near to God and He will draw
near to you: eggisate (2PAAM) to theo kai eggiei humin:
(Ge 18:23; 1Chr 28:9; 2Chr 15:2; Ps 73:28, Ps 73:28KJV; 145:18; Isa 29:13; 55:6,7;
Hos 6:1,2; Zech 1:3; Mal 3:7; Ro 5:2, Eph 3:12, Heb 7:19; 10:22)
Delay not, delay not, O sinner,
The waters of life are now flowing for thee;
No price is demanded, the Savior is here;
Redemption is purchased, salvation is free.
Delay not, delay not, O sinner, to
For mercy still lingers and calls thee today.
Her voice is not heard in the vale of the tomb;
Her message, unheeded, will soon pass away.
Delay not, delay not, the Spirit of grace,
Long grieved and resisted, may take His sad flight,
And leave thee in darkness to finish thy race,
To sink in the gloom of eternity’s night.
Delay not, delay not, the hour is at hand,
The earth shall dissolve, and the heavens shall fade;
The dead, small and great, in the judgment shall stand;
What helper, then, sinner, shall lend thee his aid?
Delay not, delay not, why longer abuse
The love and compassion of Jesus thy God?
A fountain is open, how canst thou refuse
To wash and be cleansed in His pardoning blood?
Not, O Sinner, Draw Near)
in mind, remembering that James
4:7-9 is a description of how to have a humble walk with God and I
agree with Thomas Manton who feels that "You may look upon
these words as spoken to sinners or to convert."
Hiebert writes that...
Involved in the basic demand of Jas
4:7 are various injunctions to be obeyed. Involved are a wholehearted
return to God (Jas 4:8a), personal cleansing (Jas 4:8b), open
repentance (Jas 4:9), and humility (Jas 4:10). (D
Edmond Hiebert - James)
Near to the heart of God,
Nearer I cannot be,
For in the Person of His Son
I'm just as near as He.
will draw near - This is
one of those great commandments that comes "packaged" with
the "built in"
encouragement of God's promise of fellowship. In the Old
Testament the picture of drawing near to God was a general expression
for the one who approached God in sincere penitence and humility. (see
Isa 29:13 below for the "counterfeit").
The command to draw near
implies that their ungodly behavior (Jas 4:1-3) and worldliness (Jas
4:4) has put distance between the readers and God. James is calling
for his readers to pursue intimacy with God.
As Blanchard has so aptly
There is only one view more welcome
than the backside of the Devil—and that is the face of God. (John
Blanchard, Truth for Life. West Sussex, England: H. E. Walter Ltd.,
- Come close to God by entering His courts with prayer, praise and
thanksgiving, by spending time with Him in His Word, by spending time
with Him in corporate worship. But don't confuse one time Sunday
worship as what James means by his command to
draw near. To be
sure, worship on Sunday can be a special time of drawing near to God,
but the practice of drawing near needs to saturate, permeate and
"marinate" our lives
throughout the week. If we only draw near to worship God on Sunday, we are not
really drawing near, but only making an occasional "visit".
context, the love of the world (worldliness, cp Jas 4:4-note,
cp 1Jn 2:15,16, 17, Gal 6:14) results in straying from God (cp "double
minded", Jesus' warning in Mt 6:24-note).
James is saying (as recipients of greater grace) we must counter the
anti-God influences of this world (and even our own
fallen flesh) and
draw near to God.
C H Spurgeon exhorts us
Hear this command, and practice it;
get near to God in Christ Jesus, and you shall soon find him come to
your help in every hour of need.
Lehman Strauss offers a
provocative analysis of this passage...
Real comfort and courage come to
every child of God who experiences His nearness, and it seems to me
that the heart of the average man cries out with Job: "Oh that I knew
where I might find Him!" (Job 23:3). Many persons facing complex
problems yearn for God's nearness. On this hunger many psychiatric
quacks are getting rich. Even some Protestant clergymen have resorted
to operating clinics where sentimental and emaciated peace of mind
gimmicks are offered to resolve inner tension and restlessness. The
quiet mood of "positive thinking" is negative compared with what the
The nearness to God here promised
is available to every child of God meeting divine requirements for it.
Most expositors hold prayer to be the most prominent element in our
drawing near to God. Personally, I feel safer if I commence with the
Word of God and then pray according to the Scriptures. We have already
indicated that prayers offered contrary to the plain teaching of the
Bible remain unanswered, for the heart must be right as a condition to
effective prayer. The greatest privilege ever afforded the sinful
human race is to draw nigh to God. When we think of God's majesty and
might and holiness, we stand in awe that He would allow us to come
near to Him. (Lehman Strauss: James, Your Brother: Studies in the
Epistle of James)
David gives us a sense of
what drawing near looks like in the psalms writing...
(A Psalm of David, when he was in
the wilderness of Judah.) O God, Thou art my God; I shall seek Thee
earnestly; My soul thirsts for Thee, my flesh yearns for Thee, In a
dry and weary land where there is no water. (Ps 63:1)
And do not hide Thy face from Thy
servant, for I am in distress; answer me quickly (Ed: David
draws near to God in this prayer and calls on God to draw near). Oh
draw near to my soul and redeem it; Ransom me because of my
enemies! (Ps 69:17, 18)
Dearest Jesus, draw Thou near me,
Let Thy Spirit dwell with mine;
Open now my ear to hear Thee,
Take my heart and seal it Thine;
Keep me, lead me on my way,
Thee to follow and obey,
E’er to do Thy will and fear Thee,
And rejoice to know and hear Thee.
Underneath Thy wings abiding,
In Thy Church, O Savior dear,
Let me dwell, in Thee confiding,
Hold me in Thy faith and fear;
Take away from me each thought
That with wickedness is fraught,
Tempting me to disobey Thee,
Root it out, O Lord, I pray Thee.
Jesus, Draw Thou Near Me)
Isaiah quotes God's
description of counterfeit drawing near to God...
Then the Lord said, "Because this
people draw near with their words and honor Me with their lip
service, but they remove their hearts far from Me, and their reverence
for Me consists of tradition learned by rote (Isa 29:13)
Comment: It follows that if
we are to genuinely draw near we must do so both externally
(our body and our members) and
internally (our heart and soul). Superficial and/or hypocritical
drawing near will never please God, and since such worship is
ultimately a reflection of pride, the Almighty will actively oppose
such feigned worship. Our words and actions should be the outflow of a heart
surrendered to God and not a faithless heart that seeks after the
emptiness and transience of this present evil age (Gal 1:4), this godless world system. And so
James follows his command to
draw near with
a series of "machine gun-like" commands that if obeyed
demonstrate that our drawing near is not sham
religiosity (cp Jas 1:26, 27-note).
David explains to his son
Solomon the prerequisites for drawing near to God (finding God)...
As for you, my son Solomon, know
the God of your father, and serve Him with a whole heart and a
willing mind; for the LORD searches all hearts, and understands
every intent of the thoughts. If you seek Him, He will let you find
Him; but if you forsake Him, He will reject you forever. (1Chr
Hebrews exhorts believers,
that because of the fully atoning work of our sinless Great High
Priest, we can now draw near to God through Him...
Let us therefore draw near
(proserchomai = literally come before) with confidence to the throne
of grace, that we may receive mercy and may find grace to help in time
of need. (Heb 4:16-note)
Comment: This is an all the
more incredible truth when one considers that in ancient times kings
were totally unapproachable by the common people and only the Jewish
high priest could actually enter the Holy of holies symbolic of the
presence of God and then only once per year.
Hence, also, He (Christ) is able to
save forever those who draw near (proserchomai = literally come
before) to God through Him (As our Great High Priest, through Who we
can boldly approach God), since He always lives to make intercession
for them. (Heb 7:25-note)
(In light of the truth that we have
a Great High Priest, Christ Jesus seated at the right hand of the
Father) let us draw near (proserchomai = literally come before)
with a sincere heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts
sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with
pure water ( Hebrews 10:22-note).
As noted below the writer of
Hebrews uses the same verb as James (eggizo - draw near)
(for the Law made nothing perfect),
and on the other hand there is a bringing in of a better hope (the New
Covenant in His blood, with a Better Mediator than the OT priesthood),
through (dia) which we draw near to God. (Hebrews 7:19-note)
The Happiness of Drawing Near to
God - Thomas Watson
Steven Cole writes that when
James commands us to draw
near, he is not
that God is waiting for sinners to
make the first move toward Him, and then He will respond. Not only
does that run counter to all of Scripture, it also runs counter to
this verse, which is God commanding us to draw near to Him! Jesus
said, “No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him”
(Jn 6:44). In case we missed it, He repeated, “For this reason I have
said to you, that no one can come to Me unless it has been granted him
from the Father” (Jn 6:65). God always makes the first move toward
us...these words in James are written primarily to believers. It is
easy even for believers to drift away from the Lord. James’ point is,
“Guess who moved?” It wasn’t God! If you’re engaging in continuing
quarrels and conflicts (Jas 4:1), you are not close to God. You’ve
drifted. He is calling you to draw near to Him, with the promise that
He is ready and waiting to draw near to you. The thought of not
enjoying sweet fellowship with our loving Lord should move you to
clear up whatever stands between you and Him. You cannot be close to
God at the same time that you’re angry or bitter toward someone else.
That’s why immediately after teaching how serious the sin of anger is,
Jesus said (Mt 5:23,24), “Therefore if you are presenting your
offering at the altar, and there remember that your brother has
something against you, leave your offering there before the altar and
go; first be reconciled to your brother, and then come and present
your offering.” You can’t draw near to God until you first clear up,
as much as it is in your power, any relational difficulties. If you
think that you’re close to God, but you’re angry and bitter, you’re
deceiving yourself! Submit to God; draw near to God. (Sermon)
Arthur Pink notes that...
It is one thing to know
theoretically the legal way and right of approach unto God—but it is
quite another to enjoy conscious access to Him. For that, the aid of
the Spirit is imperative—but He will not perform His gracious
operations within us if He is grieved (Ep 4:30-note).
If we have spent the night in ransacking the newspapers, in worldly
conversation—or in backbiting the servants and saints of God (Ed: In
other words, we let an "unwholesome word proceed from" our mouth! Ep
you think that the Holy Spirit will draw out your heart unto the
Father, when you perform your evening devotions? Not so, unless you
penitently confess those sins, and sincerely determine there shall be
no repetition of them. "Draw near to God—and He will draw near to
you" (James 4:8). (Access
In the OT David wrote...
But it is good for me to draw
near to God: I have put my trust in the Lord GOD, that I may
declare all thy works. (Psalm 73:28KJV)
Spurgeon comments on
David's declaration: But it is good for me to draw near to God. Had he
done so at first he would not have been immersed in such affliction;
when he did so he escaped from his dilemma, and if he continued to do
so he would not fall into the same evil again. The greater our
nearness to God, the less we are affected by the attractions and
distractions of earth. Access into the most holy place is a great
privilege, and a cure for a multitude of ills. It is good for all
saints, it is good for me in particular; it is always good, and always
will be good for me to approach the greatest good, the source of all
good, even God himself.
(Drawing near) is not one
isolated act. It is nor merely turning to God, and saying, "I have
come to him." The expression is draw. It is not a single act; it is
the drawing, the coming, the habitual walk, going on, and on, and on,
so long as we are on earth. It is, therefore, an habitual religion
which must be pressed and enforced upon us. Montagu Villiers. 1855.
The Lord is near to all who
call upon Him, to all who call upon Him in truth. (Ps 145:18)
Spurgeon comments: The LORD
is nigh unto all them that call upon him. Not only near by his
omnipresence, but to sympathize and favour. He does not leave praying
men, and men who confess his name, to battle with the world alone, but
he is ever at their side. This favour is not for a few of those who
invoke him; but for each one of the pious company. "All" who place
themselves beneath the shield of His glorious name by calling
themselves by it, and by calling upon it in supplication, shall find
him to be a very present help in trouble. "To all that call upon him
in truth": for there are many whose formal prayers and false
professions will never bring them into communion with the Lord. To
pray in truth, we must have a true heart, and the truth in our heart;
and then we must be humble, for pride is a falsehood; and be earnest,
or else prayer is a lie. A God of truth cannot be nigh to the spirit
of hypocrisy; this he knows and hates; neither can he be far removed
from a sincere spirit, since it is his work, and he forsakes not the
work of his own hands.
Manton comments that...
Sin is departing from God; grace is
returning. Come near to him, aim for the support of his presence;
Christ is the way, but you must resolve upon it: I must and I will.
“Your face, Lord, I will seek” (Ps 27:8); there must be a concern to
bring the soul to this resolve. Note what it says in Jer 30:21, “‘I
will bring him near and he will come close to me, for who is he who
will devote himself to be close to me?’ declares the Lord.” But will
you devote yourselves? A practical commandment arises from conviction
of the necessity and excellence of the duty; as David says, “It is
good to be near God” (Ps 73:28).
There is one doubtful point in the
text that must be cleared up before we go any further, arising from
the use of the phrase come near to God, as if it were in our own
Solution. First, this
passage and similar ones show not what man wants to do but what he
ought to do. We left God before he left us; we should be the first to
return, as we were the first to leave. The wronged party may in
justice wait for us to submit. Yet such is the Lord’s kindness that He
loves us first (1John 4:19).
Second, commandments are not
measures of our strength; it is not valid to argue from what ought to
be done that it can or will be done. These things are expressed in
this way for another purpose: to show God’s right, to convince the
creature of weakness, to show us our duty, to show us that we should
do our utmost, and to convince us of the things we have failed to do.
Third, these precepts are
not useless; they convey grace to those who are chosen. God fulfills
what He commands, for, by means of the Spirit working with them, they
are stirred up and made to come near to God...
I shall conclude with Bernard’s
wonderful saying: “We cannot seek God until we have found him; he
wants to be sought in order that he may be found, and found in order
that he may be sought: it is grace that must bring us to grace.” The
stray sheep cannot be brought home unless it is on Christ’s
Coming near to God is not something
we must do for an hour, it is not something appropriate merely when we
are converted, but it is the work of our whole lives.
(A Practical Exposition of
Nearer, still nearer, close to Thy
Draw me, my Savior—so precious Thou art!
Fold me, oh, fold me close to Thy breast.
Shelter me safe in that “Haven
Shelter me safe in that “Haven of Rest.”
Nearer, still nearer, nothing I bring,
Naught as an offering to Jesus, my King;
Only my sinful, now contrite heart.
Grant me the cleansing Thy blood doth impart.
Grant me the cleansing Thy blood doth impart.
Nearer, still nearer, Lord, to be Thine!
Sin, with its follies, I gladly resign,
All of its pleasures, pomp and its pride,
Give me but Jesus, my Lord, crucified.
Give me but Jesus, my Lord, crucified.
Nearer, still nearer, while life shall last.
Till safe in glory my anchor is cast;
Through endless ages ever to be
Nearer, my Savior, still nearer to Thee;
Nearer, my Savior, still nearer to Thee!
The call of the prophet Isaiah
in chapter 55 is very similar to James' commands in James 4:8, 9...
(A command in Hebrew; Lxx = zeteo in
= command for
decisive action!) the Lord while He may be found;
(A command in Hebrew; Lxx =aorist
= command for decisive action!) Him
while He is near. Let the wicked forsake his way and the unrighteous
man his thoughts; and let him return to the Lord, and He will have
compassion on him, and to our God, for He will abundantly pardon.
(Isaiah 55:6, 7)
The prophet Hosea cries out
(primarily to the Northern 10 tribes, called "Israel" or sometimes
"Ephraim" the name of the largest tribe)...
(Command in Hebrew) let us return to the Lord. For He has torn us, but
He will heal us; He has wounded us, but He will bandage us. He will
revive us after two days; He will raise us up on the third day that we
may live before Him. (Hosea 6:1, 2)
The prophet Zechariah
(prophesying to the Jews who returned to Palestine after the 70 year
exile in Babylon - his call was to urge them to complete the
rebuilding of the Temple) echoes Hosea and clearly parallels James'
call to his Jewish readers to draw near to God and He would draw near
“Therefore say to them, ‘Thus says
the Lord of hosts, “Return
(Command in Hebrew) to
Me,” declares the Lord of hosts, “that I may return to you,”
says the Lord of hosts. (Zechariah 1:3)
C. H. Spurgeon Anecdotes.
Prayer, a Drawing Near to God
-There was a time, late in the fifties, when Mr. Spurgeon had the use
of the Congregational Church, Tunbridge Wells, secured for him by a
friend. He preached there many times, and the present writer did not
miss any one of the sermons. He remembers especially two of them.
"Things that accompany Salvation" was one; the other was on prayer as
drawing near to God: "It is good for me to draw near to God." His
remarks went to show that, whether in a form of prayer or in
extemporaneous supplication, that alone is true prayer in which the
soul seeks to draw near to God. The divisions of the sermon were very
remarkable and original.
He said: "First, I shall use the
text as a Touchstone."
Second, I shall use it as a
Whetstone, to sharpen the activity of the soul God-ward.
"Third, I shall set it up as a
Tombstone over the myriads of dead prayers, both formal and
The discourse throughout was
striking, telling, and searching. Three evangelical clergymen who were
present evidently thought the sermon calculated to be profitable to
others besides those who had listened to it, and they sought Mr.
Spurgeon's permission to have it printed as a booklet for distribution
in the town and neighborhood. Those services in the Congregational
Church were the means of much good, and people came in from the
country around to listen to the preacher, whose usefulness and
popularity were extending on every side.
Praise to the Lord, the
Almighty, the King of creation!
O my soul, praise Him, for He is thy health and salvation!
All ye who hear, now to His temple
Praise Him in glad adoration.
to the Lord, the Almighty)
means to approach, draw closer to, draw near, be near, come near, all these uses
referring to moving in space and drawing closer to some point. In
short, to draw near in space. (Mt 21:1, Lk 7:12, 15:1, 25,
18:35. 19:29, 37, 41).
Hiebert writes that in
was used in the Septuagint of the
priests in the Tabernacle, duly qualified to approach God with their
sacrifices (Lev 10:3; 21:21, 22, 23); it also was used in a wider
sense of man's approach to God in worship (Isa. 29:13; Hos 12:6). Thus
the term conveys the thought of entering into communion with God as
acceptable worshipers. Such drawing near to God marks "those who long
to come into the closest possible relation to Him, in contrast to
those who are His enemies and who keep at a distance from Him. Their
sincere approach is assured of God's favorable response: "and he will
come near to you." Like the returning prodigal (Lk 15:20), they will
find God waiting to welcome and restore them. (Ibid)
Fruchtenbaum agrees that
is used in the
for “worship.” It is
the Levitical term for worship (cp Lev 10:3, 21:21). The promise is
draw nigh to God and He will draw nigh to you, which is a pledge of
fellowship and communion. (Fruchtenbaum,
A. G. The Messianic Jewish Epistles : Hebrews, James, First Peter,
Second Peter, Jude. Page 292. Tustin, CA: Ariel Ministries)
On Logos Software)
Lenski notes that the
is again decisive and indicates
that the readers are not to draw a step or two nearer to God but are
to approach him completely. This is said to Christians (Ed:
Some feel that Jas 4:6-10 could also apply to non-believers) who are
to flee to God by repentance and faith, who will then always find him
drawing near to them in grace, pardon, protection. The devil will flee
from us, God will draw near to us. James intends to use this contrast.
The parable of the Prodigal illustrates the returning to God in
repentance and his drawing near to the repentant one. (Lenski, R. C.
H. The Interpretation of the Epistle to the Hebrews and of the Epistle
of James. Page 632. 1938)
other NT meaning of eggizo is to draw near in time:
the kingdom of Heaven/of God (Mt 3:2, 4:17, 10:7, Mk 1:15, Lk 10:9,
11), hour (Mt 26:45), day (Ezek 12:23; Ro 13:12-note,
harvest time (Mt 21:34), feast day (Lk 21:8, Mt 21:34, Lk 21:20,
22:1), redemption (Lk 21:28), the end of all things (1Pe 4:7-note)
James uses eggizo in Jas 4:8
of drawing near
in a spiritual sense (also used in this sense in Heb 7:19-note), while in James 5:8 he uses
eggizo in a temporal sense.
Eggizo - 42x in 41v in the
NT - Mt 3:2; 4:17; 10:7; 21:1, 34; 26:45, 46; Mark 1:15; 11:1; 14:42;
Luke 7:12; 10:9, 11; 12:33; 15:1, 25; 18:35, 40; 19:29, 37, 41; 21:8,
20, 28; 22:1, 47; 24:15, 28; Acts 7:17; 9:3; 10:9; 21:33; 22:6; 23:15;
Ro 13:12; Phil 2:30; Heb 7:19; 10:25; Jas 4:8; 5:8; 1 Pet 4:7. The NAS
translates eggizo as approached(10), approaching(7), at
hand(12), came close(1), came up(1), come near(3),comes near(2),
coming near(1), draw near(3), drawing near(2).
Here are some representative
Mt 3:2 (John the Baptist) "Repent
= make this your continual practice!),
for the kingdom of heaven is at hand (perfect
tense = to
have drawn near and as a result to be present or at hand)."
Comment: At hand is in the
perfect tense which means in essence that the kingdom (King) has come
and is still present. How so since John is on earth not heaven? He is
surely referring to the King of the Kingdom Who had arrived. In fact
John been prepared to herald the King's coming [Isa 40:3]. The kingdom
has a spiritual aspect, a present physical aspect, and a future
eternal aspect, depending on context, but always refers to God's reign
over His created and redeemed world and its believing inhabitants.
Mt 4:17 From that time Jesus began
to preach and say, "Repent
for the kingdom of heaven is at hand (perfect
Matthew 26:45 Then He came to the
disciples, and said to them, "Are you still sleeping and taking your
rest? Behold, the hour is at hand (perfect
and the Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners. 46
"Arise, let us be going; behold, the one who betrays Me is at hand!"
Luke 21:8 And He said, "See to it
that you be not misled; for many will come in My name, saying, 'I am
He,' and, 'The time is at hand'; do not go after them.
Luke 21:28 "But when these things
begin to take place, straighten up and lift up your heads, because
your redemption is drawing near."
Comment: Redemption demands
a redeemer and thus this clearly speaks of Messiah's
Luke 22:47 While He was still
speaking, behold, a multitude came, and the one called Judas, one of
the twelve, was preceding them; and he approached Jesus to kiss
Acts 7:17 "But as the time of
the promise was approaching which God had assured to Abraham
(Ge 15:13, 14, 15, 16 - when the "cup" of iniquity of the Amorites who
lived in the Promised Land had been filled to the brim), the people
increased and multiplied in Egypt,
Acts 9:3 (Paul's encounter with the
Risen Christ - and his radical conversion) And it came about that as
he journeyed, he was approaching Damascus (see also Acts 22:6),
and suddenly a light from heaven flashed around him;
The night is almost gone, and the day is at hand (perfect
tense = to
have drawn near and as a result to be present or at hand). Let us
therefore lay aside the deeds of darkness and put on (like a new
changes of clothes - "Jesus dress"!) the armor of
Comment: At hand
speaks of the day of the
of Christ which is
the next event on God’s Plan for the Ages and could happen at any
God delays the Son's return because He is still redeeming those whom
He “chose … in Him before the foundation of the world” (Ep 1:4-note).
From the human perspective, Christ’s return has been
ascended into heaven (Acts 1:9, 10, 11) and this assurance has
always been the church’s "blessed hope" (Titus 2:13-note).
because (Epaphroditus - cp Php 2:25, 26, 27, 28, 29) he came close to
death for the work of Christ, risking his life to complete what was
deficient in your service to me.
(for the Law made nothing perfect), and on the other hand there is a
bringing in of a better hope, through which we draw near
not forsaking our own assembling together, as is the habit of some,
but encouraging one another; and all the more, as you see the day
drawing near (perfect
James 5:8 You too
= command for decisive action);
(firmly fix, be resolute, even in face of trials and persecution!) (aorist
= command calling for decisive
action) your hearts, for the coming (parousia) of the Lord is at hand
(= speaks of the
of the Messiah's
Comment: The imminent return
of the Bridegroom should stimulate every member of His Church (the
Bride) to patience and persistence. See related discussion regarding
rightly remarks that "Any view of eschatology which eliminates
(believers in every age living with the hope that Christ could come at
any moment) is in conflict with all those passages which provide hope
for suffering believers by anticipating the Lord’s coming."
J. James. Moody or
1Peter 4:7-note The
end (telos = consummation, an achieved goal) of all things is at
tense = to
have drawn near and as a result to be present or at hand. The
Return of Christ =
= it could occur at any moment); therefore (If you are looking
expectantly for Christ at any moment, your daily conduct will [or
should] be a clear reflection of such a belief),
be of sound judgment
= command for decisive action)
and sober spirit
= command for decisive action) for the purpose of prayer.
Eggizo - 103v in the
Septuagint (LXX) - Gen
12:11; 18:23; 19:9; 27:21, 22, 26, 27, 41; 33:3; 35:16; 37:18; 44:18; 45:4;
47:29; 48:7, 10, 13; Ex 3:5; 19:21, 22; 24:2; 32:19; 34:30; Lev 10:3;
21:3, 21, 23; 25:25; Nu 24:17; Deut 4:7; 13:7; 15:9; 20:2; 21:3, 6;
22:2; 25:5; 31:14; Jdg 9:52; 19:13; 20:23; Ruth 2:20; 2Sa 11:20;
15:5; 18:25; 19:42; 20:16; 1Ki 2:1, 7; 8:59; 2 Ki 2:5; 4:6, 27; 5:13;
2Chr 18:23; Ezra 4:2; 9:1; Job 33:22; Ps 27:2; 32:6, 9; 38:11; 55:18,
21; 88:3; 91:7, 10; 107:18; 119:169; 148:14; Pr 3:15; 5:8; 10:14;
19:7; Isa 5:8, 19; 8:15; 26:17; 29:13; 30:20; 33:13; 38:12; 41:1, 5,
21f; 45:21; 46:13; 50:8; 51:5; 54:14; 55:6; 56:1; 58:2; 65:5; Jer
23:23; 51:9; Lam 3:57; 4:18; Ezek 7:7; 9:1, 6; 12:23; 22:4f; 23:5;
36:8; 40:46; 42:13; 43:19; 44:13; 45:4; Dan 4:11, 22; 6:20; Hos 12:6;
Amos 6:3; 9:10; Jonah 3:6; Mic 2:9; 4:10; Hab 3:2; Zeph 3:2; Hag 2:14.
Genesis 12:11 And it came about
when he came near (Lxx = eggizo) to Egypt, that he said to Sarai his wife,
"See now, I know that you are a beautiful woman;
Genesis 18:23 And Abraham came
near (Lxx = eggizo) and said, "Wilt Thou indeed sweep away the righteous with the
Genesis 27:21 Then Isaac said to
Jacob, "Please come close (Lxx = eggizo), that I may feel you, my son, whether
you are really my son Esau or not." 22 So Jacob came close
(Lxx = eggizo)
to Isaac his father, and he felt him and said, "The voice is the voice
of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau."
Leviticus 10:3 Then Moses said to
Aaron, "It is what the LORD spoke, saying, 'By those who come near
(Lxx = eggizo) Me I will be treated as holy, And before all the people
I will be honored.'" So Aaron, therefore, kept silent.
Job 33:22 "Then his soul draws
near (Lxx = eggizo) to the pit, And his life to those who bring
Hosea 12:6 Therefore, return to
your God, observe kindness and justice, and (Lxx = eggizo =
- Command to make this your lifestyle, daily, moment by moment,
habitually draw near) wait for your God continually.
Motyer offers a practical
analysis of this section noting first that...
if we are true to James, we will
see this command to draw
near as the first
obedience required of those who have subordinated themselves to God
and propose to resist the devil. For James is not snatching haphazard
commands out of the air. He is setting out for us an ordered program
of obedience. The first element in the conflict is this central battle
to live near God, the battle for regularity and discipline in Bible
reading, prayer, private and public worship, feasting at the Lord’s
Table, devoting ourselves to Christian fellowship, cultivating every
appointed avenue whereby we can draw near to him.
Fellowship with God—and its
consequent blessing of His fellowship with us—does not ‘just happen’;
we cannot drift into it any more than we drift into holiness. It is
our first obedience. (Motyer,
J. A. The Message of James: The Tests of Faith. The Bible Speaks
Today. Leicester, England; Downers Grove, Ill., U.S.A.: Inter-Varsity
Press or part of the 22 volume set =
The Bible Speaks Today New Testament on Logos
Software - excellent value) (Bolding added for emphasis)
The humble souls who mourn and
The Lord approves and knows;
His mark secures them in the day
When vengeance strikes his foes.
Newton - The Gathering Clouds, with Aspect Dark)
Thomas Manton writes that
will make us find that He is near
to us by His favor and blessing. We have a similar promise in
Zechariah 1:3, “‘Return to Me,’ declares the Lord Almighty, ‘and I
will return to you.’” It is the same in Malachi 3:7.
The way to have God turn to us in
mercy is to turn to Him in duty. This is the standing law of heaven,
and God will not vary from it; it is the best way for God’s glory and
for the creatures’ good. Mercies are most delightful and good to us
when we are prepared for them by duty. Do not, then, separate mercy
from duty. Expectations in God’s way cannot be disappointed. Ephraim
wanted blessings but could not endure the yoke of obedience. We are
apt to lie upon the bed of ease and complacently look to see what God
will do, but will not stir ourselves to do what we should do.
God will be near those who are
careful to hold communion with him. “The Lord is near to all who call
on him, to all who call on him in truth” (Psalm 145:18). Near to
bless, to comfort, to give life, to guide, to support them. Let this
encourage us to come to God—indeed, to run to him. The father ran to
meet the returning prodigal (Luke 15:20). God will be first with
loving-kindness: “You will call, and the Lord will answer; you will
cry for help, and he will say: Here am I” (Isaiah 58:9). God says, in
effect, “What have you to say to me? What do you want from me? Here am
I to satisfy all your desires.” Elsewhere it says, “Before they call I
will answer” (Isaiah 65:24). When we apply ourselves to seeking God,
he is near to counsel, to give life, to defend—ready with blessing
before our imperfect desires can be formed into requests.
(A Practical Exposition of
Drawing Near to God - THE
nearer we come to God, the more graciously will He reveal Himself to
us. When the prodigal comes to his father, his father runs to meet
him. When the wandering dove returns to the ark, Noah puts out his
hand to pull her in unto him. When the tender wife seeks her husband’s
society, he comes to her on wings of love. Come then, dear friend, let
us draw nigh to God who so graciously awaits us, yea, comes to meet
us. Did you ever notice that passage in Isaiah 58:9? There the Lord
seems to put Himself at the disposal of His people, saying to them,
“Here I am,” as much as to say: “What have you to say to me? What can
I do for you? I am waiting to bless you.” How can we hesitate to draw
near? God is nigh to forgive, to bless, to comfort, to help, to
quicken, to deliver. Let it be the main point with us to get near to
God. This done, all is done. If we draw near to others, they may
before long grow weary of us and leave us; but if we seek the Lord
alone, no change will come over His mind, but He will continue to come
nearer and yet nearer to us by fuller and more joyful fellowship.
(Spurgeon, C.. Faith's Checkbook)
ILLUSTRATION - Some of us
have tried to have a daily quiet time and have not been successful.
Others of us have a hard time concentrating. And all of us are busy.
So rather than spend time with God, listening for his voice, we’ll let
others spend time with him and then benefit from their experience. Let
them tell us what God is saying. After all, isn’t that why we pay
preachers? …If that is your approach, if your spiritual experiences
are secondhand and not firsthand, I’d like to challenge you with this
thought: Do you do that with others parts of your life? …You don’t do
that with vacations.… You don’t do that with romance.… You don’t let
someone eat on your behalf, do you? [There are] certain things no one
can do for you. And one of those is spending time with God. (Lucado,
M., & Gibbs, T. A. Grace for the moment : Inspirational thoughts for
each day of the year. Nashville, Tenn.: J. Countryman)
your hands, you sinners: katharisate (2PAAM) cheiras, hamartoloi:
(Job 9:30; 16:17; 17:9; Ps 18:20; 24:4; 26:6; 73:13; Isa 1:15,16;
13:15; Mt 15:2; 27:24; 1Ti 2:8; 1Pe 3:21)
James now calls for his readers to
carry out a thorough moral/ethical personal cleansing, for they had
become stained with worldliness (cp Jas 1:27, Jas 4:1-4) and
only those pure in hand and heart would be allowed to enter into the
presence of God's holiness.
Who may ascend into the hill of the
LORD? And who may stand in His holy place? He who has clean hands
and a pure heart, Who has not lifted up his soul to falsehood,
And has not sworn deceitfully. He shall receive a blessing from the
LORD And righteousness from the God of his salvation. (Ps 24:3, 4, 5)
The prophet Isaiah issued a
similar call to Judah...
yourselves clean; Remove
the evil of your deeds from My sight.
to do evil (Isaiah 1:16-note)
(Note: Four commands in this verse and five more in Isa 1:17-note.
following wash yourselves
make it clear that the washing Jehovah is calling for is a spiritual
cleansing from the filth and stain of sin.)
How appropriate that
follow God drawing near to us who are sinners, whether we be
saved sinners or unconverted sinners! Holiness always highlights the
heinousness of sinfulness. It is a spiritual maxim that the closer the
Holy One draws to us, the greater is (or should be) our sense of
sinfulness. Those who are most conscious of His holiness, logically
are those who are most acutely convicted of their sin. Oswald Chambers
was right when he said that we should "measure our growth in grace by
our sensitiveness to sin". In fact, is not the antithesis of God's
holiness, man's sinfulness!
Young's Literal rendering
pierces us ever so sharply...
hands, ye sinners! and
purify hearts, ye
Alexander Maclaren spoke to
this point in his sermon on Mt 5:4 writing that...
if you and I have ever had
anything like a glimpse of what we really are, and have brought
ourselves into the light of God’s face, and have pondered upon our
characters and our doings in that—not ‘fierce’ but all-searching,
‘light’ that flashes from Him (cp what happens when He draws "near
to us"!) , there can be no attitude, no disposition, more becoming
the best, the purest, the noblest of us, than that ‘Woe is me, for I
Oh, dear friends, if—not as a theological term, but as a clinging,
personal fact—we realize what sin against God is, what must
necessarily come from it, what aggravations His gentleness, His
graciousness, His constant beneficence cause, how facilely we do the
evil thing and then wipe our lips and say, ‘We have done no harm,’ we
should be more familiar than we are with the depths of this experience
of mourning for sin.
I cannot too strongly urge
upon you my own conviction—it may be worth little, but I am bound to
speak it—that there are few things which the so-called Christianity of
this day needs more than an intenser realisation of the fact, and the
gravity of the fact, of personal sinfulness. There lies the root of
the shallowness of so much that calls itself Christianity in the world
to-day. It is the source of almost all the evils under which the
Church is groaning. And sure I am that if millions of the people that
complacently put themselves down in the census as Christians could but
once see themselves as they are, and connect their conduct with God’s
thought about it, they would get shocks that would sober them. And
sure I am that if they do not thus see themselves here and now, they
will one day get shocks that will stupefy them. And so, dear friends,
I urge upon you, as I would upon myself, as the foundation and first
step towards all the sunny heights of God-likeness and blessedness, to
go down, down deep into the hidden corners, and see how, like the
elders of Israel whom the prophet beheld in the dark chamber, we
worship creeping things, abominable things, lustful things, in the
recesses within. And then we shall possess more of that poverty of
spirit, and the conscious recognition of our own true character will
merge into the mourning which is altogether blessed.
Motyer comments on the
position of the commands to
after we draw near
and God draws near explaining that...
when we know the reality of His
presence and come under its holy influence that we are at last in a
position to face the demands of holiness, and find ourselves motivated
by the desire to be like our God. (Motyer,
J. A. The Message of James: The Tests of Faith. The Bible Speaks
Today. Leicester, England; Downers Grove, Ill., U.S.A.: Inter-Varsity
Press or part of the 22 volume set =
The Bible Speaks Today New Testament on Logos
Software - excellent value)
Remember that it is the greater
grace generously given by God (Jas 4:6-note)
that makes possible our obedience to these commands calling us to take
- Both verbs are used in Scripture to indicate ritual cleansing, but
here James is obviously calling for far more than "going through the
motions" as so often happens in religious rituals. These two verbs
(katharizo and hagnizo - see following discussions) were frequently
used in the Old Testament Bible (The
Septuagint) to which many of his Jewish readers had
undoubtedly been exposed. As Lenski says these verbs would
therefore "retain some of their ritual flavor for Jewish readers."
Hiebert observes that
employs the language of ceremonial
cleansing for the priestly approach to God (Ex 30:19, 20, 21; Lev
16:4), but it is now employed with a moral connotation to denote a
definite cleansing from the defilement of sin (2Co 7:1). This
figurative usage appears in the Old Testament (Ps 24:4; Isa 1:15,16).
As the instruments of ethical conduct, their "hands" are symbolic of
their defiling deeds. (Ibid)
Search Me, O God
Search me, O God,
And know my heart today;
Try me, O Savior,
Know my thoughts, I pray.
See if there be
Some wicked way in me;
Cleanse me from every sin
And set me free.
[word study] from
katharos = pure, clean, without stain or spot; English words -
catharsis = emotional or physical purging, cathartic = substance used
to induce a purging, Cathar = member of a medieval sect which sought
the purging of evil from its members) means to make clean by taking
away an undesirable part. To cause to become clean as from physical
stains and dirt (Mt 23:25). To cleanse from filth or impurity.
here) for more
background on the important Biblical concept of clean and
cleansing. This word group conveys the idea of physical,
religious, and moral cleanness or purity in such senses as clean, free
from stains or shame, and free from adulteration.
katharizo referred to cleansing from ritual contamination or
impurity as in (Acts 10:15). In a similar sense katharizo is used of
cleansing lepers from ceremonial uncleanness (Mt 8:2,3, et al) Other
figurative uses that convey a sense similar to James are found in 1Jn
1:9 and Heb 10:2, where katharizo describes the purifying or
cleansing from sin and a guilty conscience thus making one acceptable
to God and reestablishing fellowship.
Katharizo - 94 uses (35x in Leviticus!) in
Septuagint (LXX) - Ge 35:2; Ex
20:7; 29:36, 37; 30:10; 34:7; Lev 8:15; 12:7, 8; 13:6, 7, 13, 17, 23,
28, 34, 35, 37, 59; 14:2, 4, 7, 8, 11, 14, 17, 18, 19, 23, 25,
28, 29, 31, 48, 57; 15:13, 28; 16:19, 20, 30; 22:4; Nu 6:9; 8:15;
12:15; 14:18; 30:5, 8, 12; 31:23, 24; Dt 5:11; 19:13; Josh 22:17; 1Sa
20:26; 2Ki 5:10, 12, 13, 14; 2Chr 29:15; 34:3, 5, 8; Ezra 6:20; Neh
12:30; 13:9, 22, 30; Job 1:5; Ps 12:6; 19:12, 13; 51:2, 7; Pr 25:4;
Isa 53:10; 57:14; 66:17; Jer 13:27; 25:29; 33:8; Ezek 24:13; 36:25,
33; 37:23; 39:12, 14, 16; 43:26; 44:26; Da 8:14; 11:35; Hos 8:5; Mal
In Second Corinthians Paul uses
katharizo to exhort the saints living in a sin soaked society to
be set apart...
having these promises (ponder the incredible promises in 2Co 6:16, 17,
18), beloved, let us cleanse (katharizo)
ourselves from all defilement (molusmos)
of flesh and spirit, perfecting (epiteleo)
of God. (2Cor 7:1-note)
(Brethren, beloved of God our Father, let us continually remember that
holy privilege and holy promise go hand in hand and should serve to
stimulate holy living!)
spoke of spiritual cleansing when he exhorted believers to...
Sleep with clean hands, either kept
clean all day by integrity or washed clean at night by repentance.
(The Calvary Road) noted that one of the dominant themes of the
great awakening in East Africa was a constant cleansing from sin which
prompted him to write
We do not lose peace with God over
another person's sin, but only over our own. Only when we are willing
to be cleansed, will we have His peace.
(Revival) is the constant experience of any simplest Christian who
"walks in the light," but I saw that walking in a the light means an
altogether new sensitiveness to sin, a calling things by their proper
name of sin, such as pride, hardness, doubt, fear, self pity, which
are often passed over as merely human reaction. It means a readiness
to "break" and confess at the feet of Him who was broken for us, for
the Blood does not cleanse excuses, but always cleanses sin, confessed
as sin: then revival is just the daily experience of a soul full of
Jesus and running over. (Hession, R. The Calvary Road)
Hands...heart - Hands speaks of our deeds, which are
much employed for carrying out evil deeds, while hearts speaks
of the center or seat of the thoughts and will, the inner source of
all our evil actions.
Ralph Martin observes that...
The washing of hands, originally a purely external rite (Ex 30:19, 20,
21; Meyer, TDNT 3:421–22; Hauck, TDNT 3:424), soon became associated
with the social as well as the internal religious emphasis of the
prophets and sages (Isa 1:16; Jer 4:14; Job 22:30; Ps 24:4; 26:6).
Thus James connects inward disposition with outward social concern and
action. He is calling his readers to a radical repentance-conversion
that orients the whole person to God and his ways in this world.
Setting aside the affectionate “brethren” (Jas 2:1), James underlines
the seriousness of the situation by addressing his readers as
“sinners” (cf. Ps 31:1-5; 51:15) and double-minded (both terms are
taken as vocative) (Martin, R. P. Vol. 48: Word Biblical Commentary :
James. Dallas: Word, Incorporated)
Sinners - Not brethren as used some 15 times in this
short epistle! James is emphasizing what needs to be removed and his
use of this potent word sinners seems calculated to pierce his
reader's heart and conscience.
As someone has well said it is a universal law of the higher life that
the better a man becomes, the more sensitive he is to sin. J H
Jowett echoed this when he said...
The sorest injury we can do to any man is to lighten his conception of
the enormity of sin.
Sinners (268) (hamartolos
from hamartano = to miss a mark) is an adjective which
describes a person who is continually missing the mark, one who is
devoted to sin and thus lives in continual opposition to God's will
(as used here by James). As seen in the passages below, religious Jews
in the first century interpreted hamartolos as descriptive of those
Jews who were not religious or did not observe the burdensome
traditions and thus considered them as virtual outcasts, in the same
category as despised tax collectors.
Martin Luther, the great
reformer, never got very far from an acute awareness of his sinful
nature once declaring...
I have no other name than sinner;
sinner is my name, sinner is my surname.
The TDNT writes that
hamartolos was used as either
a value judgment for a class of
people as well as a description of our natural relationship to God (Ro
Indeed, J I Packer amplified
this definition when he said that...
A sense of defilement before God is
not morbid, neurotic or unhealthy in any way. It is natural,
realistic, healthy, and a true perception of our condition.
Return, O holy Dove, return,
Sweet messenger of rest!
I hate the sins that made Thee mourn
And drove Thee from my breast.
Cowper - O for a Closer Walk with God)
BDAG writes that
pertains to behavior or activity
that does not measure up to standard moral or cultic expectations
(being considered an outsider because of failure to conform to certain
standards is a frequent semantic component. Persons engaged in certain
occupations, e.g. herding and tanning, that jeopardized cultic purity,
would be considered by some as ‘sinners’, a term tantamount to
Non-Israelites were especially
considered out of bounds (cp. Acts 10:28)...irreligious, unobservant
people, outsiders of those who did not observe the Law in detail and
therefore were shunned by observers of traditional precepts
NIDNTT writes that the root
hamartano (Homer onwards)
originally meant to miss, miss the mark, lose, not share in something,
be mistaken. The Gk. view of a mistake is intellectually orientated.
hamartano is the result of some agnoia, ignorance. The cognate
noun is hamartia (Aesch. onwards), mistake, failure to reach a
goal (chiefly a spiritual one). The result of such action is
hamartema, failure, mistake, offense, committed against friends,
against one’s own body, etc. From these was derived (in the 5th cent.
B.C.) the adj. and noun hamartolos, that thing or person that fails;
in Aristoph. it occurs as a barbarism used with a deprecatory and
ironic ring. hamartetikos (the better form) is also uncommon
and late. The root hamart-, with its meaning of fail, produced
many popular compounds, e.g. hamartinoos, madman.
Hamartolos - 47x in 45v - Mt 9:10, 11, 13; 11:19; 26:45; Mk
2:15, 16, 17; 8:38; 14:41; Lk 5:8, 30, 32; 6:32ff; 7:34, 37, 39; 13:2;
15:1f, 7, 10; 18:13; 19:7; 24:7; John 9:16, 24f, 31; Rom 3:7; 5:8, 19;
7:13; Gal 2:15, 17; 1Ti 1:9, 15; Heb 7:26; 12:3; Jas 4:8; 5:20; 1Pe 4:18; Jude 1:15.
The NAS renders it hamartolos as sinful(3), sinner(12),
sinners(31). Here are a few of these NT uses...
Matthew 9:10 And it happened that as He was reclining at the table in
the house, behold many tax-gatherers and sinners came and were
dining with Jesus and His disciples. 11 And when the Pharisees saw
this, they said to His disciples, "Why is your Teacher eating with the
tax-gatherers and sinners?"...13 "But go and learn what this
means, 'I desire compassion, and not sacrifice,' for I did not come to
call the righteous, but sinners."
Matthew 11:19 "The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say,
'Behold, a gluttonous man and a drunkard, a friend of tax-gatherers
and sinners!' Yet wisdom is vindicated by her deeds."
Matthew 26:45 Then He came to the disciples, and said to them, "Are
you still sleeping and taking your rest? Behold, the hour is at hand
and the Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners.
Luke 6:32 "And if you love those who love you, what credit is that to
you? For even sinners love those who love them. 33 "And if you do good
to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even
sinners do the same. 34 "And if you lend to those from whom you expect
to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners,
in order to receive back the same amount.
Luke 7:39 Now when the Pharisee who had invited Him saw this, he
said to himself, "If this man were a prophet He would know who and
what sort of person this woman is who is touching Him, that she is a
Luke 13:2 And He answered and said to them, "Do you suppose that these
Galileans were greater sinners than all other Galileans,
because they suffered this fate?
Luke 15:1 Now all the tax-gatherers and the sinners were coming
near Him to listen to Him. 2 And both the Pharisees and the scribes
began to grumble, saying, "This man receives sinners and eats with
them."... 7 "I tell you that in the same way, there will be more joy
in heaven over one sinner who repents, than over ninety-nine
righteous persons who need no repentance.... 10 "In the same way, I
tell you, there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one
sinner who repents."
Jesus Sinners Doth Receive
Oh, may all this saying ponder
Who in sin’s delusions live
And from God and Heaven wander!
Here is hope for all who grieve—
Jesus sinners doth receive.
Luke 18:13 "But the tax-gatherer, standing some distance away, was
even unwilling to lift up his eyes to heaven, but was beating his
breast, saying, 'God, be merciful to me, the sinner!'
Luke 19:7 And when they saw it, they all began to grumble, saying, "He
has gone to be the guest of a man who is a sinner."
Jesus! what a Friend for
Jesus! Lover of my soul;
Friends may fail me, foes assail me,
He, my Savior, makes me whole.
Hallelujah! what a Savior!
Hallelujah! what a Friend!
Saving, helping, keeping, loving,
He is with me to the end.
Luke 24:7 saying that the Son of Man must be delivered into the hands
of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again."
John 9:16 Therefore some of the Pharisees were saying, "This man is
not from God, because He does not keep the Sabbath." But others were
saying, "How can a man who is a sinner perform such signs?" And
there was a division among them.... 24 So a second time they called
the man who had been blind, and said to him, "Give glory to God; we
know that this man is a sinner." 25 He therefore answered,
"Whether He is a sinner, I do not know; one thing I do know,
that, whereas I was blind, now I see."...31 "We know that God does not
hear sinners; but if anyone is God-fearing, and does His will,
He hears him.
Romans 3:7-note But if through my lie the truth of God abounded to His
glory, why am I also still being judged as a sinner?
Romans 5:8-note But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while
we were yet sinners, Christ died for us... 19-note
For as through the one man's disobedience the many were made
sinners, even so through the obedience of the One the many will be
Romans 7:13-note Therefore
did that which is good become a cause of death for me? May it never
be! Rather it was sin, in order that it might be shown to be sin by
effecting my death through that which is good, that through the
commandment sin might become utterly sinful.
1Timothy 1:9 realizing the fact that law is not made for a righteous
man, but for those who are lawless and rebellious, for the ungodly and
sinners, for the unholy and profane, for those who kill their
fathers or mothers, for murderers... 15 It is a trustworthy statement,
deserving full acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to
save sinners, among whom I am foremost of all.
For it was fitting that we should have such a high priest, holy,
innocent, undefiled, separated from sinners and exalted above the
For consider Him who has endured such hostility by sinners
against Himself, so that you may not grow weary and lose heart.
James 5:20 let him know that he who turns a sinner from the
error of his way will save his soul from death, and will cover a
multitude of sins.
And if it is with difficulty that the righteous is saved, what will
become of the godless man and the sinner?
Jude 1:15 to execute judgment upon all, and to convict all the ungodly
of all their ungodly deeds which they have done in an ungodly way, and
of all the harsh things which ungodly sinners have spoken
Hamartolos is used 85 times in the
- Ge 13:13; Nu 16:38; 32:14; Deut 29:19; 1Ki 1:21; 2Chr
19:2; Ps 1:1, 5; 3:7; 7:9; 9:16f; 10:3, 15; 11:2, 6; 28:3; 32:10;
34:21; 36:11; 37:10, 12, 14, 16f, 20f, 32, 34, 40; 39:1; 50:16; 55:3;
58:3, 10; 68:2; 71:4; 73:3, 12; 75:8, 10; 82:2, 4; 84:10; 91:8; 92:7;
94:3, 13; 97:10; 101:8; 104:35; 106:18; 109:2, 6; 112:10; 119:53, 61,
95, 110, 119, 155; 125:3; 129:3f; 139:19; 140:4, 8; 141:5, 10; 145:20;
146:9; 147:6; Pr 11:31; 12:13; 23:17; 24:19; Isa 1:4, 28, 31; 13:9;
14:5; 65:20; Ezek 33:8, 19; Dan 12:10; Amos 9:8, 10
Come, Ye Sinners, Poor and Needy
Come, ye sinners, poor and needy,
Weak and wounded, sick and sore;
Jesus ready stands to save you,
Full of pity, love and power.
I will arise and go to Jesus,
He will embrace me in His arms;
In the arms of my dear Savior,
O there are ten thousand charms.
Come, ye thirsty, come, and welcome,
God’s free bounty glorify;
True belief and true repentance,
Every grace that brings you nigh.
Come, ye weary, heavy laden,
Lost and ruined by the fall;
If you tarry till you’re better,
You will never come at all.
View Him prostrate in the garden;
On the ground your Maker lies.
On the bloody tree behold Him;
Sinner, will this not suffice?
Lo! th’incarnate God ascended,
Pleads the merit of His blood:
Venture on Him, venture wholly,
Let no other trust intrude.
Let not conscience make you linger,
Not of fitness fondly dream;
All the fitness He requireth
Is to feel your need of Him.
your hearts, you double-minded
("double-souled"): ekai hagnisate (2PAAM) kardias,
51:6,7,10; Jer 4:11; Ezek 18:31; 36:25, 26, 27; Mt 12:33; 23:25,26; Lk
11:39,40; Acts 15:9; 2Cor 7:1; 1Pe 1:22; 1Jn 3:3)
O blessčd souls are they
Whose sins are covered o’er;
Divinely blessed, to whom the Lord
Imputes their guilt no more.
They mourn their follies past,
And keep their hearts with care;
Their lips and lives without deceit
Shall prove their faith sincere.
Blessčd Souls Are They)
Purify your hearts
speaks of the attitude and
motives leading to the actions while
your hands speaks of our
actions. These two ethical/moral actions clean both the outside and the inside
of "the cup" (see Jesus address to the Pharisees below) and
by His Spirit bring about both
external and the internal cleansing (cp 2Co 7:1-note).
Beloved, we cannot
initiate these actions in our own power, but that which God commands,
He always gives provision. And His provision is the Holy Spirit, Who
before we were saved, convicted us of sin, righteousness and the
judgment to come and after salvation is in us, continually "working in
(us) to help (us) want to do (Ed: Left to ourselves we don't
have the "want to"!) and be able to do what pleases Him." (NCV, Php
Jesus addressed the
hypocrisy of the Pharisees, the "religious" folks of His day with a
series of "Woes!"...
"Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees,
hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and of the dish, but
inside they are full of robbery and self-indulgence. 26 "You blind
Pharisee, first clean the inside of the cup and of the dish, so that
the outside of it may become clean also. 27 "Woe to you, scribes and
Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitewashed tombs which on the
outside appear beautiful, but inside they are full of dead men's bones
and all uncleanness. 28 "Even so you too outwardly appear righteous to
men, but inwardly you are full of hypocrisy and lawlessness. (Mt
23:25, 26, 27, 28)
Mitton writes that...
"It is not, of
course, that our lives have to be made entirely satisfactory, before
we may draw near to God. Otherwise, who would ever be able to come?
Often it is the very act of drawing near which first awakens the
desire to have things put right, and then bestows the means for
this to be done. But he who comes to God must be willing to be
put right. Faith is not identical with obedience, but it must imply
the readiness to be obedient, if only the power to obey is
granted to us. Genuine faith, therefore, while fully aware that
only God can really heal a sick soul will at the same time want to put
right immediately those things which lie within its own power"
(Mitton, C. Leslie. The Epistle of James. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B.
Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1966)
Arnold Fruchtenbaum remarks
that cleanse your hands you sinners, purify your hearts you
double-minded is in a grammatical structure which...
is typical Hebrew parallelism: a
double line with the second line referring back to the first in some
way. The first line is, Cleanse your hands, ye sinners; the
second line is, purify your hearts, ye double-minded. The first
line refers to outward acts of sin, the language of ceremonial
cleansing for the priestly approach to God; the expression ye
sinners is addressed to believers who need cleansing. The second
line, purify your hearts, refers to the inward aspect of
ceremonial cleansing. The word double-minded, as in the
previous passage, means “two-souled.” Trying to hold onto God, and yet
hankering for the world, it describes a struggle in the mind between
the heart and the hands. The hands are not fulfilling what the heart
knows is right. Therefore, guilty of trying to serve two masters (Mt
the end result for the believer is spiritual instability. The origin
of these concepts is Psalm 24:3,4 (note).
A. G. The Messianic Jewish Epistles : Hebrews, James, First Peter,
Second Peter, Jude. Page 292. Tustin, CA: Ariel Ministries)
On Logos Software)
hagnos [word study]
= freedom from
defilements or impurities; see also word study on related word
hagios = holy, saint) in the literal
sense refers to ceremonial washings and purifications undertaken to
purify oneself from ritual defilement. In the context of this
ceremonial purification the idea was withdrawal from the profane
(common) and dedication to God, thereby making one ceremonially ready.
This sense is seen in the OT uses in the
where hagnizo was used of the the
who took upon themselves a temporary or a life-long vow to abstain
from wine and all kinds of intoxicating drink, from every defilement
and from shaving the head. Luke seems to make allusion to a similar
Nazirite-like practice by Paul in Acts 21:24, 26, 24:18.
Hagnizo basically denotes a
removal of that which disqualifies one for acceptable worship,
resulting in a condition of purity and chastity.
Three NT uses of hagnizo
refer not to literal (ritual/ceremonial) purification, but to
ethical/moral or internal/heart purification (Jas 4:8,
1Jn 3:3), emphasizing the idea of one's heart being fully devoted to
the Lord and His will and way. Peter says a person is purified when he
obeys the truth (the Word of God, the Gospel) and in this context
Peter is referring to the initial experience of salvation
(justification) by grace through faith. Here is James the
In sum, hagnizo is a verb
used in Scripture to describe ceremonial and/or spiritual
purification, and addressing both the external and internal aspects of
our being. As stated, James is commanding his readers to undertake an
The root word
hagnos describes what is morally
undefiled and when used ceremonially describes that which has
been so cleansed that it is fit to be brought into the presence of God
and used in His service. James uses this root word hagnos in
his list of characteristics of heavenly wisdom (Jas 3:17).
Hagnos describes a purity which affects a not only a person’s
motives but also their conduct.
Vincent writes that hagnizo was used
Septuagint translation of the Old-Testament (as a) technical term for
the purification of the people and priests (Josh 3:5;
1Chr 15:12; 1Sa 16:5). Also, of the separation from wine and strong
drink by the
(Nu 6:2, 3, 4, 5, 6).
means free from admixture of evil, and is once applied to God, John
everyone who has
this hope fixed on Him
purifies himself, just as He is pure (hagnos) (1Jn
emphasizing the secular origin and use of the root word
hagnos writes that....
hagnos and its root meaning
is pure enough to approach the gods. At first it had only a ceremonial
meaning and meant nothing more than that a man had gone through the
right ritual cleansings. So, for instance, Euripides can make
one of his characters say, “My hands are pure, but my heart is not.”
At this stage hagnos describes ritual, but not necessarily moral,
purity. But as time went on the word came to describe the moral purity
which alone can approach the gods. On the Temple of Aesculapius at
Epidaurus there was the inscription at the entrance: “He who would
enter the divine temple must be pure (hagnos); and
purity is to have a mind which thinks holy thoughts."
W: The Daily Study Bible Series. The Westminster Press
The TDNT says
word means “to set in a state of cultic qualification,” and thus
applies to the various measures serving this end (e.g., washing
garments in Ex 19:10).
G., Friedrich, G., & Bromiley, G. W. Theological Dictionary of the
New Testament. Eerdmans)
NIDNTT has this note on the
classic use in Greek...
hagnos, adj. from the verb. hazomai
which is in turn derived from hagiomai, to stand in awe of someone,
originally meant that which inspires (religious) awe, tabu (Godliness,
art. sebomai). In secular Gk. usage hagnos is found from Homer
onwards. In religious language it is primarily an attribute of deity;
then it refers to things having some relation to the deity. It thus
comes to mean holy, in the sense of pure. Ritual purity is in
mind here, e.g. avoidance of blood-guilt, touching corpses. Since to
the primitive mind sexual intercourse also makes a person ritually
unclean, hagnos came to mean chaste. The originally cultic, religious
term was then transferred to the sphere of morality, and is frequently
used in the Hellenistic period in the sense of innocent, morally
faultless. It is also used as a compliment for faultless execution of
office. From hagnos are derived the verb hagnizo, to purify (by means
of expiatory rites), first found in Soph., and the cognate noun
hagnismos, purification. Both terms are limited to the cultic sphere.
hagneia, a noun derived from hagnos, is likewise found first in Soph.,
and is used of cultic purity, chastity, purity of mind. Another noun
derived from hagnos is hagnotes, which is unknown outside the NT and
means purity, moral blamelessness.
More common in the LXX is the verb
hagnizo, which describes the measures taken to achieve
eligibility for the cult. Whereas
(holy) always includes the thought of the power and might of
that which is holy, hagnizo expresses consistently the removal
of what is not seemly (e.g. Ex 19:10, washing of garments; Nu 6:3,
abstinence from alcohol [Nazirites]), especially in the sense, to
purify oneself from sin or uncleanness (hith. of chata', e.g. Nu 8:21;
19:12). hagneia also refers in the OT (Nu 6:2-21, law of the Nazirite;
2Chr 30:19, sanctuary) and Apocrypha (1Macc. 14:36, temple) to ritual
Colin, Editor. New International Dictionary of NT Theology. 1986.
Here are the 7 uses of hagnizo
in the NT...
John 11:55 Now the Passover of the
Jews was at hand, and many went up to Jerusalem out of the country
before the Passover, to purify themselves.
Comment: John of course
refers here to ceremonial purification, which in context had
more to do with external than internal (heart)
purification, for the very ones who "purified" themselves called out
the crucifixion of the Passover Lamb of God (1Co 5:7, Jn 1:29). The
Jewish readers of James' epistle would have been familiar with this
and similar ceremonial uses of hagnizo.
Acts 21:24 take them and
imperative) yourself along with them, and
pay their expenses in order that they may shave their heads; and all
will know that there is nothing to the things which they have been
told about you, but that you yourself also walk orderly, keeping the
Comment: Here Luke uses the
meaning to be purified, while James 4:8 uses the
which speaks of the reader making a decision of their will to carry
out the necessary action to purify oneself).
Acts 21:26 Then Paul took the men, and the next day, purifying
himself along with them, went into the temple, giving notice of the
completion of the days of purification, until the sacrifice was
offered for each one of them.
Acts 24:18 in which they found me occupied in the temple, having been
purified, without any crowd or uproar. But there were certain
Jews from Asia--
James 4:8 Draw near to God and He will draw near to you. Cleanse your
hands, you sinners; and purify your hearts, you double-minded.
1Peter 1:22-note Since
you have in obedience to the truth purified (perfect
describes a past action with continuing results which speaks of the permanence of our salvation) your souls for a
sincere love of the brethren, fervently love one another from the
Comment: Clearly it is God
Who purifies our souls when we are saved, for we as fallen men
do not have the power to bring about personal purity as occurs when we
are saved and made holy (hagios
Hagnizo thus is used as a figure of speech to describe those
who have experienced purification when they believed. In this passage
the "instrument" which the Holy Spirit uses to purify us is
the "living and abiding word" (1Pe 1:23).
1John 3:3 And everyone who has this hope fixed on Him purifies
himself, just as He is pure.
Comment: Vine writes that
here is used with a moral
significance. The purification is from everything that is inconsistent
with the character and will of the Lord. This truth is directed
against the Gnostic teaching that sin does not pollute the enlightened
person. The tense is the continuous
and thus indicates the habit of
resisting every defiling influence and keeping oneself free from it.
Compare and contrast 1Jn 1:7, where cleansing from sin that has been
committed is bestowed on the ground of the blood of Christ.
Hagnizo - 25 times in the
- Ex 19:10; Num 6:3; 8:21; 11:18; 19:12; 31:19, 23; Josh 3:5; 1 Sam
21:5; 1Chr 15:12, 14; 2Chr 29:5, 15ff, 34; 30:3, 15, 17f; 31:18; Isa
66:17; Jer 12:3. The Lxx uses hagnizo to translate Hebrew words that
have to do with making oneself ritually pure or to consecrate oneself.
Below are some representative uses...
Exodus 19:10 The LORD also said to
Moses, "Go to the people and consecrate (Heb = qadash = to set
apart; Lxx = hagnizo) them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their
Numbers 8:21 The Levites, too,
purified (Heb = chata = to sin or to purify from uncleanness; Lxx
= hagnizo) themselves from sin and washed their clothes; and Aaron
presented them as a wave offering before the LORD. Aaron also made
atonement for them to cleanse them.
Joshua 3:5 Then Joshua said to the
(Heb = qadash = to set apart; Lxx = hagnizo) yourselves, for tomorrow
the LORD will do wonders among you."
Jeremiah 12:3 But Thou knowest me,
O LORD; Thou seest me; And Thou dost examine my heart's attitude
toward Thee. Drag them off like sheep for the slaughter And set
them apart (Heb = qadash = to set apart; Lxx = hagnizo) for a day
Isaiah 66:17 "Those who
sanctify (Heb = qadash = to set apart; Lxx = hagnizo) and purify
(Heb = taher = to cleanse;
= make clean) themselves to go to the gardens,
Following one in the center, Who eat swine's flesh, detestable things,
and mice, Shall come to an end altogether," declares the LORD.
Comment: Notice that this
passage uses the same two Greek verbs James uses here in Jas 4:8!
Thomas Manton writes that
If you want to have a holy life,
you must get a clean heart. True conversion begins there;
spiritual life, as well as natural life, is in the heart first.
“Abstain from sinful desires … live … good lives” (1Pe 2:11,12). First
mortify the sinful desires, then the deeds of the body of sin. If you
want to cure the disease, purge away the sick matter; otherwise sin
may return and put salt in the spring: “Let the wicked forsake his way
and the evil man his thoughts” (Isa 55:7). Notice that it is not only
his “way,” or course of life, but his “thoughts,” the frame of his
heart; the heart is the womb of thoughts, and thoughts are the first
things that come from corruption (see Mt 15:19). What God looks for
and loves is “truth in the inner parts” (Ps 51:6). Do not be concerned
only for honor before people, but for your hearts before God; and let
conscience be dearer to you than reputation. Many people are aware of
failings in their behavior because they expose them to shame; we
should be as aware of things that are not right in the heart. Sinful
desires must not be digested without regret and remorse any more than
acts of sin.
(A Practical Exposition of
Lehman Strauss writes...
My Christian friends, James is
speaking to us, as well as to the Christians of his own day, and he
calls us "sinners" and "double minded" men and women.
Too often we give way to the soft sentimental jargon that winks at the
sins of saints. You and I need God's presence in these days, and the
need will increase with the passing of time; but we cannot expect God
to draw nigh to us if we fail to draw nigh to Him, and we cannot draw
nigh to Him with soiled hands and stained hearts (cp Ps 24:3, 4). All
hypocrisy and double-mindedness must be put aside. (Lehman Strauss –
James, Your Brother: Studies in the Epistle of James)
does not refer to the physical organ but is always used figuratively
in Scripture to refer to the seat and center of human life. The heart
is the center of the personality, and it controls the intellect,
emotions, and will. No outward obedience is of the slightest value
unless the heart turns to God. The heart denotes their
whole inner life (cf. Jas 1:26; Jas 3:14). A similar purity of hand
and heart is called for in Psalm 24:4 for those approaching God. As
Who shall go up into the mountain
of the Lord? Or who shall stand in His Holy Place? He who has clean
hands and a pure heart, who has not lifted himself up to
falsehood or to what is false, nor sworn deceitfully. (Ps 24:3, 4)
Spurgeon comments: Outward,
practical holiness is a very precious mark of grace. To wash in water
with Pilate is nothing, but to wash in innocence is all important. It
is to be feared that many professors have perverted the doctrine of
justification by faith in such a way as to treat good works with
contempt; if so, they will receive everlasting contempt at the last
great day. It is vain to prate of inward experience unless the daily
life is free from impurity, dishonesty, violence, and oppression.
Those who draw near to God must have clean hands. What monarch
would have servants with filthy hands to wait at his table? They who
were ceremonially unclean could not enter into the Lord's house which
was made with hands, much less shall the morally defiled be allowed to
enjoy spiritual fellowship with a holy God. If our hands are now
unclean, let us wash them in Jesu's precious blood, and so let us pray
unto God, lifting up pure hands. But "clean hands" would not suffice,
unless they were connected with a pure heart. True religion is
heart work. We may wash the outside of the cup and the platter as long
as we please; but if the inward parts be filthy, we are filthy
altogether in the sight of God, for our hearts are more truly
ourselves than our hands are. We may lose our hands and yet live, but
we could not lose our heart and still live; the very life of our being
lies in the inner nature, and hence the imperative need of purity
within. There must be a work of grace in the core of the heart as
well as in the palm of the hand, or our religion is a delusion.
May God grant that our inward
powers may be cleansed by the sanctifying Spirit (1Pe 1:2-note),
so that we may love holiness (cp Ro 12:9-note)
and abhor all sin (1Th 5:21-note).
The pure in heart shall see God (Mt 5:8-note),
all others are but blind bats; stone blindness in the eyes arises from
stone in the heart. Dirt in the heart throws dust in the eyes.
Kardia represents the inner
man, the seat of motives and attitudes, the center of personality
(including emotions, feelings) and also includes the thinking process.
For example, Jesus asked a group of scribes, “Why are you thinking
evil in your hearts?” (Mt 9:4). The heart is the control center of
mind and will as well as emotion.
The Scottish writer John Eadie
The “heart” belongs to the “inner
man,” is the organ of perception as well as of emotion; the centre of
spiritual as it is physically of animal life.
writes that kardia...
came to denote man’s entire mental
and moral activities, and to stand figuratively for the hidden springs
of the personal life, and so here signifies the seat of thought and
W. Collected writings of W. E. Vine. Nashville: Thomas Nelson
commenting on kardia writes that...
"While we often relate heart
to the emotions (e.g., “He has a broken heart”), the Bible relates it
primarily to the intellect (e.g., “Out of the heart come
evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false
witness, slanders,” Mt 15:19). That’s why you must “watch over your
heart with all diligence” (Pr 4:23-note). In a secondary way,
however, heart relates to the will and emotions because they
are influenced by the intellect. If you are committed to something, it
will affect your will, which in turn will affect your emotions." (Drawing
Near- Daily Readings for a Deeper Faith)
MacArthur adds that
In most modern
cultures, the heart is thought of as the seat of emotions and
feelings. But most ancients—Hebrews, Greeks, and many
others—considered the heart to be the center of knowledge,
understanding, thinking, and wisdom. The New Testament also uses it in
that way. The heart was considered to be the seat of the mind
and will, and it could be taught what the brain could never know.
Emotions and feelings were associated with the intestines, or bowels."
J: Ephesians. 1986. Chicago: Moody Press)
Tony Evans writes that...
Cleansing the hands refers to confessing and getting rid of the wrong
things we are doing. But notice that James goes beyond the hands to
the heart. We must purify our hearts, because if we merely stop doing
wrong things without dealing with the internal problem that caused the
wrong behavior, we will soon go back to the wrong behavior.
This is why so many people’s New Year’s resolutions fail and why so
many Christians’ good intentions never get fulfilled. What they are
doing is not the main problem. They need to fix the root that is
producing the fruit. (Evans, A. T. The Battle is the Lord's: Chicago,
Ill.: Moody Press)
We mourn that e’er our hearts should beWe
Worship Thee, O Crucified)
One with a world that loves not Thee;
That with the crowd we passed Thee by,
And saw, but did not feel, Thee die.
Not till we knew our guilt and shame
Did we esteem our Savior’s Name.
from dís = twice + psuche = soul, mind) is an adjective
which literally describes one who has two minds or one who is
two-spirited. In context it is the "sin of being two-faced with God,
of wavering inconsistency" (Motyer). Double psyche. See also
notes on use of
in James 1:8.
James sharply reproves those
readers who had divided affections, on one side longing for the
world's trifles while all the while trying to hold on to God! This
"spiritual schizophrenia" is exactly what Jesus had warned against in
Matthew 6:24 (note).
Speaking on behalf of the Holy One of Israel, James is saying that God
demands not only undivided affection (single minded heart) but
undefiled conduct ("clean hands").
is the one who hesitates or vacillates between two or more opinions.
This person in a sense has a divided loyalty which is manifest by
indecision and doubting. Some might see such a person as "fickle"
(marked by lack of steadfastness, constancy, or stability -- given to
erratic changeableness). This is the man or woman who is uncertain
about the truth of something.
Spurgeon warns us that...
if you are double-minded, your
hands and your hearts must both need to be cleansed. The apostle does
not say, "Concentrate your thoughts," but he does say, "Cleanse your
hearts;" for, to have two objects in life, is a kind of spiritual
adultery, from which we need to be purged, so the command is, "Purify
your hearts, ye double-minded."
Ralph Martin observes that double-minded...
is of special importance in this letter. Dipsuchoi (“double-minded”)
characterizes those obviously in need of this type of repentance.
James had used the term to depict the one who was unstable, who
doubted God (Jas 1:8). But in our present context the idea is expanded
and made more specific, involving the double-nature (or two-world)
syndrome (Sir 2:12: “woe to … the sinner who leads a double life,”
neb). The reader who is double-minded seeks to be friendly with the
world and with God (Jas 4:4-note).
But such double allegiance is impossible. To befriend the world (i.e.,
resort to worldly methods to bring in the kingdom) is to oppose God
and his way. This is reflected in the inconsistent behavior in the
Jacobean church (Jas 3:9, 10, 11, 12). (Martin, R. P. Vol. 48: Word
Biblical Commentary : James. Dallas: Word, Incorporated)
Richison writes that...
A double-souled person has a
problem with integrity, unity and harmony of soul because he wants to
have a soul devoted to God and a soul devoted to the devil at the same
time. (James 4:8
Barton writes that
dipsuchos in this verse
refers to someone who is trying to
maintain a friendship with both God and the world. Purity of heart,
then, implies single-mindedness.
B. B., et al. Life Application Bible Commentary. Romans: Tyndale House
literally means "Two souled" as if two distinct souls were effecting
this man's attitudes and actions! One of the souls is oriented as it
were toward God and trusts in God, while the other is oriented toward
the natural world and disbelieves God. As one writer has put it James
is describing a man who is "a walking civil war in which trust and
distrust of God wage a continual battle against each other." John
Bunyan in Pilgrims Progress (The
Seventh Stage) gives a
similar picture in his description of "Mr. Facing-both-ways"!
Lenski remarks that double-minded...
fittingly describes the bad condition of the heart; it is like
adulteresses which was used in Jas 4:4-note. They have a hankering
after the world while they think that they are holding to God.
(Lenski, R. C. H. The Interpretation of the Epistle to the Hebrews and
of the Epistle of James. Page 633. 1938)
OF DOUBLE MINDED - Driving in country at night when headlights
showed up a field mouse dead ahead. He first started toward the left,
then right, then left, and finally stood still as the car passed over
CAUGHT BETWEEN TWO WORLDS - Once when the
Cleveland Symphony was performing The Magic Flute by Mozart, an
electrical storm caused the lights to go out. Undaunted by the
difficulties, the members of the orchestra knew the music so well that
they completed the performance in the dark. At the end of the
performance, the audience burst into thunderous applause, and a
stagehand illuminated the orchestra and conductor with a flashlight so
that they could take their bows. It is much the same in the spiritual
realm. If you know the Master, you can play His music even in the
dark. You can live a holy life in an unholy realm. When caught between
two worlds, the secret is learning to see beyond the style of this
world to the substance of the next. (Discipleship Journal,
thought is described in the OT passages which describe a person with a
divided (versus a whole) heart
(1Ki 8:61, 11:4, 15:3,14, 2Ki 20:3,
1Ch 12:38, 28:9, 29:19, 2Chr 15:17, 16:9, 19:9, 25:2).
James 1:8-note helps define
double-minded as one who is unstable. This is the person who lacks
integrity, who claims one thing and lives another. This is the
hypocrite in the assembly of believers.
The Puritan writer Thomas
Manton says that dipsuchos...
signifies a person who has
two souls, and so it may imply:
(1) A hypocrite, since the same
word is used with that meaning in Jas 4:8... As he speaks to open sinners to cleanse their hands,
so he speaks to secret hypocrites (whom he calls double-minded since
they pretend one thing but mean another) to purify their hearts—that
is, to grow more inwardly sincere. This word is similar to the Hebrew
word for “deceive.” “Their flattering lips speak with deception”
(Ps 12:2); in the Hebrew this is “with a heart and a heart,” which
is their way of expressing something that is double or deceitful
(deceitful weights are “a weight and a weight” in the Hebrew of Pr
20:23). As Theophrastus says of the partridges of Paphlagonia that
they had two hearts, so every hypocrite has two hearts or two souls.
(2) It implies a person who is
distracted and divided in his thoughts, floating between two different
opinions, as if he had two minds or two souls. In the apostle’s time
there were some Judaizing brethren who sometimes sided with the Jews,
sometimes with the Christians. They were not settled in the truth. See
also 2Ki 17:33 , “They worshiped the Lord , but they also served
their own gods”; they were divided between God and idols. The prophet
says this shows a double or divided heart: “Their heart is deceitful,
and now they must bear their guilt” (Hos 10:2). Thus Athanasius
applied this description to the Eusebians, who sometimes held one
thing and then another.
(3) In the context of James this
may refer to those whose minds were tossed to and fro with various
ideas: now lifted up with a wave of presumption, then cast down in a
gulf of despair, being torn between hopes and fears concerning their
acceptance with God. I prefer this latter sense, as it conveys the
apostle’s purpose best. (Manton, T. Exposition of James)