1 Peter 1:20-21 Commentary



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1 Peter 1:20-21 Commentary

1 Peter 1:20  For He was foreknown (RPP) before the foundation of the world, but has appeared (APP) in these last times for the sake of you (NASB: Lockman)

Greek: proegnosmenou (RPPMSG) men pro kataboles kosmou, phanerothentos (APPMSG) de ep' eschatou ton chronon di' humas 
Amplified: It is true that He was chosen and foreordained (destined and foreknown for it) before the foundation of the world, but He was brought out to public view (made manifest) in these last days (at the end of the times) for the sake of you.
 (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
MLB: foreknown, to be sure, before the foundation of the world, but disclosed at the end of the times for your sakes,
Moffat: He was predestined before the foundation of the world and has appeared at the end of the ages for your sake;
NLT: God chose him for this purpose long before the world began, but now in these final days, he was sent to the earth for all to see. And he did this for you.  (
NLT - Tyndale House)
: He was pre-destined indeed to this work, even before the creation of the world, but has been plainly manifested in these last days for the sake of you who, through Him,
: Who indeed was foreordained before the foundation of the universe was laid, but was visibly manifested at the closing years of the times for your sake, (
Young's Literal: foreknown, indeed, before the foundation of the world, and manifested in the last times because of you,


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FOR HE WAS FOREKNOWN: proegnosmenou (RPPMSG): (Ge 3:15; Pr 8:23; Mic 5:2; Acts 2:23; 4:27, 4:28 Ro 3:25; 16:25,26; Ep 1:4; 3:9,11; Col 1:26; 2Ti 1:9,10; Titus 1:2,3; Rev 13:8)

He - The Messiah. The redemptive plan based on the sacrifice of Christ was planned in eternity past, even before Adam sinned. In other words, the fall of Adam and all men (for all were in Adam's line) did not catch God off guard.

Was foreknown - Literally "he having been foreknown".

Foreknown (4267) (proginosko from pró = before + ginosko = know; see more detail on foreknowledge in study of prognosis) literally means to know about something prior to some temporal reference point or to know about an event before it happens or prior to some temporal reference point.

Related Resource: The Meaning of Proginosko - Thomas R. Edgar

The related noun prognosis gives us our English  word which is the medical term describing the act or art of foretelling the course of a disease. Prognosis has only 2 NT uses, both referring to God...

Acts 2:23 this Man, delivered up by the predetermined (horizo = setting limits)  plan and foreknowledge (prognosis - a more detailed discussion of foreknowledge) of God, you nailed to a cross by the hands of godless men and put Him to death.


Barnes commenting on Acts 2:23 writes:


Foreknowledge. This word denotes the seeing beforehand of an event yet to take place. It implies, (1.) omniscience; and, (2.) that the event is fixed and certain. To foresee a contingent event, that is, to foresee that an event will take place, when it may or may not take place, is an absurdity. Foreknowledge, therefore, implies that for some reason the event will certainly take place. What that reason is, the word itself does not determine. As, however, God is represented in the Scriptures as purposing or determining future events; as they could not be foreseen by him unless he had so determined, so the word sometimes is used in the sense of determining beforehand, or as synonymous with decreeing, Romans 8:29, 11:2. In this place the word is used to denote that the delivering up of Jesus was something more than a bare or naked decree. It implies that God did it according to his foresight of what would be the best time, and place, and manner of its being done. It was not the result merely of will; it was will directed by a wise foreknowledge of what would be best. And this is the case with all the decrees of God. It follows from this, that the conduct of the Jews was foreknown. God was not disappointed in anything respecting their treatment of his Son. Nor will he be disappointed in any of the doings of men. Notwithstanding the wickedness of the world, his counsel shall stand, and he will do all his pleasure, Isaiah 46:10.  (Barnes' Notes on the New Testament)


J Vernon McGee on Acts 2:23...


Peter is saying that what has happened was not contrary to God's program. This is not something that took God by surprise. However, he makes it clear that this does not release men from their responsibility. Who is responsible for the crucifixion of Christ? The religious rulers were the ones who began the movement. I would say that they were largely to blame. They moved upon the multitude so that they produced mob action. They also maneuvered the Roman government to execute Him. Remember, friend, He was crucified on a Roman cross. Peter is pointing his finger at his fellow Israelites.

But there is no use in our arguing about who was responsible for His death back at that time. I'll tell you who is responsible for His death. You are responsible, and I am responsible. It was for my sins and for your sins that He died. Listen to the words of Jesus: "Therefore doth my Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I might take it again. No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father" (John 10:17-18). (J. Vernon McGee's Thru The Bible)


1 Peter 1:2 (note) according to the foreknowledge (prognosis) of God the Father, by the sanctifying work of the Spirit, that you may obey Jesus Christ and be sprinkled with His blood: May grace and peace be yours in fullest measure.

Proginosko is a word that can be very misleading if one places too much emphasis on the secular use, for in classical Greek proginosko meant to know, perceive, learn, or understand beforehand and thus implied a previous knowledge of a thing. As you can observe from the NT passages below, this purely classic sense is seen in Acts 26:5 and 2 Peter 3:17. However when one studies proginosko in reference to God, it acquires a different sense. In other words, Peter is not saying in this verse that God simply knew ahead of time that He would send His Son to redeem sinners. As discussed below, the idea is that God foreknows in the sense that He willed it to happen.

J I Packer said it this way, that God

knows, and foreknows, all things, and His foreknowledge is foreordination; He, therefore, will have the last word, both in world history and in the destiny of every man.

D. Edmond Hiebert explains that God's foreknowing

does not imply mere intellectual apprehension; it also indicates an active and affectionate desire to bless.

Here are the 5 NT uses of proginosko...

Acts 26:5 since they have known about me for a long time previously, if they are willing to testify, that I lived as a Pharisee according to the strictest sect of our religion.


Romans 8:29 (note) For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to become conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the first-born among many brethren;


Romans 11:2 (note) God has not rejected His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says in the passage about Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel?


Comment: Because God foreknew and predetermined before the foundation of the earth to set His special love upon Israel forever, He can never totally reject them.


1 Peter 1:20 (note) For He was foreknown before the foundation of the world, but has appeared in these last times for the sake of you


2 Peter 3:17 (note) You therefore, beloved, knowing this beforehand, be on your guard lest, being carried away by the error of unprincipled men, you fall from your own steadfastness,

Proginosko and prognosis describe not just that God knew what would occur (which has to be true because He is omniscient) but includes all that God considered and purposed to do prior to human history. Stated another way, something foreknown by God is not simply that which He was aware of prior to a certain time, but also includes the idea of that which God gave prior consent to or which received His favorable or special recognition. Hence, proginosko and prognosis are terms that refer to those matters which God favorably, deliberately and freely chose and ordained. (see more detailed discussion)

Note carefully that God's works were not planned merely by His foreknowledge of what they would be, for that would place the power in the hands of man. Some try to explain foreknowledge this way because it seems "logical" from our finite human perspective. They reason that God looked into the future, saw what men would do and then He predestined to send His Son. Beloved, that is not a doctrine which Scripture teaches, but a "doctrine" of man and one which is aberrant and misleading. How can we fully understand this deep truth? There are some truths that defy explanation and in my opinion this is one of those areas. We humbly submit to what the Scripture teaches and rest in whatever God says for His ways are higher than our ways. By the way no where in Scripture does it say that God  foreknew or predestined anyone to hell.

Spurgeon writes that...

With God there are no contingencies. The mighty charioteer of Providence has gathered up all the reins of all the horses, and He guides them all according to His infallible wisdom. There is a foreknowledge and predestination which concerneth all things, from the motion of a grain of dust on the threshing-floor to that of the flaming comet which blazes athwart the sky. Nothing can happen but what God ordains; and therefore, why should we fear? (Barbed Arrows from the Quiver of C. H. Spurgeon)

God foreknew that Israel would be His people (Ro 11:2 -note), yet He later chose them by His own will. His foreknowing suggests planning ahead of time, not just knowing ahead of time. Nothing takes God by surprise and His decisions are not determined by our decisions. Yet in every case where God's planning and predestinating are involved (Acts 2:23), it is also true that those who acted according to His foreknowledge carried out those acts of their own volition or choice.

We see this same tension in God's promise that "Whoever will call upon the name of the Lord will be saved" (Ro 10:13-
note) and His choosing us, for as Paul writes God "chose us in Him before the foundation of the world" (Ep 1:4-note). Our finite minds (mine for sure) cannot fully apprehend both truths concurrently, yet we can rejoice in both with our hearts. God understands, because His understanding is infinite, and we rest in that.

Before I loved Him, He loved me
Before I found Him, He found me
Before I sought Him, He sought for me
Yes, Jesus cares for me
-- Ron Hamilton

In summary, in the present passage, Peter is teaching that God foreknew the Messiah would become the Savior of the world because the triune God had so ordained it. 

Or as Barnes says...

the plan was formed, and the arrangements made for the atonement, before the world was created (Barnes' Notes on the New Testament)

Steven Cole explains...

The cross wasn’t God’s last-minute plan put into place after man fell into sin. He ordained it well in advance of the creation of the human race. “Foreknowledge” doesn’t just refer to God’s knowing in advance. It implies His purpose. But just because God predetermined it doesn’t absolve sinful man of responsibility. (See his excellent sermon)

John Piper warns of...

An increasingly popular movement afoot today is called "open theism," which denies that God has exhaustive, definite foreknowledge of the. entire future. (Desiring God) (See Piper's discussion Open Theism and the Undermining of Biblical Christianity) (See Piper's Resources on The Foreknowledge of God)

Ryrie explains God's foreknowledge explaining that...

God's prior knowledge of all things, based on His relation to them, is the basis of our election. More than passive foresight, foreknowledge involves God's active consciousness of all that is to come to pass..."foreknowledge" in 1 Peter 1:3, obviously (does not mean)..."passive foresight" but "active involvement." (The Ryrie Study Bible: New American Standard Translation: 1995. Moody Publishers)

J Vernon McGee has a practical note writing that...

When we begin to deal with words like foreordination, election, predestination, foreknowledge, etc., I feel that we, with our finite minds, treat God as if He were a great big computer. He isn't that at all. He has a heart bigger than the whole universe. When I was in seminary studying theology, it seemed pretty important to know whether or not foreknowledge comes before foreordination; but, frankly, since that time I have not been concerned with which comes first. I realize now that the important thing is that Christ was "foreknown before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you." To put it very simply, the Cross of Christ was not an ambulance sent to a wreck. Christ was the Lamb who was slain before the foundation of the world because God knew all the time that Vernon McGee would need a Savior, and He loved him enough to provide that Savior. I don't need a computer to go over this. I only need a God with a great big heart of love who provided redemption by His grace.  (J. Vernon McGee's Thru The Bible)

The Puritan writer Thomas Manton has this note on...

Foreknowledge and preordination (predestination). God intended and appointed that it should be. Many people who allow prescience deny preordination, for fear of making God the author of sin; but these people fear where no fear is. The Scripture ascribes both to God: "This man was handed over to you by God's set purpose and foreknowledge" (Acts 2:23). Note that Peter says not only "foreknowledge" but "God's set purpose," which implies a positive decree. Now, that cannot infer any guilt or evil in God, for God appointed it, as he intended to bring good out of it. Wicked people have quite contrary intentions. Thus Joseph asked his brothers, when they feared his revenge, "Am I in the place of God?" (Genesis 50:19); that is, was it my design to bring these things to pass, or God's decree? Who am I that I should resist the will of God? And again in verse 20, "You intended to harm me, but God intended it for good to accomplish what is now being done, the saving of many lives." That is, God decreed it otherwise than you intended; your aim was wholly evil, but God's was good. (An Exposition of the Epistle of James)

BEFORE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD: men pro kataboles kosmou:

Jesus in His high priestly prayer prayed...

Father, I desire that they (His disciples) also, whom Thou hast given Me, be with Me where I am, in order that they may behold My glory, which Thou hast given Me; for Thou didst love Me before the foundation of the world. (John 17:24)

Comment: This is another of the numerous passages which prove that the Lord Jesus existed before the creation of the world. It is not possible to explain it on any other supposition. As an aside it is worth noting that this is one of the clearest passages in the NT demonstrating the eternal subordination of the Son to the Father.

Before the foundation of the world - In eternity past God planned to send His Son to redeem the world.

Before (4253) (pro) in a spatial sense means in front of or as used in this verse in a temporal sense to refer to a time prior to the time the world was created.

Foundation (2602(katabole from kata = down + ballo = throw, cast) literally refers to that which has been thrown or cast down and thus to that which forms the foundation. The original idea was the laying down of the foundation of a house.

Katabole - 11x in NT - Matt. 13:35; 25:34; Lk. 11:50; Jn. 17:24; Eph. 1:4; Heb. 4:3; 9:26; 11:11; 1 Pet. 1:20; Rev. 13:8; 17:8

Katabole was a technical term for putting seed into the ground, it is also used of the role of the male in impregnating the female and there is one such use in Hebrews 11:11, referring to the casting in or sowing of seed, conveying the idea of begetting.

TDNT adds that katabole meant...

laying down,” is used for, e.g., the casting of seed, human begetting, the sowing of war, and the establishment of government.

World (2889) (kosmos) means the world with its primary meaning being order, regular disposition and arrangement, here referring in essence to God's creation of the heavens and earth that we know today.

Christ’s sacrifice for the sins of the world was not an afterthought, not something God decided to do when the world spun out of control because sin had entered it. Before God ever created the foundation of the world, in the mind of God, Christ had been sacrificed, and the names of the redeemed were known. Paul writes that the Father...

chose (elected) us in Him (in Christ) before the foundation (katabole) of the world (kosmos), (Why did God do it? What was His purpose?) that we should be holy and blameless before Him. (See note Ephesians 1:4)

Spurgeon offers these interesting thoughts...

Predestination did not merely mark the house, but it mapped the road in which Salvation should travel to that house; Predestination ordained every step of the great army of Salvation; it ordained the time when the sinner should be brought to Christ, the manner how he should be saved, the means that should be employed; it marked the exact hour and moment when God the Spirit should quicken the dead in sin, and when peace and pardon should be spoken through the blood of Jesus.

Predestination marked the way so completely, that Salvation doth never overstep the bounds, and it is never at a loss for the road. In the everlasting decree of the Sovereign God, the footsteps of Mercy were every one of them ordained. As nothing in this world revolves by chance,—as even the foreknown station of a rush by the river is as fixed as the throne of a king,—it was not meet that Salvation should be left to chance; and therefore God has mapped the place where it should pitch its tent, the number of its footsteps to that tent, and the time when it should arrive there. (Lectures to My Students: A Selection from Addresses Delivered to the Students of the Pastors' College, Metropolitan Tabernacle)


I believe, my brethren, that it is quite as easy to see how God's predestination and man's free agency are perfectly compatible, as it is to see how divine foreknowledge and human free agency are consistent with one another. Doth not the very fact of foreknowledge imply a certainty? Is not that which is foreknown certain? Is not the fact sure to be when God foreknows that it will be? How could it be foreknown conditionally? How could it be foretold conditionally? In this instance there was no stipulation or contingency whatever. It was absolutely foretold that Hazael should be king of Syria. The prophet knew the fact right well, and right clearly he descried the means, or else why should he look into his face and weep? God foreknew the mischief that he would do afterwards, when he came to the throne; and yet that foreknowledge did not in the least degree interfere with his free agency. (Storm Signals)

BUT HAS APPEARED: phanerothentos (APPMSG) de: (Acts 3:25,26; Col 1:26; 1Jn 1:2; 3:5,8; 4:9,10)

Paul writes to Timothy of this appearing...

And by common confession great is the mystery of godliness:


He who was revealed (phaneroo) in the flesh,

Was vindicated in the Spirit,

Beheld by angels,

Proclaimed among the nations,

Believed on in the world,

Taken up in glory. (1Ti 3:16)


Comment: Observe that the verb revealed includes both Jesus' birth and life on earth for all His days as the God-Man are included in His Incarnation. Notice the same verb phaneroo is used here and is similarly in the passive voice, which implies the preexistence of Jesus.)


John 1:14 And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, glory as of the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth.

Appeared (5319) (phaneroo from phanerós = manifest, visible, conspicuous in turn from phaino = give light; become visible in turn from phos = light) is literally "to bring to light" and primarily means "to make visible" or to cause to become visible.

The basic meaning of phaneroo is to make known, to clearly reveal, to manifest (see Vine's elaboration of "to be manifest" below), to cause to be seen or to make clear or known.

Vine summarizes phaneroo...

in the active voice, “to manifest”; in the passive voice, “to be manifested”...To be manifested, in the Scriptural sense of the word, is more than to “appear.” A person may “appear” in a false guise or without a disclosure of what he truly is; to be manifested is to be revealed in one’s true character; this is especially the meaning of phaneroo, see, e.g., John 3:21; 1Co 4:5; 2Cor. 5:10, 11; Ep 5:13.  (Vine, W E: Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words. 1996. Nelson) (Bolding added)

As you study the 49 NT uses below, you will observe that phaneroo is often used of God's revelation of Himself in the Person of His Son, Jesus, as exemplified in 1 Timothy 3:16 where Jesus was revealed in the flesh or was made visible in His human body.

The idea of phaneroo is that there has been an external manifestation to the senses which is open to all primarily referring to what is visible to sensory perception.

For example, in Romans 1 (see below) God made it known to all men through His creation that He exists. In a passive sense phaneroo means to become visible or known (see John 3:21 below).

When used of people, phaneroo means to make oneself known (e.g., see John 1:31) or to cause to become known

Thayer says phaneroo means...

to make manifest or visible or known what has been hidden or unknown, to manifest, whether by words, or deeds, or in any other way.

 In secular Greek phaneroo and other words in this group (cognates = phanerosis - a disclosure, epiphaneia - an appearance, epiphaino - to show or appear) had their ordinary meaning but in some contexts conveyed a religious meaning describing the intervention by or the personal appearance of a deity. The NT uses reflect a similar usage. And so we see that approximately 50% of the NT uses of phaneroo refer in some way to a manifestation of Jesus Christ, most referring to His first coming, at least 4 uses referring to His second appearing and several uses referring to His manifestation to others in and through the lives of believers.

Phaneroo is in the aorist tense which points to a definite act (an actual historical event!) at a given time in the past, specifically in context Christ's incarnation. In the passive voice as here, it means to become visible or known, to be revealed

Paul records a similar truth in 2 Timothy explaining that it was God...

Who has saved us and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to His own purpose and grace which was granted  us in Christ Jesus from all eternity ("before the beginning of time", NIV or "before the world began", NKJV) (10) but now has been revealed by the appearing of our Savior Christ Jesus, who abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel  (See notes 2 Timothy 1:9; 2 Timothy 1:10)

Phaneroo is used 49 times in the NT, 17 uses in the writings of the apostle John and 18 by the apostle Paul.

Mark 4:22 "For nothing is hidden, except to be revealed (phaneroo) ; nor has anything been secret, but that it should come to light (phaneros - visible).

Mark 16:12 And after that, He appeared in a different form to two of them, while they were walking along on their way to the country.

Mark 16:14 And afterward He appeared to the eleven themselves as they were reclining at the table; and He reproached them for their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they had not believed those who had seen Him after He had risen.

John 1:31 "And I did not recognize Him, but in order that He might be manifested to Israel, I came baptizing in water."

John 2:11 This beginning of His signs Jesus did in Cana of Galilee, and manifested His glory, and His disciples believed in Him.

John 3:21 "But he who practices the truth comes to the light, that his deeds may be manifested as having been wrought in God."

John 7:4 "For no one does anything in secret, when he himself seeks to be known publicly. If You do these things, show (aorist imperative) Yourself (Expose Yourself to view, make Yourself manifest, show Yourself) to the world."

John 9:3 Jesus answered, "It was neither that this man sinned, nor his parents; but it was in order that the works of God might be displayed in him.

John 17:6 "I manifested Thy name to the men whom Thou gavest Me out of the world; Thine they were, and Thou gavest them to Me, and they have kept Thy word.

John 21:1 After these things Jesus manifested Himself again to the disciples at the Sea of Tiberias, and He manifested Himself in this way.

John 21:14 This is now the third time that Jesus was manifested to the disciples, after He was raised from the dead.

Romans 1:19 (note) because that which is known about God is evident within them; for God made it evident to them. (Comment: God through the light of the created universe revealed Himself or made Himself manifest {Theologians refer to it as "natural revelation" in contrast to His written Word which is referred to as "special revelation"} as Creator and God to the entire human race, which is why all men are without excuse and cannot say "God was not fair and did not give me a chance". Paul goes on to explain how God made it evident in the following verse - see notes Romans 1:20)

Romans 3:21 (note) But now apart from the Law the righteousness of God has been manifested, being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets,

Romans 16:26 (note) (the mystery - God's gospel of redemption which could never have been made known except through divine revelation) but now is manifested, (make visible, made known what was hidden and/or unknown. How? Through the prophetic writings) and by the Scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the eternal God, has been made known to all the nations, leading to obedience of faith;

1 Corinthians 4:5 Therefore do not go on passing judgment before the time, but wait until the Lord comes who will both bring to light (photizo) the things hidden in the darkness and disclose (phaneroo) the motives of men's hearts; and then each man's praise will come to him from God.

2 Corinthians 2:14 But thanks be to God, who always leads us in His triumph in Christ, and manifests through us the sweet aroma of the knowledge of Him in every place.

2 Corinthians 3:3 being manifested that you are a letter of Christ, cared for by us, written not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God, not on tablets of stone, but on tablets of human hearts.

2 Corinthians 4:10 always carrying about in the body the dying of Jesus, that the life of Jesus also may be manifested in our body.

2 Corinthians 4:11 For we who live are constantly being delivered over to death for Jesus' sake, that the life of Jesus also may be manifested in our mortal flesh.

2 Corinthians 5:10 For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, that each one may be recompensed for his deeds in the body, according to what he has done, whether good or bad.
2 Corinthians 5:11 Therefore knowing the fear of the Lord, we persuade men, but we are made manifest to God; and I hope that we are made manifest also in your consciences.

2 Corinthians 7:12 So although I wrote to you it was not for the sake of the offender, nor for the sake of the one offended, but that your earnestness on our behalf might be made known to you in the sight of God.

2 Corinthians 11:6 But even if I am unskilled in speech, yet I am not so in knowledge; in fact, in every way we have made this evident to you in all things.

Ephesians 5:13 (note) But all things become visible when they are exposed by the light, for everything that becomes visible is light.

Colossians 1:26 (note) that is, the mystery which has been hidden from the past ages and generations; but has now been manifested to His saints,

Colossians 3:4 (note) When Christ, Who is our life, is revealed (made manifest or visible - referring to the Second Coming), then you also will be revealed with Him in glory.

Colossians 4:4 (note) in order that I may make it clear in the way I ought to speak.

1 Timothy 3:16 And by common confession great is the mystery of godliness: He who was revealed in the flesh, Was vindicated in the Spirit, Beheld by angels, Proclaimed among the nations, Believed on in the world, Taken up in glory. (Comment: God is spirit and is invisible but in the incarnation, the invisible Son of God became visible or manifest as He took upon Himself a physical body.)

2 Timothy 1:10 (note) but now has been revealed (phaneroo) by the appearing (epiphaneia - used by the pagan Greeks of a glorious appearance of a Greek god, and by NT writers of Christ's Second Coming) of our Savior Christ Jesus, who abolished death, and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel,

Titus 1:3 (note) but at the proper time manifested, even His word, in the proclamation with which I was entrusted according to the commandment of God our Savior (Comment: Here the idea is that of making visible that which was previously hidden)

Hebrews 9:8 (note) The Holy Spirit is signifying this, that the way into the holy place has not yet been disclosed, while the outer tabernacle is still standing,

Hebrews 9:26 (note) Otherwise, He would have needed to suffer often since the foundation of the world; but now once at the consummation of the ages He has been manifested (perfect tense - speaks of the permanent effect of this manifestation, which in context refers to Christ crucified. This was foreshadowed in the OT by the appearance of the high priest at the Brazen Altar on the Day of Atonement where the animal for sacrifice was slain) to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself.

1 Peter 1:20 For He was foreknown before the foundation of the world, but has appeared in these last times for the sake of you

1 Peter 5:4 (note) And when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the unfading crown of glory.

1 John 1:2 and the life was manifested, and we have seen and bear witness and proclaim to you the eternal life, which was with the Father and was manifested to us--

Comment: Wuest has a beautiful comment on this manifestation of Christ writing that "This life which is invisible was made visible to the human race through the humanity of our Lord. We put light which is invisible through a prism, break it up into its component parts, and it becomes visible. The beauty of the life that God is, broken up into its various parts such as love, grace, humility, kindness, etc., is seen through the prism of the human life of our Lord.

Vincent explains was manifested: "Corresponding with the Word was made flesh (John 1:14). The two phrases, however, present different aspects of the same truth. The Word became flesh, contemplates simply the historic fact of incarnation. The life was manifested, sets forth the unfolding of that fact in the various operations of life. The one denotes the objective process of the incarnation as such, the other the result of that process as related to human capacity of receiving and understanding it. “The reality of the incarnation would be undeclared if it were said, ‘The Word was manifested;’ the manifoldness of the operations of life would be circumscribed if it were said, ‘The Life became flesh.’ The manifestation of the Life was a consequence of the incarnation of the Word, but it is not coextensive with it” [Westcott].)

1 John 2:19 They went out from us, but they were not really of us; for if they had been of us, they would have remained with us; but they went out, in order that it might be shown that they all are not of us.

1 John 2:28 And now, little children, abide in Him, so that when He appears, we may have confidence and not shrink away from Him in shame at His coming. (Comment: The invisible Lord Jesus will some day be made visible as He comes from heaven into the atmosphere of this earth to catch out His Bride, the Church)

1 John 3:2 Beloved, now we are children of God, and it has not appeared as yet what we shall be. We know that, when He appears, we shall be like Him, because we shall see Him just as He is.

1 John 3:5 And you know that He appeared in order to take away sins; and in Him there is no sin.

1 John 3:8 the one who practices sin is of the devil; for the devil has sinned from the beginning. The Son of God appeared for this purpose, that He might destroy the works of the devil.

1 John 4:9 By this the love of God was manifested in us, that God has sent His only begotten Son into the world so that we might live through Him.

Revelation 3:18 (note) I advise you to buy from Me gold refined by fire, that you may become rich, and white garments, that you may clothe yourself, and that the shame of your nakedness may not be revealed; and eye salve to anoint your eyes, that you may see.

Revelation 15:4 (note) "Who will not fear, O Lord, and glorify Thy name? For Thou alone art holy; For all the nations will come and worship before Thee, For Thy righteous acts have been revealed."

IN THESE LAST TIMES FOR THE SAKE OF YOU: ep eschatou ton chronon di humas: (Gal 4:4; Eph 1:10; Heb 1:2; 9:26)

Last times - in a series of events. The last times in this context refers to the time between Christ’s first and second comings. (cf. Acts 2:17; 1Ti 4:1; 1Jn 2:18). The last times (last days) began with Jesus' incarnation, His death, burial and resurrection and the birth of the Church.

The last times in this context signify that God executed His plan of redemption at the proper time.

Peter used a similar expression when quoting from Joes in his description of the Day of Pentecost and the coming of the Holy Spirit declaring

This is what was spoken of through the prophet Joel: ‘And it shall be in the last days,’ God says, ‘that I will pour forth of My Spirit on all mankind” (Acts 2:16, 17)

The writer of Hebrews uses a parallel phrase in declaring that God...

in these last days (click all NT uses of "last days") has spoken to us in His Son, Whom He appointed heir of all things, through Whom also He made the world. (He 1:2-note) (Comment: the last days were inaugurated at Christ's incarnation.)

Paul uses a more general expression writing that...

when the fulness of the time came, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law (Gal 4:4) (Comment: This was the moment by which the whole pre-messianic period was completed. God sent forth His preexisting Son when the time for his purpose had come.)

Wuest explains why the "time" was "full" writing that...

This point of time marked some outstanding events in the history of the human race.

First, it was the moment which God had ordained for Messiah’s coming. To Daniel was given the date of His coming, 483 years after the edict of the Medo-Persian government to rebuild Jerusalem.

Second, the Mosaic law had done its educational work, showing to the world that the most highly-favored nation on earth, the Jewish nation, was, despite all of God’s blessings and mercy, totally depraved, giving the Gentile portion of the race a picture of its own totally depraved heart.

Third, the Mosaic law in its three sections, the ten commandments, the laws governing social relationships, and the Levitical system of sacrifices, was done away with as a legal system, to be superseded by the gospel of grace centering faith in an historic Saviour.

Fourth, the Roman empire maintained world peace. Roman roads made travel for missionaries easy. The universal use of the Greek language made the speedy propagation of the gospel possible. The earth-stage was all set for the greatest event in the history of the human race, the incarnation, sacrificial death, and bodily resurrection of God the Son. (Wuest, K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans or Logos)

Last (2078) (eschatos; English = eschatology, the study of "last things" or prophetic doctrines) refers to the that which is at the end, the final item in a series. Eschatos gives us the term eschatology, the study of last things (doctrine of last things, particularly those dealing with the second coming of Christ and the events preceding and following this great event)

Eschatos - 52x in NT - Matt. 5:26; 12:45; 19:30; 20:8, 12, 14, 16; 27:64; Mk. 9:35; 10:31; 12:6, 22; Lk. 11:26; 12:59; 13:30; 14:9f; Jn. 6:39f, 44, 54; 7:37; 11:24; 12:48; Acts 1:8; 2:17; 13:47; 1 Co. 4:9; 15:8, 26, 45, 52; 2 Tim. 3:1; Heb. 1:2; Jas. 5:3; 1 Pet. 1:5, 20; 2 Pet. 2:20; 3:3; 1 Jn. 2:18; Jude 1:18; Rev. 1:17; 2:8, 19; 15:1; 21:9; 22:13. The NAS translates eschatos end(1), last(46), last man(1), last men(1), last of all(1), late(1), remotest part(1).

Times (5550) (chronos) means a space of time or time as conceived of as a succession of moments.

Chronos is a period of measured time (quantity of, that is, lapse, span), and thus describes a “period of time” in general, especially in phrases like a long time (Mt 25:19) or a little while (Jn 7:33).

Chronos can also be used with certain verbs to denote the period of time when something is to occur (Mt 2:7; Lk 1:57; Acts 7:17) or when something is complete (Gal 4:4).

The plural of chronos appears in expressions to specify a rather long period of time, even an eternal period before earthly time (2Ti 1:9; Titus 1:2).

Chronos can be used as an eschatological term as in the present verse (cf Acts 1:7; 1Th 5:1).

Chronos - 54x in NT - Matt. 2:7, 16; 25:19; Mk. 2:19; 9:21; Lk. 1:57; 4:5; 8:27, 29; 18:4; 20:9; 23:8; Jn. 5:6; 7:33; 12:35; 14:9; Acts 1:6f, 21; 3:21; 7:17, 23; 8:11; 13:18; 14:3, 28; 15:33; 17:30; 18:20, 23; 19:22; 20:18; 27:9; Rom. 7:1; 16:25; 1 Co. 7:39; 16:7; Gal. 4:1, 4; 1 Thess. 5:1; 2 Tim. 1:9; Tit. 1:2; Heb. 4:7; 5:12; 11:32; 1 Pet. 1:17, 20; 4:2f; Jude 1:18; Rev. 2:21; 6:11; 10:6; 20:3. The NAS renders chronos age(1), all(1), delay(1), for a while(5), long(5), long*(1), long ages(2), period(2),time(30), times(5).

Wycliffe Bible Commentary notes

Christ’s suffering was no emergency. It was God’s best plan in view of man’s sin. This would have been a comforting thought for saints now hard-pressed themselves.

For you - Matthew Poole has an interesting note commenting that...

“For you;” that you, with other believers, might partake of salvation by him. The fruit of Christ’s redemption reaches all ages, but much more abundantly the times after his coming in the flesh. The sum of the argument is, Christ was ordained from eternity, promised to the fathers, but manifested to you: your privilege therefore being greater than theirs, Mt 13:17 He 11:39, 40 (see passages below), you should be the more holy. (Matthew Poole's Commentary)

For truly I say to you, that many prophets and righteous men desired to see what you see, and did not see it; and to hear what you hear, and did not hear it. (Mt 13:17).

And all these, having gained approval through their faith, did not receive what was promised,40 because God had provided something better for us, so that apart from us they should not be made perfect. (Heb 11:39, 40)


1 Peter 1:21  who through Him are believers in God, Who raised (AAP) Him from the dead and gave (AAP) Him glory, so that your faith and hope are (PAN) in God

Greek tous di' autou pistous eis theon ton egeiranta (AAPMSA) auton ek nekron kai doxan auto donta, (AAPMSA) hoste ten pistin humon kai elpida einai (PAN) eis theon. 
Amplified: Through Him you believe in (adhere to, rely on) God, Who raised Him up from the dead and gave Him honor and glory, so that your faith and hope are [centered and rest] in God (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
MLB: who through Him are believers in God, who raised Him from the dead and gave Him glory. So your faith and hope rest in God.
Moffat: it is by him that you believe in God who raised him from the dead and gave him glory; and thus your faith means hope in God.
NLT: Through Christ you have come to trust in God. And because God raised Christ from the dead and gave him great glory, your faith and hope can be placed confidently in God.  (
NLT - Tyndale House)
: are faithful to God, who raised Him from among the dead and gave Him glory, so that your faith and hope are resting upon God.
Wuest: who through Him are believers in God, the One Who raised Him out from among those who are dead and gave Him glory, so that your faith and hope might be in God
Young's Literal: who through him do believe in God, who did raise out of the dead, and glory to him did give, so that your faith and hope may be in God.

WHO THROUGH HIM ARE BELIEVERS IN GOD: tous di autou pistous eis theo:

Through (1223) (dia) describes that which functions as the "conduit" - through Christ we are believers in God.

Ponder the wonderful phrase through Him in the following passages [Jn 1:3,10,Jn 3:17, Jn 14:6, Acts 3:16, Acts 10:43, Acts 13:38, 39, Ro 5:9, Ro 8:37, Ep 1:7, Ep 2:18, Php 4:13,Col 1:20, 2:15, 3:17,Heb 7:25, 13:15, 1Jn 4:9]

All things are from Him, through Him and to Him. To Him be the glory forever. Amen.

Who through Him are believers -

both as revealing God to you, Mt 11:27 Jn 1:14; and making way for you to God, who, out of Christ, is a consuming fire, so that there is no coming to him but by Christ, John 14:6 Eph 2:18, 3:12 Heb 7:25 (see passages below). (Matthew Poole's Commentary)

“All things have been handed over to Me by My Father; and no one knows the Son, except the Father; nor does anyone know the Father, except the Son, and anyone to whom the Son wills to reveal Him. (Mt 11:27).

Jesus said to him, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father, but through Me.  (Jn 14:6)

 for through Him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father.  (see note Ephesians 2:18)

in whom we have boldness and confident access through faith in Him.  (see note Ephesians 3:12).

Hence, also, He is able to save forever those who draw near to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them.  (see note Hebrews 7:25).

A Simple Study...
Through Him

Consider the following simple study - observe and record the wonderful truths that accrue through Him - this would make an edifying, easy to prepare Sunday School lesson - then take some time to give thanks for these great truths by offering up a sacrifice of praise...through Him.


Jn 1:3 [NIV reads "through Him"], Jn 1:7, John 1:10, Jn 3:17, Jn 14:6, Acts 2:22, 3:16, Acts 7:25, Acts 10:43, Acts 13:38, 39, Ro 5:9 [note], Ro 8:37 [note], Ro 11:36 [note]; 1Co 8:6, Ep 2:18 [note], Php 4:13 [note], Col 1:20 [note], Col 2:15 [note], Col 3:17 [note], Heb 7:25 [note], Heb 13:15 [note], 1Pe 1:21[note], 1John 4:9


Would you like more study on the wonderful topic of through Him? Study also the NT uses of the parallel phrase through Jesus (or similar phrases - "through Whom", "through our Lord", etc) - John 1:17, Acts 10:36, Ro 1:4, 5- note; Ro 1:8-note, Ro 2:16-note,  Ro 5:1-note; Ro 5:2-note Ro 5:11-note,  Ro 5:21-note, Ro 7:25-note, Ro 16:27-note, 1Cor 15:57, 2Cor 1:5, 3:4, 5:18, Gal 1:1, Eph 1:5-note, Php 1:11-note, 1Th 5:9-note; Titus 3:6-note, He 1:2-note; He 2:10-note, Heb 13:21-note, 1Pe 2:5-note, 1Pe 4:11-note, Jude 1:25)

All things are from Him, through Him and to Him. To Him be the glory forever. Amen.

Believers (4103) (pistos from peítho = to persuade - induce one by words to believe, have confidence) refers to those have placed their trust without reservation in Christ their Hope (1Ti 1:1). I like the picture of leaning one's entire weight upon One Who is trustworthy, a picture which is inherent in the Hebrew word amen. And so in Genesis 15:6 Moses records that Abram (Abraham)

believed (Hebrew = aman; Lxx = pisteuo) in the LORD and He reckoned it to him as righteousness.

Comment: Abram "leaned on the LORD". He placed all his weight upon the LORD so to speak. "Believed" is the Hebrew verb "aman" (related to "amen") which has the root meaning of certainty. It's a "leaning" on the promises of the One Who is eternally, immutably trustworthy. Faith is not a blind leap but is a confident commitment to One about Who abundant evidence bears ample testimony. Do you believer this statement beloved? Then declare His fame to those He has given you an audience. Abram was born again by faith in the "Good News" which God had spoken to him, that news of a seed ultimately speaking of the Messiah (see Galatians 3:8 "the Scripture [personified] foreseeing that God would justify [declare righteous, and in right standing before His throne of justice] the Gentiles by faith preached the gospel beforehand to Abraham...", Gal 3:16 "the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his seed...to your seed, that is Christ").

Pistos - 67x in the NT - Matt. 24:45; 25:21, 23; Lk. 12:42; 16:10ff; 19:17; Jn. 20:27; Acts 10:45; 13:34; 16:1, 15; 1 Co. 1:9; 4:2, 17; 7:25; 10:13; 2 Co. 1:18; 6:15; Gal. 3:9; Eph. 1:1; 6:21; Col. 1:2, 7; 4:7, 9; 1 Thess. 5:24; 2 Thess. 3:3; 1 Tim. 1:12, 15; 3:1, 11; 4:3, 9f, 12; 5:16; 6:2; 2 Tim. 2:2, 11, 13; Tit. 1:6, 9; 3:8; Heb. 2:17; 3:2, 5; 10:23; 11:11; 1 Pet. 1:21; 4:19; 5:12; 1 Jn. 1:9; 3 Jn. 1:5; Rev. 1:5; 2:10, 13; 3:14; 17:14; 19:11; 21:5; 22:6

Vincent gives a nice summary of the meaning of pistos, faithful, writing that it is used

(1), of one who shows Himself faithful in the discharge of a duty or the administration of a trust (Mt 24:45). Hence, trustworthy (see note 2 Timothy 2:2). Of things that can be relied upon (see note 2 Timothy 2:11).

(2), Confiding; trusting; a believer (Gal 3:9; Acts 16:1; 2Cor 6:15; 1Ti 5:16)" (Word Studies in the New Testament)

WHO RAISED HIM FROM THE DEAD AND GAVE HIM GLORY: ton egeiranta (AAPMSA) auton ek nekron kai doxan auto donta (AAPMSA): (Torrey's Topic Resurrection of Christ) (Ac 2:24,32; 3:15; 4:10) (1Pe 1:11; 3:22; Mt 28:18; Jn 3:34; 5:22,23; 13:31,32; 17:1; Acts 2:33; 3:13; Eph 1:20, 21, 22, 23; Php 2:9, 10, 11; Heb 2:9)


Jesus Christ, from the dead, and this is our joy to-day. This is one of the facts, which are proved beyond all question, that Jesus Christ, who died upon the cross, and was buried in Joseph’s tomb, did actually rise again. This is the corner-stone of the Christian faith; one of the great facts upon which we found our confidence as to salvation by Jesus Christ.

Raised (1453) (egeiro) means literally to waken, rouse from sleep, and so to raise up from death.

Egeiro - 138x in NT - Matt. 1:24; 2:13f, 20f; 3:9; 8:15, 25f; 9:5ff, 19, 25; 10:8; 11:5, 11; 12:11, 42; 14:2; 16:21; 17:7, 9, 23; 20:19; 24:7, 11, 24; 25:7; 26:32, 46; 27:52, 63f; 28:6f; Mk. 1:31; 2:9, 11f; 3:3; 4:27, 38; 5:41; 6:14, 16; 9:27; 10:49; 12:26; 13:8, 22; 14:28, 42; 16:6, 14; Lk. 1:69; 3:8; 5:23f; 6:8; 7:14, 16, 22; 8:54; 9:7, 22; 11:8, 31; 13:25; 20:37; 21:10; 24:6, 34; Jn. 2:19f, 22; 5:8, 21; 7:52; 11:29; 12:1, 9, 17; 13:4; 14:31; 21:14; Acts 3:6f, 15; 4:10; 5:30; 9:8; 10:26, 40; 12:7; 13:22, 30, 37; 26:8; Rom. 4:24f; 6:4, 9; 7:4; 8:11, 34; 10:9; 13:11; 1 Co. 6:14; 15:4, 12ff, 20, 29, 32, 35, 42ff, 52; 2 Co. 1:9; 4:14; 5:15; Gal. 1:1; Eph. 1:20; 5:14; Phil. 1:17; Col. 2:12; 1 Thess. 1:10; 2 Tim. 2:8; Heb. 11:19; Jas. 5:15; 1 Pet. 1:21; Rev. 11:1. The NAS renders egeiro as arise(16), arisen(2), arises(1), arose(7), awake(1), awaken(1), awoke(2), cause(1), get up(1), gets up(2), got up(1), lift out(1), raise(5), raise up(5), raised(49), raised up(12), raises(2), rise(12), rise again(2), risen(13), rose(5), rose again(1), roused(1).

From (ek) is more literally "out of" the dead! 

Dead (3498) (nekros; English = necropsy, necrotic - cell death, etc) describes that which lacks the vital principles of life. Christ's resurrection from the dead is unmistakable, irrefutable proof that He was the satisfactory sacrifice for sin and that He fulfilled God’s work of redemption.

In Romans Paul writes that Jesus...

was declared the Son of God with power by the resurrection from the dead, according to the Spirit of holiness, Jesus Christ our Lord” (see note Romans 1:4)

God, through the ascension, returned Christ to the glory that He had with Him before the world began.

Nekros - 128x in the NT - Matt. 8:22; 10:8; 11:5; 14:2; 17:9; 22:31f; 23:27; 27:64; 28:4, 7; Mk. 6:14; 9:9f, 26; 12:25ff; Lk. 7:15, 22; 9:7, 60; 15:24, 32; 16:30f; 20:35, 37f; 24:5, 46; Jn. 2:22; 5:21, 25; 12:1, 9, 17; 20:9; 21:14; Acts 3:15; 4:2, 10; 5:10; 10:41f; 13:30, 34; 17:3, 31f; 20:9; 23:6; 24:21; 26:8, 23; 28:6; Rom. 1:4; 4:17, 24; 6:4, 9, 11, 13; 7:4, 8; 8:10f; 10:7, 9; 11:15; 14:9; 1 Co. 15:12f, 15f, 20f, 29, 32, 35, 42, 52; 2 Co. 1:9; Gal. 1:1; Eph. 1:20; 2:1, 5; 5:14; Phil. 3:11; Col. 1:18; 2:12f; 1 Thess. 1:10; 4:16; 2 Tim. 2:8; 4:1; Heb. 6:1f; 9:14, 17; 11:19, 35; 13:20; Jas. 2:17, 26; 1 Pet. 1:3, 21; 4:5f; Rev. 1:5, 17f; 2:8; 3:1; 11:18; 14:13; 16:3; 20:5, 12f. The NAS renders nekros corpse(1), dead(124), dead man(3), dead men(1), dead men's(1).

Martin Luther wrote

Our Lord has written the promise of the resurrection not in books alone, but in every leaf in springtime.

And gave Him glory -  in His resurrection, ascension, sitting at the right hand of God.

The writer of Hebrews alludes to this bestowal of glory writing...

But we do see Him who was made for a little while lower than the angels, namely, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor. For it was fitting for Him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to perfect the author of their salvation through sufferings. (see note Hebrews 2:9; 10).

Paul wrote to the Philippians about this post-resurrection glory explaining that on the basis of Christ's satisfactory sacrifice

God highly exalted Him, and bestowed on Him the name which is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus every knee will bow, of those who are in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and that every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. (See notes Philippians 2:9; 10; 11)

Steven Cole rightly says that...

Christ’s resurrection proves that God is able to raise the dead. Thus even if we suffer as Christians, even to the point of martyrdom, we can know that He will raise us and fulfill His promises to us. Peter adds the phrase, “gave Him glory,” to remind his readers that though, like Jesus, they suffer now, there is glory ahead. (See his excellent sermon)

Spurgeon exhorts believers now...

Whenever you think of the glory of your risen Lord, remember what your redemption cost him, and quit all dead works, lay aside the grave-clothes of care and anxiety, and live in newness of life as those who have been redeemed by the risen Savior.

Doxa - 166x in NT - Matt. 4:8; 6:29; 16:27; 19:28; 24:30; 25:31; Mk. 8:38; 10:37; 13:26; Lk. 2:9, 14, 32; 4:6; 9:26, 31f; 12:27; 14:10; 17:18; 19:38; 21:27; 24:26; Jn. 1:14; 2:11; 5:41, 44; 7:18; 8:50, 54; 9:24; 11:4, 40; 12:41, 43; 17:5, 22, 24; Acts 7:2, 55; 12:23; 22:11; Rom. 1:23; 2:7, 10; 3:7, 23; 4:20; 5:2; 6:4; 8:18, 21; 9:4, 23; 11:36; 15:7; 16:27; 1 Co. 2:7f; 10:31; 11:7, 15; 15:40f, 43; 2 Co. 1:20; 3:7ff, 18; 4:4, 6, 15, 17; 6:8; 8:19, 23; Gal. 1:5; Eph. 1:6, 12, 14, 17f; 3:13, 16, 21; Phil. 1:11; 2:11; 3:19, 21; 4:19f; Col. 1:11, 27; 3:4; 1 Thess. 2:6, 12, 20; 2 Thess. 1:9; 2:14; 1 Tim. 1:11, 17; 3:16; 2 Tim. 2:10; 4:18; Tit. 2:13; Heb. 1:3; 2:7, 9f; 3:3; 9:5; 13:21; Jas. 2:1; 1 Pet. 1:7, 11, 21, 24; 4:11, 13f; 5:1, 4, 10; 2 Pet. 1:3, 17; 2:10; 3:18; Jude 1:8, 24f; Rev. 1:6; 4:9, 11; 5:12f; 7:12; 11:13; 14:7; 15:8; 16:9; 18:1; 19:1, 7; 21:11, 23f, 26. The NAS renders doxa - approval(2), brightness(1), glories(1), glorious(5), glory(154), Glory(1), honor(1),majesties(2).

SO THAT YOUR FAITH AND HOPE ARE (continually) IN GOD: hoste ten pistin humon kai elpida einai (PAN) eis theon:  (Ps 42:5; 146:3, 4, 5; Jer 17:7; Jn 14:1; Ep 1:12,13; Ep 1:15; Col 1:27; 1Ti 1:1)

Related Resource: Click discussion on Hope

So that - This is a term of conclusion. What Peter is saying is that based on the truth of God’s eternal plan and provision for sin, believers can place their faith and hope in God.

The foundation for a Christian's faith and hope is the resurrection and glorification of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Your faith and hope - Matthew Poole explains it this way...

“That your faith and hope might be in God;” that seeing Christ raised and glorified, ye might be fully confirmed in the belief of a thorough satisfaction made to Divine justice for sin, and perfect reconciliation wrought (for had not Christ fully paid the price of redemption, His Father would never have let Him out of the prison of the grave, in which His justice had shut Him up); from which faith arises a hope, which looks to the resurrection of Christ your Head, as the certain pledge and earnest of your resurrection to life and glory. Christ’s resurrection and glory are the great grounds of faith, 1Pe 3:21 Ac 2:32, 33 5:31 10:40 Ro 4:24, 25 1Co 15:14, 17.

And corresponding to that, baptism now saves you—not the removal of dirt from the flesh, but an appeal to God for a good conscience—through the resurrection of Jesus Christ (see note 1 Peter 3:21).

 This Jesus God raised up again, to which we are all witnesses. Therefore having been exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, He has poured forth this which you both see and hear. (Acts 2:32, 33)

“He is the one whom God exalted to His right hand as a Prince and a Savior, to grant repentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins.
(Acts 5:31).

“God raised Him up on the third day, and granted that He should become visible, (Acts 10:40).

but for our sake also, to whom it will be reckoned, as those who believe in Him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead,25 He who was delivered up because of our transgressions, and was raised because of our justification. (see notes Romans 4:24; 25)

And if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is vain, your faith also is vain.15 Moreover we are even found to be false witnesses of God, because we witnessed against God that He raised Christ, whom He did not raise, if in fact the dead are not raised.16 For if the dead are not raised, not even Christ has been raised;17 and if Christ has not been raised, your faith is worthless; you are still in your sins. (1 Co 15:14-17)

John MacArthur explains this combination writing that...

Faith enables believers to trust God for necessary grace in the midst of life’s present circumstances, struggles, and anxieties (1Peter 5:7 [note]; Ps 5:11 [Spurgeon note]; Ps 31:1 [Spurgeon note]; Ps 37:5 [Spurgeon note]; Ps 56:11 [Spurgeon note]; Pr. 29:25; Isa. 26:3; Nah 1:7; Php 4:6 [note]), and hope enables belief in future grace, to be revealed for them in heavenly glory (1Pe 1:4, 5, 13-see notes of 1Pe 1:4, 1:5, 1:13 ; cf. Ps 146:5 [Spurgeon note]; Acts 23:6; 24:15; Ro 5:2 [note]; Ro 8:18 [note], Ro 8:25 [note]; Gal. 5:5; Titus 2:13 [note]; He 6:11 [note], He 6:19 [note]).

In God - On this phrase Spurgeon rightly says that...

It is no use to place them anywhere else. All other vessels are too frail to bear such a heavy burden; but, if your faith and hope are in God, then you have a security which none can destroy.

Faith (4102) (pistis) as it relates to God, it is the conviction that God exists and is the Creator and Ruler of all things well as the Provider and Bestower of eternal salvation through Christ. As faith relates to Christ it represents a strong and welcome conviction or belief that Jesus is the Messiah, through Whom we obtain eternal salvation and entrance into the Kingdom of Heaven. Stated another way, eternal salvation comes only through belief in Jesus Christ and no other way.

Hope (1680) (elpis) in Scripture is not the world's definition of "I hope so", with a few rare exceptions (e.g., Acts 27:20.) Hope is defined as a desire for some future good with the expectation of obtaining it. Hope is confident expectancy.

Elpis - 53x in NT - Acts 2:26; 16:19; 23:6; 24:15; 26:6f; 27:20; 28:20; Rom. 4:18; 5:2, 4f; 8:20, 24; 12:12; 15:4, 13; 1 Co. 9:10; 13:13; 2 Co. 1:7; 3:12; 10:15; Gal. 5:5; Eph. 1:18; 2:12; 4:4; Phil. 1:20; Col. 1:5, 23, 27; 1 Thess. 1:3; 2:19; 4:13; 5:8; 2 Thess. 2:16; 1 Tim. 1:1; Tit. 1:2; 2:13; 3:7; Heb. 3:6; 6:11, 18; 7:19; 10:23; 1 Pet. 1:3, 21; 3:15; 1 Jn. 3:3

Hope is the looking forward to something with some reason for confidence respecting fulfillment. And so in this same chapter Peter encouraged the suffering saints writing

Therefore (on the basis of the salvation and the "living hope" they now possessed) (to)  gird your minds for action, keep sober in spirit, fix your hope (elpizo - verb form of elpis) completely on the grace to be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ." (see note 1 Peter 1:13)

Hope in Scripture is the absolute certainty of future good and believers are to be continually, actively, expectantly

"looking for the blessed hope and the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus."  (see note Titus 2:13).

Hope as the world typically defines it is a desire for some future occurrence of which one is not assured of attaining. The ancient world did not generally regard hope as a virtue, but merely as a temporary illusion. Historians tell us that a great cloud of hopelessness covered the ancient world. Philosophies were empty; traditions were disappearing; religions were powerless to help men face either life or death. People longed to pierce the veil and get some message of hope from the other side, but there is none outside of Christ.

The book of Hebrews defines hope as that which gives "full assurance" (He 6:11-note). Thus we can have strong confidence that God is going to do good to us in future. The opposite of hope is despair, (hopelessness; a hopeless state; a destitution of hope or expectation) which is all that those without Christ as Savior can know, for Paul defines hope as "Christ Jesus, Who is our Hope" (1Ti 1:1). Thus genuine Biblical hope is not a concept but a Person, Christ Jesus! 

G K Chesterton said that

Hope means hoping when things are hopeless or it is no virtue at all...As long as matters are really hopeful, hope is mere flattery or platitude. It is only when everything is hopeless that hope begins to be a strength."

Steven Cole concludes his sermon with the following story...

A seminary student told of how, when he was a boy, he fell in love with golf. His parents gave him a club and a harmless whiffle-type golf ball which he could hit around the back yard. But one day, thinking his parents weren’t home, he was overcome with the temptation to feel the click of a real golf ball against the club. He teed up and gave it a hard whack. But the ball was not hit properly. It hooked from its intended flight and went directly through one of the windows on the house with a loud crash. Even worse, the crash was followed by a piercing scream. The boy ran for the house, burst into the living room and, to his horror, saw his mother standing in front of the broken window with blood streaming down her face. He cried out, “Mother, I could have killed you!” His mother hugged him and said reassuringly, “It’s all right. I’m okay!”

The seminary student concluded the story by saying, “When I saw my mother bleeding, there were some things I could never do again in the back yard. I could never so much as carry a golf club across the lawn of our back yard. The sight of her standing there with blood flowing down--blood that I had caused--changed my behavior forever.” Peter wants us who are the children of God to see the great price He paid to redeem us from our sins. Seeing the Savior’s blood should motivate us to be holy. As C. T. Studd put it, “If Christ be God and died for me, there is nothing too great that I can do for Him.” (Read Pastor Cole's entire excellent sermon)

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Last Updated July, 2013