Amplified: Servants (slaves), be obedient to those who are your physical masters, having respect for them and eager concern to please them, in singleness of motive and with all your heart, as [service] to Christ [Himself] (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
NLT: Slaves, obey your earthly masters with deep respect and fear. Serve them sincerely as you would serve Christ. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: Slaves, obey your human masters sincerely with a proper sense of respect and responsibility, as service rendered to Christ himself; (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: The slaves, be constantly obedient to those who, according to the flesh, are your masters, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart as to the Christ, (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: The servants! obey the masters according to the flesh with fear and trembling, in the simplicity of your heart, as to the Christ;
SLAVES, BE OBEDIENT TO THOSE WHO ARE YOUR MASTERS ACCORDING TO THE FLESH, WITH FEAR AND TREMBLING: (Genesis 16:9; Psalms 123:2; Malachi 1:6; Matthew 6:24; 8:9; Acts 10:7,8; Colossians 3:22; 1Timothy 6:1, 2, 3; Titus 2:9,10; 1Peter 2:18, 19, 20, 21) (Philemon 1:16) (1Corinthians 2:3; 2Corinthians 7:15; Philippians 2:12; 1Peter 3:2)
It is important to keep in mind that God's commandments always include His enablements and so these commandments to slaves can only be fulfilled supernaturally by Spirit-filled slaves, who have cast off the filthy garment of the Old Man they were in Adam and put on the new garment of righteousness in Christ. Although at the moment of salvation every believer put aside the Old Man and put on the New Man positionally (justification, past tense salvation), for the rest of his and her earthly life there will be a daily (even moment by moment) need to cast aside the filthy garment of the old man and put on the garment of the new man (present tense salvation, progressive sanctification). If any man or woman things he stands, let them take heed lest they fall.
In a parallel passage in Colossians Paul wrote…
Writing to Titus on the isle of Crete Paul said…
Peter also addressed believing slaves…
Slaves - Although we do not have slaves per se in our modern culture (some of you would argue this point I'm sure!), the master-slave relationship clearly parallels the employer-employee relationship in our day. As in the relationships between husbands and wives and children and fathers, the principle Paul is emphasizing is that of authority and submission as a manifestation of one who is filled with and controlled by the Holy Spirit. Barclay has a note (although it is difficult to substantiate) that in the Romans Empire there were upwards to sixty million slaves, largely because the Roman citizen considered it beneath his dignity to work. Vincent adds that "in many of the cities of Asia Minor slaves outnumbered freemen". Thus practically all work was done by slaves. This was so pervasive that even doctors, teachers and secretaries of the Roman emperors were slaves! Although some masters were kind to their slaves, that appears to be the exception rather than the rule.
John Eadie notes that regarding the ancient institution of slavery…
William Barclay (Ref) adds some interesting historical background on slaves in Paul's time writing that…
In his first letter to Timothy, who may have received this letter as he served as "pastor-teacher" of the church at Ephesus, Paul wrote…
Slaves (1401) (doulos) is the Greek word which describes one who is bound to another in servitude. In the Greek culture doulos usually referred to the involuntary, permanent service of a slave. By Roman times, slavery was so extensive that in the early Christian period one out of every two people was a slave! From at least 3000BC captives in war were the primary source of slaves. These were Christian slaves working for the most part for pagan masters.
Doulos was the most abject, servile term used by the Greeks to denote a slave. The word designated one who was born as a slave, one who was bound to his master in chords so strong that only death could break them, one who served his master to the disregard of his own interests, one whose will was swallowed up in the will of his master.
What a glorious paradox. Slaves that have been set free (from sin) and into the liberty of enslavement to the perfect Master, Jesus Christ. Paul is speaking to born again, Spirit filled slaves and as such they were not only the slaves of human masters but they were now slaves of their Divine Master. As slaves of Christ they were to be totally surrendered to His will, which in context called for a continual willingness to be filled with and controlled by the Holy Spirit in order to carry out the command to be obedient.
Expositor's Greek Testament has a helpful note writing that…
John Eadie writes that…
Be obedient (hupakouo from hupó = agency or means, under + akoúo physical hearing and apprehension of something with the mind - akouo gives us our English acoustics - the science of design which helps one hear) (See word studies on hupakouo and on the related noun hupakoe) literally means to hear under or to listen from a subordinate position in which compliance with what is said is expected and intended. To obey is to submit or hearken to a command. To obey is the carrying out the word and will of another person, especially the will of God.
Hupakouo - 21v in the NT - Matt. 8:27; Mk. 1:27; 4:41; Lk. 8:25; 17:6; Acts 6:7; 12:13; Rom. 6:12, 16f; 10:16; Eph. 6:1, 5; Phil. 2:12; Col. 3:20, 22; 2 Thess. 1:8; 3:14; Heb. 5:9; 11:8; 1 Pet. 3:6
The NAS renders hupakouo as answer(1), became obedient(1), becoming obedient(1), heed(1), obedient(2), obey(12),obeyed(3).
Hupakouo conveys the picture of listening and following instructions. Submitting to that which is heard involves a change of attitude, forsaking the tendency of the fallen nature to rebel against Divine instructions and commands and seeking God's will, not self will.
How can one submit as their lifestyle or habitual practice (hupakouo is in the present imperative)? In context he or she must be filled with the Spirit that He might enable this supernatural submission from the heart.
Barclay writes that Paul's when Paul writes to slaves…
Masters (2962) (kurios) signifies those over the slaves who had sovereign power, absolute authority, total ownership and uncontested power.
According to the flesh (sarx - word study) - Flesh here speaks of physical flesh (ie, flesh and blood beings) and would identify the believing slave's earthly master and serves to distinguish these masters from their heavenly Master, the Lord Jesus Christ. As one wise monarch once said, “My dominion over my subjects ends where that of God’s begins.”
With fear and trembling - (Same phrase occurs 5x in NAS - Ps.55:5; 2Co. 7:15; Ep 6:5; Php 2:12; He 12:21) The phrase expresses a desire to not come short of the discharge of one's duty. This is not so much a dread of the master, but reflective of a genuine respect for the master's authority and consequently a desire to leave no duty undone. As noted this does not describe a fearful, shaking attitude but in this context represents a sense of awe and reverence generated by the incredible truth that we are privileged to serve the King of kings and for a moment in time He has ordained that we serve as slaves of men (the application is of course as employees to employers) and that we dare not think, do nor say anything that would cause our earthly masters (saved or unsaved) to cast aspersions upon our glorious Lord. And praise God, as Paul explains in his letter to the Philippians, we are not left to our own ingenuity or strength to accomplish these tasks…
Fear (5401) (phobos) (see another discussion of phobos) is used in an active sense to describe that which causes fear or terror, sometimes the source being God (of His divine works - eg, death of Ananias and Sapphira - Ac 5:5, 11, cp 1Ti 5:20, Re 18:10, 15, Re 11:11 = two slain witnesses come to life and ascend to heaven before a watching world!). Other uses of fear in a active sense are associated with man (Ro 13:13, of the Jews in Jn 7:13, 19:38, 20:19; cp inability of sons of Sceva to exorcise demons = Acts 19:17). In a negative sense phobos describes that which causes alarm, dread or terror (2Co 7:5, 1Pe 3:14) Here in Ephesians 6:5 phobos conveys a positive sense describing respect, reverential, wholesome fear or awe.
Most OT uses of phobos (other than those in Proverbs) convey the sense of terror and/or dread, but several do convey a positive sense of producing a reverential awe (2Sa 23:3, 2Chr 19:7, 9, Neh 5:9, 5:15, Job 4:6, 25:2, Ps 2:11, 5:7, 19:9, 34:11, 36:1, 90:11, 111:10, Ps 119:38, Pr 1:7, 2:5, 8:13, 9:10, 10:27, 14:26, 15:16, 15:33, 19:23, 22:4, 23:17, Isa 8:13, Isa 11:3 [referring to Messiah], Jer 32:40, Jonah 1:16, Malachi 2:5). Here are the NT uses which convey the sense of reverential awe (Lk 5:26, Acts 2:43)
Fear - Phobos - 42v in the NT - Matt. 14:26; 28:4, 8; Lk. 1:12, 65; 5:26; 7:16; 8:37; 21:26; Jn. 7:13; 19:38; 20:19; Acts 2:43; 5:5, 11; 9:31; 19:17; Ro 3:18; 8:15; 13:3, 7; 1 Co. 2:3; 2 Co. 5:11; 7:1, 5, 11, 15; Eph. 5:21; 6:5; Phil. 2:12; 1 Tim. 5:20; Heb. 2:15; 1 Pet. 1:17; 2:18; 3:2, 14f; 1 Jn. 4:18; Jude 1:23; Rev. 11:11; 18:10, 15
The NAS renders phobos as cause of fear(1), fear(37), fearful(1), fears(1), intimidation(1), respect(1),respectful(1), reverence(1), sense of awe(1).
Phobos - 195 uses in the non-apocryphal Septuagint (LXX) - Gen. 9:2; 15:12; 31:42, 53; 35:5; Exod. 15:16; 20:20; 23:27; Deut. 2:25; 11:25; 28:67; 32:25; Jos. 2:9; 2Sa 23:3; 1Chr. 14:17; 2 Chr. 19:7, 9; 26:5; Neh 5:9, 15; 6:16; Esther 1:22; 4:17; 5:1, 2; 8:17; 9:3; Job 3:24, 25; 4:6, 13; 9:34; 13:11, 21; 15:4, 21; 20:25; 21:9; 25:2; 31:23; 33:7, 15, 16; 38:17; 39:3, 16, 19; 41:14, 25; Ps. 2:11; 5:7; 14:3, 5; 19:9; 31:11; 34:11; 36:1; 53:5; 55:5; 64:1; 90:11; 91:5; 105:38; 111:10; 119:38, 120; Pr 1:7, 29; 2:5; 8:13; 9:10; 10:27, 29; 14:26; 15:16, 27, 33; 18:8; 19:23; 22:4; 23:17; 31:30; Isa. 2:10, 19, 21; 7:25; 8:12, 13; 10:27, 29; 11:3; 19:16; 21:4; 24:17, 18; 26:17; 33:3, 7, 8, 18; Je 30:5, 6; 32:40; 48:43, 44; 49:5; Lam 3:47; Ezek 26:17; 27:28; 32:23, 24, 26, 30, 32; 38:21; Da 4:1, 5; 5:6; 7:7; 10:7; 11:31; Jon. 1:10, 16; Mal. 1:6; 2:5
THE MANIFOLD BENEFITS
In Ge 31:53 the phrase "fear of his father" indicates fear is being used in a sense as a name for God. Note how fear in a "positive" sense can motivate godly behavior (Neh 5:15 -see following discussion).
Reverential fear of Jehovah is something that can be learned (and should be taught) (Ps 34:11). Saints learn to fear Jehovah by learning His Word (Ps 119:38-note) and making this a conscious choice (Pr 1:29). A proper, reverential fear of Jehovah is the beginning of wisdom (Ps 111:10-note, Pr 1:7, 9:10, 15:33), motivates saints to hate evil (Pr 8:13), leads to and prolongs one's life (Pr 19:23, 10:27), gives one strong confidence and provides a legacy for the children (Pr 14:26), is to be desired more that great treasure (Pr 15:16), is rewarded with spiritual riches, honor and life (Pr 22:4), helps one counter any envy one might have toward sinners (Pr 23:17), seems to be associated with salvation (Jonah 1:16), was a natural accompaniment of the newly born church (Acts 9:31), characterizes the attitude of non-believers (Ro 3:18-note), should serve to motivate saints (2Co 5:11 - where context = bema seat 2Co 5:12), is the atmosphere in which saints are to cleanse themselves and perfect holy conduct (2Cor 7:1-note, cp similar effect on conduct in 1Pe 1:17-note), serves as a motivation to be subject to other believers (Ep 5:21-note, in the context of men and women who are Spirit filled - Eph 5:18-note), motivates and accompanies Christ honoring obedience of servants to masters (Eph 6:5, cp 1Pe 2:18-note), along with trembling should serve as the mindset to motivate working out one's salvation (Php 2:12-note), characterizes God honoring behavior (1Pe 3:2-note), should be the attitude we have when we tell others about Christ our Hope (1Pe 3:15-note, cp Jude 23).
Tromos - 5v in the NT - Mk 16:8; 1Co. 2:3; 2Co. 7:15; Eph. 6:5; Phil. 2:12 and 20 times in the non-apocryphal Septuagint (LXX) - Gen. 9:2; Exod. 15:15, 16; Deut. 2:25; 11:25; Job 4:14; 38:34; Ps. 2:11; 48:6; 55:5; Isa. 19:16; 33:14; 54:14; 63:19; 64:3; Jer. 15:8; 49:24; Dan. 4:1, 19; Hab. 3:16
IN THE SINCERITY OF YOUR HEART, AS TO CHRIST: (Ep 6:24; Joshua 24:14; 1Chronicles 29:17; Psalms 86:11; Matthew 6:22; Acts 2:46; 2Corinthians 1:12; 2Corinthians 11:2,3) (Eph 1:1-23; 1Corinthians 7:22; Colossians 3:17, 18, 19 20, 21, 22, 23, 24)
Sincerity (572) (haplotes from a = negation + pleko = twine, braid, weave, knit) means singleness, simplicity, uprightness, mental honesty; the virtue of one who is free from pretence and dissimulation. Haplotes pertains to being motivated by singleness of purpose so as to be open and aboveboard, without guile, and without a hidden agenda. The idea of haplotes is that of personal integrity expressed in word or action.
Expositor's Greek Testament notes that singleness of heart…
In the present verse haplotes means to obey with a heart fixed on pleasing Christ and not on worldly gain. What does haplotes heart look like in context? Ephesians 6:6 tells us that their heart is sincere because they are not obeying as an outward show that would conceal an inner improper motivation. In other words, when the Spirit filled slave obeys, it is not feigned obedience but genuine obedience. In other words haplotes means "what you see is what you get". Without pretense or ulterior motive. Not half-hearted.
McGee says it…
As noted below in 3 uses in the second epistle to the Corinthians, haplotes also refers to an openness and sincerity in sharing with others.
Haplotes is used 2 times in the Septuagint (LXX) and 8 times in the NT…
Heart (2588) (kardia) (Click word study on kardia) does not refer to the physical organ but is used figuratively in Scripture to refer to the seat and center of human life. The heart is the center of the personality, and it controls the intellect, emotions, and will. No outward obedience is of the slightest value unless the heart turns to God.
Vine writes that kardia…
MacArthur commenting on kardia writes that…
MacArthur adds that
As to Christ - as if Christ were watching (which He is) and in a heart attitude that seeks to please Him.
Eadie writes that…
MacDonald writes that…
><> ><> ><>
A People Company- My brother worked 42 years for the Herman Miller Furniture Company. At his retirement dinner he said, “This is my company. Where else could a production worker like me participate in the management of the company?” What had instilled this kind of loyalty? In part, it was the leadership of D. J. De Pree, longtime president of the company.
Lord, teach me how to love and work,
The Real World - The owner of a company was talking with one of his managers about an employee who was stealing from the firm. The owner, who was a follower of Christ, asked, "What do you think we should do about him?"
The reward for honest labor
Just A Job? - Three men were hard at work on a large building project. Someone asked them, "What are you doing?" "I'm mixing mortar," one said. The second man said, "I'm helping put up this great stone wall." But the third man replied, "I'm building a cathedral to the glory of God."
Man's work can make of him a slave
Amplified: Not in the way of eye-service [as if they were watching you] and only to please men, but as servants (slaves) of Christ, doing the will of God heartily and with your whole soul; (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
NLT: Work hard, but not just to please your masters when they are watching. As slaves of Christ, do the will of God with all your heart. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: not with the idea of currying favour with men, but as the servants of Christ conscientiously doing what you believe to be the will of God for you. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: not in the way of eye service as men-pleasers, but as Christ’s bondslaves, doing the will of God from the soul, (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: not with eye-service as men-pleasers, but as servants of the Christ, doing the will of God out of soul,
NOT BY WAY OF EYESERVICE AS MEN-PLEASERS BUT AS SLAVES OF CHRIST: me kat' ophthalmodoulian os anthropareskoi all' os douloi Christou: (Philippians 2:12; Colossians 3:22; 1Thessalonians 2:4)
Eyeservice (3787) (ophthalmodouleia from ophthalmos = eye + douleia = service) is literally "eye slavery" (!) which practically means working when the master is watching and loafing when he is gone. It is service rendered only for appearance sake. Slaves were under more temptation in this respect than paid laborers, since they had nothing to gain materially from diligence. This is service that is performed only to make an impression in the owner’s presence. It describes work done without dedication or a sense of inner obligation but primarily to impress and to attract attention. Our English idiom "brown nosers" is appropriate epithet for those who perform their tasks in this manner only to curry favor or for appearances sake. Spirit filled believers steer clear of this subtle selfish attitude.
Paul is saying that Spirit filled slave serve Christ on the job with a Coram Deo ("before the face of God") attitude, fully aware that He is always watching us! Work must not be done well and not with one eye on the clock or only when the overseer’s eye is on us but must be done in the awareness that God’s eye is on us.
Paul is saying believing slaves must avoid eyeservice and pursue a deeper motive for …
Jonathan Edwards wrote…
Expositor's Greek Testament adds that…
As Barclay says…
The only other NT uses of eyeservice and men-pleasers is found in Colossians where Paul instructs slaves…
Here's a humorous illustration of "eye service" from the Reader's Digest…
Men-pleasers (441) (anthropareskos from anthropos = man + arésko = to please) pertains to causing people to be pleased with the implication of being in contrast to God or at the sacrifice of some principle. This describes one who tries to make an impression on others. He acts merely to please men. He sacrifices principle to please someone of superior authority. In short, he's a people-pleaser. We are not to "butter up" the boss. The only other uses are in Col 3:22-note (see above) and the Septuagint translation of Ps 53:5-note.
Slaves of Christ - again emphasizing that the Spirit filled slave does his work as if in the Lord's presence.
Remember that our Lord was a slave for as He declared…
John Eadie writes…
><> ><> ><>
On Being a Good Employee - Ephesians 6:5
><> ><> ><>
No Vacancy- Fred, a clerk in a retail store, was rude to the customers and lazy. On several occasions his boss was about to fire him. But he didn't follow through because of his concern for Fred's wife and children, who would suffer from his dismissal.
Some people stop looking for work
><> ><> ><>
DOING THE WILL OF GOD FROM THE HEART: poiountes (PAPMPN) to thelema tou theou ek psuche: (Ephesians 5:17; Matthew 7:21; 12:50; Colossians 1:9; 4:12; 1Thessalonians 4:3; Hebrews 10:36; 13:21; 1Peter 2:15; 4:2; 1John 2:17) (Jeremiah 3:10; 24:7; Romans 6:17; Colossians 3:23)
Doing the will of God is only possible if we are filled with (controlled by) the Spirit of God.
Paul had referred to the will of God in the previous chapter…
Doing God's will is a marker of one's eternal destiny as Jesus emphasized declaring that…
Jesus reiterated this truth concerning God's will later declaring…
Although the phrase will of God is not present, the principle is also stated in Paul's charge for Spirit filled believers to be…
Expositor's Greek Testament writes that…
Although, the following "factoid" is difficult to substantiate, the magazine, U S News and World Report, once reported that employees, on an average, spend 34% of their paid time not working!
MacDonald writes that…
John Eadie adds that…
Will (2307)(thelema from thelo = to will with the "-ma" suffix indicating the result of the will = "a thing willed") means what one wishes or has determined shall be done or that which is desired or wished for. It refers to a desire which proceeds from one’s heart or emotions. This term expresses the result of one’s purpose or desire. Thelema has both an objective meaning (“what one wishes to happen”) and a subjective connotation (“the act of willing or desiring”). It describes the will not as a demand but more as an inclination of pleasure towards that which is liked, which pleases and creates joy. God’s will signifies His gracious disposition toward something, what God Himself does of His own good pleasure.
Zodhiates says that thelema is the…
Will, not to be conceived as a demand, but as an expression or inclination of pleasure towards that which is liked, that which pleases and creates joy. When it denotes God's will, it signifies His gracious disposition toward something. Used to designate what God Himself does of His own good pleasure. (Zodhiates, S. The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament. AMG)
Thelema - 62x in 58v - Mt 6:10; 7:21; 12:50; 18:14; 21:31; 26:42; Mark 3:35; Luke 12:47; 22:42; 23:25; Jn 1:13; 4:34; 5:30; 6:38, 39, 40; 7:17; 9:31; Acts 13:22; 21:14; 22:14; Ro 1:10-note; Ro 2:18-note; Ro 12:2-note; Ro 15:32-note; 1Cor 1:1; 7:37; 16:12; 2Cor 1:1; 8:5; Gal 1:4; Ep 1:1-note, Ep 1:5-note, Ep 1:9-note, Ep 1:11-note; Ep 2:3-note; Ep 5:17-note; Ep 6:6-note; Col 1:1-note, Col 1:9-note; Col 4:12-note; 1Th 4:3-note; 1Th 5:18-note; 2Ti 1:1-note; 2Ti 2:26-note; He 10:7-note, He 10:9-note, He 10:10-note, He 10:36-note; He 13:21-note; 1Pe 2:15-note; 1Pe 3:17-note; 1Pe 4:2-note, 1Pe 4:19-note; 2Pe 1:21-note; 1Jn 2:17; 5:14; Rev 4:11-note. NAS = desire(1), desires(1), will(57).
Bengel quotes Xenophon
From (1537) (ek) means out of, expressing in context God's will that originates from the new heart of the believing Spirit filled slave.
Man's work can make of him a slave
We are given time to build for eternity.
The heart (5590) (psuche or psyche from psucho = to breathe, blow, English = psychology, "study of the soul") (Click word study on psuche) is the breath, then that which breathes, the individual, animated creature. Dichotomists view man as consisting of two parts (or substances), material and immaterial, with spirit and soul denoting the immaterial and bearing only a functional and not a metaphysical difference. Trichotomists also view man as consisting of two parts (or substances), but with spirit and soul representing in some contexts a real subdivision of the immaterial. The latter view is favored by this author. In this view the soul is the seat of the senses, desires, affections, appetites, passions, the lower aspect of one’s nature.
Psuche - 92v in the NT - Matt. 2:20; 6:25; 10:28, 39; 11:29; 12:18; 16:25f; 20:28; 22:37; 26:38; Mk. 3:4; 8:35ff; 10:45; 12:30; 14:34; Lk. 1:46; 2:35; 6:9; 9:24, 56; 10:27; 12:19f, 22f; 14:26; 17:33; 21:19; Jn. 10:11, 15, 17, 24; 12:25, 27; 13:37f; 15:13; Acts 2:27, 41, 43; 3:23; 4:32; 7:14; 14:2, 22; 15:24, 26; 20:10, 24; 27:10, 22, 37; Rom. 2:9; 11:3; 13:1; 16:4; 1 Co. 15:45; 2 Co. 1:23; 12:15; Eph. 6:6; Phil. 1:27; 2:30; Col. 3:23; 1 Thess. 2:8; 5:23; Heb. 4:12; 6:19; 10:38f; 12:3; 13:17; Jas. 1:21; 5:20; 1 Pet. 1:9, 22; 2:11, 25; 3:20; 4:19; 2 Pet. 2:8, 14; 1 Jn. 3:16; 3 Jn. 1:2; Rev. 6:9; 8:9; 12:11; 16:3; 18:13; 20:4
The NAS renders psuche as everyone*(1), heart(2), heartily(1), life(36), lives(7), mind(1), minds(1),person(1), persons(3), soul(33), souls(14), suspense(1), thing(1).
However the discerning reader must understand that psuche is one of those Greek words that can have several meanings, the exact nuance being determined by the context. It follows that one cannot simply select of the three main meanings of psuche and insert it in a given passage for it may not be appropriate to the given context. The meaning of psuche is also contingent upon whether one is a dichotomist or trichotomist. Consult Greek lexicons for more lengthy definitions of psuche as this definition is only a brief overview. (Click an excellent article on Soul in the Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology; see also ISBE article on Soul)
BDAG makes the point that…
Lawrence Richards adds that as…
(1) One meaning is reference to the principle of life generally, the vital force which animates the body which shows itself in breathing, the "life principle" (the breath of life) as found even with animals (cf Luke 12:20 "… this very night your soul is required of you… ", Acts 3:23 "every soul that does not heed that prophet shall be utterly destroyed") . To the Greeks the psuche was the principle of physical life. Everything which had physical life had psuche. Everything which is alive has psuche; a dog, a cat, any animal has psuche, but it has not got pneuma or spirit. Psuche is that physical life which a man shares with every living thing; but pneuma or spirit is that which makes a man different from the rest of creation and kin to God.
(2) A second meaning refers to the earthly, natural life in contrast to supernatural existence (Mt 6:25 "do not be anxious for your life… ", Ro 11:3 (note) "… they are seeking my life… "). This refers to So that the word denotes “life in the distinctness of individual existence” (Cremer).
(3) A third meaning of psuche is in reference to the inner nonmaterial life of man for which the physical body serves as the dwelling place often with focus on various aspects of feeling, thinking, etc and thus can refer primarily to the mind, to the heart, to desire (Lu 10:27 "love the Lord… with all your soul", Mk 14:34 "My soul is deeply grieved...", Eph 6:6 "doing the will of God from the heart [psuche]", Heb 12:3 "so that you may not grow weary and lose heart"). One might say this meaning refers to the inner self, the essence of life in terms of thinking, willing, and feeling. Here psuche describes the seat and center of the inner human life in its many and varied aspects.
It should be noted that there is an additional meaning of a derivative of psuche (psuchikos) which is used to described a "soulish" person, one who is still unregenerate and in Adam, and thus a person whose life is dominated by the unredeemed nature (1Cor 2:14, 15:44, 46, James 3:15, Jude 1:19)
Vincent offers the follows thoughts on psuche
John MacArthur offer the following discussion on dichotomist versus trichotomist view…
Eadie writes that…
Expositor's Greek Testament adds that this addition of "out of the soul"…
Ray Stedman has the following thoughts on this verse in his devotional entitled Bringing Christ To Work…
The Smallest Place- One of England's most admired heroes, General Charles Gordon (1833-1885), was a devout Christian. Unconcerned about status and wealth, he was passionately ambitious to do God's will. Gordon desired to serve the Lord faithfully, whether it was a big responsibility or a small, unnoticed task.
Does the place you're called to labor
Glad Service- As a boy, I never shared my father’s enthusiasm for the soil. For several summers he had a little plot of ground in the country where he planted a garden. It provided physical therapy and relaxation for him, as well as a bountifully laden table for family and friends.
I am happy in the service of the King,