Amplified: But when anything is exposed and reproved by the light, it is made visible and clear; and where everything is visible and clear there is light. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: But all things that are reproved are made manifest by the light: for whatsoever doth make manifest is light.
NLT: But when the light shines on them, it becomes clear how evil these things are. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: For light is capable of "showing up" everything for what it really is. It is even possible (after all, it happened to you!) for light to turn the thing it shines upon into light also. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: But all the aforementioned things, when they are reproved by the light, are made visibly plain, for everything that is being made plain is light. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: and all the things reproved by the light are manifested, for everything that is manifested is light;
BUT ALL THINGS BECOME VISIBLE WHEN THEY ARE EXPOSED BY THE LIGHT: ta de panta elegchomena (PPPNPN) hupo tou photos phaneroutai (3SPPI): (La 2:14; Hosea 2:10; 7:1)
Note: All verbs in bold red indicate commands, not suggestions! Also hold mouse pointer over underlined links for pop up of Scripture which stays open and can be copied.
But - strong contrast with things done in secret. Whenever you encounter a "but" in a passage, pause and use this encounter as an opportunity to ask what the author is contrasting?, why?, why now?, etc (cp 5W/H questions). You will be amazed at how such a simple technique (of course as you submit to and depend upon to the teaching ministry of the Holy Spirit - cp 1Jn 2 :20, 27, 1Cor 2:12-13) will add to your comprehension, retention and potential application of a given text. Try it next time you are doing morning devotionals and encounter a contrast word ("but," "yet," "on the other hand", etc). While some contrasts are not as enlightening as others, the very fact that you are slowing down and pondering the timeless Word will never be a waste of time. In addition, as you hone your skills of observation, you will find that you are in essence also practicing the blessed discipline of Meditation on the Scriptures (see Ps 1:1-note, Ps 1:2-note, Ps 1:3-note, Joshua 1:8-note)
For example Jesus declared that…
Eadie writes that Ephesians 5:13 "shows why Christians should engage in the work of reproof—it is so salutary: for it exhibits such vices in all their odious debasement, and proves its own purity and lustre in the very exposure. Many and varied have been the interpretations of this statement. (Eadie feels that the "but") has its adversative force—they are done in secret (Eph 5:12), but they may and ought to be exposed. The apostle bids them reprove those sins, and he here states the result. Reprove them, and the effect is, “all these sins being so reproved, are made manifest by the light.” (Ephesians 5 Commentary)
SECRET SINS ON EARTH ARE OPEN SCANDAL IN HEAVEN!
Become visible (5319) (phaneroo from phanerós = manifest, visible, conspicuous in turn from phaino = give light; become visible in turn from phos = light) means made clear or known what has been hidden or unknown. In the passive voice it means to become visible or known, to be revealed.
Phaneroo describes an external manifestation to the senses and thus open to all. It means to make visible that which has been hidden. Stated another way, to be manifested, in the Scriptural sense is more than to simply appear. A person may appear in a false guise or without a disclosure of what he truly is but to be manifested is to be revealed in one's true character. It means to render apparent or make manifest, visible or known what has been hidden or unknown, whether by words, or deeds, or in any other way.
The idea is that when light shines on anything, then people can know what it really is.
John MacArthur - Our commission as children of light is to hold everything up to the light of Scripture, to expose and seek to remedy whatever is evil. Because they have no windows and are built side–by–side on narrow streets, most shops in Middle Eastern cities are quite dark inside. To get a good look at what he is buying a customer must take the merchandise out into the sunshine. In that bright light the article can be seen for what it really is, and any flaws and imperfections will be obvious.
Exposed (reproved) (1651) (elegcho from elegchos = bringing to light) is used "in the NT, generally as showing someone that he has done something wrong and summoning him to repent." (Friberg). To set forth or show their fault implying that there is a convincing them of their fault or bringing them to the point of recognizing their wronging.
Elegcho - 17x/17v - Matt 18:15; Luke 3:19; John 3:20; 8:46; 16:8; 1 Cor 14:24; Eph 5:11, 13; 1 Tim 5:20; 2Ti 4:2; Titus 1:9, 13; 2:15; Heb 12:5; Jas 2:9; Jude 1:15; Rev 3:19 translated convict(2), convicted(2), convicts(1), expose(1), exposed(2), rebuke(1), refute(1), reprimanded(1), reprove(4), reproved(1), show… fault(1).
John Trapp says that their unfruitful works of darkness (Eph 5:11-note) are discovered by the light "so that thereby they grow abashed and abased before God and men."
As Matthew Poole explains these things become "visible" "in the minds and consciences of the sinners themselves." They are "convicted" of their sin. Their character is shown for what it really is -- reputation is what others think you are but character is who God knows you are! (Woe!)
As Marvin Vincent says Paul's thought is "that Christians should let their light--that is, their example of holiness and purity--shine; as this light would be the means of putting the wickedness of the heathen to shame."
The English Version has "their true nature is clearly revealed." Abbott “all these things when exposed by the light are made manifest in their true character," shown for what they truly are.
Light (5457) (phos) is used figuratively (metaphorically) in this context to refer to the spiritual "light" in believers. Light makes manifest whatever is in the darkness. So a holy life in the Gentile believers is like a light that exposes the darkness of the sinfulness of those still dead in their trespasses and sins. Appropriate words of rebuke reveal sin in its true character.
Wayne Barber has the following comment regarding the light writing…
A T Robertson exhorts believers to…
Jamieson has an interesting thought…
Blaikie illustrates writing that
One of the major reasons for Israel's downfall and 70 year exile in Babylon was the failure of their so-called prophets (not the prophets recorded in the OT) to reprove them for their unfaithfulness. Judah paid dearly for failing to have their sins exposed, a principle that is still applicable to churches and to nations (cp Pr 14:34-note [Joseph Parker], Ps 107:34-note)…
FOR EVERYTHING THAT BECOMES VISIBLE IS LIGHT: pan gar to phaneroumenon (PPPNSN) phos estin. (3SPAI): (Micah 7:9; John 3:20,21; 1 Corinthians 4:5; Hebrews 1:13) (Micah 7:9; John 3:20,21; 1Corinthians 4:5; Hebrews 1:13)
For - always pause to ponder this strategic term of explanation.
This is a difficult portion to translate for if one takes it literally it reads “whatever is made manifest is light” or “all things illuminated by the light are themselves light.”
This is somewhat of a strange statement and commentators like John MacArthur favor the sense conveyed by the NIV which has "for it is light that makes everything visible."
MacArthur goes on to explain it this way - Light is that which makes things manifest, that which shows them to be as they actually are. When sin is revealed, it loses its “hiddenness” and is seen for the ugliness it is.
MacDonald explains everything that becomes visible is light writing that…
Vincent interprets this passage as…
In view of the difference in interpretations of this passage, it is not surprising that the Bible translations also demonstrate differences. For example the Phillip's paraphrase would parallel the interpretation above by MacArthur and MacDonald…
On the other hand the New Living Translation would parallel the comment by Vincent that follows…
Below are some other thoughts for your consideration on this confusing passage…
John Eadie after discussing several alternative interpretations writes that he feels the most accurate understanding is that…
Hendriksen comments on this section…
Everything (3956) (pas) means all without exception.
Visible (5319) (phaneroo from phanerós = manifest, visible, conspicuous in turn from phaino = give light; become visible in turn from phos = light) describes an external manifestation to the senses and thus open to all. It means to make visible that which has been hidden. The primary reference is to what is visible to sensory perception.
Light (5457) (phos) (see above)
G. Campbell Morgan said that the church did the most for the world when the church was the least like the world. Today, many churches have the idea they must imitate the world in order to reach the world. A nation will not decay and collapse because of the darkness of the people who peddle pornography or illicit drugs, but because of Christians who are no longer living as Spirit enabled/energized "lights" that expose darkness, bringing sin to light and showing sin to be what it really is! Sin must be exposed as to its true character for as Hebrews 3:13-note says sin is deceitful. Sinners will act like sinners. But when genuine saints begin to act like sinners, the Spirit is grieved (Ep 4:30-note), His fire is quenched (1Th 5:19-note) and such compromise hurts not only the believer, their family and their church, but also contributes to the decay of the entire nation. Molds and fungi (decay) grow best in darkness. Light retards decay because it exposes darkness. Spirit filled believers are light in the Lord, and the world desperately needs to see that light! Are you convicted yet?
Steven Cole (his sermons are in general highly recommended as they read much like verse by verse commentaries) in his message on this section of Ephesians explains what Paul means in this section…
Amplified: Therefore He says, Awake, O sleeper, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall shine (make day dawn) upon you and give you light. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
NLT: And where your light shines, it will expose their evil deeds. This is why it is said, "Awake, O sleeper, rise up from the dead, and Christ will give you light." (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: Thus God speaks through the scriptures: "Awake, you who sleep, arise from the dead, and Christ will give you light." (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: Wherefore He says, Be waking up, he who is sleeping, and arise from the dead, and there shall shine upon you the Christ. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: wherefore he saith, `Arouse thyself, thou who art sleeping, and arise out of the dead, and the Christ shall shine upon thee.'
FOR THIS REASON IT SAYS: dio legei, (3SPAI): (Isaiah 51:17; 52:1; 60:1; Romans 13:11,12; 1Corinthians 15:34; 1Thessalonians 5:6; 2Timothy 2:26)
NET Bible has this note…
For this reason (1352) (dio) is a relatively emphatic marker of a result, usually denoting that the inference is self-evident. Synonyms = So then. Consequently. For that reason. On which account. This genre of phraseology should always pique our attention, prompting us to pause and ponder, specifically asking questions such as "for what “reason”? In context Paul is alluding to the truth of the previous verses in which he had just explained that light exposes the darkness.
It says (3004) (lego) raises the question of to what does "it" refer? Many commentators interpret this as a quotation from a non-biblical source, possibly a Christian hymn. Others feel Paul may be alluding to Scripture although this is not a direct quote of any known Scripture. One verse that has some consider to be a passage Paul was alluding to is
AWAKE SLEEPER AND ARISE FROM THE DEAD : Egeire, (2SAAM) o katheudon, (PAPMSVocative) kai anasta (2SAAM) ek ton nekron: (Eph 2:5; Isaiah 26:19; Ezekiel 37:4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10; John 5:25, 26, 27, 28, 29; 11:43,44; Romans 6:4,5,13; Colossians 3:1)
WAKE UP AND GET UP!
The question raised by this passage is to whom is it preached--to unbelievers or to believers? Here is C H Spurgeon's analysis…
Awake (1453)(egeiro) means to waken, rouse from sleep, from sitting or lying, from disease, from death; from inactivity, ruins, nonexistence. The present imperative is a command calling for the sleepers continually awaken. "Don't hit the snooze alarm!" It is notable that Paul uses egeiro about 30 times to describe rising again from the dead. He uses the following verb anistemi to describe the resurrection two times (1Th 4:14, 16).
MacDonald rightly observes that "The life of the believer should always be preaching a sermon, should always be exposing the surrounding darkness, should always be extending this invitation to unbelievers… awake… arise from the dead. (MacDonald, W & Farstad, A. Believer's Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson)
Egeiro - 144x in 138v - Mt 1:24; 2:13f, 20f; 3:9; 8:15, 25f; 9:5ff, 19, 25; 10:8; 11:5, 11; 12:11, 42; 14:2; 16:21; 17:7, 9, 23; 20:19; 24:7, 11, 24; 25:7; 26:32, 46; 27:52, 63f; 28:6f; Mark 1:31; 2:9, 11f; 3:3; 4:27, 38; 5:41; 6:14, 16; 9:27; 10:49; 12:26; 13:8, 22; 14:28, 42; 16:6, 14; Luke 1:69; 3:8; 5:23f; 6:8; 7:14, 16, 22; 8:54; 9:7, 22; 11:8, 31; 13:25; 20:37; 21:10; 24:6, 34; John 2:19f, 22; 5:8, 21; 7:52; 11:29; 12:1, 9, 17; 13:4; 14:31; 21:14; Acts 3:6f, 15; 4:10; 5:30; 9:8; 10:26, 40; 12:7; 13:22, 30, 37; 26:8; Rom 4:24f; 6:4, 9; 7:4; 8:11, 34; 10:9; 13:11; 1 Cor 6:14; 15:4, 12ff, 20, 29, 32, 35, 42ff, 52; 2 Cor 1:9; 4:14; 5:15; Gal 1:1; Eph 1:20; 5:14; Phil 1:17; Col 2:12; 1Th 1:10; 2 Tim 2:8; Heb 11:19; Jas 5:15; 1 Pet 1:21; Rev 11:1
Awake sleeper and arise from the dead - The meaning of Paul's quote which may be from Isaiah (some say from Isaiah 26:19 and others from Isaiah 60:1) is debated.
John Piper applies Paul's cry to awake to the unconverted asking…
Some evangelical writers believe that Paul is extending an invitation for salvation to the unsaved, in order that they may be transformed from children of darkness into children of light. Authors favoring this interpretation include John MacArthur (ref), William MacDonald (ref), Calvin, Hodge.
It is interesting that there is no clear consensus on this verse, and one commentator says it applies to both believers and unbelievers.
KJV Bible Commentary - This is a call from drowsiness to spiritual life. Stand up from the dead among you.
Expositor's - The passage is introduced in connection with the reference to the effects of a faithful ‘reproof’ and under the impression of the figure of the light. It takes the form of an appeal to wake out of the pagan condition of sin, described by the two-fold figure of sleep and death, and of a promise that then Christ will shine upon the sinner with the saving light of His truth. The quotation comes in relevantly, therefore, as a further enforcement both of the need for the reproof which is enjoined, and of the good effects of such a reproof faithfully exercised.
Jamieson writes - Believers are called on to awake out of sleep; unbelievers, to arise from the dead (compare Mt 25:5; Ro 13:11; 1Th 5:6, with Eph 2:1). (Jamieson, R., Fausset, A. R., Fausset, A. R., Brown, D., & Brown, D. A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments)
In the context of Ephesians 4 and 5, Paul has been speaking to believing Gentiles, those who had once walked in total darkness, and those who were still surrounded by that darkness. The temptation to drift back into that darkness would be an ever present danger (cp "drift away" in Heb 2:1-note). In fact the repetition of negative commands in the present imperative (Stop doing this or that… ) clearly indicates that the readers were involved to some degree in the deeds of darkness. In that context, it would be reasonable for Paul to issue a call to those believers to wake up, the interpretation that this writer favors.
It is also notable that Paul uses the metaphor of sleep in other passages to address saints…
In the "practical" (a misnomer because all Scripture is practical) section of Romans 12-16, Paul uses the metaphor of sleep, clearly referring to believers, exhorting them…
As noted above, while there is not a consensus, the majority of evangelical writers interpret Paul's call to "Awake sleeper" not as a call to the spiritually dead to arise but instead as a call to believers who have been lulled asleep and lapsed into some of the "deeds of darkness".
J C Ryle asks…
NIV College Press writes that…
A W Pink discusses
Ryrie writes that this section (beginning with "Awake sleeper...) is…
Warren Wiersbe writes…
S Lewis Johnson believes this text is addressed to believers writing that…
Life Application commentary writes that just…
Blaikie writes that…
W E Vine favors arise as referring to believers, calling for their "spiritual awakening from lethargy."
The KJV Bible Commentary writes…
Jon Courson writes…
Hoehner explains it this way…
Wayne Barber feels that Paul is speaking to believers writing…
John MacArthur feels that…
Bishop Ryle declares…
Sleeper (2518)(katheudo from katá = an intensifier + heúdo = to sleep) can refer to literal sleep but here is used figuratively to refer to those who are spiritually asleep, feeling secure and unconcerned in sin, indolent and careless in the performance of duty.
Play Indelible Grace's upbeat version of Charles Wesley's great hymn Arise, My Soul, AriseArise, my soul, arise; shake off thy guilty fears;
The bleeding sacrifice in my behalf appears:
Before the throne my Surety stands,
Before the throne my Surety stands,
My name is written on His hands.
He ever lives above, for me to intercede;
His all redeeming love, His precious blood, to plead:
His blood atoned for all our race,
His blood atoned for all our race,
And sprinkles now the throne of grace.
Five bleeding wounds He bears; received on Calvary;
They pour effectual prayers; they strongly plead for me:
“Forgive him, O forgive,” they cry,
“Forgive him, O forgive,” they cry,
“Nor let that ransomed sinner die!”
The Father hears Him pray, His dear anointed One;
He cannot turn away, the presence of His Son;
His Spirit answers to the blood,
His Spirit answers to the blood,
And tells me I am born of God.
My God is reconciled; His pardoning voice I hear;
He owns me for His child; I can no longer fear:
With confidence I now draw nigh,
With confidence I now draw nigh,
And “Father, Abba, Father,” cry.
Arise (450) (anistemi from ana = up, again + histemi = stand, to cause to stand) means literally to get up, to stand up, to stand again, to cause to rise (thus "to raise"), to stand or be erect (Acts 9:41). To rise from a lying or reclined position. To stand straight up from a prostrate position (Acts 14:10). Most uses of anistemi denote the act of getting up from a seated or reclined position.
Anistemi is especially common of the preparation of a journey Lk 1:39, Lk 15.18, 20; 17.19.
Anistemi can also can be used in the sense of “to appear” or “to come” (Mt 12:41)
Figuratively anistemi can refer to a change of position, of “rising” to a position of preeminence or power; e.g., of Christ as a prophet, Acts 3:22; 7:37; as God’s servant in the midst of the nation of Israel, Acts 3:26; as the Son of God in the midst of the nation, Acts 13:33; as a priest, Heb 7:11, 15; as king over the nations, Ro. 15:12;
Here in Ephesians 5:14, anistemi is in the aorist imperative which is a command calling for the hearer to do this now. It often conveys a sense of urgency -- Do not delay! Anistemi is used metaphorically in Eph 5:14 calling for the hearer (as discussed above some feel the recipients of this command are believers and some feel they are unbelievers) to arise from the darkness of sin (for the first time if referring to the Spirit's enabling unbelievers to arise and receive salvation or if referring to believers a call to discard self-reliance and depend on the Spirit to arise from a state of spiritual sluggishness or "somnolence." - cp Heb 6:11-12-note)
See related resource: Discussion of Backsliding.
In Mt 22:24 the idea of anistemi is to cause to be born. Anistemi is combined with sperma (seed) in an idiom "to raise up seed" meaning to beget or to procreate (Mt 22:24, Lxx of Gen 38:8).
Anistemi is used in the sense of causing someone to appear as in Acts 3:22 (speaking of the prophecy of Jesus in Dt 18:15).
Anistemi is sometimes used of a hostile reaction meaning to stand against, to rise up antagonistically against someone - rising up of Satan = Mk 3:26; officials against people Acts 5:17; seditious leader = Acts 5:36-37; Jews against other Jews = Acts 6:9; false teachers = Acts 20:30; Nu 16:2 (Korah)
The most important figurative use of anistemi is to raise up from the dead or to bring back to life. Below are the 30 uses of anistemi that refer to resurrection -
I have heard some make the statement that God never alludes to resurrection in the Old Testament. But what "saith the LORD"? This study of the uses of anistemi takes us to several passages that help answer this question. Other OT passages that clearly allude to resurrection (but do not use anistemi) include…
Anistemi is used up to 4 times in the Septuagint in passages that describe resurrection…
Richards adds that…
Related Resources on Resurrection:
Christ's Resurrection Prophesied in the Old Testament…
Anistemi - 108x in 107v in the NT (NAS) - NAS translates anistemi as - arise(4), arises(2), arose(4), get(15), getting(1), got(24), raise(7), raised(4), raised… up again(1), raised up again(1), raising(1), rise(3), rise again(10), risen(2), risen again(2), rises(1), rising(1), rose(6), rose again(1), stand(5), stood(13).
Anistemi is used in the non-apocryphal Septuagint (Lxx) in 400 passages - Gen 4:8; 9:9; 13:17; 19:14f, 33, 35; 21:14, 18, 32; 22:3, 19; 23:3, 7; 24:10, 54, 61; 25:34; 26:31; 27:19, 31, 43; 28:2, 18; 31:13, 17, 35, 55; 32:22; 35:1, 3; 37:7; 38:8, 19; 43:8, 13, 15; 44:4; 46:5; Ex 1:8; 2:17; 12:30f; 24:13; 26:30; 32:1, 6; Lev 26:1; Num 1:51; 7:1; 11:32; 16:2, 25; 22:13f, 20ff; 23:18, 24; 24:9, 17, 25; 32:14; Deut 2:13, 24; 9:12; 13:1; 17:8; 18:15, 18; 22:4; 25:7; 28:9; 29:22; 31:16; 32:38; 33:11; 34:10; Josh 1:2; 6:12, 15; 7:10, 13; 8:1, 3; 18:4, 8; 21:44; 24:9; Jdg 2:10; 3:21, 31; 4:9, 14; 5:7, 12; 7:9, 15; 8:20f; 9:32, 34f, 43; 10:1, 3; 13:11; 16:3; 18:9; 19:3, 5, 7, 9f, 27f; 20:5, 8, 18f, 33; Ruth 1:6; 2:15; 3:14; 4:5, 10; 1 Sam 1:9; 2:8, 35; 3:8; 9:3, 26; 13:15; 15:12; 16:12f; 17:48, 52; 18:27; 20:41f; 21:10; 23:4, 13, 16, 24; 24:4, 7f; 25:1, 29, 41f; 26:2, 5; 27:2; 28:23, 25; 31:12; 2 Sam 2:14f; 3:10, 21; 6:2; 7:12; 11:2; 12:17, 20f; 13:15, 29, 31; 14:23, 31; 15:9, 14; 17:1, 21ff; 19:7f; 22:39; 23:1, 10; 24:11; 1Kgs 1:50; 2:40; 3:4, 12, 15, 20f; 8:20, 54; 9:5; 11:18, 40; 12:24; 17:9f; 19:3, 5ff, 21; 21:7, 15f, 18; 2Kgs 1:3, 15; 3:24; 4:30; 6:15; 7:5, 7, 12; 8:1f, 21; 9:2, 6; 10:12; 12:20; 13:21; 21:3; 23:3, 25; 25:26; 1Chr 17:11; 22:16; 2Chr 6:10, 41; 7:18; 10:15; 13:4, 6; 20:5, 19, 23; 21:4; 23:18; 24:13, 20; 25:5; 28:12, 15; 29:12; 30:14, 27; 35:19; Ezra 1:5; 2:63; 3:2; 5:2; 9:5, 9; 10:3ff, 10; Neh 2:12, 18; 3:1; 4:14; 7:65; 9:5; Job 1:5, 20; 4:16; 7:4; 14:12; 16:8; 19:18, 26; 24:22; 42:17; Ps 1:5; 3:7; 7:6; 9:19; 10:12; 12:5; 17:13; 20:8; 35:2, 11; 41:8, 10; 44:23, 26; 68:1; 74:22; 76:9; 78:5f; 82:8; 88:10; 94:16; 102:13; 132:8; Pr 24:16; 29:4; 31:15, 26; Eccl 12:4; Song 2:10, 13; 3:2; 5:5; Isa 2:10, 19, 21; 11:10; 14:21; 21:5; 24:20; 26:14, 19; 28:21; 32:9; 33:10; 38:9; 39:1; 43:17; 49:7; 51:17; 52:2; 54:17; Jer 1:17; 2:27f; 6:4f; 8:4; 13:4, 6; 18:2; 23:4f, 20; 25:27; 26:17; 30:9, 12; 31:6; 37:10; 41:2; 46:16; 49:14, 28, 31; 50:32; 51:64; Lam 2:19; Ezek 3:22f; 13:5f; 16:60, 62; 26:20; 34:23, 29; Dan 2:39; 3:24; 4:8; 7:5; 8:22f, 27; 11:4, 7, 14, 20f; 12:2, 13; Hos 6:2; Amos 5:2; 7:2, 5, 9; 8:14; 9:11; Obad 1:1; Jonah 1:2f, 6; 3:2f; Mic 2:10; 4:13; 6:1; 7:8; Hab 2:7; Hag 2:9
Here are a few notable examples
Ge 4:8 Cain arising against his brother,
Ge 9:9 God "raises up" [establishes] His covenant with Noah to never destroy the world by flood,
Ge 13:17 God tells Abram "Arise, walk about the land through its length and breadth; for I will give it to you."
Ge 38:8 raise up offspring (Idiomatic expression - anistemi sperma = seed),
Ex 1:8 "a new king arose over Egypt, who did not know Joseph,"
Ex 32:6 "rose up to play" [most take this as licentious behavior] and quoted by Paul in 1Cor 10:7,
Lev 26:1 setting up idols,
Nu 7:1 setting up the Tabernacle,
Dt 18:18 raising up a prophet foretelling Jesus first coming,
Isa 11:10 of Messiah "will stand [arise] as a signal for the" Gentiles quoted in Ro 15:12.
It is also notable that anistemi in the Septuagint frequently introduces divine commissions (e.g., Ge 21:18; Ge 31:13; 1Ki 17:9; Jonah 1:2).
Here are all 108 uses of anistemi in the NT with the uses that refer to resurrection highlighted in yellow…
Matthew 9:9 As Jesus went on from there, He saw a man called Matthew, sitting in the tax collector's booth; and He said to him, "Follow Me!" And he got up and followed Him.
Matthew 12:41 "The men of Nineveh will stand up with this generation at the judgment, and will condemn it because they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and behold, something greater than Jonah is here.
Matthew 22:24 asking, "Teacher, Moses said, 'IF A MAN DIES HAVING NO CHILDREN, HIS BROTHER AS NEXT OF KIN SHALL MARRY HIS WIFE, AND RAISE UP CHILDREN FOR HIS BROTHER.'
Matthew 26:62 The high priest stood up and said to Him, "Do You not answer? What is it that these men are testifying against You?"
Mark 1:35 In the early morning, while it was still dark, Jesus got up, left the house, and went away to a secluded place, and was praying there.
Mark 2:14 As He passed by, He saw Levi the son of Alphaeus sitting in the tax booth, and He said to him, "Follow Me!" And he got up and followed Him.
Mark 3:26 "If Satan has risen up against himself and is divided, he cannot stand, but he is finished!
Mark 5:42 Immediately the girl got (rose) up and began to walk, for she was twelve years old. And immediately they were completely astounded.
Comment: Clearly Jairus' daughter (Mk 5:22) was dead, so the fact that she "got up" is synonymous with her "rising from the dead" (although she would still have to experience death.)
Mark 7:24 Jesus got up and went away from there to the region of Tyre. And when He had entered a house, He wanted no one to know of it; yet He could not escape notice.
Mark 8:31 And He began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders and the chief priests and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.
Mark 9:9 As they were coming down from the mountain, He gave them orders not to relate to anyone what they had seen, until the Son of Man rose from the dead. 10 They seized upon that statement, discussing with one another what rising from the dead meant.
Mark 9:27 But Jesus took him by the hand and raised him; and he got up.
Mark 9:31 For He was teaching His disciples and telling them, "The Son of Man is to be delivered into the hands of men, and they will kill Him; and when He has been killed, He will rise three days later."
Mark 10:1 Getting up, He went from there to the region of Judea and beyond the Jordan; crowds gathered around Him again, and, according to His custom, He once more began to teach them.
Mark 10:34 "They will mock Him and spit on Him, and scourge Him and kill Him, and three days later He will rise again."
Mark 12:23 "In the resurrection, when they rise again, which one's wife will she be? For all seven had married her."
Mark 12:25 "For when they rise from the dead, they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven.
Mark 14:57 Some stood up and began to give false testimony against Him, saying,
Mark 14:60 The high priest stood up and came forward and questioned Jesus, saying, "Do You not answer? What is it that these men are testifying against You?"
Mark 16:9 Now after He had risen early on the first day of the week, He first appeared to Mary Magdalene, from whom He had cast out seven demons.
Luke 1:39 Now at this time Mary arose and went in a hurry to the hill country, to a city of Judah,
Luke 4:16 And He came to Nazareth, where He had been brought up; and as was His custom, He entered the synagogue on the Sabbath, and stood up to read.
Luke 4:29 and they got up and drove Him out of the city, and led Him to the brow of the hill on which their city had been built, in order to throw Him down the cliff.
Luke 4:38 Then He got up and left the synagogue, and entered Simon's home. Now Simon's mother-in-law was suffering from a high fever, and they asked Him to help her. 39 And standing over her, He rebuked the fever, and it left her; and she immediately got up and waited on them.
Luke 5:25 Immediately he got up before them, and picked up what he had been lying on, and went home glorifying God.
Luke 5:28 And he left everything behind, and got up and began to follow Him.
MacArthur comments: The aorist tense of the verb anistemi (got up) coupled with the imperfect tense of the verb akoloutheo (began to follow) illustrates Matthew’s response. There was a decisive decision (Ed: "got up" at a moment in time) to break with his past, then a continual pattern of following Christ (Ed: This is the sense of the imperfect tense). He began to experience new longings, new aspirations, new affections, a new mind, and a new will; in short, he became a new creature (2Cor 5:17-note). The traitor, extortioner, robber, and outcast sinner became the apostle and evangelist of Jesus Christ. Matthew lost a temporal career, but gained an eternal destiny; he forfeited material possessions, but gained “an inheritance which is imperishable and undefiled and will not fade away, reserved in heaven” (1Peter 1:4-note); he lost sinful companions, but gained the fellowship of the Son of God.
Luke 6:8 But He knew what they were thinking, and He said to the man with the withered hand, "Get up and come forward!" And he got up and came forward.
Luke 8:55 And her spirit returned, and she got up immediately; and He gave orders for something to be given her to eat.
Luke 9:8 and by some that Elijah had appeared, and by others that one of the prophets of old had risen again.
Comment: It is interesting that in Lk 9:7 Luke used egeiro, the other NT verb which is most often used for resurrection.
Luke 9:19 They answered and said, "John the Baptist, and others say Elijah; but others, that one of the prophets of old has risen again."
Luke 10:25 And a lawyer stood up and put Him to the test, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?"
Luke 11:7 and from inside he answers and says, 'Do not bother me; the door has already been shut and my children and I are in bed; I cannot get up and give you anything.' 8 "I tell you, even though he will not get up and give him anything because he is his friend, yet because of his persistence he will get up (egeiro) and give him as much as he needs.
Luke 11:32 "The men of Nineveh will stand up (ESV = "rise up") with this generation at the judgment and condemn it, because they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and behold, something greater than Jonah is here.
Luke 15:18 'I will get up and go to my father, and will say to him, "Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in your sight;… 20 "So he got up and came to his father. But while he was still a long way off, his father saw him and felt compassion for him, and ran and embraced him and kissed him.
Luke 16:31 "But he said to him, 'If they do not listen to Moses and the Prophets, they will not be persuaded even if someone rises from the dead.'"
Luke 17:19 And He said to him, "Stand up and go; your faith has made you well."
Luke 18:33 and after they have scourged Him, they will kill Him; and the third day He will rise again."
Luke 22:45 When He rose from prayer, He came to the disciples and found them sleeping from sorrow, 46 and said to them, "Why are you sleeping? Get up and pray that you may not enter into temptation."
Luke 23:1 Then the whole body of them got up and brought Him before Pilate.
Luke 24:7 saying that the Son of Man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again."
Luke 24:12 But Peter got up and ran to the tomb; stooping and looking in, he saw the linen wrappings only; and he went away to his home, marveling at what had happened.
Luke 24:33 And they got up that very hour and returned to Jerusalem, and found gathered together the eleven and those who were with them,
Luke 24:46 and He said to them, "Thus it is written (OT Scriptures), that the Christ would suffer and rise again from the dead the third day,
Comment: Jesus states clearly that the doctrine of the resurrection was taught in the OT.
John 6:39 "This is the will of Him who sent Me, that of all that He has given Me I lose nothing, but raise it up on the last day. 40 "For this is the will of My Father, that everyone who beholds the Son and believes in Him will have eternal life, and I Myself will raise him up on the last day."… 44 "No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him; and I will raise him up on the last day… 54 "He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day.
John 11:23 Jesus said to her, "Your brother will rise again." 24 Martha said to Him, "I know that he will rise again in the resurrection on the last day."
John 11:31 Then the Jews who were with her in the house, and consoling her, when they saw that Mary got up quickly and went out, they followed her, supposing that she was going to the tomb to weep there.
John 20:9 For as yet they did not understand the Scripture, that He must rise again from the dead.
Acts 1:15 At this time Peter stood up in the midst of the brethren (a gathering of about one hundred and twenty persons was there together), and said,
Acts 2:24 "But God raised Him up again, putting an end to the agony of death, since it was impossible for Him to be held in its power.
Acts 2:32 "This Jesus God raised up again, to which we are all witnesses.
Acts 3:22 "Moses said, 'THE LORD GOD WILL RAISE UP FOR YOU A PROPHET LIKE ME FROM YOUR BRETHREN; TO HIM YOU SHALL GIVE HEED to everything He says to you.
Comment: Although some consider the phrase "will raise up" as a foreshadowing on the resurrection of Christ, most do not see this as a prophecy of resurrection.
Acts 3:26 "For you first, God raised up His Servant and sent Him to bless you by turning every one of you from your wicked ways."
Comment: It should be noted that some favor this use as signifying God elevating Jesus to this position (i.e., His incarnation), and not to resurrection of Jesus. To be sure - Jesus was "raised up" both before and after He died. Hallelujah!
Barnes: This expression does not refer to his having raised him from the dead, but is used in the same sense as in Acts 3:22, where God promised that he would raise up a prophet, and send him to teach the people. Peter means that God had appointed his Son Jesus, or had commissioned him to go and preach to the people to turn them away from their sins.
Acts 5:6 The young men got up and covered him up, and after carrying him out, they buried him.
Acts 5:17 But the high priest rose up, along with all his associates (that is the sect of the Sadducees), and they were filled with jealousy.
Acts 5:34 But a Pharisee named Gamaliel, a teacher of the Law, respected by all the people, stood up (first in Greek for emphasis) in the Council and gave orders to put the men outside for a short time.
Acts 5:36 "For some time ago Theudas rose up, claiming to be somebody, and a group of about four hundred men joined up with him. But he was killed, and all who followed him were dispersed and came to nothing.
Acts 5:37 "After this man, Judas of Galilee rose up in the days of the census and drew away some people after him; he too perished, and all those who followed him were scattered.
Acts 6:9 But some men from what was called the Synagogue of the Freedmen, including both Cyrenians and Alexandrians, and some from Cilicia and Asia, rose up and argued with Stephen.
Acts 7:18 until THERE AROSE ANOTHER KING OVER EGYPT WHO KNEW NOTHING ABOUT JOSEPH.
Acts 7:37 "This is the Moses who said to the sons of Israel, 'GOD WILL RAISE UP FOR YOU A PROPHET LIKE ME FROM YOUR BRETHREN.'
Acts 8:26 But an angel of the Lord spoke to Philip saying, "Get up and go south to the road that descends from Jerusalem to Gaza." (This is a desert road.)
Acts 8:27 So he got up and went; and there was an Ethiopian eunuch, a court official of Candace, queen of the Ethiopians, who was in charge of all her treasure; and he had come to Jerusalem to worship,
Acts 9:6 but get up and enter the city, and it will be told you what you must do."
Acts 9:11 And the Lord said to him, "Get up and go to the street called Straight, and inquire at the house of Judas for a man from Tarsus named Saul, for he is praying,
Acts 9:18 And immediately there fell from his eyes something like scales, and he regained his sight, and he got up and was baptized;
Acts 9:34 Peter said to him, "Aeneas, Jesus Christ heals you; get up and make your bed." Immediately he got up.
Acts 9:39 So Peter arose and went with them. When he arrived, they brought him into the upper room; and all the widows stood beside him, weeping and showing all the tunics and garments that Dorcas used to make while she was with them.
Acts 9:40 But Peter sent them all out and knelt down and prayed, and turning to the body, he said, "Tabitha, arise." And she opened her eyes, and when she saw Peter, she sat up.
Acts 9:41 And he gave her his hand and raised her up; and calling the saints and widows, he presented her alive.
Acts 10:13 A voice came to him, "Get up, Peter, kill and eat!"
Acts 10:20 "But get up, go downstairs and accompany them without misgivings, for I have sent them Myself."
Acts 10:23 So he invited them in and gave them lodging. And on the next day he got up and went away with them, and some of the brethren from Joppa accompanied him.
Acts 10:26 But Peter raised him up, saying, "Stand up; I too am just a man."
Acts 10:41 not to all the people, but to witnesses who were chosen beforehand by God, that is, to us who ate and drank with Him after He arose from the dead.
Acts 11:7 "I also heard a voice saying to me, 'Get up, Peter; kill and eat.'
Acts 11:28 One of them named Agabus stood up and began to indicate by the Spirit that there would certainly be a great famine all over the world. And this took place in the reign of Claudius.
Acts 12:7 And behold, an angel of the Lord suddenly appeared and a light shone in the cell; and he struck Peter's side and woke him up, saying, "Get up quickly." And his chains fell off his hands.
Acts 13:16 Paul stood up, and motioning with his hand said, "Men of Israel, and you who fear God, listen:
Acts 13:33 that God has fulfilled this promise to our children in that He raised up Jesus, as it is also written in the second Psalm, 'YOU ARE MY SON; TODAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN YOU.' (Quoting from Psalm 2:7)
Comment: Although I have chosen to classify this use as related to Jesus' resurrection (Henry Alford favors that interpretation), there are those (Expositor's Greek Testament, Charles Ryrie) who favor this use as indicative of His incarnation. Anistemi can certainly have that latter sense as seen in Acts 7:37.
Acts 13:34 "As for the fact that He raised Him up from the dead, no longer to return to decay, He has spoken in this way: 'I WILL GIVE YOU THE HOLY and SURE blessings OF DAVID.'
Acts 14:10 said with a loud voice, "Stand upright on your feet." And he leaped up and began to walk.
Acts 14:20 But while the disciples stood around him, he got up and entered the city. The next day he went away with Barnabas to Derbe.
Acts 15:7 After there had been much debate, Peter stood up and said to them, "Brethren, you know that in the early days God made a choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles would hear the word of the gospel and believe.
Acts 17:3 explaining and giving evidence that the Christ had to suffer and rise again from the dead, and saying, "This Jesus whom I am proclaiming to you is the Christ."
Acts 17:31 because He has fixed a day in which He will judge the world in righteousness through a Man whom He has appointed, having furnished proof to all men by raising Him from the dead."
Acts 20:30-note and from among your own selves men will arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away the disciples after them.
Acts 22:10 "And I said, 'What shall I do, Lord?' And the Lord said to me, 'Get up and go on into Damascus, and there you will be told of all that has been appointed for you to do.'
Acts 22:16 'Now why do you delay? Get up and be baptized, and wash away your sins, calling on His name.'
Acts 23:9 And there occurred a great uproar; and some of the scribes of the Pharisaic party stood up and began to argue heatedly, saying, "We find nothing wrong with this man; suppose a spirit or an angel has spoken to him?"
Acts 26:16 'But get up and stand on your feet; for this purpose I have appeared to you, to appoint you a minister and a witness not only to the things which you have seen, but also to the things in which I will appear to you;
Acts 26:30 The king stood up and the governor and Bernice, and those who were sitting with them,
Romans 15:12-note Again Isaiah says, "THERE SHALL COME THE ROOT OF JESSE, AND HE WHO ARISES TO RULE OVER THE GENTILES, IN HIM SHALL THE GENTILES HOPE."
1 Corinthians 10:7 Do not be idolaters, as some of them were; as it is written, "THE PEOPLE SAT DOWN TO EAT AND DRINK, AND STOOD UP TO PLAY."
Ephesians 5:14-note For this reason it says, "Awake, sleeper, And arise from the dead, And Christ will shine on you."
1 Thessalonians 4:14-note For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so God will bring with Him those who have fallen asleep in Jesus.
1 Thessalonians 4:16-note For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first.
Hebrews 7:11-note Now if perfection was through the Levitical priesthood (for on the basis of it the people received the Law), what further need was there for another priest to arise according to the order of Melchizedek, and not be designated according to the order of Aaron?
Hebrews 7:15-note And this is clearer still, if another priest arises according to the likeness of Melchizedek
Dead (3498)(nekros) is a body without life and used figuratively in Ephesians 5:14 either to describe the state of unbelievers who have no spiritual life for they are dead in their trespasses and sins (Eph 2:1-note) or to describe the state of believers, in a "death like" stuporous (state of reduced or suspended sensibility) spiritual condition which results from the dulling, deceiving, stupefying (rendering insensitive) effects of sin (hamartia) (even [or especially] in believers! - See related discussion - Deceitfulness of Sin!)
S D F Salmond favors that Paul is addressing unbelievers with his call to Awake… Arise, explaining that…
Napoleon said to his executives after touring China, "This nation is a sleeping giant. If she is ever awakened, she will rock the world." The Church is much more a sleeping giant that needs to be aroused out of her sleep. (Golden Nuggets)
AND CHRIST WILL SHINE ON YOU: kai epiphausei (3SPAI) soi o Christos : (John 8:12; 9:5; Acts 13:47; 2Co 4:6; 2Ti 1:10)
The path of the righteous is like the light of dawn,
And Christ will shine on you - A conditional promise. The question is will the hearer "Arise!" (Hear and Heed)?
John MacArthur (who interprets this section as a call to the unregenerate soul to come to the light of the Gospel of Christ and be saved) gives us a sad illustration of failing to lay hold of this promise…
Christ (5547) (Christos from chrio = to anoint, rub with oil, consecrate to an office) is the Anointed One, the Messiah, Christos being the Greek equivalent of the transliterated Hebrew word Messiah.
JESUS AND LIGHT
Shine on (2017) (epiphauo from epí = upon, to, + phaúo = to shine) means to shine upon, give light to, to illuminate. Epiphauo is used here in its only NT use in a figurative sense referring to spiritual enlightenment (cause to understand). The means employed by Christ are compared to the rays of the rising sun (Son). Epiphauo is used in the Septuagint of heavenly bodies shining (Job 25:5, 31:26) and once in Job 41:10.
Vine says epiphauo means to…
THE SUN OF RIGHTEOUSNESS:
Observe how this description of the Messiah is compared to the rays of the rising sun (cp "Risen Son"). God’s glory or light appearing exerts life-giving power, even as does the sun as it courses over the earth. This reminds of the beautiful prophetic promise in Malachi that…
Thayer comments that…
Charles Simeon writes that…
Listen to this beautiful vocal rendition…
Written by Horatius Bonar
Biblical Illustrator entries on Ephesians 5:14…
Christ the Light Giver
That the great intent of Christ in the gospel is to call people out of their woeful estate by sin into the marvellous light of His salvation. This is the great truth here represented; and to clear it up to you—
I. Observe how woeful and dangerous the present case of carnal unregenerate men is. It is represented to us under the notions of spiritual sleep and spiritual death; which I shall speak of both generally and apart, and then conjointly and together. First: To speak of them generally, and apart.
1. They are asleep in sin, whereas the regenerate are awakened (1Thessalonians 5:5, 6). Here, then, is their misery upon the first account, they sleep in sin; and a great misery it is.
(1) Because their insensibility and security make their other sins more dangerous.
(2) Though they sleep, their damnation sleepeth not (2 Peter 2:3).
(3) The sun is up, and shines into their windows (Romans 13:11).
2. The next notion is spiritual death; for we are bidden to "Arise from the dead," which showeth this sleep is deadly (Ephesians 2:1). How are we dead? Two ways—
(1) Dead as we are destitute of spiritual life;
(2) Dead as we are destitute of the favour and peace of God.
Secondly: Let us speak of these terms conjunctly; the one helpeth to explain the other. When we hear that man sleepeth in sin, possibly we might be apt to be conceited that man's heart is not so corrupt as it is, and are ready to say of it, as Christ did of the damsel whom He raised to life, "She is not dead, but sleepeth" (Matthew 9:24). Therefore we must take in the ether expression to help it. We do not only sleep in sin, but are dead in trespasses and sins. So, on the other side, when we hear that we are in the state of the dead, we may misconceive of God's work in conversion, and press the rigour of the notion too far, as if He wrought upon us only as stocks and stones; therefore we must take in the other expression; we sleep in sins. Life natural is still left us; there is reason and conscience still to work upon, though we are wholly disabled from doing anything pleasing to God; that is to say—
1. We have reason. Thou art a man, and hast reason, and therefore art to be dealt with by way of exhortations. God influenceth all things according to their natural inclination, as He enlighteneth the world by the sun, burneth with fire, so he reasoneth with man.
2. We have conscience (which is reason applying things to our case), and can judge of our actions morally considered with respect to reward and punishment, and accuse or excuse as the nature of the action deserveth (Romans 2:14, 15).
3. That we have a natural self-love and desire of happiness (Psalms 4:6), "There be many that say, Who will show us any good?" (Matthew 13:45, 46). So that, though we are dead, so as to do nothing savingly and acceptably, yet we must remember that we are also asleep, ignorant, slight, careless, do not improve our natural reason, conscience, and desires of happiness to any saving purpose, and will not mind things. Both together giveth us a right apprehension of our woeful condition by nature, that we are corrupt, and so are said to be dead; and senseless and secure, so we are said to be asleep, mindless of our danger and remedy.
II. The manner of our recovery out of this wretched estate.
1. In the general, it is by calling of us. "Awake, arise" (see 1 Peter 2:9; 2 Thessalonians 2:14).
2. More particularly, the order of this calling is set down in the text, in these two injunctions, "Awake," and "Arise from the dead." We are reduced and brought home to God two ways—either
(1) Preparatively and dispositively; or
(2) Formally and constitutively.
III. The next thing is, what a blessed estate Christ calleth them into; He doth not only rescue them out of the power of darkness, but "He will give them light." Many things are intended hereby.
1. By light is meant the lively light of the Spirit, or a clear affective knowledge both of our misery and remedy.
2. Light is put for God's favour, and the solid consolation which floweth from thence (Psalm 4:6, 7).
3. It implies eternal glory and happiness, to which we have a right now, and for which we are prepared and fitted by grace. A tender waking conscience is a great mercy, whereas a dead and stupid conscience is a heavy judgment; for then neither reason nor grace is of any use to us; we can neither do the functions of a man or a Christian while we are asleep. First: "Awake thou that sleepest."
Consider these motives—
1. Doth it become any to sleep in your ease, while you know not God to be a friend or an enemy? yea, when you have so much reason to think that He is an enemy to you, for you are enemies to Him by your minds in evil works (Colossians 1:21).
2. You sleep in that ship that is swiftly carried to eternity, and are just upon the entrance into another world: "Lest coming suddenly He find you sleeping" (Mark 13:36).
3. Yon have slept out too much precious time already: "The time past of our life may suffice us" (1 Peter 4:3).
4. Thou hast been long and often called upon. If God had not sought to awaken you, you had the better excuse: "How long wilt thou sleep, O sluggard? when wilt thou arise out of sleep? yet a little sleep, a little slumber, a little folding of the hands to sleep." (Proverbs 6:9, 10).
5. Now is your time and season: "He that gathereth in summer is a wise son; but he that sleepeth in harvest is a son that causeth shame" (Proverbs 10:5). To lose time is sad, but to lose the season worst of all, and a season that bringeth profit as well as labour, as harvest doth.
6. Others care for their souls, and are hard at work for God; their diligence should awaken us (Acts 26:7).
7. The devil is awake, and will you sleep? (1 Peter 5:8).
8. If nature were well awake, it would disprove your courses as much as religion. Secondly: "Arise from the dead"; that is, be converted to God; for the voice of Christ doth not only conduce to awaken us, but to raise us from the dead (John 5:25). Look about you, then; entertain serious thoughts of getting out of a state of sin into a state of grace.
Take two motives to quicken you to this—
1. Better never be awakened if still we continue in our sins, for this aggravateth them (John 3:19).
2. Better never rise in the last day if we be not raised from the death of sin.
(1) Do not say, It is too soon; for we can never soon enough get out of so great a danger.
(2) Do not say, It is too late; for the work is yet possible, as short as your time is like to be in the world; and it will be your fault if it be not done. (Thomas Manton)
I. The character of those addressed.
1. If you allow yourself in the practice of known wickedness, your conscience is asleep.
2. If you live in the customary neglect of self-examination, you are in a state of slumber.
3. If you have never been in any degree affected with a sense of your guilt, and of your dependence on the mercy of God in Christ, you are among those who are asleep.
4. If you have no conflicts with sin and temptation, you are in a state of slumber.
5. The prevalence of a sensual and carnal disposition is a sign of spiritual death.
6. Stupidity under the warnings of God's word and providence, indicates such a state of soul as the Scripture compares to sleep.
II. Apply the call.
1. This awakening must suppose and imply a conviction of your sin, and a sense of your danger.
2. This awakening from sleep, and arising" from the dead, implies a repentance of sin and turning to God.
3. They who have awoke from their sleep and risen from the dead will experience the properties, and maintain the exercises of a holy and spiritual life.
III. The encouragement—"Christ shall give thee light," shall shine upon and enlighten thee.
1. This may be understood as a promise of pardon and eternal life on your repentance.
2. The words farther import God's gracious attention to awakened souls, when they frame their doings to turn to Him. The call is, Awake, arise from the dead, repair to the Saviour. Say not, "We are unable to discern the way." Christ will shine upon you and give you light. Say not, "We are unable to rise and walk." He will meet you with His grace. Arise, He calleth you. He will guide your steps. (J. Lathrop, D. D.)
I. Images of the sinner's state.
1. Sleep. This state, though usually benign and refreshing, is sometimes one of great danger. The traveller who sleeps when exposed to excessive frost, the sailor who sleeps upon the mast, are examples.
2. Darkness. This is emblematical of ignorance, error, and iniquity, and especially of the want of any certain prospect for the future.
3. Death. The insensibility, powerlessness, and immovableness of the corpse are an awful representation of the sinner's state.
II. Representations of the sinner's need.
3. Raising to life.
The ministry of our Lord Jesus affords us many and striking instances of the exercise of a Divine power in these ways.
III. A revelation of the sinner's hope.
1. A Divine command: Awake! arise! There is something for man to do in order that he may enjoy the blessings of the gospel.
2. A Divine promise: Christ will enlighten thee. (Clerical World.)
C. H. Spurgeon
I. The state of mind into which a Christian may sometimes get.
1. The insidious character of it,
(1) A Christian may be asleep and not know it. Indeed, if he did know it, he would not be asleep.
(2) A man who is asleep may be kept in very good countenance by his neighbours. They may be in the same state, and sleeping people are not likely to be very active in rebuking one another.
(3) One who is asleep may have taken care before he went to sleep to prevent anybody coming in to wake him. There is a way of bolting the door of your heart against anybody.
(4) A man can do a great deal while asleep that will make him look as if he were quite awake. For instance, some people talk in their sleep, and many professors will talk just as if they were the most active, the most earnest, the most gracious, the most warm-hearted people anywhere.
2. What is the evil itself? It is an unconsciousness of one's own state, and a carelessness of such a kind as not to want to be conscious of it. The man takes everything for granted in religion. He seems, too, to be perfectly immovable to all appeals. The best argument is lost on a sleeping man, and then this slumbering spirit spreads itself over everything else. There is a heartlessness in the manner in which everything is gone about.
3. Now, two or three words upon what makes this evil of Christians being asleep a great deal worse.
(1) It is this: they are Christ's servants, and they ought not to be asleep. If a servant is set to do a certain duty, you do not continue him in your service if he drops off asleep.
(2) It is so bad for us to be asleep, too, because it is quite certain that the enemy is awake. You recollect old Hugh Latimer's sermon, in which he says that the devil is the busiest bishop in the kingdom.
(3) And meanwhile souls are being lost.
4. What is it that sends us to sleep?
(1) We are inclined to slumber from the evil of our nature.
(2) It is easy to send a man to sleep if you give him the chloroform of bad doctrine.
(3) The sultry sum of prosperity sends many to sleep. Fulness of bread is a strong temptation.
(4) In some people it is the intoxication of pride.
(5) In others it is the want of heart which is at the bottom of everything they do. They never were intense, they never were earnest, and consequently they have such little zeal that that zeal soon goes to sleep. This is the age of the Enchanted Ground. He that can go through this age and not sleep must have something more than mortal about him. God must be with him, keeping him awake. You cannot be long in the soporific air of this particular period of time without feeling that in spiritual things you grow lax, for it is a lax age—lax in doctrine, lax in principle, lax in morals, lax in everything—and only God can come in and help the Pilgrim to keep awake in this Enchanted Ground.
II. Christ's message to those of His people who are asleep.
1. Jesus speaks this in love. He would not say "awake," were it not the kindest thing He could say to you. Sometimes a mother's love lulls her child to sleep, but if there is a house on fire the mother's love would take another expression and startle it from its slumbers; and Christ's love takes that turn when He says to you, "Awake! Awake! awake!"
2. It is His wisdom as well as His love that makes Him say it. He knows that you are losing much by sleeping.
3. It is a voice, too, which you ought to own, for it is backed up by the authority of the person from whom it comes.
4. It is a voice which has been very often repeated. Christ has been saying, "Awake! Awake!" to some of us many hundreds of times. You were sick, were you, a few months ago? That was Christ, as it were, shaking you in your sleep, and saying, "Awake, My beloved, awake out of thine unhealthy slumbers!"
5. A personal cry—"Thou." Not, "Awake all of you"; but, "Awake thou!" Shall I pick you out one by one?
6. He puts it very pressingly in the present tense. "Awake! awake now." Not a few years hence, but now. This moment.
III. The promise with which Christ encourages us to awake—"Christ shall give thee light." What means this?
2. The light of joy.
(C. H. Spurgeon.)