Amplified: He personally bore our sins in His [own] body on the tree [as on an altar and offered Himself on it], that we might die (cease to exist) to sin and live to righteousness. By His wounds you have been healed. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: Who His own self bare our sins in His own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed.
NLT: He personally carried away our sins in his own body on the cross so we can be dead to sin and live for what is right. You have been healed by his wounds! (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: And he personally bore our sins in his own body on the cross, so that we might be dead to sin and be alive to all that is good. It was the suffering that he bore which has healed you.
Wuest: Who himself carried up to the Cross our sins in His body and offered himself there as on an altar, doing this in order that we, having died with respect to our sins, might live with respect to righteousness, (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: who our sins himself did bear in his body, upon the tree, that to the sins having died, to the righteousness we may live; by whose stripes ye were healed,
AND HE HIMSELF BORE (carried from lower place to higher, offered up like Ge 8:20) OUR SINS: hos tas hamartias (sins is first for emphasis) hemon autos anenegken (3SAAI): (Ex 28:38; Lev 16:22; 22:9; Nu 18:22; Ps 38:4; Is 53:4, 5, 6,11; Mt 8:17; Jn 1:29, 36; Heb 9:28)
He Himself - MacArthur comments that this phrase "is an emphatic personalization and stresses that the Son of God voluntarily and without coercion (John 10:15, 17, 18) died as the only sufficient sacrifice for the sins of all who would ever believe (cf. John 1:29; 3:16; 1Ti 2:5, 6; 4:10; He 2:9 [note] He 2:17 [note]). The very name Jesus indicated that He would “save His people from their sins” (Mt 1:21). (MacArthur, J. 1 Peter. Chicago: Moody Press)
They shall therefore keep My charge, so that they may not bear sin because of it, and die thereby because they profane it; I am the LORD who sanctifies them.
Peter presents the ultimate illustration of unjust suffering in the Cross of Christ.
Bore (399)(anaphero from ana = up, again, back + phero = bear, carry) literally means to carry, bring or bear up and so to to cause to move from a lower position to a higher position. It serves as a technical term for offering sacrifices offer up (to an altar).
Anaphero is used 9 times in the NT in the NAS (see below) and is translated as: bear, 1; bore, 1; brought, 1; led, 1; offer, 3; offered, 2.
Anaphero is found 135 times in the Septuagint (LXX) (Greek translation of the OT Hebrew) (Gen. 8:20; 22:2, 13; 31:39; 40:10; Ex 18:19, 22, 26; 19:8; 24:5; 29:18, 25; 30:9, 20; Lev. 2:16; 3:5, 11, 14, 16; 4:10, 19, 26, 31; 6:15, 26; 7:5, 31; 8:16, 20f, 27f; 9:10, 20; 14:20; 16:25; 17:5f; 23:11; Num. 5:26; 14:33; 18:17; 23:2, 30; Deut. 1:17; 12:13f, 27; 14:24; 27:6; Jdg. 6:26, 28; 11:31; 13:16, 19; 15:13; 16:8, 18; 20:26, 38; 21:4; 1 Sam. 2:19; 6:14f; 7:9f; 10:8; 13:9f, 12; 15:12; 18:27; 20:13; 2 Sam. 1:24; 6:17; 21:13; 24:22, 24f; 1 Ki. 2:35; 3:4; 5:13; 8:1; 9:15; 10:5; 12:27; 17:19; 2 Ki. 3:27; 4:21; 1 Chr. 15:3, 12, 14; 16:2, 40; 21:24, 26; 23:31; 29:21; 2 Chr. 1:4, 6; 2:4; 4:16; 5:2, 5; 8:12f; 9:4, 16; 23:18; 24:14; 29:21, 27, 29, 31f; 35:14; Ezra. 3:2, 6; Neh. 10:38; 12:31; Job 7:13; Ps. 51:19; 66:15; Prov. 8:6; Isa. 18:7; 53:11f; 57:6; 60:7; 66:3; Jer. 32:35; Ezek. 36:15; 43:18, 24; Da 6:23) Anaphero is the verb the translators of the LXX Old Testament usually used to picture the offering of a sacrifice.
Figuratively (as used here by Peter) anaphero means to take up and bear sins by imputation (act of laying the responsibility or blame for) as typified by the ancient sacrifices.
Jesus our Great High Priest bore our sins as our substitutionary sacrifice, dying in our place, in order to bring about atonement for our sins. The priests in the Old Covenant could not bear our sins.
Wuest's paraphrase conveys Peter's allusion to the Old Testament sacrificial system -- Jesus
It is notable that anaphero is used 25 times in the Septuagint translation of Leviticus regarding offerings! For example, Moses records that
Jesus, as our Great High Priest , offered up the sacrifice of Himself by bringing His body up to the Cross. Anaphero is used in Hebrews which records that Jesus
Exodus discusses the parallel role of the OT high priests recording that
This was but a shadow of which Jesus was the Substance.
Isaiah in his famous prophecy of the suffering Servant (the Messiah) records that
Isaiah adds that
When John the Baptist saw Jesus coming to him he declared the fulfillment of Isaiah's prophecy (and all the OT Messianic prophecies for that matter) saying
It is interesting to note that the Jewish people did not crucify criminals. They stoned them to death. But if the victim was especially evil, his dead body was hung on a tree until evening, as a mark of shame (Dt 21:23). Jesus died on a tree—a cross—and bore the curse of the Law (Gal 3:13). The force of ana = up, appears in the fact of the altar was in fact elevated.
Anaphero is often used of carrying from a lower to a higher place (Mt 17:1; Lk 24:51)
Matthew Henry writes that He Himself bore our sins teaches…
He Himself bore our sins - During the Napoleonic Wars, men were conscripted into the French army by a lottery system. If your name was drawn, you had to go off to battle. But in the rare case that you could get someone else to take your place, you were exempt. On one occasion the authorities came to a certain man and told him that his name had been drawn. But he refused to go, saying, “I was killed two years ago.” At first they questioned his sanity, but he insisted that this was in fact the case. He claimed that the records would show that he had been conscripted two years previously and that he had been killed in action. “How can that be?” they questioned. “You are alive now.” He explained that when his name came up, a close friend said to him, “You have a large family, but I’m not married and nobody is dependent on me. I’ll take your name and address and go in your place.” The records upheld the man’s claim. The case was referred to Napoleon himself, who decided that the country had no legal claim on that man. He was free because another man had died in his place.
While any illustration of Jesus' substitutionary death in our place must pale by comparison, I recently read an illustration recorded by Harry Ironside which gives us an inkling into this great exchange and especially speaks to how this grand truth should motivate our love for the Savior…
IN HIS BODY ON THE CROSS: en to somati autou epi to xulon: (Dt 21:22,23; Acts 5:30; 10:39; 13:29; Gal 3:13)
Moses records the OT teaching regarding "the tree"…
Paul quotes in part from Moses declaring that on the Cross…
In Ac 5:30, 10:39, 13:29, 1Pe 2:24 and Gal 3:13 xulon refers to the old rugged Cross. The NT idea of xulon/xylon as a cross is related to Dt 21:11 which emphasizes the shame that befalls the one who is exposed and punished in such a way.
Richards records that…
BDAG says xylon is (1) "wood as a plant substance in unmanufactured form", then an (2) "object made of word" (pole = Nu 21:8, club = Mt 26:47, 55, Mk 14:43, 48, Lk 22:52, stocks (Job 33:11, Ac 16:24), a wooden structure used for crucifixion (cf OT passages referring to hanging or impalement of a criminal’s corpse on a post = Ge 40:19, Dt 21:22, 23, Josh 10:26) and finally (3) a "tree" (Ge 1:29, 2:9, 3:1ff, Is 14:8, Eccl 2:5, Lk 23:31, tree of life = Re 2:7; 22:2, 14, 19)
Liddell-Scott says xulon/xylon means "wood cut and ready for use, firewood, timber, Homer; ship-timber; a piece of wood, a post; a perch; a stick, cudgel, club" (2) "a collar of wood, put on the neck of the prisoner; also stocks, for the feet", (3) "a plank or beam to which malefactors were bound, the Cross"; (4) "a money changer's table" (5) "of live wood, a tree".
TDNT "Figuratively xylon is an “unfeeling” person. The LXX often uses xyla for trees, but also has xylon for wood, used for cultic or secular purposes.
Ralph Earle writes that…
Xulon- 20x in 18v - Matt 26:47, 55; Mark 14:43, 48; Luke 22:52; 23:31; Acts 5:30; 10:39; 13:29; 16:24; 1 Cor 3:12; Gal 3:13; 1 Pet 2:24; Rev 2:7; 18:12; 22:2, 14, 19. NAS - clubs(5), cross(4), stocks(1), tree(7), wood(3).
Matthew 26:47 While He was still speaking, behold, Judas, one of the twelve, came up accompanied by a large crowd with swords and clubs, who came from the chief priests and elders of the people.
Matthew 26:55 At that time Jesus said to the crowds, "Have you come out with swords and clubs to arrest Me as you would against a robber? Every day I used to sit in the temple teaching and you did not seize Me.
Mark 14:43 Immediately while He was still speaking, Judas, one of the twelve, came up accompanied by a crowd with swords and clubs, who were from the chief priests and the scribes and the elders.
Mark 14:48 And Jesus said to them, "Have you come out with swords and clubs to arrest Me, as you would against a robber?
Luke 22:52 Then Jesus said to the chief priests and officers of the temple and elders who had come against Him, "Have you come out with swords and clubs as you would against a robber?
Luke 23:31 "For if they do these things when the tree is green, what will happen when it is dry?"
Acts 5:30 "The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom you had put to death by hanging Him on a cross.
Acts 10:39 "We are witnesses of all the things He did both in the land of the Jews and in Jerusalem. They also put Him to death by hanging Him on a cross.
Acts 13:29 "When they had carried out all that was written concerning Him, they took Him down from the cross and laid Him in a tomb.
Acts 16:24 and he, having received such a command, threw them into the inner prison and fastened their feet in the stocks.
1Corinthians 3:12 Now if any man builds on the foundation with gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, straw,
Galatians 3:13 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse for us-- for it is written, "CURSED IS EVERYONE WHO HANGS ON A TREE "--
1Peter 2:24 and He Himself bore our sins in His body on the cross, so that we might die to sin and live to righteousness; for by His wounds you were healed.
Revelation 2:7 'He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To him who overcomes, I will grant to eat of the tree of life which is in the Paradise of God.'
Revelation 18:12 cargoes of gold and silver and precious stones and pearls and fine linen and purple and silk and scarlet, and every kind of citron wood and every article of ivory and every article made from very costly wood and bronze and iron and marble,
Revelation 22:2 in the middle of its street. On either side of the river was the tree of life, bearing twelve kinds of fruit, yielding its fruit every month; and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations.
Revelation 22:14 Blessed are those who wash their robes, so that they may have the right to the tree of life, and may enter by the gates into the city.
Revelation 22:19 and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God will take away his part from the tree of life and from the holy city, which are written in this book.
Xulon - 275x in the non-apocryphal Septuagint - Ge 1:11f, 29; 2:9, 16f; 3:1ff, 6, 8, 11f, 17, 22, 24; 6:14; 22:3, 6f, 9; 40:19; Ex 7:19; 9:25; 10:5, 12, 15; 15:25; 25:5, 10, 13, 28; 26:15, 26; 27:1, 6; 30:1, 5; 31:5; 35:7, 24, 33; Lev 1:7f, 12, 17; 3:5; 4:12; 6:5; 14:4, 6, 45, 49, 51f; 19:23; 23:40; 26:4, 20; Num 15:32f; 19:6; Deut 4:28; 10:3; 16:21; 19:5; 20:19f; 21:22f; 28:36, 64; 29:16; Josh 8:29; 10:26f; Judg 6:26; 9:8ff, 48; 1 Sam 6:14; 2 Sam 5:11; 21:19; 23:7, 21; 24:22; 1 Kgs 5:13, 20, 22, 32; 6:10, 15, 31ff; 9:11; 10:11f; 14:23; 15:22; 17:10; 18:23; 2 Kgs 3:19, 25; 6:4, 6; 12:12f; 16:4; 17:10; 19:18; 22:6; 1 Chr 14:1; 16:32f; 20:5; 21:23; 22:4, 14f; 29:2; 2 Chr 2:7ff, 13, 15; 3:5, 10; 7:13; 9:10f; 16:6; 28:4; 34:11; Ezra 3:7; 5:8; 6:11; Neh 2:8; 8:15; 9:25; 10:36, 38; Esth 5:14; 6:4; 7:9f; 8:7; Ps 1:3; 73:6; 95:12; 103:16; 104:33; 148:9; Prov 3:18; 12:4; 25:20; 26:20f; Eccl 2:5f; 10:9; 11:3; Song 2:3; 3:9; 4:14; Job 24:20; 30:4; 33:11; 41:19; Joel 1:12, 19; 2:22; Hab 2:11, 19; Hag 1:8; 2:19; Zech 5:4; 12:6; Isa 7:2, 4, 19; 10:15; 14:8; 30:33; 34:13; 37:19; 40:20; 44:13f, 23; 45:20; 55:12; 56:3; 60:17; 65:22; Jer 2:20, 27; 3:6, 9, 13; 5:14; 6:6; 7:18, 20; 10:3; 11:19; 17:8; 26:22; 38:12; Lam 4:8; 5:4, 13; Ezek 15:2f, 6; 17:24; 20:28, 32; 21:3, 15; 24:10; 26:12; 31:4f, 8f, 14ff, 18; 34:27; 36:30; 39:10; 41:25; 47:12
This great doctrine of the substitutionary atonement is the heart of the gospel. Actual atonement, sufficient for the sins of the whole world, was made for all who would ever believe, namely, the elect.
Billy Graham in “The Offense of the Cross” -When Jesus said, “If you are going to follow me, you have to take up a cross,” it was the same as saying, “Come and bring your electric chair with you. Take up the gas chamber and follow me.” He did not have a beautiful gold cross in mind—the cross on a church steeple or on the front of your Bible. Jesus had in mind a place of execution.
• What our Lord said about cross-bearing and obedience is not in fine type. It is in bold print on the face of the contract. - Vance Havner
• Jesus was crucified, not in a cathedral between two candles, but on a cross between two thieves. - George F. MacLeod
•The cross cannot be defeated, for it is defeat. - G K. Chesterton
• There are no crown-wearers in heaven who were not cross-bearers here below. - C H Spurgeon
• We need men of the cross, with the message of the cross, bearing the marks of the cross. - Vance Havner
•Christ’s cross is such a burden as sails are to a ship or wings to a bird. - Samuel Rutherford
• He came to pay a debt He didn’t owe because we owed a debt we couldn’t pay. - Anonymous
•The old cross slew men; the new cross entertains them. The old cross condemned; the new cross amuses. The old cross destroyed confidence in the flesh; the new cross encourages it. - A.W. Tozer
• All heaven is interested in the cross of Christ, all hell is terribly afraid of it, while men are the only beings who more or less ignore its meaning. - Oswald Chambers
• The figure of the Crucified invalidates all thought which takes success for its standard. - Dietrich Bonhoeffer
• The cross is the lightning rod of grace that short-circuits God’s wrath to Christ so that only the light of His love remains for believers. - A. W. Tozer in “The Old Cross and the New.”
The Biblical Evangelist warns about a drift in modern day understanding of the significance of the Cross in the life of believers…
"The New Cross" - From this new cross has sprung a new philosophy of the Christian life; and from that new philosophy has come a new evangelical technique—a new type of meeting and new type of preaching. This new evangelism employs the same language as of the old, but its content is not the same, and the emphasis not as before.
The new cross encourages a new and entirely different evangelistic approach. The evangelist does not demand abnegation of the old life before a new life can be received. He preaches not contrasts but similarities. He seeks to key into the public view the same thing the world does, only a higher level. Whatever the sin-mad world happens to be clamoring after at the moment is cleverly shown to be the very thing the gospel offers, only the religious product is better.
The new cross does not slay the sinner; it re-directs him. It gears him to a cleaner and jollier way of living, and saves his self-respect… The Christian message is slanted in the direction of the current vogue in order to make it acceptable to the public.
The philosophy back of this kind of thing may be sincere, but its sincerity does not save it from being false. It is false because it is blind. It misses completely the whole meaning of the cross.
The old cross is a symbol of DEATH. It stands for the abrupt, violent end of a human being. The man in Roman times who took the cross and started down the road has already said goodbye to his friends. He was not coming back. He was not going out to have his life re-directed; he was going out to have it ended. The cross made no compromise; modified nothing; spared nothing. It slew all of the man completely, and for good. It did not try to keep on good terms with the victim. It struck cruel and hard, and when it had finished its work, the man was no more.
The race of Adam is under the death sentence. There is no commutation and no escape. God cannot approve any fruits of sin, however innocent they may appear, or beautiful to the eyes of men. God salvages the individual by liquidating him, and then raising him again to newness of life.
That evangelism which draws friendly parallels between the ways of God and the ways of men is false to the Bible and cruel to the souls of its hearers. The faith of Christ does not parallel the world; it intersects it. In coming to Christ we do not bring our old life to a higher plane; we leave it at the cross…
We, who preach the gospel, must not think of ourselves as public relations agents sent to establish good will between Christ and the world. We must not imagine ourselves commissioned to make Christ acceptable to big business, the press, or the world of sports, or modern entertainment. We are not diplomats, but prophets; and our message is not a compromise, but an ultimatum.” (The Biblical Evangelist, 11-1-91, p11)
Easton's Bible Dictionary entry on Cross…
in the New Testament the instrument of crucifixion, and hence used for the crucifixion of Christ itself (Eph. 2:16; Heb. 12:2; 1 Cor. 1:17, 18; Gal. 5:11; 6:12, 14; Phil. 3:18). The word is also used to denote any severe affliction or trial (Matt. 10:38; 16:24; Mark 8:34; 10:21).
The forms in which the cross is represented are these:
1. The crux simplex (I), a "single piece without transom."
2. The crux decussata (X), or St. Andrew's cross.
3. The crux commissa (T), or St. Anthony's cross.
4. The crux immissa (t), or Latin cross, which was the kind of cross on which our Saviour died. Above our Lord's head, on the projecting beam, was placed the "title."
After the conversion, so-called, of Constantine the Great (B.C. 313), the cross first came into use as an emblem of Christianity. He pretended at a critical moment that he saw a flaming cross in the heavens bearing the inscription, "In hoc signo vinces", i.e., By this sign thou shalt conquer, and that on the following night Christ himself appeared and ordered him to take for his standard the sign of this cross. In this form a new standard, called the Labarum, was accordingly made, and borne by the Roman armies. It remained the standard of the Roman army till the downfall of the Western empire. It bore the embroidered monogram of Christ, i.e., the first two Greek letters of his name, X and P (chi and rho), with the Alpha and Omega.
Smith's Bible Dictionary…
As the emblem of a slave's death and a murderer's punishment, the cross was naturally looked upon with the profoundest horror. But after the celebrated vision of Constantine, he ordered his friends to make a cross of gold and gems, such as he had seen, and "the towering eagles resigned the flags unto the cross," and "the tree of cursing and shame" "sat upon the sceptres and was engraved and signed on the foreheads of kings." (Jer. Taylor, "Life of Christ," iii., xv. 1.) The new standards were called by the name Labarum, and may be seen on the coins of Constantine the Great and his nearer successors. The Latin cross on which our Lord suffered, was int he form of the letter T, and had an upright above the cross-bar, on which the "title" was placed. There was a projection from the central stem, on which the body of the sufferer rested. This was to prevent the weight of the body from tearing away the hands. Whether there was also a support to the feet (as we see in pictures) is doubtful. An inscription was generally placed above the criminal's head, briefly expressing his guilt, and generally was carried before him. It was covered with white gypsum, and the letter were black.
CROSS - (stauros, "a cross," "the crucifixion"; skolops, "a stake," "a pole"): The name is not found in the Old Testament. It is derived from the Latin word crux. In the Greek language it is stauros, but sometimes we find the word skolops used as its Greek equivalent. The historical writers, who transferred the events of Roman history into the Greek language, make use of these two words. No word in human language has become more universally known than this word, and that because all of the history of the world since the death of Christ has been measured by the distance which separates events from it. The symbol and principal content of the Christian religion and of Christian civilization is found in this one word.
The suffering implied in crucifixion naturally made the cross a symbol of pain, distress and burden-bearing. Thus Jesus used it Himself (Mt 10:38; 16:24). In Paulinic literature the cross stands for the preaching of the doctrine of the Atonement (1Cor 1:18; Gal 6:14; Phil 3:18; Col 1:20). It expresses the bond of unity between the Jew and the Gentile (Eph 2:16), and between the believer and Christ, and also symbolizes sanctification (Gal 5:24). The cross is the center and circumference of the preaching of the apostles and of the life of the New Testament church.
Crucifixion: As an instrument of death the cross was detested by the Jews. "Cursed is everyone that hangeth on a tree" (Gal 3:13; compare Dt 21:23), hence, it became a stumbling-block to them, for how could one accursed of God be their Messiah? Nor was the cross differently considered by the Romans. "Let the very name of the cross be far away not only from the body of a Roman citizen, but even from his thoughts, his eyes, his ears" (Cicero Pro Rabirio 5). The earliest mode of crucifixion seems to have been by impalation, the transfixion of the body lengthwise and crosswise by sharpened stakes, a mode of death-punishment still well known among the Mongol race. The usual mode of crucifixion was familiar to the Greeks, the Romans, the Egyptians, Persians and Babylonians (Thuc. 1, 110; Herod. iii.125, 159). Alexander the Great executed two thousand Tyrian captives in this way, after the fall of the city. The Jews received this form of punishment from the Syrians and Romans (Ant., XII, v, 4; XX, vi, 2; BJ, I, iv, 6). The Roman citizen was exempt from this form of death, it being considered the death of a slave (Cicero In Verrem i. 5, 66; Quint. viii.4). The punishment was meted out for such crimes as treason, desertion in the face of the enemy, robbery, piracy, assassination, sedition, etc. It continued in vogue in the Roman empire till the day of Constantine, when it was abolished as an insult to Christianity. Among the Romans crucifixion was preceded by scourging, undoubtedly to hasten impending death. The victim then bore his own cross, or at least the upright beam, to the place of execution. This in itself proves that the structure was less ponderous than is commonly supposed. When he was tied to the cross nothing further was done and he was left to die from starvation. If he was nailed to the cross, at least in Judea, a stupefying drink was given him to deaden the agony. The number of nails used seems to have been indeterminate. A tablet, on which the feet rested or on which the body was partly supported, seems to have been a part of the cross to keep the wounds from tearing through the transfixed members (Iren., Adv. haer., ii.42). The suffering of death by crucifixion was intense, especially in hot climates. Severe local inflammation, coupled with an insignificant bleeding of the jagged wounds, produced traumatic fever, which was aggravated the exposure to the heat of the sun, the strained of the body and insufferable thirst. The swelled about the rough nails and the torn lacerated tendons and nerves caused excruciating agony. The arteries of the head and stomach were surcharged with blood and a terrific throbbing headache ensued. The mind was confused and filled with anxiety and dread foreboding. The victim of crucifixion literally died a thousand deaths. Tetanus not rarely supervened and the rigors of the attending convulsions would tear at the wounds and add to the burden of pain, till at last the bodily forces were exhausted and the victim sank to unconsciousness and death. The sufferings were so frightful that "even among the raging passions of war pity was sometimes excited" (BJ, V, xi, 1). The length of this agony was wholly determined by the constitution of the victim, but death rarely ensued before thirty-six hours had elapsed. Instances are on record of victims of the cross who survived their terrible injuries when taken down from the cross after many hours of suspension (Josephus, Vita, 75). Death was sometimes hastened by breaking the legs of the victims and by a hard blow delivered under the armpit before crucifixion. Crura fracta was a well-known Roman term (Cicero Phil. xiii.12). The sudden death of Christ evidently was a matter of astonishment (Mk 15:44). The peculiar symptoms mentioned by John (Jn 19:34) would seem to point to a rupture of the heart, of which the Saviour died, independent of the cross itself, or perhaps hastened by its agony.
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F B Meyer writes that…
In Leviticus Moses describes a ritual the Jewish high priest was to carry out on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), a ritual which foreshadowed the Lamb of God's bearing away of all the sins of the world…
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Tale Of Two Goats - Two goats without blemish stood before the high priest in the bright Middle Eastern sun. Lots were cast, and the priest slowly led one to the altar to be killed as a sin offering for the people. Its blood was sprinkled on the mercy seat. That goat was a sacrifice.
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Vance Havner - The cross has become a pretty charm to wear around the neck. We preach a new Christianity that stresses similarities, not contrasts; that parallels the world instead of intersecting it; that makes no unpleasant demands of its converts. The church has devised a new cross today: an ornament to wear around the neck, a commonplace symbol twisted out of context, a charm, a holy horseshoe. Such an ornament does not interfere with godless living, never goes against the grain of our old nature. We need men of the cross, with the message of the cross, bearing the marks of the cross.
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Under His Wings - He shall cover you with His feathers, and under His wings you shall take refuge. —Psalm 91:4
Indian evangelist Sundar Singh wrote about a devastating forest fire in the Himalayas where he was traveling. While many were trying to fight it, a group of men stood looking up at a tree with flames climbing up its branches. They were watching a mother bird flying frantically in circles above the tree. She was chirping out an alarm to her nest full of fledglings. As the nest began to burn, the mother bird didn't fly away; instead she zoomed down and covered her brood with her wings. In seconds she and her nestlings were burned to ashes.
Under His wings I am safely abiding,
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From Bitter To Sweet (Ex 15:22-27 - Related resource: Study of Jehovah Rapha - The LORD our Healer) -The Lord showed him a tree. When he cast it into the waters, the waters were made sweet. —Exodus 15:25
Joy and sorrow are often close companions. Just as the Israelites went from the thrill of victory at the Red Sea to the bitter waters of Marah just 3 days later (Exodus 15:22,23), our rejoicing can quickly turn into anguish.
Lord, I've not always understood
THAT WE MIGHT DIE TO SIN: hina tais hamartiais apogenomenoi (AMPMPN): (1Peter 4:1,2; Ro 6:2,7,11; 7:6; Col 2:20; 3:3; 2Cor 6:17; Heb 7:26)
That (hina) introduces a purpose clause and expresses the purpose of His death. He died for our sins that we might die to Sin -- the Sin principle or propensity inherited from Adam.
Peter thus draws the same inference as Paul did on the relation between the death of Christ for our sins and our death to sin explaining that…
In Romans 6 in answer to those who thought they could now wantonly sin so that grace might increase (reaching this fallacious conclusion based on the truth that where sin abounds, grace abounds even more!) Paul counters their faulty thinking declaring…
Paul then brings the truths in Romans 6:1-10 to a conclusion charging believers…
In Romans 7 Paul explains another benefit of Jesus' death on the Cross…
Might die (581) (apogenomenos/apoginomai from apo = marker of dissociation, implying a rupture from a former association + ginomai = cause to be, become) means to be afar off, to be away from, to be removed from, to depart. It means to cease existing and implies a complete and abrupt change. Classic Greek writers use apoginomai to mean "cease to exist" which was their euphemism for death, just as we today speak of a "departed one."
The Amplified version nicely brings out the meaning of this verb rendering it…
Literally apogenomenos means
When the Bible talks about death, it never means cessation of existence, but rather, speaks of separation. And so when we die physically, our soul is separated from our body. When we are born again, in a spiritual sense we die, for we are at that moment identified with Christ in His death, and that death or "co-crucifixion" brings about a separation from the power of the old nature, Sin. Now we can choose to obey God rather than the our old master Sin. In short, Peter's use of apoginomai highlights the idea this critically important truth of separation.
Thayer renders Peter's words…
Sin (266)(hamartia) literally conveys the sense of missing the mark as when hunting with a bow and arrow (in Homer some hundred times of a warrior hurling his spear but missing his foe). Later hamartia came to mean missing or falling short of any goal, standard, or purpose. Ryrie adds that "this is not only a negative idea but includes the positive idea of hitting some wrong mark."
See discussion of the verb form - hamartano
See discussion of "the Sin" = Sin "personified" as a principle
Disclaimer - Note that SIN is a major theological teaching in the Scriptures and the present discussion is but a feeble attempt to provide the reader with a "starting point" from which one can expand their concept of sin as one reads, studies and meditates on this vitally important topic in the Scriptures. Remember that a "low view of sin" will lead to a "low view of salvation". In fact a failure to understand the true nature of sin as God sees it (and describes it in Scripture), can result in a false understanding of salvation
Believers are now separated from the sin that previously ruled and reigned their every thought and action. A practical application point is if we are truly born again, we can never be the same as we were before (Why? because "having ceased to be"). If one is (as a lifestyle) unchanged then he or she is still in bondage to sin's power and is dead in his or her trespasses and sins (Eph 2:1) and needs to repent and believe (Mk 1:15) in the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ so that they might be born again by His Spirit.
Paul amplifies this truth in Romans writing…
Pastor Steven Cole adds the important note that…
BUT LIVE TO RIGHTEOUSNESS: te dikaiosune zesomen (1PAAS): (Mt 5:20; Lk 1:74,75; Acts 10:35; Ro 6:11,16,22; Eph 5:9; Php 1:11; 1 Jn 2:29; 3:7)
The International Children's Bible paraphrases this verse as follows…
Live (2198) (zao - see study on noun zoe) refers to natural physical life but figuratively (as used here) refers to how one conducts oneself. Ultimately Christ has opened the door for believers to enjoy life in its fullest, richest sense, as God intended it to be lived. And in context such a life is one that conforms to God's holy character (which equates with righteousness), for He is the essence of righteousness. When one lives to righteousness they will manifest rightness of character before God and rightness of actions before men. Both of these qualities are based on truth, which is conformity to the Word and will of God.
Righteousness (1343) (dikaiosune from dikaios [word study] = being proper or right in the sense of being fully justified being or in accordance with what God requires) is the quality of being upright. In its simplest sense dikaiosune conveys the idea of conformity to a standard or norm and in Biblical terms the "standard" is God and His perfect, holy character. In this sense righteousness is the opposite of hamartia (sin), which is defined as missing of the mark set by God.
Dikaiosune is rightness of character before God and rightness of actions before men. Righteousness of God could be succinctly stated as all that God is, all that He commands, all that He demands, all that He approves, all that He provides through Christ (Click here to read Pastor Ray Pritchard's interesting analysis of righteousness in the Gospel of Matthew).
Jesus Thy Blood and righteousness
John says that
We know in the physical realm that like begets like. So it is in the spiritual. John looks from effect (righteous behavior) to cause (being truly born again) to affirm that righteous living is the proof of being born again. Peter says that because of the work of Christ on the Cross, righteous living now can be our reality. If one lays claim to being "born again" and their life does not change but instead continually manifests unrighteousness, they are very likely deceived and have never been born again. Those who have truly been born again as God’s children have their heavenly Father’s righteous nature. How would you describe your lifestyle beloved?
FOR BY HIS WOUNDS YOU WERE HEALED (spiritually not physically) : ou to molopi iathete (2SAPI): (Isaiah 53:5,6; Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15; Jn 19:1, Ps 147:3; Mal 4:2; Lk 4:18; Rev 22:2)
For - Here "for" is supplied by the translators but does function as a term of explanation.
Spurgeon comments - By his sufferings, you were cured of sin. His death not only removed from you the penalty of sin; but what is far better, it also removed from you the dread disease itself. (1 Peter 2 Commentary)
Wounds (3468) (molops from molos = battle, fighting + ops = eye, face ) is literally "battle face" and means a welt, a "black eye", a mark of fighting, a blow or wound made in war, also a scar, a wheal, or the mark left on the body by the stripe of the whip, a stripe left by a lash. Molops refer to bruised, bloody welts as might result from sharp blows.
KJV has a more classic translation "by His stripes… "
Robertson notes that…
Healed (2390) (iaomai) literally speaks of deliverance from physical diseases and afflictions and so to make whole and restore to bodily health. It means to heal or cause someone to achieve health after having been sick. Figuratively as used by Peter iaomai speaks of deliverance from sin and its evil consequences and enabled to experience restoration, to recovery and wholeness.
By simple observation of the context one can discern that Peter is not referring to physical healing in this verse as some interpreters claim. Peter explains ("for") in the next verse that the healing was "for" or "because" his readers were continually straying like sheep, clearly a picture of "sin sickness" not physical sickness. In fairness, there is a sense in which Christ's substitutionary death did bring about the potential for "physical" healing -- in the sense that it guaranteed our future glorification when we receive our new resurrection bodies and when all sickness will be forever eradicated and believers will experience no sickness, pain, suffering, or death (Rev 21:1, 2, 3, 4, 22:1, 2, 3-see notes Rev 21:1; 21:2; 21:3; 21:4; 22:1; 22:2; 22:3).
Some falsely teach that physical healing is present in the atonement making referenced to the the Isaiah 53 passage and the passage from Matthew 8 where we read…
Observe that the context of Mt 8:17 is clearly Jesus' healing activity during His earthly ministry so that the prophecy in Isaiah 53:4 was fulfilled (note that verse 17 begins "in order that" indicating the healing just mentioned was in order to fulfill Isaiah's prophecy). When did Jesus perform this healing which fulfilled Isaiah's prophecy? It was clearly before the atoning work of Christ on the cross. The point is that physical healing in this life is not inherent or promised in the atoning work of Christ. There is a false doctrine that teaches one should expect to be physically healed because of Christ's work on the Cross. If physical healing does not occur, the problem is that the ill or sick individual lacks the faith necessary to invoke God's healing power. The upshot of this false teaching is that the faith they teach about is faith in "faith" not in Christ. As already alluded to, clearly when believers die our physical bodies are delivered from the presence of disease in the future resurrection life. Furthermore God can and still does heal physical illnesses because He is a God of lovingkindness and mercy and it is His sovereign pleasure to chose to heal or not to heal. He alone is God.
McGee commenting on 1Peter 2:24 asks
Theodoret (ca AD 393-458) wrote that Jesus' death on the Cross brought about
Amplified: For you were going astray like [so many] sheep, but now you have come back to the Shepherd and Guardian (the Bishop) of your souls. [Isa. 53:5, 6]. (NASB: Lockman)
KJV: For ye were as sheep going astray; but are now returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls.
NLT: Once you were wandering like lost sheep. But now you have turned to your Shepherd, the Guardian of your souls. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: You had wandered away like so many sheep, but now you have returned to the shepherd and guardian of your souls. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: for you were as sheep that are going astray and are wandering about, but now have been turned back to the Shepherd and [spiritual] Overseer of your souls. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: for ye were as sheep going astray, but ye turned back now to the shepherd and overseer of your souls.
FOR YOU WERE CONTINUALLY STRAYING (being misled, being led astray) LIKE SHEEP: ete (2PIAI) gar os probata planomenoi (PPPMPN): (Ps 119:176; Isa 53:6; Jer 23:2; Ezek 34:6; Mt 9:36; 18:12; Lk 15:4, 5, 6)
For (gar) - always pause to ponder this strategic term of explanation. Ask at least one question - What is he explaining?
Straying (4105) (planao [word study] from pláne = a wandering) can describe physical wandering but often (as here in Peter) planao is used of straying from spiritual truth and as such frequently describes the condition of an unsaved individual (which is Peter's intent in this verse).
Planao - 39x in 37v - Matt 18:12f; 22:29; 24:4f, 11, 24; Mark 12:24, 27; 13:5f; Luke 21:8; John 7:12, 47; 1 Cor 6:9; 15:33; Gal 6:7; 2 Tim 3:13; Titus 3:3; Heb 3:10; 5:2; 11:38; Jas 1:16; 5:19; 1 Pet 2:25; 2 Pet 2:15; 1 John 1:8; 2:26; 3:7; Rev 2:20; 12:9; 13:14; 18:23; 19:20; 20:3, 8, 10. NAS - deceive(3), deceived(9), deceives(3), deceiving(2), go astray(1), gone astray(3), leads… astray(2), led astray(1), misguided(1), mislead(4), misleads(2), misled(1), mistaken(3), straying(2), strays(1), wandering(1).
Sheep (4263) (probaton from probaíno = to go before, walk ahead) is literally something that walks forward (a quadruped) and in context refers to a sheep
Probaton - 39x in 37v - Matt 7:15; 9:36; 10:6, 16; 12:11f; 15:24; 18:12; 25:32f; 26:31; Mark 6:34; 14:27; Luke 15:4, 6; John 2:14f; 10:1ff, 7f, 11ff, 15f, 26f; 21:16f; Acts 8:32; Rom 8:36; Heb 13:20; 1 Pet 2:25; Rev 18:13
Sheep are notoriously dull witted, prone to stray and helpless to find their way back. Straying sheep, lost in the wilderness or mountains and exposed to wild beasts and destruction, present a wretched picture of the needy state of the lost person.
Peter uses this metaphor of "sheep" to describe his readers in their unsaved state.
Isaiah describing Israel (and including himself in the picture) declared that
Matthew recorded that Jesus upon
The lost multitudes were like sheep in that they were helpless and defenseless and like sheep with no one to protect them, they had been spiritually battered, thrown down. Jesus saw the multitudes as being inwardly devastated by their sinful and hopeless condition.
In the Old Testament, the sheep died for the shepherd; but at Calvary, the Shepherd died for the sheep (Jn 10:11,17).
Let me look on the crowd as my Savior did,
BUT NOW YOU HAVE RETURNED TO: alla epestraphete (2PAPI) nun epi ton:
Spurgeon comments - Wherefore, since you have been brought back by the rich grace of God, continue to bear and forbear, that you may be the means of bringing others back. That is Peter’s counsel to servants, or slaves, as most of them were. (1 Peter 2 Commentary)
But (alla) is the strong adversative and marks a decisive change in the flow of the discourse. Always pause to ponder these changes of "direction" (ask what is the change, etc) with this important term of contrast.
Returned (1994) (epistrepho from epí = motion toward + strepho = twist, turn quite around or reverse) means to revert, to turn about, to turn around, to turn toward, to return and figuratively to convert. The idea is a definite turn to God in conduct as well as in one's mind. Study the 39 uses below and note the association with repentance and conversion.
Thayer's extended definition…
Epistrepho is used 39 times in the NAS and is translated: back, 3; return, 6; returned, 3; returns, 2; take back, 1; turn, 8; turn back, 1; turned, 6; turned again, 1; turned around, 1; turning, 2; turning around, 2; turns, 2; turns… back, 1.
There are 414 uses of epistrepho in the Septuagint (LXX) . Gen 8:12; 21:32; 24:49; 44:13; Exod 4:20; 5:22; 7:23; 16:10; 34:31; Num 10:36; 14:25; 16:50; 21:33; 23:5; Deut 1:7, 24, 40; 2:1, 3, 8; 3:1; 4:30, 39; 9:15; 10:5; 28:60; 30:2, 8, 9, 10; 31:18, 20; Josh 7:12; 19:27, 34; Jdg 6:14, 18; 7:3; 8:13, 33; 9:56, 57; 11:8f, 13, 31, 35, 39; 15:4, 19; 18:21, 23, 26; 19:3; 20:8, 41, 48; 21:14; Ruth 1:7, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 22; 4:3, 15; 1Sa 4:19; 7:3; 10:9; 14:21, 26f; 15:12; 22:18; 26:21, 23; 30:19; 2 Sam 2:22; 3:12, 26f; 6:20; 10:5; 11:1; 12:23, 31; 14:13, 21; 15:8, 19f, 25, 27, 34; 16:3, 8, 12; 17:3; 18:30; 19:10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 39, 43; 1 Kgs 2:33; 8:33, 44, 47f; 12:21, 26f; 13:4, 6, 9, 11, 16, 17, 18, 22f, 26, 29, 33; 17:21; 18:43; 19:6f; 20:9, 22, 26; 22:27f, 34; 2 Kgs 1:5f; 2:13, 25; 3:4, 27; 4:22, 31, 35, 38; 5:10, 14f, 21, 26; 7:8, 15; 8:3, 6, 29; 9:18f, 23, 36; 13:25; 14:22, 28; 16:6, 18; 17:3; 19:8f; 20:5, 9, 10, 11; 21:3; 22:9, 20; 23:16, 20, 25, 34; 24:1; 1 Chr 10:14; 12:19; 16:43; 21:20; 2 Chr 6:3, 24, 26, 37f; 10:12; 11:1; 12:11; 14:15; 15:4; 18:26f, 33; 19:4; 20:27; 22:6; 24:19; 25:10, 24; 26:2, 20; 28:15; 30:6, 9; 31:1; 33:3, 13, 19; 35:19; 36:10, 13; Ezra 2:1; 6:22; 9:14; 10:16; Neh 1:9; 2:6, 15, 20; 4:4, 15; 5:11; 7:6; 8:17; 9:17, 26, 28f; 13:9; Esther 6:12; 7:8; Job 7:10; 22:23; 30:15; 33:23; 36:10; Ps 6:4; 7:7, 12, 16; 14:7; 19:7; 22:27; 23:3; 51:13; 53:6; 56:9; 59:6, 14; 60:1; 68:22; 71:20f; 73:10; 78:34, 39, 41; 80:3, 7, 14, 19; 85:4, 6, 8; 90:2, 13; 94:15; 104:9, 29; 116:7; 119:59, 79; 126:1, 4; 146:4; Prov 17:8; Eccl 1:6f; 2:20; 3:20; 4:1, 7; 5:15; 9:11; 12:2, 7; Song 6:13; Isa 6:10; 19:22; 31:6; 44:22; 45:13, 22; 46:8; 49:6; 55:7; 63:15, 17; Jer 2:24; 3:10, 12, 14, 22; 4:1; 5:3; 6:9; 8:4f; 9:5; 11:10; 12:15, 17; 15:19; 18:8; 22:10; 24:7; 27:16; 28:6; 31:16, 18; 32:33, 37; 33:7; 34:10, 15f, 22; 42:12; 44:14, 28; 47:3; 50:9; Lam 1:11f, 16, 19; 2:8, 14; 3:3, 40; 5:21; Ezek 1:9, 12, 17; 7:13; 10:11, 16; 14:6; 18:30; 26:2; 34:4, 16; 35:2; 38:12; 42:17, 18, 19; 44:1; Dan 4:34, 36; 9:25; 10:8, 20; 11:9f, 13, 15, 18f, 28, 29, 30; Hos 2:7, 9; 3:5; 5:4, 15; 6:1, 11; 7:10; 11:5; 12:6; 14:1f, 7; Joel 2:12, 13, 14; 3:1; Amos 4:6, 8, 9, 10; 9:14; Jonah 1:13; Mic 5:3; 7:19; Zeph 3:20; Hag 2:17; Zech 1:3, 16; 4:1; 5:1; 6:1; 8:3; 10:9, 10; Mal 1:4; 2:6; 3:7, 18
Epistrepho is used some 18 times (out of 39 uses) with a figurative spiritual meaning.
Epistrepho is used frequently in the NT to describe a sinner’s turning to God, especially in the book of Acts (Click the 8 verses that use epistrepho figuratively of turning in their hearts to God and the 3 verses that speak of turning or returning in a physical sense)
At the end of his second sermon at the Temple in the so-called portico of Solomon, Peter proclaimed to his Jewish audience
My sin, O, the bliss of this glorious thought,
In Paul's letter to the Thessalonians we get an excellent picture of the figurative meaning of epistrepho. Paul writes to those previously pagan idol worshippers who had become believers describing
In short, epistrepho means turning from dead, hopeless, worthless idols to the living and true God.
It’s that look that melted Peter,
In Acts we read that after Stephen's martyrdom and the dispersion of the young church from Jerusalem
Jesus' apostolic commission to Paul upon was to go to the Gentiles that he might
Epistrepho is found 416 times in Septuagint (LXX - Greek translation of the Hebrew OT) where it frequently translates the ideas of restore, return, repent. For example David declares that
Luke uses epistrepho in his description of John the Baptist who
See Harry Ironside's book - Except Ye Repent by Harry A. Ironside From Ironside's introduction to this treatise…
Since many of the uses of epistrepho refer to conversion it behooves us to have proper understanding of that term. George Peters offers the following description…
TO THE SHEPHERD: poimena: (1Peter 5:4 [note]; Ps 23:1, 2, 3; 80:1; Song 1:7,8; Isa 40:11; Ezek 34:11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,23,24; 37:24; Zech 13:7; Jn 10:11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16; Heb 13:20)
William Barclay - God is the Shepherd of the souls of men. The Greek is poimen (Greek #4166) and shepherd is one of the oldest descriptions of God. The Psalmist has it in the best-loved of all the Psalms: "The Lord is my shepherd" (Psalms 23:1). Isaiah has it: "He will feed his flock like a shepherd: he will gather the lambs in his arms; he will carry them in his bosom, and gently lead those that are with young" (Isaiah 40:11). The great king whom God was going to send to Israel would be the shepherd of his people. Ezekiel hears the promise of God: "And I will set up over them one shepherd, my servant David, and he shall feed them; he shall feed them, and be their shepherd" (Ezekiel 34:23; Ezekiel 37:24). This was the title which Jesus took to himself when he called himself the Good Shepherd and when he said that the Good Shepherd lays down his life for the sheep (John 10:1-18). To Jesus the men and women who did not know God and who were waiting for what he could give them were like sheep without a shepherd (Mark 6:34). The great privilege given to the servant and the minister of Christ is to shepherd the flock of God (John 21:16; 1 Peter 5:2). It may be difficult for those of us who live in an industrial civilization to grasp the greatness of this picture; but in the East the picture would be very vivid, particularly in Judaea, where there was a narrow central plateau which held danger on either side. It was on this narrow tableland that the sheep grazed. Grass was sparse; there were no protecting walls; and the sheep wandered. The shepherd, therefore, had to be ceaselessly and sleeplessly on the watch lest harm should come to his flock. In The Historical Geography of the Holy Land Sir George Adam Smith describes the shepherd of Judaea. "With us, sheep are often left to themselves; but I do not remember ever to have seen in the East a flock of sheep without a shepherd. In such a landscape as Judaea, where a day's pasture is thinly scattered over an unfenced track of country, covered with delusive paths, still frequented by wild beasts, and rolling off into the desert, the man and his character are indispensable. On some high moor, across which at night the hyenas howl, when you meet him, sleepless, far-sighted, weather-beaten, armed, leaning upon his staff, and looking out over his scattered sheep, everyone of them on his heart, you understand why the shepherd of Judaea sprang to the front in his people's history; why they gave his name to their king, and made him the symbol of providence; why Christ took him as the type of self-sacrifice." This word shepherd tells us most vividly of the ceaseless vigilance and the self-sacrificing love of God for us who are his flock. "We are his people and the sheep of his pasture" (Psalms 100:3). (1 Peter 2 Commentary - William Barclay's Daily Study Bible)
Marvin Vincent has a lengthy note on poimaino writing that…
Easton's Bible Dictionary has the following excellent description of "shepherd" (as you read it think of your Good Shepherd, the Lord Jesus Christ, Who watches over your soul)
The writer of Hebrews ends his letter of exhortation with the following great prayer which describes Jesus as the "Great Shepherd":
Divine, Ever-Living, Unchanging - 1Peter 1:25
AND GUARDIAN OF YOUR SOULS: kai episkopon ton psuchon humon: (Heb 3:1-note; Acts 20:28)
Guardian (1985) (episkopos [word study] from epi = upon + skopos = a watchman) refers literally to one who sees or watches over others and so describes one who looks over, who inspects, who oversees, who superintends or who exercises oversight or care over.
Episkopos came originally from secular life, referring to the foreman of a construction gang or the supervisor of building construction, for instance.
In ancient Greek culture the word was often used of pagan gods, who supposedly watched over worshipers and over their nations. It also was used of human priests who represented a deity. Paul uses the term to emphasize the leadership responsibilities that pastors are to fulfill.
Episkopos is the secular Greek culture’s equivalent to the historic Hebrew idea of elders. Overseers (episkopos) were appointed by the emperors to lead captured or newly founded city-states. The overseer or bishop was responsible to the emperor, but oversight was delegated to him. He functioned as a commissioner, regulating the affairs of the new colony or acquisition. Thus episkopos suggested two ideas to the first-century Greek mind: responsibility to a superior power, and an introduction to a new order of things. Gentile converts would immediately understand those concepts.
Episkopos is sometimes translated "bishop". The fundamental idea of episkopos is overseeing.
Thayer says that the episkopos is "an overseer, a man charged with the duty of seeing that things to be done by others are done rightly, any curator, guardian, or superintendent."
Paul describes the overseers (episkopos) in the NT church as those whose are responsibilities include the oversight and direction of the spiritual life of the local church. Episkopos emphasizes guidance, oversight, and leadership.
John MacArthur feels that "Episkopos emphasizes the function; presbuteros the character." (MacArthur, J. The Master's Plan for the Church. Chicago: Moody Press)
MacArthur adds that "A shepherd’s oversight of the flock expresses itself broadly in two ways. First, shepherds provide truthful, positive direction and leadership to the flock. Second, they warn of spiritual dangers such as sin, false teaching, and false teachers, including Satan’s assaults against the saints. On one hand, the shepherd teaches truth, and on the other, he warns of sin and refutes doctrinal error. In leading the flock down the path of righteousness, the shepherd also watches for, warns, and even rescues the stray who has been enticed by false teaching and alluring sin. When shepherds exercise their oversight responsibly, they will have both a preventative and a confrontive side to their ministry. One cannot shepherd the flock with credibility unless he provides a corrective oversight of watching and warning." (MacArthur, J, et al: Rediscovering Pastoral Ministry: Shaping Contemporary Ministry with Biblical Mandates. Dallas: Word Pub)
William Barclay - Episkopos is a word with a great history. In Homer's Iliad, Hector, the great champion of the Trojans, is called the episkopos who, during his lifetime, guarded the city of Troy and kept safe its noble wives and infants. Episkopos is used of the gods who are the guardians of the treaties which men make and of the agreements to which men come, and who are the protectors of house and home. Justice, for instance, is the episkopos, who sees to it that a man shall pay the price for the wrong that he has done. In Plato's Laws the Guardians of the state are those whose duty it is to oversee the games, the feeding and the education of the children that "they may be sound of hand and foot, and may in no wise, if possible, get their natures warped by their habits." The people whom Plato calls market-stewards are the episkopoi who "supervise personal conduct, keeping an eye on temperate and outrageous behaviour, so as to punish him who needs punishment." In Athenian law and administration the episkopoi were governors and administrators and inspectors sent out to subject states to see that law and order and loyalty were observed. In Rhodes the main magistrates were five episkopoi who presided over the good government and the law and order of the state. Episkopos is, therefore, a many-sided but always a noble word. It means the protector of public safety; the guardian of honour and honesty; the overseer of right education and of public morals; the administrator of public law and order. So, then, to call God the episkopos of our souls is to call him our Guardian, our Protector, our Guide, and our Director. God is the Shepherd and the Guardian of our souls. In his love he cares for us; in his power he protects us; and in his wisdom he guides us in the right way. (1 Peter 2 Commentary - William Barclay's Daily Study Bible)
The Bishop, the Lord Jesus Christ, watches over and oversees our souls, which need such a divine Overseer because there is continual war being waged against our soul "Beloved, I urge you as aliens and strangers to abstain from fleshly lusts, which wage war against the soul. (see note 1 Peter 2:11).
Souls (5590) (psuche or psyche from psucho = to breathe, blow, English = psychology, "study of the soul") is the breath, then that which breathes, the individual, animated creature. However the discerning reader must understand that psuche is one of those Greek words that can have several meanings, the exact nuance being determined by the context. It follows that one cannot simply select of the three main meanings of psuche and insert it in a given passage for it may not be appropriate to the given context. The meaning of psuche is also contingent upon whether one is a dichotomist or trichotomist. Consult Greek lexicons for more lengthy definitions of psuche as this definition is only a brief overview. (Click an excellent article on Soul in the Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology; see also ISBE article on Soul)
Psuche - 103x in 93v - Matt 2:20; 6:25; 10:28, 39; 11:29; 12:18; 16:25f; 20:28; 22:37; 26:38; Mark 3:4; 8:35ff; 10:45; 12:30; 14:34; Luke 1:46; 2:35; 6:9; 9:24; 10:27; 12:19f, 22f; 14:26; 17:33; 21:19; John 10:11, 15, 17, 24; 12:25, 27; 13:37f; 15:13; Acts 2:27, 41, 43; 3:23; 4:32; 7:14; 14:2, 22; 15:24, 26; 20:10, 24; 27:10, 22, 37; Rom 2:9; 11:3; 13:1; 16:4; 1 Cor 15:45; 2 Cor 1:23; 12:15; Eph 6:6; Phil 1:27; 2:30; Col 3:23; 1 Thess 2:8; 5:23; Heb 4:12; 6:19; 10:38f; 12:3; 13:17; Jas 1:21; 5:20; 1 Pet 1:9, 22; 2:11, 25; 3:20; 4:19; 2 Pet 2:8, 14; 1 John 3:16; 3 John 1:2; Jude 1:15; Rev 6:9; 8:9; 12:11; 16:3; 18:13f; 20:4. NAS = heart(2), heartily(1), life(36), lives(7), mind(1), minds(1), person(1), persons(3), soul(33), souls(14), suspense*(1), thing(1).
There are some 458 uses of psuche in the Septuagint (LXX) and most of these translate the Hebrew word for "soul", nephesh (05315) with the majority of the uses of nephesh in the Psalms (See all 139 uses in Psalms)
BAGD's lexicon makes the point that…
Lawrence Richards adds that as…
It should be noted that there is an additional meaning of a derivative of psuche (psuchikos) which is used to described a "soulish" person, one who is still unregenerate and in Adam, and thus a person whose life is dominated by the unredeemed nature (1Cor 2:14, 15:44, 46, James 3:15, Jude 1:19)
Wuest says psuche (corresponding to meaning #3 above) is
Henry Alford writes that
Vincent offers the follows thoughts on psuche
Vine gives the following detailed analysis of psuche…
John MacArthur offer the following discussion on dichotomist versus trichotomist view…