jewish commentator) writing on Jeremiah 23:6 comments specifically on the phrase "The LORD (Jehovah) our righteousness." - "There is another righteousness of which both the law and the prophets have continually testified; which is apart from the law, which man does not work out, which is as much given to man as bread is given to a hungry person, and as water is given to a thirsty person. “Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after righteousness.” (Mt 5:6-note) What is the sad condition of the Jews? They do not see two things: they do not know that Jesus is Jehovah, and they do not know that this is our only righteousness. “Jesus our Righteousness.” And what is the lamentable condition of (professed) Christians who do not know the Lord? Simply the same thing, for if they knew Jehovah-Tsidkenu then they would have the knowledge of salvation, they would put no confidence in the works of the law, they would simply rejoice in Christ Jesus. (Jeremiah 23 Commentary - see comments on Jehovah-Tsidkenu) (See his acclaimed work The hidden life - thoughts on communion with God - Saphir, Adolph, 1831-1891)
(11) Ken Hemphill in his excellent book on the Names of God has this conclusion after his exposition of the Name Jehovah Rophe and Jehovah Shammah - "Jesus is Jehovah Rophe, almighty to heal."...The simple point is that Jesus embodied the presence of God. When we see Jesus we see the Father, for He and the Father are one. Jesus is Jehovah Shammah. God's presence was not to be known in a building or in a specific location, but in His Son, the abiding presence of Holy God is experienced in relationship with Jesus Christ. (The Names of God- Ken Hemphill) (See study of Jehovah Rapha or Jehovah Rophe = The LORD our Healer and Jehovah Shammah - The LORD is There)
(12) Adrian Rogers relates the following story of his encounter with a Jehovah's Witness - I was in my yard working one day and a person came up and they were carrying a satchel, and they wanted to talk about the Bible. And religion. And I was happy to do that. And we talked a little bit. And I said by the way, I said tell me a little about yourself. I said oh where do you worship? And he said, oh we meet in thus and such a place. I said, well, tell me what do you call yourself? He said, well, I just, we just want to study the Bible. I said, no, I said, don't beat around the bush. Said, tell me, of course I already knew, but I said tell me. Who are you, what are you? Well, he said, I'm a Jehovah Witness, does that make any difference? I said no, so am I. He said what? You're a Jehovah Witness? I said I surely am. I said you know, I'm going to tell you something else. I believe that Jesus is Jehovah. And Jesus said, ye shall be witness unto me (Acts 1:8). And I said I get no greater joy than to witness about Jesus, our Jehovah. END OF CONVERSATION!!!
(13) Josh McDowell has an interesting chart entitled Jesus is Jehovah (Yahweh) (Ed comment: I am not sure I agree that all of his OT references can be clearly identified as Jesus. Some seem to be more general associations which could just as easily be ascribed the the Father - e.g., Ps 148:2.) (Evidence for Christianity)
(14) Stuart Olyott writes "Seeing Jesus is actually called God, we are not surprised to find that the characteristics which belong to God are ascribed to Him. For instance, in Isaiah 44:6 we read of Jehovah saying, ‘I am the First and I am the Last.’ Yet in Revelation, Jesus says, ‘I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last’ (Revelation 22:13). Jehovah is eternal; Jesus is eternal. Clearly Jesus is Jehovah: he is God. (What the Bible Teaches about the Trinity)
(15) C H Spurgeon in his devotional on Isaiah 7:14 writes "Let us to-day go down to Bethlehem, and in company with wondering shepherds and adoring Magi, let us see him who was born King of the Jews, for we by faith can claim an interest in him, and can sing, “Unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given.” Jesus is Jehovah incarnate, our Lord and our God, and yet our brother and friend; let us adore and admire." (Morning and Evening-Morning, December 25)
(16) Jay Adams in an article entitled "Outwitnessing the Witnesses" gives a suggestion for making a tract to hand to JW's -
Pastor, how have you equipped your people to handle Jehovah’s Witnesses when they come to the door? Sure, you have some members who can take them on. But probably most of your members can’t. So, what do they do? They close the door saying, “No thanks.” Or, worse, they allow them in to peddle their wares. Neither of these responses is acceptable. I’m offering an alternative. It’s a brief tract that you can reproduce for your people to have on hand to give to them when they call.
On the cover are the words:
You are NOT Jehovah’s Witness!
Then, as the Jehovah’s Witness opens it, on the left hand page are these words:
You are NOT!
There are good reasons for saying this.
Consider just two:
1. Scripture shows that Jesus is God.
In Isaiah 43:10 we read,
Before me there was no God formed, and after me there continued to be none. I–I am Jehovah, and besides me there is no savior.
The verse appears in the context of God putting idols and false gods on trial (v. 9). He calls them to witness to their true existence. They fail. Then, He calls His people to take the stand and witness for Him (v. 10). In doing so, He not only refers to Himself as Jehovah, but says that no god was formed before or after Him. Yet, YOU SAY JESUS IS “A GOD.” So He must be Jehovah since there is no other. Also, in verse 10, Jehovah says that He is the only Savior. But Luke 2:11 plainly calls Jesus the Savior!
[On page two he reads:]
2. According to Isaiah 44:6, Jesus is Jehovah.
Jehovah said … I am the first and the last, and besides me there is no God.
In Revelation 1:18, and in 22:13, 16, Jesus referred Isaiah 44:6 to Himself. Clearly, then, this indicates that Jehovah died and rose from the dead as the passage indicates!
Instead of spending time discussing John 1, try to focus on these pivotal verses from Isaiah, verses from which you took your name! Having considered them, can’t you see that you have been led astray since these verses refer to Jesus’ Deity?
(The verses cited are quoted from your New World Translation).
Well, pastor, there you are. A short thrust aimed at the very passages they claim to believe in so strongly. It’s short because it goes to the heart of things, and because they probably wouldn’t read much more. If your church member can wring a promise out of them that if he reads their literature, they will read his—all the better. But, at any rate, if you prepare your members with a tract that you run off on your computer and printer, you will prepare them for the next onslaught of the Jehovah’s Witnesses best wishes! (The Journal of Modern Ministry, Volume 6, Issue 1, Winter, 2009)
(17) William MacDonald has the following comment on Luke 1:76, 77 - The mission of John, the Savior’s herald. John would be the prophet of the Most High, preparing the hearts of the people for the coming of the Lord, and proclaiming salvation to His people through the forgiveness of their sins. Here again we see that references to Jehovah in the OT are applied to Jesus in the New. Malachi predicted a messenger to prepare the way before Jehovah (Mal 3:1). Zacharias identifies John as the messenger. We know that John came to prepare the way before Jesus. The obvious conclusion is that Jesus is Jehovah. (Believer's Bible Commentary)
(18) Morton Smith in his comments on kurios (used some 6000 times in the Old Testament to translate the Hebrew Name Jehovah) writes "This word, which thus carried the full weight of the Old Testament name kurios, was also applied to Jesus. Paul speaks of this in connection with his humiliation and subsequent exaltation, “Wherefore also God highly exalted him, and gave unto him the name which is above every name; that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven and things on earth and things under the earth, and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord (kurios ’Iesous Christos ), to the glory of God the Father.” The name to which Paul referred with the definite article is kurios. This is saying that Jesus is Jehovah. Peter had affirmed the same thing in Acts 2:36, “Let all the house of Israel therefore know assuredly, that God hath made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom ye crucified.” In Revelation John speaks of him as King of Kings and Lord of Lords (Rev 17:14; 19:16). No more exalted language is known to the human tongue to praise God." (Systematic Theology)
(19) Robert Picirilli in his commentary on Second Corinthians comments on 2Cor 4:5 (For we do not preach ourselves but Christ Jesus as Lord, and ourselves as your bond-servants for Jesus’ sake.) - "In the original Greek, “Lord” (kurios) has no definite article “the.” Probably, then, we should understand Paul to say, “We preach Christ Jesus as Lord.” Once again, he says this with all the Jewish consciousness that “Lord” was the regular Greek word (in the Greek translation of the O.T.) for Jehovah. As the visible expression of the invisible God (2Cor 4:4), Jesus is Jehovah. Thus Paul preached Him. (Randall House Bible Commentary)
(20) J. Vernon McGee in his comments on Hebrews 2:9 says “Crowned with glory and honor” He wasn’t crowned with glory and honour by His death but because He came to this earth and died on the Cross for you and for me. Let me emphasize again and again that there is a Man in the glory. He wasn’t there some twenty-five hundred years ago. Instead He was the second Person of the Godhead—let’s call Him Jehovah, for Jesus is Jehovah. And He was and is God, very God of very God. But today He is also very man of very man. He took upon Himself humanity, and because He did this, He was given glory and honor in heaven that wasn’t there before. (Thru the Bible with Dr. J. Vernon McGee)
(21) In the 1902 edition of Bibliotheca Sacra, we find an entire article enititled Jehovah-Jesus-Messiah which addresses to the issue of Jesus as Jehovah - Along with seeing Jesus of Nazareth as the Messiah of the Old Testament prophets, Saul also saw him as Jehovah incarnate. As he gazed upon Jesus standing in the midst of that “great light” “above the brightness of the sun,” even the Shechinah of God, “the glory of that light” flashed into his deepest soul, as a revelation from God, the conviction that He upon whom he was gazing, and whose voice he heard declaring, “I am Jesus of Nazareth whom thou persecutest,” was also the human embodiment of the very Jehovah of the Old Testament; and that this was how he was “the Son of God.” In that glorious, blinding vision it was disclosed to Saul, that to Him upon whom he was gazing there really belonged the threefold character rightly expressed by the threefold name, Jehovah-Jesus-Messiah; and at once he realized that he had been persecuting, and was now on his way still further to persecute, the disciples of that very being whom he and all Israel had worshiped as Jehovah from the beginning of the nation; and whom the prophets had foretold should come as the Messiah. And it was the direct sight of this to him astounding, manifold reality, which completely overwhelmed his soul.....As our third passage we will examine Phil. 2:9–11, which may be rendered as follows: “Wherefore also God highly exalted him, and of his free grace bestowed upon him the Name which is above every name: in order that in the name of Jesus every knee should bow (Isa. 45:23), of those in heaven, and those on earth, and those under the earth; and every tongue should confess, Kurion Ieson Christon, to the glory of God the Father.” Here again both kurios and Christos are without the article, just as in the heralding by the angels to the shepherds; the former standing, as there, for Jehovah, and the latter for Messiah. Hence the translation should be either, “confess Jehovah-Jesus-Messiah,” or “confess that Jehovah is Jesus-Messiah, to the glory,” etc. Thus in this passage again is the view that Jesus is Jehovah shown to be the spinal cord of all Paul’s conception of Christ and Christianity. (Excerpt from the article Jehovah-Jesus-Messiah = A very intriguing 27 page article by an anonymous author. It is worth perusing.) (Bolding Added) (See a related article from Bibliotheca Sacra, Volume 70, July, 1913, page 486, by Rev William M Langdon - Bibliotheca Sacra - "Some Merits of the American Standard Bible" - scroll down to subsection "The Restoration of the Memorial Name, Jehovah")
(22) Henry Alford commenting on Romans 10:13 - "for (Scripture proof of this assertion - [Ed: Referring to Ro 10:12; cf for = a term of explanation]) every one whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord (JEHOVAH,—but used here of Christ beyond a doubt, as the next verse shews [Ro 10:14]. There is hardly a stronger proof, or one more irrefragable by those who deny the Godhead of our Blessed Lord, of the unhesitating application to Him by the Apostle of the Name and attributes of Jehovah) shall be saved. (Romans 10 Commentary - Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary)
(23) Richard Shepherd has a short study on "Jesus is Jehovah" - "In the Old Testament the word YHWH is translated Jehovah or Yahweh in its literal rendering, but is most often translated LORD (spelled with all capital letters) in our English versions. The Greek translation of the Old Testament (the Septuagint) uses the Greek word kurios (“Lord”) when it translates YHWH. Kúrios, from its root word kuria, translated “Lord” or “Master,” literally means “having power or authority.” Kurios is used of an owner of anything, a master over many servants, or of a king or emperor. Jesus referred to Himself as Lord (John 13:13), and the disciple Thomas declared when he saw the resurrected Jesus, “My Lord and my God” (John 20:28). Paul spoke often of the Lord Jesus Christ (1Corinthians 1:3; 8:6; 12:3; Philippians 1:2). Elohim and Adon or Adonai, two other names for God in the Old Testament, are sometimes translated with kúrios as in the quotes from the Old Testament in Matthew 22:44 and 1 Peter 1:25. (See also Psalm 34:8 with 1Peter 2:3.) Jesus is YHWH, Elohim, and Adonai, the sovereign Lord. (Life Principles for Praying God's Way)
(24) C H Spurgeon commenting on Psalm 47:5 writes "God is gone up with a shout. Faith hears the people already shouting. The command of verse 1 is here regarded as a fact. The fight is over; the conqueror rides up to the gates of the city which is made resplendent with the joy of his return. The words are fully applicable to the ascension of the Redeemer. We doubt not that angels and glorified spirits welcomed him with acclamations. He came not without song; shall we imagine that he returned in silence? The Lord with the sound of a trumpet. Jesus is Jehovah. The joyful strain of the trumpet betokens the splendor of His triumph, leading captivity captive, and well might the clarions ring out the tidings of Emmanuel’s victorious return. (Treasury of David—Psalm 47)
C H Spurgeon on Psalm 98:1 - O sing unto the Lord a new song; for he hath done marvelous things.” We had a new song before (Ps. 96) because the Lord was coming, but now we have another new song because he has come, and seen and conquered. Jesus, our King, has lived a marvelous life, died a marvelous death, risen by a marvelous resurrection, and ascended marvelously into heaven. By his divine power he has sent forth the Holy Spirit doing marvels, and by that sacred energy his disciples have also wrought marvelous things and astonished all the earth. Idols have fallen, superstitions have withered, systems of error have fled, and empires of cruelty have perished. For all this he deserves the highest praise. His acts have proved his Deity, Jesus is Jehovah, and therefore we sing unto him as the LORD. (Treasury of David—Psalm 98)
(25) John Newton writes "Labored explications of the Trinity I always avoid. I am afraid of darkening counsel by words without knowledge. Scripture, and even reason assures me, there is but one God, whose name alone is Jehovah. Scripture likewise assures me, that Christ is God, that Jesus is Jehovah. I cannot say that reason assents with equal readiness to this proposition as to the former. But admitting what the Scripture teaches concerning the evil of sin, the depravity of human nature, the method of salvation, and the offices of the Savior; admitting that God has purposed to glorify, not his mercy only, but his justice—in the work of redemption; that the blood shed upon the cross is a proper, and adequate atonement for sin; and that the Redeemer is at present the Shepherd of all who believe in Him. We depend upon Him—and He gives us the effectual help which we need. He is intimately acquainted with us—and knows every thought and intent of our hearts. He has His eye always upon us. His ear always open us. His arm ever stretched out for our relief. We can receive nothing—but what He bestows. We can do nothing—but as He enables us. Nor can we stand a moment—but as He upholds us!" (John Newton - Seven Letters to a Christian Friend)
(26) Joe Nesom in his article "The Lord's Way of Evangelism" writes - "The gospel calls people from ignorance about Christ to knowledge of his uniqueness (John 4:10–12). The Lord told the woman at the well that she would have sought living water from Him had she known who He was. This was not the beginning of an attempt to teach a full blown doctrine of Christ’s deity and humanity. It was a reference to the grace of God which was being revealed in Him. “If you knew the gift of God and who it is that is saying to you, ‘Give me a drink,’ you would have asked Him, and He would have given you living water.” Our evangelism has to have enough of Christ’s person in it to make people understand that there is no way of salvation outside of His divine person. And they must also be told that salvation through Christ is a gift of the Father Himself. Christ Jesus must be presented to poor lost sinners as the embodiment of grace. “Are you greater than our father Jacob?,” was her reply. We must convince men and women that there is none greater than our Lord. This becomes clear when we attempt to explain the gospel to those who have been taken captive by cultic groups. They have a doctrine of Christ, but it is false and we must work to show them that the Word of God does not support their claims. A “Jehovah’s Witness,” for example must be shown that Jesus is Jehovah God. He must not be allowed to think that the Lord is merely a glorious lesser deity. He must be shown that prophets like Isaiah prophesied the coming of Jehovah God to the earth, and that Jesus Christ is the fulfillment of those prophecies. There is none greater! (The Lord’ Way of Evangelism - Founders Journal)
(27) John Braun writes in expositing the text of Acts 2:14, 36-47 writes - "In verses 15 to 35 (of Acts 2:14, 36-47), Peter used the Old Testament references to show that the events of Pentecost and, for that matter, the New Testament era were foretold in Joel 2:28–32. Picking up on the last verse of the Joel prophecy, “Everyone who calls on the name of the LORD (Jehovah) will be saved,” (Ed: What other Name could this refer to but Jesus [cf Acts 4:12]. This passage is a clear identification of Jehovah in the OT with Jesus in the NT.) Peter argued from the messianic Psalms 16 and 110 that Jesus of Nazareth is that LORD (Jehovah) of Joel 2:32. Peter indicated that the Jews had killed Jesus, but God raised Him from the dead (Ac 2:23, 24). In Acts 2:36 Peter makes the connection that Jesus is the Messiah. Moreover, in respect to his divine nature, Jesus is Jehovah of the Old Testament (cp. Joel 2:32; Ac 2:21, 36). With his incarnation Jesus’ human nature shares in the dominion of the universe—a dominion most evident in Jesus’ exaltation (Php 2:9–11; Eph 1:18–23). (Sermon Studies on the Old Testament)
(28) Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown comment on Joel 2:32 "call on … name of … LORD = Hebrew, Jehovah. Applied to Jesus in Ro 10:13 (compare Acts 9:14; 1Co 1:2). Therefore, Jesus is Jehovah; and the phrase means, “Call on Messiah in His divine attributes.” (Joel 2 Commentary - Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible)
(29) John MacArthur says "Just to compare a couple things that were most fascinating, do you remember the vision that Isaiah had in the year that King Uzziah died I saw also the LORD high lifted up and His train filled the temple." The word "LORD." all through here is "Jehovah". You can always tell the word ."LORD" is "Jehovah." It is capitalized (Ed: In the NASB, not ESV) in Isa 6:3 ‑ "Holy, holy, holy is Jehovah of hosts." Now here Isaiah is having a vision of Jehovah, God. Now I want you to notice John 12:39. "Here according form Isaiah is our Lord. Therefore, they could not believe because Isaiah said he blinded their eyes, hardened their hearts, they should not see with their eyes, understand with their hearts and be converted and I should heal them." These things said Isaiah when he saw his glory and spoke of Him. Of whom? Of Christ. Notice, the antecedent to "His" and the antecedent to "Him" in Jn 12:41 is Christ. Now what does that say? The passage Isaiah 6, "I saw Jehovah," is referred to Christ in John 12:39-41. Jesus is Jehovah. In Isaiah 40:1-3, you have amazing prediction regarding the work of John the Baptist. I want to show you just this illustration. Isaiah 40:1-3 ‑ "Comfort ye, comfort ye, my people," saith your God. "Speak tender to Jerusalem. Cry unto her that her warfare is accomplished. Her inequity is pardoned. She hath received of the Lord's hand double for all her sins. The voice of him that cries in the wilderness prepare ye the way of the LORD (Jehovah). Make straight in the desert a highway for our God." Prepare ye the way of the LORD (Jehovah). Capital letters again, "Jehovah." Prepare ye the way of Jehovah. Matthew 3:3, here came John fulfilling the prophecy preaching...."For this is He." He's preaching about Christ. "This is He that was spoken of by the prophet Isaiah when he said, 'The voice of one crying in the wilderness prepare ye the way of the Lord.'" Who is the Lord that is the Jehovah of Isaiah 40? It is the Jesus of the gospels. Jesus is Jehovah. Leviticus 19:3 ‑ "Keep my Sabbaths. I am Jehovah, your God." Matthew 12:8 ‑ Jesus said, "For the son of man is Jehovah of the Sabbath.." He is the Jehovah of the Old Testament. Joel 2:32 ‑ "It shall come to pass that whosoever shall call on the name of the LORD (Jehovah) shall be saved - "on the name of Jehovah." (Romans 10:13) Paul points to Jesus and says, "Whosoever shall call upon the name of the LORD shall be saved." He applies that passage to Jesus. (The Paradox of Christmas)
One note of caution - Please be aware that the fact that Jesus appeared as Jehovah in the OT in
Psalms 11:6 Upon the wicked He will rain snares; Fire and brimstone and burning wind will be the portion of their cup (Why?). 11:7 For (because) Jehovah is righteous. He loves righteousness. The upright will behold His face. (See Righteous = Attribute of God)
Spurgeon commenting on Psalm 11:7 writes that...
Stephen Charnock writes that...
The Lord shall guide thee Isaiah 58:11
Spurgeon writes on: Absolute Assurance: “He hath said, I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee.”— He 13:5-note
Spurgeon on JEHOVAH YOUR GOD (Leviticus 11:44)
Spurgeon's devotional on Psalm 34:6 The Lord Heard Him
Spurgeon's devotional on Psalm 119:55
Two notes of caution - Before these are discussed it must be understood that not every use of Jehovah in the OT can be identified as the Pre-existent Christ. One needs to carefully examine the context to see if a particular reference can be considered as speaking of Christ. Many of the uses of LORD cannot be identified as Messiah, and some references would even suggest that Jesus can never be called Jehovah. Thus John Weldon in his book "The Mormon Deception" makes the statement "Biblically, it is impossible that Jesus could have been the Jehovah of the Old Testament." If that is true than how could one interpret John 12:41 (see interpretations above from numerous conservative commentators who see in John 12:41 a reference to Jesus as Jehovah). So it seems Weldon paints with a broad brush stroke when he says Jesus is not Jehovah in the OT. On the other hand, he is certainly correct in referencing passages like Psalm 2:7 “I will proclaim the decree of the LORD [Jehovah]: He [Jehovah] said to me [Jesus], ‘You [Jesus] are my Son; today I [Jehovah] have become your Father.’” Clearly the context of this passage Jehovah has to be God the Father not Jesus.
Please be aware that the fact that Jesus appeared as Jehovah in the OT in no way impugns the integrity of the Trinity of the Godhead. God is Triune. Jesus is NOT the Father. There are two cultic teachings to be aware of...
1) Beware of the very subtle, dangerous (because it is so subtle) false teaching of Oneness Pentecostal theology (Jesus only theology).
2) Beware of one other danger when speaking of Jesus as Jehovah in the OT. Reed and Farkas explain the false teaching of the Mormon Church in the area of Jesus and Jehovah...