Luke 1 Commentary


NOTE: This Verse by Verse Commentary page is part of an ongoing project to add notes to each verse of the Bible. Therefore many verses do not yet have notes, but if the Lord tarries and gives me breath, additions will follow in the future. The goal is to edify and equip you for the work of service (Eph 4:12-13-note) that the Lord God might be glorified in your life and in His Church. Amen (Isa 61:3b, Mt 5:16-note)



From Jensen's Survey of the NT by permission

Luke 1:1  In as much as many have undertaken to compile an account of the things accomplished among us,

AMPLIFIED  SINCE [as is well known] many have undertaken to put in order and draw up a [thorough] narrative of the surely established deeds which have been accomplished and fulfilled in and among us,

Barclay  Since many have set their hands to the task of drawing up an account of the events which were completed amongst us,

CSB  Many have undertaken to compile a narrative about the events that have been fulfilled among us,

ESV   Inasmuch as many have undertaken to compile a narrative of the things that have been accomplished among us,

GWN  Many have attempted to write about what had taken place among us.

KJV   Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a declaration of those things which are most surely believed among us,

NET  Now many have undertaken to compile an account of the things that have been fulfilled among us,

NAB   Since many have undertaken to compile a narrative of the events that have been fulfilled among us,

NIV  Many have undertaken to draw up an account of the things that have been fulfilled among us,

NLT  Many people have set out to write accounts about the events that have been fulfilled among us.

NJB  Seeing that many others have undertaken to draw up accounts of the events that have reached their fulfilment among us,

Wuest - Since it is well known and a fact of importance that many have undertaken to draw up in its historical sequence a narrative of events concerning which there has been a wide diffusion of knowledge among us,

YLT  Seeing that many did take in hand to set in order a narration of the matters that have been fully assured among us,

AN ACCOUNT OF WHAT
JESUS ACCOMPLISHED

Luke begins a very long sentence that continues through Luke 1:4. 

John Hannah has this outline

The preface to the Gospel  (Lk 1:1-4)

The sources for the Gospel  (Lk 1:1-2)

The research for the Gospel  (Lk 1:3)

The purpose for the Gospel  (Lk 1:4)

    J C RyleSt. Luke's Gospel contains many precious things which are not recorded in the other three Gospels. For example, the histories of Zechariah and Elizabeth, the angel's announcement to the Virgin Mary, and, in general terms, the first two chapters of his Gospel. Only St. Luke records the conversions of Zacchaeus and the penitent thief, the walk to Emmaus, and the famous parables of the Pharisee and the Tax Collector, the Rich Man and Lazarus, and the Lost Son. These are parts of Scripture for which every well-instructed Christian feels peculiarly thankful. And for these we are indebted to the Gospel of St. Luke. (Expository Thoughts Luke 1)

    Darrell Bock - Luke begins his work as other ancient writers do, with a preface. The entire paragraph is one long Greek sentence. Luke explains his connection to the past and his desire to give his readers assurance about the instruction they have received. Luke discusses in Luke 1:1 the tradition he inherited. Then he traces in Luke 1:2 the origin of that tradition in eyewitnesses and servants who preach the Word. As the main clause, Luke 1:3 discusses how Luke wrote his account. The last verse reveals Luke’s purpose. He desires to give his reader, Theophilus, assurance about the events surrounding Jesus. (Baker Exegetical Commentary)

    Steven Cole introduces his sermon series on Luke with these thoughts - Luke has a number of distinctive features. He devotes more space to the birth and infancy of Jesus than any other gospel. He alone mentions the incident from Jesus’ youth, when He was left behind at the Temple. On the other end of Jesus’ life, Luke alone mentions the ascension and, in his companion volume (Acts) traces the history of Jesus’ followers beyond that momentous event. Luke clearly has a universal emphasis, showing that the gospel is for every class, race, and nation. The angels tell the shepherds that the news of the Savior who has been born is “good news of a great joy which shall be for all the people” (Lk 2:10). The aged Simeon prophesies that this Child is God’s salvation which He has prepared in the presence of all peoples, “a light of revelation to the Gentiles” (Lk 2:32). As John the Baptist preaches, Luke alone (of the synoptics) cites Isaiah, that “all flesh shall see the salvation of God” (Lk 3:6). When our Lord begins His ministry at Nazareth, He creates animosity by pointing out that Elijah was sent to a Gentile widow in Sidon and that the Gentile Naaman the leper was cleansed (Lk 4:25-27). Luke closes with Jesus’ commission that “repentance for forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed in His name to all the nations” (Lk 24:47). Not just Gentiles, but sinners of every stripe are the focus of Luke’s gospel. He uses the word “sinners” 16 times, more than Matthew (5), Mark (5), and John (4) combined....Luke is the only synoptic gospel to call Jesus “Savior” (Lk 2:11). He alone uses the word salvation (6 times) and ten times he uses the word for preaching the good news, which is only used once in the other gospels. Luke alone of the three uses the word grace (8 times) and Luke is the only Gospel writer to use the words “redemption” and “redeem” (J. Sidlow Baxter, Explore the Book[Zondervan], 5:254). The theme verse of Luke occurs in the context of the salvation of the despised tax collector, Zaccheus, where Jesus explains His mission: “For the Son of Man has come to seek and to save that which was lost” (Lk 19:10).....Luke has been called the Gospel of Prayer because of his emphasis, not only on our need to pray, but also on Jesus’ prayer life. Nine times Luke tells of prayers that Jesus offered in the crises of His life, and seven of these are unique to Luke (Scroggie, p. 370). It has also been called the Gospel of the Holy Spirit, who is named more in Luke than in Matthew and Mark together, and even more than in John (Baxter, p. 246). There is a marked emphasis on Jesus’ dependence on the Spirit. Thus Luke shows us Jesus as the Savior who was fully human, but who triumphed as man through dependence on prayer and the Holy Spirit. (Luke 1:1-4)

    Here is Pastor Cole's broad outline of Luke

    1. Introduction: Purpose for writing (Lk 1:1-4).

    2. The Advent of the Son of Man (Lk 1:5-4:13).

    3. The Ministry of the Son of Man: Galilee (Lk 4:14-9:50).

    4. The Rejection of the Son of Man: Toward Jerusalem (Lk 9:51-19:27).

    A. Mounting opposition (Lk 9:51-11:54).

    B. Instructions in view of the opposition (Lk 12:1-19:27).

    5. The Suffering of the Son of Man (Lk 19:28-23:56).

    6. The Triumph of the Son of Man (Lk 24:1-53).

    In as much (1895)(epeideper from epeidḗ = since, and per = truly) is a conjunction since indeed, considering that, whereas, usually referring to a fact already known. Friberg adds that it is "a causal conjunction with reference to a well-known fact." BDAG adds it is an "intensified form of epeide, a marker of cause or reason." This is the only use in the NT.  Dr Luke uses epeideper to introduce the reason for his Gospel account.

    Bock on epeideper - The conditional term epeidēper, (inasmuch as) is usually causally related to the action of the main clause: “since many have undertaken” (BDF §456.3). Those accounts laid the groundwork for why Luke writes. Ancient writers loved to show that what they were doing had precedents." (Ibid)

    A triple compound particle (“since,” “truly,” “indeed”) expressing cause with reference to a fact already well known. (Cleon Rogers)

    Vincent - "Only here in New Testament. A compound conjunction:  epei, since, de, as is well known, and per, giving the sense of certainty."

    Many - This refers to both to previous written and/or oral testimonies.

    A T Robertson on many - How many no one knows, but certainly more than two or three. We know that Luke used the Logia of Jesus written by Matthew in Aramaic (Papias) and Mark’s Gospel. Undoubtedly he had other written sources.

    Undertaken ("have taken in hand" - KJV)( 2021)(epicheireo from epi = upon, in + cheir = hand) means to take in hand, to put the hand to, to set one's hand to some task, to endeavor to perform a task (in this case to write the Gospel account), to try, to undertake.  To take in hand, undertake, attempt, whether effective or not. The only uses are by Luke (Lk 1:1, Acts 9:29 = "attempting to put him to death," Acts 19:13 = "attempted to name over those who had the evil spirits the name of the Lord Jesus.")

    Vincent on epicheireo - The word carries the sense of a difficult undertaking (see Acts 19:13), and implies that previous attempts have not been successful. It occurs frequently in medical language. Hippocrates begins one of his medical treatises very much as Luke begins his gospel. “As many as have taken in hand (ἐπεχείρησαν) to speak or to write concerning the healing art.”

    There are 4 uses of epicheireo in the non-apocryphal Septuagint (2Ch 20:11, Ezra 7:23, Esther 8:12, 9:25). Gilbrant adds that "This verb occurs 12 times in the Septuagint including 8 times in the Apocrypha. It generally means “to attack,” “to attempt,” or “to make an attempt on.” It was used with reference to attacking the Jewish people (2 Chronicles 20:11) and the temple (Ezra 7:23 [LXX 2 Esdras 7:23]), and the attempt to cause harm to the Jews in exile (Esther 9:25)."

    A T Robertson on epicheireo -  Both Hippocrates and Galen use this word in their introduction to their medical works. Here only in the N. T., though a common literary word. Common in the papyri for undertaking with no idea of failure or blame. Luke does not mean to cast reflection on those who preceded him. The apocryphal gospels were all much later and are not in his mind. Luke had secured fuller information and planned a book on a larger scale and did surpass them with the result that they all perished save Mark’s Gospel and what Matthew and Luke possess of the Logia of Jesus. There was still room for Luke’s book. That motive influences every author and thus progress is made.

    John MacArthur - It is important to note that Luke was not critical of those who had undertaken (a term often used in connection with literary endeavors) to compile an account (a phrase often used to refer to historical writing) of Jesus’ life and ministry. He did not pen his gospel as a corrective to those accounts, but because God prompted him to write a comprehensive narrative of the life of Christ and the spread of His salvation gospel. Luke’s reason for referring to his sources was twofold. First, it establishes his history as a legitimate, reliable account. He was a careful historian who used credible methods of research and writing, and based his content on the firsthand accounts of eyewitnesses. Second, Luke’s use of those sources places his gospel squarely in the orthodox tradition. His volume was not a bizarre, different, heretical gospel. Luke’s account was consistent with the teaching of the apostles (cf. Acts 2:42) and with those of eyewitnesses and especially the other Spirit-inspired gospel writers (cf. John 20:30–31; 21:24–25). (Luke Commentary)

    To compile ("to set forth in order" = KJV) 392)(anatassomai from anti = + tasso = to put in order, to arrange) literally means to arrange in a row, to draw up again in order, to compose, to arrange in a series "a narrative that the sequence of events may be evident." It is used by Plutarch in classic Greek to denote going regularly through a thing again and so to rehearse it. Here Luke uses it to to arrange in proper order, that is, to arrange afresh so as to show the sequence of events. Luke's Gospel in fact is the most chronologically arranged of all 4 Gospels. 

    A T Robertson on anatassomai  - This verb anataxasthai has been found only in Plutarch’s Moral. 968 CD about an elephant “rehearsing” by moonlight certain tricks it had been taught (Moulton and Milligan, Vocabulary). That was from memory going regularly through the thing again. But the idea in the word is plain enough. The word is composed of tassō, a common verb for arranging things in proper order and ana, again. Luke means to say that those before him had made attempts to rehearse in orderly fashion various matters about Christ. “The expression points to a connected series of narratives in some order (taxis), topical or chronological rather than to isolated narratives” (Bruce). “They had produced something more than mere notes or anecdotes” (Plummer)

    Account (1335)(diegesis from diá = through or an intensifier + hēgéomai = to lead) is a narrative or message that tells the details of an act or course of events in an orderly sequence. BDAG says diegesis is "an orderly description of facts, events, actions, or words." It is used of a historical report in classic Greek. It is a discourse consisting of an orderly exposition or narration. NET Note explains that "This is sometimes translated "narrative," but the term itself can refer to an oral or written account. It is the verb "undertaken" (epicheireo) which suggests a written account, since it literally is "to set one's hand" to something." It indicates a narration of a verified and well-witnessed report.

    NET Note on diegesis - This is sometimes translated "narrative," but the term itself can refer to an oral or written account. It is the verb "undertaken" which suggests a written account, since it literally is "to set one's hand" to something (BDAG 386 s.v. evpiceire,w). "Narrative" is too specific, denoting a particular genre of work for the accounts that existed in the earlier tradition. Not all of that material would have been narrative.

    Vincent on diegesis - Only here in New Testament. From διά, through, and ἡγέομαι, to lead the way. Hence something which leads the reader through the mass of facts: a narrative, as A. V., with the accompanying idea of thoroughness. Note the singular number. Many took in hand to draw up, not narratives, but a narrative, embracing the whole of the evangelic matter. The word was particularly applied to a medical treatise. Galen (a prominent Greek physician) applies it at least seventy-three times to the writings of Hippocrates (also a Greek physician).

    A T Robertson on diegesis -  [Diēgēsis] means leading or carrying a thing through, not a mere incident. 

    This is the only NT use of diegesis. There are 2 uses in the non-apocryphal Septuagint - Judges 5:14, Hab 2:6. 

    Gilbrant In classical Greek literature (diegesis) was used in a speech by Aristotle, for example, where it means “the statement of a case” (Liddell-Scott). Similarly, Luke described the many who had undertaken to compile a “narrative” (RSV); “declaration” (KJV); “account” (NIV), of the things concerning Jesus.

    MISSION
    ACCOMPLISHED

    The things accomplished among us - The NAS rendering does have a marginal note = "on which there is full conviction." This reflect the fact that  one of the other meanings of plerophoreo in the NT is "fully assured" (spoken of Abraham in Ro 4:21). The KJV translation reflects the alternate meaning of plerophoreo = things “most surely believed among us."  Most writers favor the sense of fully accomplished over fully assured. So the question arises to what is Luke referring that was "accomplished among us?" From Luke's record it is clear that the thing accomplished among them was the Father sending His only Son to be the Savior of sinners. 

    Among us - Explained by the words in the next sentence, who were eye-witnesses and ministers.

    Torrey adds that plerophoreo "is applied to a ship fully laden, to a tree in full bearing, etc. Hence it implies that fulness of evidence by which any fact is supported, and also that confidence, or feeling of assent, by which facts so supported are believed."

    Accomplished (4135)(plerophoreo  from pleres = full + phero = to bear or bring) means literally to bring to a full measure or to fulfill (2Ti 4:5, 17).  It can also have the nuance of full assurance, of being absolutely certain (Ro 4:21 speaking of Abraham's faith).  The KJV translates plerophoreo with the nuance of full assurance - "surely believed," but most modern translations favor the nuance of fulfilled or accomplished.

    Among us - In other words these things concerning Jesus Christ did not occur in a corner or in secret but out in the open for all to see. This openness means that the validity of Jesus’ claims, as well as the claims made about him by others, are open to critical examination. God wants lost people to see His life giving Son among them. Today this happens as believers daily die to self and live a Spirit filled life, a supernatural life which testifies to the life of the Son in them (cp Jn 16:14 = Spirit's goal). The lost need to see Jesus and you may be the only "Bible" many lost people ever read! What is the Gospel according to you?

    In context the thing accomplished among us refers to the events fulfilled in the life of Jesus.

    Darrell L Bock adds that "fulfilled,” is the best (interpretation compared to the other possible interpretation of "full assurance") since Luke’s emphasis in his volumes is the fulfillment of God’s plan (Lk 1:20, 57; 2:6, 21–22; 4:21; 9:31; 21:22, 24; 24:44–47). The passive participle (that have been fulfilled) suggests God’s acts with its use of the “theological” passive (Marshall 1978: 41). These fulfilled events from the past continue to color how one should see the present. The effect of Jesus’ life, death, and resurrection lives on (Ed: This comment reflects the use of the perfect tense which speaks of past completed action and ongoing effects). Luke will chronicle one of the immediate effects, the rise of the church, in his second volume." Vincent adds that "The word is chosen to indicate that these events happened in accordance with a preconceived design."

    A T Robertson on plerophoreo in Luke 1:1 -  Papyri examples occur for finishing off a legal matter or a financial matter in full. Deissmann (Light from the Ancient East, pp. 86f.) gives examples from the papyri and inscriptions for completing a task or being convinced or satisfied in mind. The same ambiguity occurs here. When used of persons in the N. T. the meaning is to be convinced, or fully persuaded (Rom. 4:21; 14:5; Heb. 6:11; 10:22). When used of things it has the notion of completing or finishing (2 Tim. 4:5, 17). Luke is here speaking of “matters” ([pragmatōn]). Luke may refer to the matters connected with Christ’s life which have been brought to a close among us or accomplished. Bruce argues plausibly that he means fulness of knowledge “concerning the things which have become widely known among us Christians.” In Col. 2:2 we have “fulness of understanding” (tēs plērophorias tēs suneseōs). In modern Greek the verb means to inform. The careful language of Luke here really pays a tribute to those who had preceded him in their narratives concerning Christ.

    Holman Apologetics Commentary on the Bible on the idea of fulfilled among us - Jesus did not drop onto the scene without context. As the Evangelists made clear, he instead came as the fulfillment of messianic prophecies made throughout the OT. (Ed: See fulfillment of Messianic Prophecies)

    Morris - Others had written about Christ and His teachings before Luke did (Luke 1:1), including Matthew and Mark, both of whom had known Christ personally, a privilege probably not shared by Luke. Nevertheless, Luke's long association with the Apostle Paul and others who had known the Lord (Luke 1:2), together with his obvious ability in investigation and research, enabled him to write down an accurate account of his own. Many think that Luke may have drawn on Mark's account, as well as Matthew's or even some other hypothetical written source supposedly used by all of them (the so-called "Q-document," or some such record). Even if such a document really existed (which is very doubtful), it was not divinely inspired like those of Matthew, Mark and Luke, but simply a human record of events, from which they could draw in their research, as led by the Holy Spirit. This latter presumption is supported by Luke's claim that he had "perfect understanding of all things from above" (the latter being a legitimate alternative to "the very first").

    J C Ryle - Christianity is a religion built upon facts. Let us never lose sight of this. It came before mankind at first in this shape. The first preachers did not go up and down the world, proclaiming an elaborate, artificial system of abstruse doctrines and deep principles. They made it their first business to tell men great plain facts. They went about telling a sin-laden world, that the Son of God had come down to earth, and lived for us, and died for us, and risen again. The Gospel, at its first publication, was far more simple than many make it now. It was neither more nor less than the history of Christ.

    While Matthew speaks especially to the Jews, Luke speaks especially to the Gentiles. Godet, wrote that if Matthew is “A treatise on the right of Jesus to the Messianic sovereignty of Israel,” then Luke is “A treatise on the right of the heathen to share in the Messianic kingdom founded by Jesus.”

    William Barclay - LUKE’S introduction is unique in the first three gospels because it is the only place where the author steps out upon the stage and uses the pronoun ‘I’. There are three things to note in this passage.

    (1) It is the best bit of Greek in the New Testament. Luke uses here the very form of introduction which the great Greek historians all used. Herodotus begins, ‘These are the researches of Herodotus of Halicarnassus.’ A much later historian, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, tells us at the beginning of his history, ‘Before beginning to write I gathered information, partly from the lips of the most learned men with whom I came into contact, and partly from histories written by Romans of whom they spoke with praise.’ So Luke, as he began his story in the most sonorous (Ed: full, loud, and deep) Greek, followed the highest models he could find.

    It is as if Luke said to himself, ‘I am writing the greatest story in the world and nothing but the best is good enough for it.’ Some of the ancient manuscripts are very beautiful productions, written in silver ink on purple vellum; and often the scribe, when he came to the name of God or of Jesus, wrote it in gold (Ed: O that we too might handle the precious Word of God with such a sense of awe and reverence! May this lofty objective transform our daily reading from mundane to majestic by the power of the Spirit. Amen). The story is told of an old workman who, every Friday night, took the newest and shiniest coins out of his pay packet for Sunday’s offering in church. The historian, the scribe and the workman were all filled with the same idea—only the best is good enough for Jesus. They always gave their utmost for the highest. (Ed: Also the title of Oswald Chambers famous devotional writing!)

    (2) It is most significant that Luke was not satisfied with anyone else’s story of Christ. He must have his own. Real religion is never a second-hand thing. It is a personal discovery. Professor Arthur Gossip of Trinity College, Glasgow, used to say that the four gospels were important, but beyond them all came the gospel of personal experience. Luke had to rediscover Jesus Christ for himself (Ed: But it is all based on careful, exacting scholarship, not speculation or hypotheses!)

    (3) There is no passage of the Bible which sheds such a floodlight on the doctrine of the inspiration of Scripture. No one would deny that the Gospel of Luke is an inspired document; and yet Luke begins by affirming that it is the product of the most careful historical research. God’s inspiration does not come to those who sit with folded hands and lazy minds and only wait, but to those who think and seek and search (Ed: Beloved this same principle applies to our reading of the Word of God. We are unlikely to be led by our Teacher the Spirit into significant depth of understanding of the inspired Word if our only objective is to check off my daily "read through the Bible in a year" assignment! One verse paused over and pondered on, is of far more value to our soul than one chapter passes over quickly and mechanically!). True inspiration comes when the searching mind joins with the revealing Spirit of God. The word of God is given, but it is given to those who search for it. ‘Search and you will find’ (Matthew 7:7). (Luke 1 Commentary)

    A few Insights on the Gospel of Luke from H A Ironside

    Luke dwells much on the prayer-life of Jesus Christ, and prayer, of course, is connected with His Manhood. Jesus never makes a move but He looks first to His Father in heaven. We see Him praying, praying, praying, as every important occasion arises. In this Gospel we also see frequently the Lord Jesus Christ as a guest in the homes of various people. He sat with them and ate with them, and talked over their problems. No other Gospel presents Christ going out to dinner so often as Luke does. Jesus shares their joys and sorrows and partakes of the good things that are presented to Him. When you meet a man at the dinner-table you find out what he really is. I had read forty or fifty biographies of Martin Luther, but he always seemed to be a figure on a pedestal until I read "Luther's Table Talks." Then I felt that he and I were friends. I felt that I knew the man as I could not have known him otherwise. So these accounts of Christ at the dinner-table give us an understanding of His Manhood, which we would not get in any other way....

    Luke gives us a great deal of information that is not found in the other Gospels. It is he alone who relates the stories of the visits of the angel Gabriel to Zacharias and to Mary. No one else tells us of the song of Mary, and the prophecy of Zacharias. The birth of Christ in a stable is recorded only here, as also the angel's announcement to the shepherds. The presentation of the Child Jesus in the temple at Jerusalem, and the welcome given by Anna and Simeon, also are mentioned only here. The first meeting in Nazareth, as recorded in chapter four; the great draught of fishes; the interview with the woman of the city in the house of Simon the Pharisee, as found in chapter seven; the beautiful incident of Mary at the feet of Jesus; and the mission of the seventy (Luke 10) are found only here. Much of the material of chapters eleven to eighteen inclusive is told only by Luke, as also the story of Zaccheus. It is he alone who mentions the coming of the angel to our Saviour to strengthen Him in His Gethsemane agony. And had it not been for Luke, we would never have known of the penitent thief, nor of the visit of our risen Lord with the two disciples on the way to and in their home at Emmaus. 

    Then when we think of the parables, it is striking to note how many are only related in this Gospel. The story of the Good Samaritan, the rich fool, the barren fig-tree, the great supper (not to be confounded with the marriage of the king's son as given in Matthew) the lost coin, the prodigal son, the unjust steward, the story of Dives and Lazarus, the unjust judge and the widow, the Pharisee and the publican, and the parable of the pounds, are all given by Luke. The last-mentioned, while similar to the parable of the talents, is, nevertheless, quite a different story.

    How much then we would be bereaved of, if Luke had not been moved by the Spirit of God to search out so many things that no other inspired writer has recorded. There is nothing redundant here. All is of great importance and cannot be overestimated, so far as its value to the Church of God is concerned, and also its importance in presenting the gospel of the grace of God in its manifold aspects... (Luke 1)

    1. Six miracles peculiar to Luke.

    (1) The draught of fishes, Lk 5:4-11.

    (2) The raising of the widow's son, Lk 7:11- 18.

    (3) The woman with the spirit of infirmity, Lk 13:11-17.

    (4) The man with the dropsy, Lk 14:1-6.

    (5) The ten lepers, Lk 17:11-19.

    (6) The healing of Malchus' ear. Lk 22:50-51.

    2. Eleven parables, peculiar to Luke.

    (1) The two debtors, Lk 7:41-43.

    (2) The good Samaritan, Lk 10:25-37.

    (3) The importunate friend, Lk 11:5-8.

    (4) The rich fool, Lk 12:16-19.

    (5) The barren fig-tree, Lk 13:6-9.

    (6) The lost piece of silver, Lk 15:8-10.

    (7) The prodigal son, Lk 15:11-32.

    (8) The unjust steward, Lk 16:1-13.

    (9) The rich man and Lazarus, Lk 18:19-31.

    (10) The unjust judge, Lk 18:1-8.

    (11) The Pharisee and publican, Lk 18:9-14.

    3. Some other passages mainly peculiar to Luke.

    (1) Luke 1:1-2:52 and Lk 9:51- 18:14 are mainly peculiar to Luke.

    (2) John the Baptist's answer to the people. Lk 3:10-14.

    (3) The conversation with Moses and Elias, Lk 9:30- 31.

    (4) The weeping over Jerusalem, Lk 19:41-44.

    (5) The bloody sweat, Lk 22:44.

    (6) The sending of Jesus to Herod, Lk 23:7-12.

    (7) The address to the daughters of Jerusalem, 23:27-31.

    (8) "Father forgive them", 23:34.

    (9) The penitent robber, 23:40-43.

    (10) The disciples at Emmaus, 24:13-31;

    (11) Particulars about the ascension. 24:50-53.

    4. The following words and phrases should be studied, making a list of the references where each occurs and a study of each passage in which they occur with a view of getting Luke's conception of the term.

    (1) The "son of man" (23 times).

    (2) The "son of God" (7 times).

    (3) The "kingdom of God" (32 times).

    (4) References to law, lawyer, lawful (18 times).

    (5) Publican (11 times).

    (6) Sinner and sinners (16 times).

    Mr. Stroud estimates that 59 percent of Luke is peculiar to himself and Mr. Weiss figures that 541 have no incidences in the other gospels. (H.A. Ironside Expository Commentary)

    Luke 1:2  just as they were handed down to us by those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and servants of the word,

    Amplified - Exactly as they were handed down to us by those who from the [official] beginning [of Jesus' ministry] were eyewitnesses and ministers of the Word [that is, of the doctrine concerning the attainment through Christ of salvation in the kingdom of God]

    Barclay  telling the story just as those who were the original eye-witnesses and who became the servants of the word handed it down to us

    CSB   just as the original eyewitnesses and servants of the word handed them down to us.

    ESV just as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word have delivered them to us,

    GWN   They received their information from those who had been eyewitnesses and servants of God's word from the beginning, and they passed it on to us.

    KJV  Even as they delivered them unto us, which from the beginning were eyewitnesses, and ministers of the word;

    NET   like the accounts passed on to us by those who were eyewitnesses and servants of the word from the beginning.

    NAB   just as those who were eyewitnesses from the beginning and ministers of the word have handed them down to us,

    NIV   just as they were handed down to us by those who from the first were eyewitnesses and servants of the word.

    NLT  They used the eyewitness reports circulating among us from the early disciples.

    NJB   as these were handed down to us by those who from the outset were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word,

    Wuest - even as they delivered them to us for safekeeping, those who from the beginning were personal witnesses of and ministered the Word,

    YLT   as they did deliver to us, who from the beginning became eye-witnesses, and officers of the Word, --

    THE SOURCE OF THE ACCOUNTS
    EYEWITNESS TESTIMONIES

    Just as (kathos from kata = down and os = as) means according as, to the degree that. In this context the idea is exactly as. "Referring to the composition of the narrative." (Vincent) Notice from the outset Luke's attention to detail.

    NET NOTE on kathos - "even as" compares the recorded tradition of Luke 1:1 with the original eyewitness tradition of Luke 1:2. (In other words they are as we would say today "a perfect match.")

    Handed down (3860)(paradidomi from para = alongside, beside + didomi = give) conveys the basic meaning of to give over from one's hand to someone or something. Paradidomi was a technical term for passing on an official tradition (see 1 Cor. 11:2, 23; 15:3; Mark 7:13; Jude 1:3). Indeed, in the present context paradidomi refers to the passing on of a tradition which is based on the testimonies of those who saw and heard Jesus which substantiates the truth and trustworthiness of the message. The use of paradidomi in Paul's discussion of the the Gospel in 1 Corinthians 15:3-note refers to the transmitting of or passing on of his traditional instruction concerning the Gosepl to the saints at Corinth. Paul like Luke is saying that he brought authoritative teaching, not something of his own origination. He did not design it, he only delivered what God had authored. All believers should be eternally grateful to God for assigning and enabling Paul and Luke to record these traditions and preserve them for the spiritual benefit of all future generations of God's children.

    A T Robertson on handed down -  [paredōsan hēmin]). Second aorist active indicative of paradidōmi. Luke received this tradition along with those who are mentioned above (the many). That is he was not one of the “eyewitnesses.” He was a secondary, not a primary, witness of the events. Tradition has come to have a meaning of unreliability with us, but that is not the idea here. Luke means to say that the handing down was dependable, not mere wives’ fables. Those who drew up the narratives had as sources of knowledge those who handed down the data. Here we have both written and oral sources. Luke had access to both kinds.

    Marvin Vincent on handed down - Not necessarily excluding written traditions, but referring mainly to oral tradition. Note the distinction between the many who attempted to draw up a narrative and the eye-witnesses and ministers who handed down the facts.

    John MacArthur makes an important point regarding inspiration of the Bible in light of his not having been a personal eyewitness of Jesus or the events of Jesus' ministry - Luke’s acknowledgement of his use of source material must not be misconstrued as a disclaimer of divine inspiration for his gospel. The process of inspiration never bypassed or overrode the personalities, life experiences, vocabularies, or writing styles of the Bible’s human authors; their unique traits are indelibly stamped on all the books of Scripture. The Spirit used Luke’s knowledge, gave him additional information, guided his selection of material, and controlled every word so that he wrote exactly what God wanted written (cf. 1 Cor. 2:12–13; 2 Tim. 3:16; 2 Peter 1:20–21). Therefore, his original account is infallibly and inerrantly true. (Luke Commentary)

    J C Ryle adds that regarding the question of who and what were Luke's sources it is "Enough for us to know that Luke wrote by inspiration of God. Unquestionably he did not neglect the ordinary means of getting knowledge. But the Holy Spirit guided him, no less than all other writers of the Bible, in his choice of matter. The Holy Spirit supplied him with thoughts, arrangement, sentences, and even words. And the result is, that what Luke wrote is not to be read as the "word of man," but the "word of God." (1 Thessalonians 2:13.) Let us carefully hold fast the great doctrine of the plenary inspiration of every word of the Bible. Let us never allow that any writer of the Old or New Testament could make even the slightest verbal mistake or error, when, writing as he was "moved by the Holy Spirit." (2 Peter 1:21.) Let it be a settled principle with us in reading the Bible, that when we cannot understand a passage, or reconcile it with some other passage, the fault is not in the Book, but in ourselves. The adoption of this principle will place our feet upon a rock. To give it up is to stand upon a quicksand, and to fill our minds with endless uncertainties and doubts.....Let us close the passage with thankfulness for the Bible. Let us bless God daily that we are not left dependent on man's traditions, and need not be led astray by ministers' mistakes. We have a written volume, which is "able to make us wise unto salvation, through faith which is in Christ Jesus." (2 Timothy 3:15) Let us begin Luke's Gospel with an earnest desire to know more ourselves of the truth as it is in Jesus, and with a hearty determination to do what in us lies to spread the knowledge of that truth throughout the world.  (Luke Commentary)

    James S. Stewart - Luke makes it perfectly clear that the inspired writers were not miraculously freed from the necessity of hard historical research … Inspiration was not God magically transcending human minds and faculties; it was God expressing His will through the dedication of human minds and faculties. It does not supersede the sacred writer’s own personality and make him God’s machine; it reinforces his personality and makes him God’s living witness. (Life and Teaching of Jesus Christ)

    Darrell Bock  - The early origin of oral and written traditions for the life of Jesus provides evidence against three common claims among skeptics:

    (1) that vital biographical data about Jesus was lost before anyone managed to pen the Gospels,

    (2) that Jesus was an obscure figure until the canonical books were written, and

    (3) that Jesus never even existed, and that the biblical books represent whole-cloth fiction, the invention of a divine redeemer patterned after Greek mystery religions.

    If authors were actively documenting the life of Christ shortly after his resurrection, and if Luke knew (and consulted) their writings, the skeptic faces an uphill climb when he attempts to cast doubt on the accessibility of the life of Jesus of Nazareth. Furthermore, early historians who were outside the Christian movement gave evidence of Jesus’ existence (Josephus, Antiquities 18.63-64).....If Luke was seeking to answer the specific questions of a particular individual and otherwise educate him about Christianity, and if he conducted research in order to do so, what does this imply about the divine inspiration of Luke’s writings? Second Timothy 3:16 says, “All Scripture is inspired by God,” but doesn’t Luke’s prologue (1:1-4) imply that his writing was engendered by more mundane factors such as oral traditions, written traditions, verbal reports, the specific interests of Theophilus, and his own desires to set out a coherent account? The problem with this line of questioning is that it assumes that the biblical writings should not bear the marks of typical human writings. It is more proper to emphasize that Scripture is a product of both human and divine involvement, resulting in books that share characteristics with other ancient writings even as they convey without error the words and propositions God willed. Very rarely do biblical authors state any kind of awareness that they were authoring divinely-inspired Scripture, and yet the Bible affirms the reality of God’s involvement—a testimony that the church has embraced from the outset. (Holman Apologetics Commentary on the Bible)

    Related Resources:

    Those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses - From the beginning of Jesus' ministry. The primary sources of Luke's information were the apostles who had been with Jesus. Luke under the inspiration of the Spirit recorded this information, but not without supporting the facts with careful research (see Lk 1:3).

    Who were the specific eyewitnesses? We simply do not know. What we do know is that other writers testified to being eyewitnesses. For example the apostle John repeatedly emphasizes his witness of Jesus Christ...

    What was from the beginning, what we have heard, what we have seen with our eyes, what we have looked at and touched with our hands, concerning the Word of Life and the life was manifested (has become known ~ been shined forth), and we have seen and testify and proclaim to you the eternal life, which was with the Father and was manifested to us– what we have seen and heard we proclaim to you also, so that you too may have fellowship with us; and indeed our fellowship is with the Father, and with His Son Jesus Christ.(1 John 1:1-3-note)

    Were eyewitnesses - More literally became (ginomai) eyewitnesses.

    Luke makes no claim to be an eyewitness of Jesus and thus he is not an apostle, for personal witness of Jesus was a necessary requirement to be an apostle (see apostolos).

    In Acts Luke makes an allusion to witnesses...

    We (Peter speaking Acts 10:34) are witnesses of all the things He did both in the land of the Jews and in Jerusalem. They also put Him to death by hanging Him on a cross. “God raised Him up on the third day and granted that He become visible, not to all the people, but to witnesses who were chosen beforehand by God, [that is,] to us who ate and drank with Him after He arose from the dead. “And He ordered us to preach to the people, and solemnly to testify that this is the One who has been appointed by God as Judge of the living and the dead. (Acts 10:39-42)

    A T Robertson From the beginning apparently refers to the beginning of the ministry of Jesus as was true of the apostles (Acts 1:22) and of the early apostolic preaching (Acts 10:37–43). The Gospel of Mark follows this plan. The Gospel of Luke goes behind this in chapters 1 and 2 as does Matthew in chapters 1 and 2 (Ed: Describing the birth of Jesus).

    Marvin Vincent on from the beginning - The official beginning, the commencement of Jesus’ ministry. Compare....

    Acts 1:1 The first account I composed, Theophilus, about all that Jesus began to do and teach,

    Acts 1:21-22  “Therefore it is necessary that of the men who have accompanied us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us–beginning with the baptism of John until the day that He was taken up from us–one of these [must] become a witness with us of His resurrection.” 

    Comment: This time then deals primarily with His 3+ years of active ministry, beginning with His ministry's "inauguration" when He was baptized until the day of His ascension to the Father.

    John 15:27 and you [will] testify also, because you have been with Me from the beginning.

    Eyewitnesses (845)(autoptes from autós = himself, + óptomai = see) is literally "self seeing" and thus one who has seen with his own eyes, an eyewitness, seeing something for oneself, one who has personal experience, those who know the facts at first hand. Luke abbreviates eyewitnesses to witnesses later in this writings (Lk 24:44-48, Acts 1:8). The medical term autopsy is derived from this Greek word with is an interesting association given that Luke was a physician (and yours truly is a pathologist!) The Gospel of Luke is like a carefully performed "autopsy" of Jesus' life, death, burial and resurrection.

    Peter uses a related but different word for eyewitnesses = epoptes.  (see 2 Peter 1:16-note)

    Cleon L Rogers on the use of autoptes - This reflects the conviction that the Christian faith is rooted not in speculative creation but in hist. reality (Ellis). The eyewitnesses are Luke’s guarantee of a true report (Du Plessis, 265). Used in medical language of a personal examination of disease or of the parts of the body. (New Linguistic and Exegetical Key to the Greek NT - original work by Rienecker)

    Marvin Vincent on eyewitnesses - Personal knowledge and practical experience were necessary elements of an apostle. Eye-witnesses (autoptai). Only here in New Testament. Peter uses another word, epoptai (2 Pet. 1:16-note). Frequent in medical writers, of a personal examination of disease or of the parts of the body. Compare the modern medical term autopsy.

    Darrell Bock makes an excellent point about the eyewitnesses This text highlights the oral and personal roots of the testimony about Jesus. Those who knew Him shared what they knew through the network of the church. Though critics claim that the accounts of Jesus’ life reflect a legend decades in the making—the result of religious hype and revisionist history—the NT authors commonly emphasized that their sources for information about Jesus were eyewitnesses (e.g., John 1:14; Acts 1:1-3; 1 Cor 15:1-8; Heb 2:3-4; 1 Pet 5:1-4; 1 John 1:1-4). Luke himself was not an eyewitness to Jesus’ life, but due to his affiliation with the apostle Paul (see the “we” passages in Acts 16:10-17; 20:5-21:18; 27:1-28:16) he had easy access to those who were. For instance, Luke was with Paul in Caesarea for more than two years while they visited Philip the evangelist. As Leon Morris pointed out, “This period spent with such companions must have given opportunity for discovering much about Jesus and the early church” (Morris 1999, 18). Luke also knew Silas due to their mutual involvement in Paul’s missionary journeys (see Acts 15:40 and the “we” of Acts 16:10). Silas was a member of the Jerusalem church (Acts 15:22) and would have had detailed knowledge of eyewitness testimonies to the life of Christ. (Holman Apologetics Commentary on the Bible)

    GALLEY-SLAVES
    FOR JESUS!

    Servants (5257)(huperetes from hupo = under, beneath + eretes = a rower) is literally and under oarsman and then a subordinate, a servant, an attendant (Lk 4:20), one who is in the service of another or an assistant in general. Huperetes describes a a helper who willingly submits himself to carrying out the will of the one over him. In John 7:32, 45, 46 it is used of the Temple "police" or guards.  The subordinate official who waits to accomplish the commands of his superior. In Classic Greek huperetes was a common sailor, distinguished from a naútes (3492), a seaman, sailor. These were the men down in the ship's, doing one thing -- rowing and with their eyes on one man, the man standing at the front of the hull, shouting "Row,Row, Row."! Servants of the word describes these men as focused on the word, listening and acting according to the word. "They not only had personal knowledge of the facts but also practical experience of the facts." (Plummer). 

    Given that Luke is a physician, it is interesting that huperetes was the word was used of medical assistants or attendants. 

    Marvin Vincent on huperetes used most commonly with the meaning of officer (Mt 5:25, etc) - Denoting a subordinate official, as a herald or an orderly, and in this sense applied to Mark as the “minister” or attendant of Paul and Barnabas (Acts 13:5). It furnishes an interesting instance of the expansion of a word from a limited and special meaning into a more general one; and also of the influence of the Gospel in lifting words into higher and purer associations. Formed with the verb eresso, to row, it originally signified a rower, as distinguished from a soldier, in a war-galley. This word for a galley-slave comes at last, in the hands of Luke and Paul, to stand for the noblest of all offices, that of a minister of the Lord Jesus (Luke 1:2; Acts 26:16; 1 Cor. 4:1). 

    Huperetes - 20x in 20v - Usage: attendant(1), helper(1), minister(1), officer(1), officers(13), servants(3). - Matt. 5:25; Matt. 26:58; Mk. 14:54; Mk. 14:65; Lk. 1:2; Lk. 4:20; Jn. 7:32; Jn. 7:45; Jn. 7:46; Jn. 18:3; Jn. 18:12; Jn. 18:18; Jn. 18:22; Jn. 18:36; Jn. 19:6; Acts 5:22; Acts 5:26; Acts 13:5; Acts 26:16; 1 Co. 4:1.

    Huperetes is found 2x in the Septuagint - Pr 14:35 (servant), Isa 32:5 (rogue)

    Servants of the word - The definitive article speaks of a specific word, the Word of God. A T Robertson rightly says "Here “the word” means the Gospel message, as in..."

    Acts 6:4  “But we will devote ourselves to prayer and to the ministry of the word.”

    Acts 8:4 Therefore, those who had been scattered went about preaching the word.

    Word (3055) (lógos/logos from légō = to speak with words; English = logic, logical) means something said and describes a communication whereby the mind finds expression in words. In the present context the word speaks of the Gospel message. 

    Luke uses the phrase the word as a synonym for the good news of Jesus -  Luke 5:1; 8:11–13, 15; Acts 6:4; 8:4, 14, 25; 10:36; 11:1, 19; 13:5, 7, 44; 14:25; 15:7; 16:6, 32; 17:11; 18:5; 19:10). 

    Luke documents the powerful effect of the good news of the Word several times in his writings - Luke 4:22; Acts 2:36–37; Acts 2:41, Acts 4:13–14 and the passages below...

    Acts 6:7 The word of God kept on spreading; and the number of the disciples continued to increase greatly in Jerusalem, and a great many of the priests were becoming obedient to the faith. 

    Acts 12:24 24  But the word of the Lord continued to grow and to be multiplied.

    Acts 19:20  So the word of the Lord was growing mightily and prevailing (was exercising force and efficacy). 

    I like H A Ironside's suggestion on the meaning of the Word...

    The last term may be either the word of the gospel, or perhaps we should capitalize it and read "the Word," thus referring to Him who, though the Eternal Word, became flesh for our redemption. Whether we think of Christ's servants as ministers of the written word or of the living Word, it comes to one and the same thing, for Christ is the theme of all Scripture. He is the gospel personified.

    Luke 1:3  it seemed fitting for me as well, having investigated everything carefully from the beginning, to write it out for you in consecutive order, most excellent Theophilus;

    Amplified   It seemed good and desirable to me, [and so I have determined] also after having searched out diligently and followed all things closely and traced accurately the course from the highest to the minutest detail from the very first, to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus,

    Barclay  I too made up my mind to carry out a careful investigation of all things from the beginning, and to write to you, Theophilus, your excellency, an orderly account of them

    CSB   It also seemed good to me, since I have carefully investigated everything from the very first, to write to you in orderly sequence, most honorable Theophilus,

    ESV  it seemed good to me also, having followed all things closely for some time past, to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus,

    GWN   I, too, have followed everything closely from the beginning. So I thought it would be a good idea to write an orderly account for Your Excellency, Theophilus.

    KJV   It seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, to write unto thee in order, most excellent Theophilus,

    NET  So it seemed good to me as well, because I have followed all things carefully from the beginning, to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus,

    NAB   I too have decided, after investigating everything accurately anew, to write it down in an orderly sequence for you, most excellent Theophilus,

    NIV  Therefore, since I myself have carefully investigated everything from the beginning, it seemed good also to me to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus,

    NKJV it seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding==> of all things from the very first, to write to you an orderly account, most excellent Theophilus,

    NLT   Having carefully investigated everything from the beginning, I also have decided to write a careful account for you, most honorable Theophilus,

    NJB   I in my turn, after carefully going over the whole story from the beginning, have decided to write an ordered account for you, Theophilus,

    Wuest - it seemed good to me also, having traced the course of all things from the beginning in the minutest detail, to write to you in a consecutive order, Your Excellency, Theophilus,

    YLT   it seemed good also to me, having followed from the first after all things exactly, to write to thee in order, most noble Theophilus,

    Warren Wiersbe - If ever a man wrote a book filled with good news for everybody, Dr. Luke is that man. His key message is, “For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost” (Luke 19:10). He presents Jesus Christ as the compassionate Son of man, who came to live among sinners, love them, help them, and die for them. In this Gospel you meet individuals as well as crowds, women and children as well as men, poor people as well as rich people, and sinners along with saints. It’s a book with a message for everybody, because Luke’s emphasis is on the universality of Jesus Christ and His salvation: “good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people” (Luke 2:10).

    It seemed fitting  - Luke used a similar phrase in Acts 15:22, 25, 28. In the Luke 1:1-2 Luke refers to writers and witnesses, but now he begins to describe his own writing (the Gospel of Luke). The Amplified translation emphasizes Luke's desire to pen an authoritative and historically reliable gospel - 

    It seemed good and desirable to me, [and so I have determined] also after having searched out diligently and followed all things closely and traced accurately the course from the highest to the minutest detail from the very first, to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus,

    NET NOTE on it seemed fitting (good, proper) - When Luke says it seemed good to me as well he is not being critical of the earlier accounts, but sees himself stepping into a tradition of reporting about Jesus to which he will add uniquely a second volume on the early church when he writes the Book of Acts.

    Robertson on it seemed good to me also (edoxe kamoi). - A natural conclusion and justification of Luke’s decision to write his narrative. They had ample reason to draw up their narratives. Luke has more reason to do so because of his fuller knowledge and wider scope. L

    For me - Luke never mentions his name in this Gospel but there is uniform agreement that Luke the beloved physician (Col 4:14-note). Acts 1:1 begins "The first account I composed, Theophilus, about all that Jesus began to do and teach," This leaves little doubt that he authored both this Gospel and the book of Acts.  The specific "Luke" is mentioned only 3 times in the NT - Col 4:14, 2 Ti 4:11, and Philemon 1:24. The fact that Luke was a physician accounts for Luke's use of elegant Greek and his attention to detail and accuracy. and traveled with Paul (see the “we” sections in Acts 16:10–17; 20:4–15; 21:1–18, and Acts 27:1–28:16). Luke was probably a Gentile a fact determined by comparing the following passages

    Col 4:11 and [also] Jesus who is called Justus; these are the only fellow workers for the kingdom of God who are from the circumcision (Jews), and they have proved to be an encouragement to me.

    Col 4:14 Luke, the beloved physician, sends you his greetings, and [also] Demas.

    LUKE'S EMPHASIS ON
    HISTORICAL ACCURACY

    Amplified version on investigated everything carefully - "also after having searched out diligently and followed all things closely and traced accurately the course from the highest to the minutest detail." The verb parakoloutheo "means to follow closely, and hence to trace accurately. See 2 Ti 3:10." (Vincent)

    The idea is that Luke became thoroughly familiar with the whole affair. Luke clearly was a meticulous historian, often giving details that helped identify the historical context of the events he described (Luke 1:5; 2:1, 2; 3:1, 2; 13:1–4).

    Investigated (3877)(parakoloutheo from para = near + akolouthéo = to follow) means literally to follow beside, to attend closely or to accompany side by side. It means to follow along a thing in mind, to trace carefully. Parakoloutheo combines the idea of understanding with that of practicing perseveringly. In Luke 1:3 the metaphorical sense is the following a course of action with the mind. In 1 Ti 4:6 and 2 Ti 3:10 parakoloutheo conveyed the picture of discipleship or faithfully following another's teaching with special action and concentration. 

    Robertson paraphrases parakoloutheo in Lk 1:3 - "He had mentally followed along by the side of these events. Galen used this verb for the investigation of symptoms. Luke got himself ready to write before he began by full and accurate knowledge of the subject."

    Vincent on use of parakoloutheo in 1 Ti 4:6 - To attend to or follow up, as a disease. So Plato, Rep. 406 B, παρακολουθῶν τῷ νοσήματι θανασίμῳ perpetually tending a mortal disease. To follow up a history or a succession of incidents, as Luke 1:3. The writer means that Timothy, as a disciple, has closely attended to his course of Christian instruction (cp similar use in 2 Ti 3:10).

    Everything - The Greek word pas means all without exception. The point is that Dr Luke studied the life of Jesus in comprehensive detail. 

    TRACED OUT IN
    THE MINUTEST DETAIL

    The Amplified translation is picturesque - "from the highest to the minutest detail."

    Carefully (accurately) (199)(akribos) is an adjective which describes that which is characterized by exactness, thoroughness, precision, accuracy in addition to the associated idea of looking, examining, and investigating something with great care and alertness. Akribos pertains to strict conformity to standard, involving both detail and completeness, with focus on careful attention. Luke sought to record the life of Jesus with meticulous attention to detail.

    Robertson adds that akribos "means going into minute details, from [akron], the topmost point."

    In classic Greek akribos was used by Galen to describe his accurate investigation before writing one of his works. Akribos was also used to indicate the accurate information gained by a doctor questioning the patient ("taking a medical history"). This would be a typical pattern for a man trained as a physician to observe and record details as when taking a history of the patient's symptoms and performing a physical examination in order to arrive at an accurate diagnosis.

    From the beginning - Luke begins with Jesus' birth and records details not found in the other Gospels.

    Warren Wiersbe has an interesting note on Luke's use of the word anothen in this verse - The phrase from the very first (Gk. anothen) can be translated “from above,” as it is in John 3:31 and Jn 19:11. It speaks of the inspiration of the Spirit of God on the message that Luke wrote.

    Steven Cole adds "Even though we who hold to the verbal inspiration of Scripture believe that Luke was inspired by the Holy Spirit, this does not mean that the Spirit dictated Luke’s message to him. Rather, the Spirit guided Luke as he carefully researched the history of Jesus’ life and ministry, and guided him as he wrote so that his words were exactly what God intended. Thus the inspiration of the Holy Spirit does not preclude the use of careful scholarship on Luke’s part." (Luke 1:1-4)

    James Smith - The only satisfactory explanation of the depth, purity, wisdom, and existence of the Bible, and is given in Luke 1:3. "From the very first," or "From another." ABOVE. The Greek word (Anothen) is rendered in other places "from above." Luke had derived much knowledge from eye-witnesses. And that knowledge had been confirmed by revelation. Yet Luke here claims a Heavenly origin for his Gospel. Luke's Gospel was not traditional, but by revelation as well as inspiration. (Handfuls of Purpose)

    From the beginning (509)(anothen from ano = above, upward, up + suffix "-then" = from) literally means from above with a secondary meaning of again. Anothen can speak of place or time.

    Of place =  from higher (Mt 27:51, Jn 19:23), referring to heaven from God (Jn 19:11, James 1:17, Jn 3:31 = "he who comes from above is above all", Lxx of Job 3:4). In John 3:3, 7 means to be born "from above" (but see following). Of wisdom from above (Jas 3:15, 17). Of the veil of the Temple torn from above (top to bottom - Mt 27:51, Mk 15:38). 

    Of time - Lk 1:3 (cp Acts 26:5 = "they have known about me for a long time").  In addition to meaning "born from above" John 3:3, 7 can mean born another time and this latter sense is how Nicodemus interprets it from his question in John 3:4. Many consider this an example of John's use of words that can have a double meaning (double entendre). 

    BDAG summary of anothen - (1). in extension fr. a source that is above, (Mk 15:38) (2). from a point of time marking the beginning of something (Lk 1:3), (3)  for a relatively long period in the past = for a long time (Acts 26:5) (4). at a subsequent point of time involving repetition = again, anew (Gal 4:9)

    Gilbrant In classical Greek anōthen indicates that which is “above.” Temporally it could indicate something from an earlier time and could mean “again.” Anōthen occurs over 21 times in the Septuagint. The Hebrew behind it is always a form of ‛al (or ma‛al), “height.” It is used of the “top” of the ark Noah built (Genesis 6:16). Anōthen is the direction of heaven (Genesis 27:39; 49:25; Jeremiah 4:28) and God (Job 3:4). It can also be used of putting something “over” something else (Numbers 4:6,25). (Complete Biblical Library Greek-English Dictionary)

    Friberg on anothen - adverb; (1) of place from above (Jn 3.31; perhaps Jn 3.3, 7); a;.from top to bottom (Mt 27.51); (2) of past time from an earlier period, from the beginning, from the first (Acts 26.5); (3) of future time, indicating repetition anew, again (Gal 4.9; probably Jn 3.3, 7) (Analytical Greek Lexicon)

    Anothen - 12x in 12v - Usage: above(5), again(2), all over(1), beginning(1), long time(1), top(2).

    Matthew 27:51  And behold, the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom; and the earth shook and the rocks were split.

    Mark 15:38  And the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom.

    Luke 1:3  it seemed fitting for me as well, having investigated everything carefully from the beginning, to write it out for you in consecutive order, most excellent Theophilus;

    John 3:3  Jesus answered and said to him, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God."

    William Barclay on anothen in this verse - When Jesus said that a man must be born anew Nicodemus misunderstood him, and the misunderstanding came from the fact that the word which the Revised Standard Version translates anew, the Greek word anothen, has three different meanings. (i) It can mean from the beginning, completely radically. (ii) It can mean again, in the sense of for the second time. (iii) It can mean from above, and, therefore, from God. It is not possible for us to get all these meanings into any English word; and yet all three of them are in the phrase born anew. To be born anew is to undergo such a radical change that it is like a new birth; it is to have something happen to the soul which can only be described as being born all over again; and the whole process is not a human achievement, because it comes from the grace and power of God. (John 3 Commentary)

    John 3:7  "Do not be amazed that I said to you, 'You must be born again.'

    John 3:31  "He who comes from above is above all, he who is of the earth is from the earth and speaks of the earth. He who comes from heaven is above all.

    John 19:11  Jesus answered, "You would have no authority over Me, unless it had been given you from above; for this reason he who delivered Me to you has the greater sin."

    Acts 26:5  since they have known about me for a long time, if they are willing to testify, that I lived as a Pharisee according to the strictest sect of our religion.

    Galatians 4:9  But now that you have come to know God, or rather to be known by God, how is it that you turn back again to the weak and worthless elemental things, to which you desire to be enslaved all over again?

    James 1:17  Every good thing given and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights, with whom there is no variation or shifting shadow.

    James 3:15  This wisdom is not that which comes down from above, but is earthly, natural, demonic.

    James 3:17  But the wisdom from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, reasonable, full of mercy and good fruits, unwavering, without hypocrisy.

    Anothen - 21x in the Septuagint - Gen. 6:16; 27:39; 49:25; Exod. 25:21f; 36:34; 37:20; 39:20, 31; 40:19; Num. 4:6, 25; 7:89; Jos. 3:16; 1 Ki. 7:3; Job 3:4; Isa. 45:8; Jer. 4:28; Ezek. 1:11, 26; 41:7

    Exodus 25:20  “The cherubim shall have [their] wings spread upward, (Heb - ma'al) covering the mercy seat with their wings and facing one another; the faces of the cherubim are to be [turned] toward the mercy seat.

    Numbers 7:89  Now when Moses went into the tent of meeting to speak with Him, he heard the voice speaking to him from above the mercy seat that was on the ark of the testimony, from between the two cherubim, so He spoke to him.

    Ezekiel 1:11  Such were their faces. Their wings were spread out above; each had two touching another [being,] and two covering their bodies.

    Consecutive order ("an orderly account" = NKJV) (2517)(kathexes from katá = according to + hexḗs = following) means in order, one after the other, successively; in an orderly fashion; successively, consecutively in connected order. Kathexes stresses orderly arrangement and sequence. It indicates one thing following after another in order. The word does not occur in the Septuagint. 

    BDAG says kathexes pertains "to being in sequence in time, space, or logic -- in order, one after the other."

    Friberg summarizes kathexes - adverb; (1) denoting sequence in time, space, or logic in order, one after the other, point by point (Lk 1.3); (2) substantivally, with the article oi` kathexes the successors, those since (Acts 3.24); (3) idiomatically en to kathexes = literally in the next, i.e. afterward, later (Lk 8.1) 

    In Luke 1:3 kathexes It could refer to topical order or chronological order.

    Robertson favors chronological order noting that "Chronological order in the main following Mark’s general outline. But in Lk 9:51 to Lk 18:10 the order is often topical. He has made careful investigation and his work deserves serious consideration." 

    Bock thinks it less likely a reference to chronological order and more topical = "more likely Luke intends a reference to the orderliness of the story and its persuasive, divinely wrought character."

    Kathexes - 5x in 5v - Usage: afterwards*(1), consecutive order(1), orderly sequence(1), successively(1), successors onward(1).

    Luke 1:3  it seemed fitting for me as well, having investigated everything carefully from the beginning, to write it out for you in consecutive order, most excellent Theophilus;

    Luke 8:1  Soon afterwards, He began going around from one city and village to another, proclaiming and preaching the kingdom of God. The twelve were with Him,

    Acts 3:24  "And likewise, all the prophets who have spoken, from Samuel and his successors onward, also announced these days.

    Acts 11:4  But Peter began speaking and proceeded to explain to them in orderly sequence, saying,

    Acts 18:23  And having spent some time there, he left and passed successively (in order of sequence - from place to place) through the Galatian region and Phrygia, strengthening all the disciples.

    NET NOTE on consecutive order - An orderly account does not necessarily mean that all events are recorded in the exact chronological sequence in which they occurred, but that the account produced is an orderly one. This could include, for example, thematic or topical order rather than strict chronological order. 

    John MacArthur - A good theologian is analytical, logical, and systematic. His goal is to persuade people to understand and accept doctrinal truth by means of a thoughtful, logical, progressive, consistent, persuasive explanation. Luke revealed himself to be a master theologian by writing his account in consecutive order. The New American Standard’s rendering implies that Luke’s gospel will be strictly chronological from beginning to end. Certainly it is generally chronological, starting with the birth of Christ, His circumcision and boyhood, moving on to His baptism and public ministry, and culminating with the cross and resurrection. (See the outline of Luke in the introduction in this volume.) There were instances, however, in which Luke arranged his material thematically to illustrate or expound a particular theological point (e.g., Luke’s record of John the Baptist’s arrest, Lk 3:15–20). So Luke’s narrative exhibits a basic chronological flow, but not to the exclusion of thematic, doctrinal discussion, in which he uses material out of chronological sequence. So the phrase in consecutive order is better understood as a reference to the logical, systematic nature of Luke’s writing. The New King James Version’s translation of this phrase, “an orderly account,” captures the essence of Luke’s purpose in writing. His goal was to persuade; to lead his readers to believe the gospel by means of his carefully researched, logical, systematic presentation of the truth concerning God’s saving purpose in Christ. (Luke Commentary)

    Gotquestions Who was Theophilus at the beginning of Luke and Acts?

    A T Robertson on most excellent Theophilus - The name means god-lover or god-beloved. He may have been a believer already. He was probably a Gentile. Ramsay holds that “most excellent” was a title like “Your Excellency” and shows that he held office, perhaps a Knight. So of Felix (Acts 23:26) and Festus (Acts 26:25). The adjective does not occur in the dedication in Acts 1:1.

    Most excellent - This suggests whoever this was, he was in the upper class of society. This is great news for those who are wealthy in this world but poor in regard to the next world! Jesus said "It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God." (Mk 10:25). But Luke seems to imply in this passage and Jesus thankfully declared "With men it is impossible, but not with God; for all things are possible with God." (Mk 10:27)

    Most excellent (2903)(kratistos superlative from kratus = strong) is an honorary way to address high officials. Most noble. BDAG - "strongly affirmative honorary form of address." Used to address Theophilus, Claudius (Acts 23:26), Felix (Acts 24:3) and Festus (Acts 26:25).

    Thomas Constable - The use of "most excellent" (Gr. kratiste) suggests that Theophilus was a real person of some distinction (cf. Acts 23:26; Acts 24:3; Acts 26:25). The name was common in the Greek world. He may have been Luke"s patron or publisher. (Expository Notes on Luke)

    Luke 1:4  so that you may know the exact truth about the things you have been taught.

    Amplified [My purpose is] that you may know the full truth and understand with certainty and security against error the accounts (histories) and doctrines of the faith of which you have been informed and in which you have been orally instructed.

    Barclay  - so that you might have in your mind a full and reliable account of the things in which you have been instructed.

    CSB  so that you may know the certainty of the things about which you have been instructed.

    ESV   that you may have certainty concerning the things you have been taught.

    GWN   In this way you will know that what you've been told is true.

    KJV   That thou mightest know the certainty of those things, wherein thou hast been instructed.

    NET   so that you may know for certain the things you were taught.

    NAB   so that you may realize the certainty of the teachings you have received.

    NIV  so that you may know the certainty of the things you have been taught.

    NKJV  that you may know the certainty of those things in which you were instructed.

    NLT  so you can be certain of the truth of everything you were taught.

    Wuest -  in order that you may come to have a full and accurate experiential knowledge concerning the undoubted truth of the matters in which you were instructed.

    YLT   that thou mayest know the certainty of the things wherein thou wast instructed.

    LUKE'S PURPOSE FOR
    HIS GOSPEL

    So that (hina) introduces a purpose clause. Whenever you encounter a "so what" seek to determine the author's purpose (see discussion of the value of observing and interrogating terms of purpose or result). 

    Plummer - “Theophilus shall know that the faith which he has embraced has an impregnable historical foundation” 

    Luke wants to give Theophilus a bedrock certainty by supplying him with a historically verified and completely accurate account of the life of Jesus. He does not just want him to know ABOUT Jesus, but to truly and deeply and personally know Jesus. Ultimately the truth of Luke's Gospel would serve to under gird the faith of Theophilus (and all of us) in line with Paul's conclusion 

    So faith comes from hearing, and hearing by the word of Christ (the word about Christ the Living Word!). (Ro 10:17)

    John and Peter had a similar aim for their readers...

    John 20:31 but these have been written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing you may have life in His name.

    2 Peter 1:15; 16  And I will also be diligent that (so that - ESV) at any time after my departure you will be able to call these things to mind. For we did not follow cleverly devised tales when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of His majesty.

    You may know (1921)(epiginosko from epí means upon but here intensifies the force of verb + ginosko = to know) (noun epignosis) means to know fully, to know with certainty, to become thoroughly acquainted with. Epiginosko means to possess more or less definite information about, and can imply a degree of thoroughness. To recognize a thing to be what it really is. The prefix "epi-" means upon so the idea can also be knowledge in addition to what Theophilus already possesses. Epi- also emphasizes a directive knowledge.

    Amplified has "know the full truth and understand with certainty and security against error." Wuest has " the undoubted truth."

    Luke is clearly going to great lengths in this preface to accentuate the complete accuracy of his historical record of the ministry of Jesus Christ, so it behooves to ponder deeply and often the words of this Gospel (as should of course be our attitude toward all the Gospels!).

    NET NOTE on exact truth - Or "know the truth about"; or "know the certainty of." The issue of the context is psychological confidence; Luke's work is trying to encourage Theophilus. So in English this is better translated as "know for certain" than "know certainty" or "know the truth," which sounds too cognitive. "Certain" assumes the truth of the report....The meaning "have assurance concerning" is also possible here.

    Exact truth (803)(asphaleia from a = without + sphallo = to totter or fall) is a noun which means "make no slip" and describes that which displays firmness, security, safety. It can speak of a stable circumstance (safety, security), of detention that restricts movement (Acts 5:23) or figuratively of a stable statement (certainty, truth) as in Luke 1:4.

    Vincent - From ἀ, not, and σφάλλομαι, to fall. Hence steadfastness, stability, security against error.

    Friberg - literally, a state of being secured from falling firmness, safety, security (1Th 5.3); as a legal technical term for keeping a prisoner securely guarded security (Acts 5.23); figuratively, of what qualified instruction affords certainty, truth, reliability (Lk 1.4)

    There are two other uses in the NT

    Acts 5:23 saying, "We found the prison house locked quite securely and the guards standing at the doors; but when we had opened up, we found no one inside."

    1 Thessalonians 5:3 While they are saying, "Peace and safety!" then destruction will come upon them suddenly like labor pains upon a woman with child, and they will not escape.

    Asphaleia - 9x in the Septuagint - Lev. 26:5; Deut. 12:10; Ps. 104:5; Prov. 8:14; Prov. 11:15; Prov. 28:17; Isa. 8:15; Isa. 18:4; Isa. 34:15

    Deuteronomy 12:10 “When you cross the Jordan and live in the land which the LORD your God is giving you to inherit, and He gives you rest from all your enemies around [you] so that you live in security,

    Darrell Bock adds this note on asphaleia -  The word asphaleian, translated as “certainty” in the HCSB (Ed: And most of the other modern translations - see above), can be misunderstood by modern readers. In our age, people often think “scientific proof” when they hear someone talk about a quest for certainty. Raise the temperature of tap water to 212º F on your stovetop, for instance, and if you are at sea level you can know with certainty that it will boil. We cannot demonstrate the Bible in so sure a fashion. Nevertheless, Bible readers can be assured when reading the NT accounts that the sources accurately describe Jesus, both his teachings and his actions. The term “certainty” refers to assurance, a kind of emotional confidence, not absolute proof. That assurance was rooted in the diligent way Luke pursued his sources for Jesus’ life. This reassurance was Luke’s purpose in writing. (Holman Apologetics Commentary on the Bible)

    The things (lógos/logos) - "Literally “words,” the details of the words in the instruction." (Robertson)

    Vincent on the things - Properly words (so Wyc.), which Rev. gives in margin. If the word can mean thing at all, it is only in the sense of the thing spoken of; the subject or matter of discourse, in which sense it occurs often in classical Greek. Some render it accounts, histories; others, doctrines of the faith. Godet translates instruction, and claims that not only the facts of the Gospel, but the exposition of the facts with a view to show their evangelical meaning and to their appropriation by faith, are included in the word. There is force in this idea; and if we hold to the meaning histories, or even words, this sense will be implied in the context. Luke has drawn up his account in order that Theophilus may have fuller knowledge concerning the accounts which he has heard by word of mouth. That his knowledge may go on from the facts, to embrace their doctrinal and evangelical import; that he may see the facts of Jesus’ life and ministry as the true basis of the Gospel of salvation.

    You have been taught - This indicates Theophilus had some knowledge of the truth about Jesus (whether a "God fearing" Gentile and not yet born again or a young convert we do not know) but Luke was writing "know the full truth and understand with certainty and security against error the accounts (histories) and doctrines of the faith." Luke's words in this passage remind me of Paul's words to Titus which speak of the stabilizing effect of the Word as he instructed Titus to select men who would hold "fast the faithful (trustworthy) word which is in accordance with the teaching (this is what Luke begins to propound to Theophilus), so that (term of purpose or result) he will be able (empowered) both to exhort in sound doctrine and to refute those who contradict." Theophilus would hold the Word recorded by Luke and that trustworthy Word would hold him when his faith was assaulted by error and persecution.

    NET Note on have been taught, katecho - This term can refer merely to a report of information (Acts 21:24) or to instruction (Acts 18:25). The scope of Luke's Gospel as a whole, which calls for perseverance in the faith and which assumes much knowledge of the OT, suggests Theophilus had received some instruction and was probably a believer. 

    Have been taught (2727)(katecheo from katá = down or intensive + echeo = sound, our English "echo") means to literally to resound, to sound down on or into the ears. From this the derived meaning is “to inform” or “to instruct orally (to the ears).” (Cf. 1 Cor. 14:9; Acts 21:21, 24; 18:25; Gal. 6:6) The idea is to re-sound, to re-echo, to teach by by insistent repetition into the ears as the Arabs do when learning the Koran (learning aloud). This word speaks of systematic teaching which is the basis of the critical discrimination and discernment. Katecheo was used to describe basic Christian instruction for new converts (Early Church Fathers writings - 2 Clement 17:1). The use of this word suggest that one of Luke's goals was to establish Theophilus in the faith and certainly this is one of the benefits for all believers of reading and meditating on this Gospel.

    A B Bruce on Katecho - The word used here in a technical sense = formally and systematically instructed, or in the general sense of "have been informed more or less correctly"? (So Kypke.) The former is more probable. (Expositor's Greek Testament)

    English word - catechisis

    Robertson adds that "Those men doing the teaching were called catechists and those receiving it were called catechumens. Whether Theophilus was still a catechumen is not known. This Preface by Luke is in splendid literary Koiné and is not surpassed by those in any Greek writer (Herodotus, Thucydides, Polybius). It is entirely possible that Luke was familiar with this habit of Greek historians to write prefaces since he was a man of culture.

    John MacArthur remarks that "In the remarkable providence of God, the Holy Spirit ensured that the book Luke wrote initially to one man ("most excellent Theophilus") would be disseminated around the world. The "beloved physician," (Col 4:14) historian, theologian, and pastor had the privilege of becoming the instrument God used for the salvation and edification of millions throughout history (cf. Luke 24:44–53)."

    Beloved, may this thought be an encouragement to all of us! to not grow weary in doing good. "Whatever you do, do your work heartily, as for the Lord rather than for men, knowing that from the Lord you will receive the reward of the inheritance. It is the Lord Christ Whom you serve."  (Col 3:23-24) In this short lifetime, none of us will ever fully grasp what will be the eternal impact of God's work done in God's will for God's glory

    Steven Cole has this conclusion to Luke's preface or prologue - J. C. Philpot wrote, "Right views concerning Christ are indispensable to a right faith, and a right faith is indispensable to salvation. To stumble at the foundation, is, concerning faith, to make shipwreck altogether; for as Immanuel, God with us, is the grand Object of faith, to err in views of His eternal Deity, or to err in views of His sacred humanity, is alike destructive (cited in “Free Grace Broadcaster,” Fall 1997, p. 19)." After careful research based on many eyewitnesses, Luke wrote his Gospel to show that Jesus is the eternal God who came in human flesh to seek and to save those who are lost. Faith in Jesus Christ is rooted in the accurate historical record that has come down to us in Luke’s Gospel. It is not an optional idea that you might want to consider if it grabs you. It is absolute truth to be believed and handed on to others. (Luke 1:1-4)

    Luke 1:5  In the days of Herod, king of Judea, there was a priest named Zacharias, of the division of Abijah; and he had a wife from the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth.

    IN THE DAYS OF HEROD:
    DARK DAYS SPIRITUALLY

    John Hannah outlines this next section:

       The annunciations  (Luke 1:5-56)

    The announcement of the birth of John  (Luke 1:5-25)

    The parents of John  (Luke 1:5-7)
    The promise of John  (Luke 1:8-23)
    The prospect of John  (Luke 1:24-25)

    The announcement of the birth of the Son of Man  (Luke 1:26-38)

    The appearance of the angel  (Luke 1:26-29)
    The message of the angel  (Luke 1:30-33)
    The reassurance of the angel  (Luke 1:34-38)

    The assurance of the promised births  (Luke 1:39-56)

    The arrival and salutation of Mary  (Luke 1:39-40)
    The song of Elizabeth  (Luke 1:41-45)
    The song of Mary  (Luke 1:46-55)
    The return of Mary  (Luke 1:56)

    The days of Herod - This gives us the historical context and is a reference to Herod I also known as Herod the Great, who played a major role in several events in the early life of Christ. These days of Herod would be toward the end of his rule Easton's Bible Dictionary noting that "After a troubled reign of thirty-seven years, he died at Jericho amid great agonies both of body and mind, B.C. 4, i.e., according to the common chronology, in the year in which Jesus was born." It is interesting that Herod was not a Jew but an Idumean (Edomite). See Map of the Kingdom of Herod the Great - note that Idumea is south of Jerusalem.

    Warren Wiersbe comments that "It was indeed a dark day for the nation of Israel. The people had heard no prophetic Word from God for 400 years, not since Malachi had promised the coming of Elijah (Mal. 4:5–6). The spiritual leaders were shackled by tradition and, in some instances, corruption; and their king, Herod the Great, was a tyrant. He had nine (some say ten) wives, one of whom he had executed for no apparent reason. But no matter how dark the day, God always has His devoted and obedient people." (Bible Exposition Commentary)

    Holman Bible Dictionary - Herod the Great.

    Herod the Great was born about the year 73 B.C. and was a son of the desert, well adapted to the political intrigues of ambition, lust for power, and efficiency at warfare. He made a trip to Rome and was confirmed by the Senate as “king of Judea” in the year 40 B.C. He routed some persistently threatening robber bands in Galilee and gained the esteem of the Romans and even the support of some of the Jews by his decisive action. He finally brought Jerusalem under his control in the year 37 B.C.

    His rule of Judea is usually divided into three periods: (a) The Period of Consolidation (37-25 B.C.), (b) The Period of Prosperity (25-13 B.C.), and (c) The Period of Domestic Troubles (13-4 B.C.).

    During the period of consolidation, he had many adversaries, coming from at least four fronts. Jewish people refused to support him because he was not a full-blooded Jew, but a descendant of Esau. Herod also had difficulties with the Hasmonean family. See Hasmoneans. Chief among them was Alexandra, the evil and vicious daughter of Hyrcanus II. She interceded with Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt, who brought pressure on Mark Antony in an effort to put Herod under her control. This constant intrigue multiplied as time progressed.

    Charges were brought against various members of the family. Within a short time Herod had executed Hyrcanus II, the son of Alexandra Salome who had returned from exile, Hyrcanus' daughter Alexandra, and her daughter Mariamne I, who was also Herod's favorite wife, the one whom he deeply and passionately loved. Mariamne had Maccabean blood flowing through her veins, was most beautiful, and Herod's hopes for establishing a dynasty rested with her and their two sons, Alexander and Aristobulus. Suspicious that Miriamne committed adultery and that her sons would use their Maccabean lineage for political advantage, Herod had them put to death. Herod also had executed Aristobulus III, son of Alexandra and brother of Mariamne soon after he was appointed by Herod to be high priest. Herod had him drowned at a celebration in Jericho soon after his inauguration.

    Herod also faced an adversary in the person of Cleopatra, the famous queen of Egypt, but his craftiness enabled him to maintain his independence from her. Herod was successful in ingratiating himself to the Romans. By sheer force of personality and lack of hesitancy in executing even the close members of his own family, he strengthened his position as undisputed ruler of Palestine under the permission of Roman authority.

    The second period of Herod's life involved the prosperity of his vast building programs. With the aid of the Romans the territory was extended to what had been unparalleled since the reign of Solomon (died 931 B.C.). His taxation of the people to support his building activity was extensive, but he virtually rebuilt every city in the land, even constructing entire cities from the ground up. He also built many palaces for himself.

    Soon the now nearly four hundred-year-old Temple of Zerubbabel was pale in contrast to the magnificence of his new palaces and structures in Jerusalem. In the year 19 B.C. he embarked on an extensive remodeling of the Temple, which captured the imagination of the world of that day. It was frequently said that if one had not seen Herod's Temple, he had never seen a truly beautiful building (compare John 2:19-20 ).

    The periods of Herod's life overlapped to some degree, but it was from the years 13-4 B.C. that his domestic troubles intensified and preoccupied him. Antipater, his firstborn son, and Salome, his sister, continually agitated the household and brought accusations against Alexander and Aristobulus, the sons of Herod and Mariamne. Finally, the charges of sedition could not be ignored. Herod brought charges against them before the Emperor in the year 12 B.C. Herod finally gave the order, and in 7 B.C. they were carried to Sebaste (Samaria) and strangled. Antipater continued to be an ambitious thorn in Herod's side. On his deathbed Herod gave the orders to execute Antipater, fearing that he would take the throne even before Herod himself died. Antipater was executed immediately. Herod himself died five days later (4 B.C.). He was seventy years old, a man racked with ill health and mental deterioration, now thought by some to be a form of progressive arteriosclerosis. He had reigned for 37 years since his confirmation by the Senate and 34 years since his capture of Jerusalem.

    Herod, of course, was king of Judea under the Roman authority when Jesus was born in Bethlehem (Matthew 2:1 ). He received the Wise Men and sent them on to the Christ child with orders to return to him and let him know where he could find the newly born “King of the Jews” (Matthew 2:2-8 ). He gave the orders to kill the babies of Bethlehem two years old and under, in hopes of getting this One whom he saw as a successor to his throne (Matthew 2:16 ).

    Herod had several wills. His final one designated Archelaus to succeed him as king of Judea (Matthew 2:22 ), another son Antipas to be tetrarch (governor) of Galilee and Perea, and another son Philip as tetrarch of the Northeastern Districts. The Romans banished Archelaus after a ten-year rule, and the kingdom was then transformed into an Imperial Province of the Roman Empire with Coponius as the first procurator (governor). Antipas continued to rule Galilee and Perea and was the one who had John the Baptist put to death (Matthew 14:1-12 ; Mark 6:16-29 ; Luke 9:9 ). Also, Jesus appeared before him during his trial, as Pilate the procurator sent Jesus to him for a possible decision (Luke 23:6-12 ). (Herod)

    Zacharias -  his name means “Yahweh has remembered” and considering they were barren in their old age one might have posited that Yahweh had forgotten them (child were considered a blessing). But Luke's record of God's providential working in the life of the godly Zacharias and Elizabeth emphasizes that indeed Yahweh remembered!

    William MacDonald - Zacharias was a priest belonging to the division of Abijah, one of the twenty-four shifts into which the Jewish priesthood had been divided by David (1 Chr 24:10). Each shift was called on to serve at the temple in Jerusalem twice a year from Sabbath to Sabbath. There were so many priests at this time that the privilege of burning incense in the Holy Place came only once in a lifetime, if at all." (Believer's Bible Commentary)

    Related Resources:

    Of the division of Abijah - "Luke’s note that Zacharias was part of the division of Abijah does not necessarily indicate that he was a descendant of Abijah. David, Zadok, and Ahimelech had organized the priesthood into twenty-four divisions (cf. 1 Chron. 24:4-19), the eighth of which was that of Abijah (v. 10). But after the Babylonian captivity, only four of the twenty-four priestly divisions returned to Judah (Ezra 2:36-38). For the sake of tradition, however, the Jews wanted twenty-four divisions, so the leaders divided the remaining four divisions into twenty-four and restored the former names to them. So Zacharias, while probably not in the family line of Abijah (Abijah was not one of the divisions that returned after the exile), nevertheless served in the division that bore his name." (John MacArthur - Luke Commentary)

    NET Note on division of Abijah - There were twenty-four divisions of priesthood and the priestly division of Abijah was eighth on the list according to 1 Chr 24:10.

    Division (2183)(ephemeria from ephemeros = on or by the day) literally means daily order or course of duty; hence daily service of the temple. BDAG adds that ephemeria referred to "a class of priests who performed daily (hence the name) duties for a fixed period in the temple at Jerusalem." In the NT, this word is used only here and in Luke 1:8.

    Gilbrant on ephemeria in the Septuagint (see uses below) - Ephēmeria is a compound word literally meaning “daily” (epi [1894], “by” or “on,” + hēmera [2232], “day”). This word does not appear before the First Century B.C. in classical Greek but it is used in the Septuagint in two ways. It can mean either the “service rendered by the priests” (1 Chronicles 25:8; 2 Chronicles 13:10; Nehemiah 13:30) or ephēmeria can stand for a “division” or “class” of priests (1 Chronicles 23:6; 28:13). 1 Chronicles 24:1-19 indicates there were 24 divisions of priests. Each division was composed of four to nine families, all of which traced their lineage to Aaron. Several of these classes never returned from exile (Jedaiah, Immer, Pashur, Harim). Consequently, to preserve the divisions the remaining families were divided into 24 groups. For this reason Josephus could refer to the four families of priests (Against Apion 2.8). Due to the large number of priests in each ephēmeria, it was necessary to determine which priest in a division would serve (offer incense) in the temple on a given day. The opportunity to offer incense came but once in a lifetime (Mishnah Tamid 5:2). This selection was accomplished through the casting of lots....Zechariah (Zacharias) had been chosen to offer incense in the temple. This honor had come late in life for him. Yet Zechariah’s service would be long remembered due to the promise which was given to him in the temple.
    Complete Biblical Library Greek-English Dictionary, The - The Complete Biblical Library Greek-English Dictionary – Delta-Epsilon. (Complete Biblical Library Greek-English Dictionary)

    Ephemeria - 21x in 19v in the Septuagint - 1 Chr. 9:33; 23:6; 25:8; 26:12; 28:1, 13, 21; 2 Chr. 5:11; 13:10; 23:8, 18; 31:2, 15ff; 35:4; Neh. 12:9, 24; 13:30

    Vincent explains that the word for division (ephemeria) was literally "daily service. The college of priests was divided into twenty-four courses (divisions). Each of these did duty for eight days, from one Sabbath to another, once every six months (Ed: In other words served only two one-week periods each year). The service of the week was subdivided among the various families which constituted a course (division). On Sabbaths the whole course (division) was on duty. On feast-days any priest might come up and join in the ministrations of the sanctuary; and at the Feast of Tabernacles all the twenty-four courses (divisions) were bound to be present and officiate. The course (division) of Abijah was the eighth of the twenty-four. See 1 Chr 24:10."

    Elizabeth - her name means “God is my oath.”

    Wife from the daughters of Aaron - Elizabeth was from priestly lineage.

    A T Robertson -"To be a priest and married to a priest’s daughter was a double distinction” (Plummer). Like a preacher married to a preacher’s daughter."

    MacArthur - "Priests were expected to marry an Israelite woman who was a virgin (cf. Lev. 21:7, 14; Ezek. 44:22). Zacharias went beyond that, however, and chose his wife from the daughters of Aaron. She was named Elizabeth, after Aaron’s wife, a name that means “My God is an oath” and celebrates the faithfulness of God. Since all qualified male descendants of Aaron were priests (Ex. 29:9; 40:13-15; Lev. 21:17-23; Num. 3:3; 18:7), she was familiar with the priesthood; most of the men in her family would have been priests."  (Ibid)

    Spurgeon's exposition - You have here a very interesting couple, Zacharias and Elisabeth, a priest with a wife. I have often marveled why the Church of Rome should think it wrong that priests should be married, when it is evident that the priests under the law were so. The priests had grown so numerous that there was not room for them all to work at the Temple at one time; they were divided into twenty-four courses, and Zacharias would, therefore, come up to Jerusalem for a fortnight to take his share of the service. Zacharias and Elisabeth were notable for excellence of character: “They were both righteous before God.” Not only did they stand high in the esteem of men, but the great God, who reads the hearts of all, and sees how they live in secret, reckoned them to be righteous: “They were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments”-that is, in the moral precepts of the law-“and ordinances”-that is in the ceremonial rites-“ of the Lord blameless.”

    Barclay on Zacharias - Every direct descendant of Aaron was automatically a priest. That meant that for all ordinary purposes there were far too many priests. They were therefore divided into twenty-four sections. Only at the Passover, at Pentecost and at the Feast of Tabernacles did all the priests serve. For the rest of the year each course served two periods of one week each. Priests who loved their work looked forward to that week of service above all things; it was the highlight of their lives. A priest might marry only a woman of absolutely pure Jewish lineage. It was specially meritorious to marry a woman who was also a descendant of Aaron, as was Elizabeth, the wife of Zacharias. There were as many as 20,000 priests altogether and so there were not far short of 1,000 in each section. Within the sections all the duties were allocated by lot. Every morning and evening sacrifice was made for the whole nation. A burnt offering of a male lamb, one year old, without spot or blemish was offered, together with a meat offering of flour and oil and a drink offering of wine. Before the morning sacrifice and after the evening sacrifice incense was burned on the altar of incense so that, as it were, the sacrifices might go up to God wrapped in an envelope of sweet-smelling incense. It was quite possible that many a priest would never have the privilege of burning incense all his life; but if the lot did fall on any priest, that day was the greatest day in all his life, the day he longed for and dreamed of. On this day the lot fell on Zacharias and he would be thrilled to the core of his being. (Luke 1)

    Luke 1:6  They were both righteous in the sight of God, walking blamelessly in all the commandments and requirements of the Lord.

    • righteous (KJV): Lu 16:15 Ge 6:9 7:1 17:1 Job 1:1,8 9:2 Ro 3:9-25 Php 3:6-9 Tit 3:3-7 
    • walking (KJV): 1Ki 9:4 2Ki 20:3 Ps 119:6 Ac 23:1 24:16 1Co 11:2 2Co 1:12 Php 3:6 Tit 2:11-14 1Jn 2:3,29 3:7 
    • blameless (KJV): Php 2:15 Col 1:22 1Th 3:13 2Pe 3:14 
    • Verse-by-Verse - Multiple Commentaries - Luke 1:6 Commentaries
    • Multiple commentaries and sermons on Luke 1

    Greek - esan (3PIAI) de dikaioi amphoteroi (both) enantion (in the sight of) tou theou poreuomenoi (PAP) en pasais tais entolais kai dikaiomasin tou kuriou amemptoi

    ESV And they were both righteous before God, walking blamelessly in all the commandments and statutes of the Lord.

    KJV  And they were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless.

    NET  They were both righteous in the sight of God, following all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blamelessly.

    NLT  Zechariah and Elizabeth were righteous in God's eyes, careful to obey all of the Lord's commandments and regulations.

    YLT and they were both righteous before God, going on in all the commands and righteousnesses of the Lord blameless,

    THEY WERE BOTH RIGHTEOUS IN THE SIGHT OF GOD - Zechariah (Zacharias) and Elizabeth. Notice carefully that they were described not as righteous in the sight of men but in the sight of God which is the only righteous standing that counts in time and eternity! (Contrast the parable picturing two classes of righteousness - Luke 18:9-14 one righteous in his own eyes and the other humble before the Lord.) Now how were they righteous? Christ had not yet been crucified as a payment for sin. Justification is by faith not works, so clearly they were declared righteous because of their faith. But faith in Who because again Jesus had not yet been crucified? As Paul implies in Galatians these two saints who lived prior to the crucifixion of Jesus were saved (justified, declared righteous) the same way Abraham was justified (Gal 3:6-note). In some way the Scriptures had preached the Gospel to Zacharias and Elizabeth, just as the Scripture had preached the Gospel to Abraham (Gal 3:8-note)! They were looking with eyes of faith (cp 2 Cor 5:7) forward to the Cross, whereas believers today look back in faith to the same rugged Cross, both attaining justification by faith in Jesus.

    Spurgeon - You have here a very interesting couple, Zacharias and Elisabeth, a priest with a wife. I have often marveled why the Church of Rome should think it wrong that priests should be married, when it is evident that the priests under the law were so. The priests had grown so numerous that there was not room for them all to work at the Temple at one time; they were divided into twenty-four courses, and Zacharias would, therefore, come up to Jerusalem for a fortnight to take his share of the service. Zacharias and Elisabeth were notable for excellence of character: “They were both righteous before God.” Not only did they stand high in the esteem of men, but the great God, who reads the hearts of all, and sees how they live in secret, reckoned them to be righteous: “They were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments”-that is, in the moral precepts of the law-“and ordinances”-that is in the ceremonial rites-“ of the Lord blameless.”.....There have been some good people who have lived in very bad times; never was there a worse reign than that of Herod; seldom or never a better man and woman than Zacharias and Elisabeth. Let no man excuse himself for sinning because of the times in which he lives. (ED: A GREAT EXHORTATION FOR ALL OF US IN A WORLD SEEMINGLY DROWNING IN SIN! THAT IS NOT AN EXCUSE FOR US TO JOIN THEM!) You may be rich in grace when others around you have none, even as Gideon’s fleece was wet with dew when the whole floor was dry. God help us, in these evil days, to be “righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless”!

    J R Miller - We have a picture here, of the godly home—yet the times were not favorable to this. It is not hard to live a beautiful life amid kindly and favoring circumstances. If a child has a sweet home with only gentle influences about it—an atmosphere of love and prayer—it is not strange that the child's life grows up into beauty. On the other hand, if the home is cold and unkindly, without love and prayer and godliness, it seems to us almost a miracle if a child grows up in it loving God and with a true and beautiful character. The "time of Herod" were not times when it was easy to be godly. The times were ungodly and the prevailing spirit was unrighteous. The holy lives which we find here in this story—are like lamps shining in the darkness. Amid the almost universal corruption of the priesthood, and the hypocrisy of the Pharisees; this old priest and his wife lived in piety and godly simplicity. The lesson is, that we may be holy and may live saintly lives—though everyone around us is evil. We need not be like those among whom we live. No matter how corrupt the times, or how unholy the influences, we ought always to strive to be holy and pure. (Devotional Hours with the Bible)

    It is worth noting that (1) God had been silent for 400 years and (2) this was a time of godlessness and great hypocrisy among the religious leadership. And yet in spite of these facts, this couple choose to faithfully obey the Word of the God and to live blamelessly. This godly couple reminds me of Paul's exhortation to the saints at Philippi 

    Do (present imperative = command to make this their habitual practice, something only possible by daily dying to self and relying wholly on the Holy Spirit) all things without grumbling or disputing (Ed: How easy it is to stumble over the hurdles of grumbling or disputing! It is "impossible" but praise God it is "Him-possible!" - the enabling power of the indwelling Spirit - outlined in the previous passage - Phil 2:13NLT-note); so that (term of purpose or result) you will prove yourselves to be blameless and innocent, children of God above reproach in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation, among whom you appear as lights in the world (Zacharias and Elizabeth were supernaturally radiant lights!), holding fast the Word of life, so that (term of purpose or result - the result of holding the Word is that it will hold you when the going becomes difficult) in the day of Christ I will have reason to glory because I did not run in vain nor toil in vain. (Phil 2:14-16-note)

    MacArthur observes that "There is a clear echo of Pauline theology in this expression (both righteous in the sight of God.)"

    Righteous (1342)(dikaios from dike = right, just) defines that which is in accordance with high standards of rectitude. All Luke's 17 uses -  Lk. 1:6; Lk. 1:17; Lk. 2:25; Lk. 5:32; Lk. 12:57; Lk. 14:14; Lk. 15:7; Lk. 18:9; Lk. 20:20; Lk. 23:47; Lk. 23:50; Acts 3:14; Acts 4:19; Acts 7:52; Acts 10:22; Acts 22:14; Acts 24:15. 

    Dikaios is that which is in right relation to another and so in reference to persons defines the one who is morally and ethically righteous, upright or just. Luke uses this same adjective in the next chapter to describe Simon

    And behold, there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon; and this man was righteous and devout, looking for (prosdechomai in the present tense = the habit of his life) the consolation (paraklesis - encouragement - ultimately a Person, Christ Jesus) of Israel; and the Holy Spirit was upon him. (Luke 2:25-see note)

    Comment: Like Zacharias and Elizabeth, Simeon was saved by grace through faith and having undergone a "spiritual circumcision" of his heart, his eyes were no longer "horizontally focused" (on the things which are temporal and a world which is passing away and even its lusts - 2 Cor 4:18-note, 1 John 2:17-note) but "vertically focused" (see discussion of "Vertical Vision"), looking for the consolation of Israel for he loved His appearing (2 Ti 4:8-note). What (Who) you are looking for will determine what (Who) you are living for!

    Paul alludes to this in Romans 3:25-note describing Christ "Whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation in His blood through faith. This was to demonstrate His righteousness, because in the forbearance (anoche) of God He passed over the sins previously committed."  So while Zechariah and Elizabeth were declared righteous prior to the Cross, Paul says "in the forbearance of God He passed over the sins previously committed." In other words they were saved on credit so to speak. 

    Comment - From Adam to Christ, God saved those who put their faith in Him on the basis of whatever revelation He gave them. Abraham, for example, believed God, and it was reckoned to him for righteousness (Gen. 15:6). But how could God do this righteously? A sinless Substitute had not been slain. The blood of a perfect Sacrifice had not been shed. In a word, Christ had not died. The debt had not been paid. God’s righteous claims had not been met. How then could God save believing sinners in the OT period (Zechariah and Elizabeth would still be considered in the "OT period")?  The answer is that although Christ had not yet died, the omniscient God knew that He would die, and therefore He saved men on the basis of the still-future work of Christ. Even if OT saints didn’t know about Calvary, God knew about it, and He put all the value of Christ’s work to their account (logizomai = "reckoned" as in Gal 3:6-note) when they believed God. In a very real sense, OT believers were saved on credit. They were saved on the basis of a price of redemption which was yet to be paid in full at Calvary (cp Jn 19:30-note "It is finished" = "Paid it Full" =  tetelestai). The OT saints looked forward to Calvary whereas we look back to it. So the OT period was a time of the forbearance of God. For at least 4000 years He held back His judgment on sin. Then in the fullness of time He sent His Son to be the Sin-bearer. When the Lord Jesus took our sins upon Himself, God unleashed the full fury of His righteous, holy wrath on the Son of His love. The whole OT is a testimony to the truth that God is "slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love and faithfulness, keeping steadfast love for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin" (Ex 34:6-7).

    Herbert Lockyer - To Old Testament saints the promised blessing of redemption was future—they obtained it, but not within the limits of this present life. They had it "on credit."  (All the Promises of the Bible)

    MacArthur - This means neither indifference nor remission. God’s justice demands that every sin and sinner be punished. God would have been just, when Adam and Eve sinned, to destroy them, and with them, the entire human race. But in His goodness and forbearance (see 2:4), He withheld His judgment for a certain period of time (cf. Ps 78:38, 39; Ac 17:30, 31; 2Pe 3:9). (Study Bible)

    William MacDonald - He is not speaking, as some wrongly think, of sins which an individual person has committed before his conversion. This might suggest that the work of Christ took care of sins before the new birth, but that a man is on his own after that. No, he is dealing with the seeming leniency of God in apparently overlooking the sins of those who were saved before the cross. It might seem that God excused those sins or pretended not to see them. Not so, says Paul. The Lord knew that Christ would make full expiation, and so He saved men on that basis. (Believer's Bible Commentary)

    WALKING BLAMELESSLY - It is important to not misinterpret this passage. They were not righteous because they were walking blamelessly for that would be righteousness based on our works. The were righteous in the sight of God because He had declared them righteous. He had reckoned or credited Christ's righteousness to their "spiritual bank account" and they were now righteous in His eyes. An example of how this verse could be misinterpreted is discussed below (see Scofield).

    Zacharias and Elizabeth are in good company Moses recording that "Noah was a righteous man, blameless in his time; Noah walked with God." (Ge 6:9, cp God's charge to Abram - Ge 17:1). Similarly Job is similarly described "There was a man in the land of Uz whose name was Job; and that man was blameless, upright, fearing God and turning away from evil" (Job 1:1)

    Psalm 101 describes God's promise which applies to Zacharias a priest...

    My eyes shall be upon the faithful of the land, that they may dwell with me; He who walks in a blameless way is the one who will minister to me. (Ps 101:6)

    Comment - The Hebrew verb for "minister" is sharath which means to serve and is translated in the Septuagint with the verb leitourgeo which was used of a Christian's service to God through prayer, teaching, good works, etc (as in Acts 13:2).  Are you being used by God? If not among the reasons could be the fact that you are not walking blamelessly, walking by the Spirit (Gal 5:16-note), which is the only way that is a blameless walk is even possible!

    Compare similar thoughts regarding walking blamelessly in the following passages...

    How blessed (fully spiritually satisfied independent of one's circumstances) are those whose way is blameless, Who walk in the law of the LORD. (See Spurgeon's comment Psalm 119:1)

    The perverse in heart are an abomination to the LORD, But the blameless in their walk are His delight. (Proverbs 11:20)

    Matthew Henry - God delights in such as aim and act with uprightness. 

    He who walks blamelessly will be delivered (Hebrew = yasha' = saved, helped), But he who is crooked will fall all at once.(Proverbs 28:18)

    Matthew Henry - Uprightness will give men holy security in the worst times; but the false and dishonest are never safe. 

    For a day in Thy courts is better than a thousand outside. I would rather stand at the threshold of the house of my God, Than dwell in the tents of wickedness. For the LORD God is a sun and shield; The LORD gives grace and glory; No good thing does He withhold from those who walk uprightly. (Psalm 84:10-11-note)

    Note that Zacharias and Elizabeth's walking was present tense which has a dual significance (1) this tense speaks of their progressive sanctification -- see Three Tenses of Salvation and (2) this tense indicates that their holy walk was their daily practice, the habit of their lives. It is important to emphasize that their walk was not perfect, for no human other than Jesus could ever walk perfectly. What we need to understand is that their walk was more about the direction than perfection. Present tense speaks of the general direction of their walk, not the perfection of their walk. I cannot completely explain the spiritual dynamic for their blameless walk living as they did prior to the giving of the indwelling Spirit Who furnishes the desire and power (Php 2:13NLT-note) to believers today enabling us to walk blamelessly. And as an aside, oh, how much easier it is to walk blamelessly when both spouses are on the same "spiritual wavelength," as these two clearly were. Solomon wrote

    "Two are better than one because they have a good return for their labor. For if either of them falls, the one will lift up his companion. But woe to the one who falls when there is not another to lift him up. Furthermore, if two lie down together they keep warm, but how can one be warm alone? And if one can overpower him who is alone, two can resist him. A cord of three strands is not quickly torn apart. ." (Eccl 4:9-12)

    Blamelessly (faultless) ( 273)(amemptos from a = neg + mémphomai = find fault) means irreproachable, blameless, faultless, unblamable, without defect.  (All 5 NT uses -Lk. 1:6; Phil. 2:15; 3:6; 1 Thess. 3:13; Heb. 8:7)

    In the sight of God (before God - KJV) - Vincent notes that the phrase"Before God" is a Hebrew expression. Compare the following passages...

    Genesis 7:1   Then the LORD said to Noah, “Enter the ark, you and all your household, for you [alone] I have seen [to be] righteous before (Heb = panim = face; Lxx = enantios - opposite, before) Me in this time.

    Acts 8:21  “You have no part or portion in this matter, for your heart is not right before God.

    In the sight of (1799)(enopion from en = in + ops = the eye/see [cp optanomai = see, perceive with eyes, look at, implying not only the mere act of seeing but actual perception of what one sees]) means literally in sight, in front of, in the presence of. It conveys the picture of before the face and thus the idea of face to face! As Thomas à Kempis said "What thou art in the sight of God, that thou truly art." What difference would it make in your thoughts, words and deeds today if you walked about full cognizant of the fact that you were in essence "face to face" with God all through the day? God grant us all Your grace and Your Spirit's enabling power to walk today with a sense that we are continually face to face with Your Holy Presence. Amen

    IN ALL THE COMMANDMENTS AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE LORD - John MacArthur rightly says that "Zacharias and Elizabeth were shining examples of the godly remnant of believing Jews in the midst of an apostate nation. They were declared righteous by grace through faith according to the new covenant promise to be ratified in the death of Christ."

    Commandments (1785)(entole from en = in, upon + téllo = accomplish, charge, command) refers to some type of demand or requirement. A general injunction, charge, precept of moral and religious nature. Of the 67 uses, all but three (Lk 15:29; Col 4:10; Titus 1:14) refer specifically to divine commandments.

    Requirements (1345)(dikaioma from dikaióo = to justify <> díkaios = just, righteous <> dike = right) has 3 distinct meanings but in the present context it refers to what God has declared to be right. (Used this way also in Ro 1:32-note, Ro 2:26-note).

    Lord (master, owner)(2962)(kurios from kuros = might or power) means a supreme one, one who is sovereign and possesses absolute authority, absolute ownership and uncontested power. Kurios is used of the one to whom a person or thing belonged, about which he has the power of deciding, the one who is the master or disposer of a thing (Mk 7:28) In classical Greek, kurios was used of the false gods, such as Hermes, Zeus, etc.

    Wayne Detzler writes that kurios

    In the earliest Greek this word meant "to have power or authority." Later it came to describe one who is in control. As classical Greek developed, it became a title for men of importance. Since the gods of ancient Greece were neither creators nor lords of their fate, pagan deities were not called "lord" until much later. By the time of Christ, kings had come to be called "lord." This was true of the Roman Emperor Caligula (A.D. 37-41). It was also true of Candace, the fabled queen of upper Egypt (Ac 8:27). So too Herod the Great, Herod Agrippa I, and Herod Agrippa II were called "lord." (New Testament Words in Today's Language)

    Scofield in his comment on righteousness has a sentence which could easily be misinterpreted - "In these words but one idea inheres: the righteous or just man is so called because he is right with God; and he is right with God because he has observed "all the Lord's commandments and regulations blamelessly" (Luke 1:6) (Italics and bold added for emphasis)

    Notice that Scofield said they were "right with God" and then says "because" which is usually a term of explanation, which in context would suggest they were "right with God" because of their meritorious behavior. That is NOT what Dr Luke writes. There is no "because" in the English or Greek. 

    Matthew Henry - The father and mother of John the Baptist were sinners as all are, and were justified and saved in the same way as others (by grace through faith); but they were eminent for piety and integrity. 

    J C Ryle on the righteousness of Elizabeth and Zecharias - It matters little whether we interpret this “righteousness” as that which is imputed to all believers for their justification, or that which is wrought inwardly in believers by the operation of the Holy Ghost, for their sanctification. The two sorts of righteousness are never disjoined. There are none justified who are not sanctified, and there are none sanctified who are not justified Suffice it for us to know that Zacharias and Elisabeth had grace when grace was very rare, and kept all the burdensome observances of the ceremonial law with devout conscientiousness, when few Israelites cared for them excepting in name and form. The main thing that concerns us all, is the example which this holy pair hold up to Christians. Let us all strive to serve God faithfully, and live fully up to our light, even as they did. Let us not forget the plain words of Scripture, “He that doeth righteousness is righteous.” (1 John 3:7.) Happy are those Christian families in which it can be reported that both husband and wife are “righteous,” and exercise themselves to have a conscience void of offence toward God and toward men. (Acts 24:16.) (Expository Thoughts Luke 1)

    Luke 1:7  But they had no child, because Elizabeth was barren, and they were both advanced in years.

    ZACHARIAS AND ELIZABETH
    BARREN AND OLD

    But they had no child - A striking and somewhat unexpected contrast! Righteous and blameless and yet barren and ostensibly not blessed by God, as barrenness was held to be a sign of divine disfavor. In their case the lack of a child was clearly not a sign of judgment, even though that was how barrenness was commonly viewed in that time (cp Lev 20:20-21; Jer 22:30). The final act of this divine drama was about to be acted out for God would soon turn Elizabeth's barrenness to blessing. Beloved, are you walking blamelessly and yet you feel you are "barren" in regard to divine blessing? Then remember Zacharias and Elizabeth and don't give up. It's too soon to quit. Recall the words of William Cowper's great hymn

    God moves in a mysterious way His wonders to perform;
    He plants His footsteps in the sea, and rides upon the storm.

    Deep in unfathomable mines of never-failing skill,
    He treasures up His bright designs, and works His sovereign will.

    Ye fearful saints, fresh courage take, the clouds ye so much dread,
    are big with mercy, and shall break In blessings on your head.


    Judge not the Lord by feeble sense, but trust Him for His grace;
    Behind a frowning providence, He hides a smiling face.

    His purposes will ripen fast, unfolding every hour;
    The bud may have a bitter taste, but sweet will be the flower.

    Blind unbelief is sure to err, and scan his work in vain;
    God is His own interpreter, and He will make it plain.

    Barclay on barrennessThe Jewish Rabbis said that seven people were excommunicated from God and the list began, "A Jew who has no wife, or a Jew who has a wife and who has no child." Childlessness was a valid ground for divorce. Not unnaturally Zacharias, even on his great day, was thinking of his personal and domestic tragedy and was praying about it. Then the wondrous vision came and the glad message that, even when hope was dead, a son would be born to him. (Luke 1)

    Surgeon on barrenness - We do not, at the present time, understand the anguish which filled the heart of an Eastern woman who had no child. It was considered to be a disgrace, and many suffered very bitterly on that account; as did Hannah, and Rachel, and others besides.

    J C Ryle applies their barrenness to our lives today - The grace of God exempts no one from trouble. “Righteous” as this holy priest and his wife were, they had a “crook in their lot.” Let us remember this, if we serve Christ, and let us count trial no strange thing. Let us rather believe that a hand of perfect wisdom is measuring out all our portion, and that when God chastises us, it is to make us “partakers of his holiness.” (Heb. 12:10.) If afflictions drive us nearer to Christ, the Bible, and prayer, they are positive blessings. We may not think so now. But we shall think so when we wake up in another world. (Expository Thoughts Luke 1)

    NET NOTE on Elizabeth's barrenness - With this language, reminiscent of various passages in the OT, Luke is probably drawing implicit comparisons to the age and barrenness of such famous OT personalities as Abraham and Sarah (see, e.g., Gen 18:9–15), the mother of Samson (Jdg 13:2–5), and Hannah, the mother of Samuel ( 1 Sam 1:1–20). And, as it was in the case of these OT saints, so it is with Elizabeth: After much anguish and seeking the Lord, she too is going to have a son in her barrenness. In that day it was a great reproach to be childless, for children were a sign of God's blessing (cf. Gen 1:28; Lev 20:20–21; Ps 127 and Ps 128; Jer 22:30). As the dawn of salvation draws near, however, God will change this elderly couple's grief into great joy and grant them the one desire time had rendered impossible.

    Advanced in years - The KJV has "they were both stricken in years!" The Wycliff translation is more accurate -  “Had gone far in their days.” This fact heightens the drama of the miracle to follow. Remember God is "Director" of this divine drama!

    Advanced in years - In short, they were old and of an age at which child bearing was considered virtually an impossibility. Elizabeth's old age recalls Sarah's barrenness in old age making her very unlikely to ever become pregnant. God's power however always trumps what is impossible with men. Jehovah rhetorically asks "Is anything too difficult for the LORD? At the appointed time I will return to you, at this time next year, and Sarah shall have a son." (Ge 18:14) Luke affirms this same truth later in this chapter writing "nothing will be impossible with God." (Lk 1:37)

    Bock Elizabeth’s bearing of John was like the births of Isaac, Samson, and Samuel, great men of the OT who were born from formerly barren women. Their births were signs that God was doing something special in order to advance his purposes. (Holman Apologetics Commentary on the Bible)

    Luke 1:8  Now it happened that while he was performing his priestly service before God in the appointed order of his division,

    Barclay When he was acting as priest before God, when his section was on duty, in accordance with the custom of priestly duty,

    CSB  When his division was on duty and he was serving as priest before God,

    ESV Now while he was serving as priest before God when his division was on duty,

    GWN  Zechariah was on duty with his division of priests. As he served in God's presence,

    KJV   And it came to pass, that while he executed the priest's office before God in the order of his course,

    NET  Now while Zechariah was serving as priest before God when his division was on duty,

    NAB   Once when he was serving as priest in his division's turn before God,

    NIV   Once when Zechariah's division was on duty and he was serving as priest before God,

    NLT   One day Zechariah was serving God in the Temple, for his order was on duty that week.

    NJB  Now it happened that it was the turn of his section to serve, and he was exercising his priestly office before God

    YLT And it came to pass, in his acting as priest, in the order of his course before God,

    A PROVIDENTIAL
    HAPPENING

    Now it happened (it came to pass) - This was not an accident, but was a providential act of God that occurred just when Zacharias happened to be on Temple duty! God is sovereign in history, including and especially in "His-Story" of providing a Redeemer for the sinful world. 

    His priestly service - Zacharias was of the Tribe of Levi and a descendant of Aaron. The genealogy records had not been destroyed as they were when the Romans burned the Temple in 70 AD). 

    In the appointed order of his division -  The Temple service of an order was for one week (from Sabbath to Sabbath) twice a year and at certain Feasts. 

    Luke 1:9  according to the custom of the priestly office, he was chosen by lot to enter the temple of the Lord and burn incense.

    Barclay in accordance with the custom of priestly duty, it fell to him by lot to go into the Temple of the Lord to burn the incense.

     BURNING INCENSE:
    ONCE IN A LIFETIME OPPORTUNITY

    The instructions for burning incense are found in Exodus

     Aaron shall burn fragrant incense on it; he shall burn it every morning when he trims the lamps. When Aaron trims the lamps at twilight, he shall burn incense. [There shall be] perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your generations. (Exodus 30:7-8)

    Burning incense in the Temple was a great honor which was permitted to a given priest but once in a lifetime. As noted above in the instructions given in Exodus burning incense was a daily regulation which was performed once before the morning sacrifice (9 a.m.) and again before the evening sacrifice (3 p.m.). We don't know with certainty whether Zacharias was chosen for the morning or the evening offering. The incense was offered on the altar of incense directly in front of the veil that separated the holy place from the holy of holies (click diagram below to enlarge - note the Shekinah was not present in Herod's Temple - see diagram of its departure). 

    Vincent on chosen by lot - Four lots were drawn to determine the order of the ministry of the day: the first, before day-break, to designate the priests who were to cleanse the altar and prepare its fires; the second for the priest who was to offer the sacrifice and cleanse the candlestick and the altar of incense; the third for the priest who should burn incense; and the fourth appointing those who were to lay the sacrifice and meat-offering on the altar, and pour out the drink-offering. There are said to have been twenty thousand priests in Christ’s time, so that no priest would ever offer incense more than once. It is worth noting that  many priests never enjoyed this privilege because the lot never fell to them. This is more evidence that God was providentially in control of the details. 

    Casting lots was a method often used to reveal God’s purposes in a matter (cf. Jos 14:1, 2; 1Sa 14:38–43; 1Ch 25:8–31; Jon 1:7; Ac 1:26) and Pr 16:33 says "The lot is cast into the lap, But its every decision is from the LORD."

    Spurgeon - Certain offices of the priest were considered to be more honourable than others; and so, to prevent any jealousy, they cast lots as to which they should take in turn. It fell to the lot of Zacharias to burn incense; this did not happen by chance. “The lot is cast into the lap; but the whole disposing thereof is of the Lord;” and there was a special reason why this good man should stand at the altar at this particular time.

    Chosen by lots (2975)(lagchano)  means to obtain by lot (as used by Homer in Greek writings; eg, to obtain by fate by the will of the gods) and so to obtain something as a portion (to receive, to obtain. Lagchano speaks of what is obtained is not result of personal merit but an allottment as a free gift of God's grace (Acts 1:17, 15:8-11, 2 Pe 1:1 "received a faith of the same kind" - note)

    Custom (1485)(ethos from etho = to be used, to be accustomed) refers to a usual or customary manner of behavior, habit, pattern of behavior which is more or less fixed by tradition or the usual practice. It may be established by law or otherwise generally sanctioned by the society. 

    Gilbrant on the uses of ethos  - Ethos carries two basic meanings: (1) an informal sense of “custom,” i.e., “habit”; and (2) a formal “custom” or “law.” For example, Jesus’ “habit” (ethos) was to go to the Mount of Olives (Luke 22:39; cf. NIV “as usual”). Here the informal sense is plain. The formal idea of “custom” is reflected in 4 Maccabees. Its writer recalls Antiochus’ unsuccessful efforts to make the Israelites “abandon their ancestral customs” (4 Maccabees 18:5RSV). The informal sense dominated classical literature, whereas the formal sense predominates in religious literature. This phenomenon may in large measure be explained by the role of tradition (paradosis) in the religion of Israel.  The New Testament picture mirrors the two senses of ethos as well. Luke, who uses ethos more than any other writer (of its 12 uses 10 are Luke’s), utilizes both meanings, although he favors the formal sense (only Acts 22:39 seems to be informal, cf. Hebrews 10:25). The customs of Moses and the “fathers” (Acts 6:14; 28:17; cf. John 19:40) are the heartbeat of the Jewish religion. If one were a Jew, one’s life revolved around the ethos of the religion (Acts 16:21; 21:21; 26:3; cf. Josephus Antiquities 15.8.4). Even Roman “customs” were understood as binding (Acts 25:16; cf. Sherwin-White, Roman Society and Roman Law, pp.48f.).(Complete Biblical Library Greek-English Dictionary)

    Ethos - 12x in 12v - Usage: custom(6), customs(5), habit(1).

    Luke 1:9  according to the custom of the priestly office, he was chosen by lot to enter the temple of the Lord and burn incense.

    Luke 2:42  And when He became twelve, they went up there according to the custom of the Feast;

    Luke 22:39  And He came out and proceeded as was His custom to the Mount of Olives; and the disciples also followed Him.

    John 19:40  So they took the body of Jesus and bound it in linen wrappings with the spices, as is the burial custom of the Jews.

    Acts 6:14  for we have heard him say that this Nazarene, Jesus, will destroy this place and alter the customs which Moses handed down to us."

    Acts 15:1  Some men came down from Judea and began teaching the brethren, "Unless you are circumcised according to the custom of Moses, you cannot be saved."

    Acts 16:21  and are proclaiming customs which it is not lawful for us to accept or to observe, being Romans."

    Acts 21:21  and they have been told about you, that you are teaching all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children nor to walk according to the customs.

    Acts 25:16  "I answered them that it is not the custom of the Romans to hand over any man before the accused meets his accusers face to face and has an opportunity to make his defense against the charges.

    Acts 26:3  especially because you are an expert in all customs and questions among the Jews; therefore I beg you to listen to me patiently.

    Acts 28:17  After three days Paul called together those who were the leading men of the Jews, and when they came together, he began saying to them, "Brethren, though I had done nothing against our people or the customs of our fathers, yet I was delivered as a prisoner from Jerusalem into the hands of the Romans.

    Hebrews 10:25  not forsaking our own assembling together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another; and all the more as you see the day drawing near.

    Temple (sanctuary) (3485)(naos) describes the holy place in which the golden altar of incense stood. The people were outside in the fore-courts. 

    To burn incense was a high privilege and came only once in a lifetime for as A T Robertson says "It was only once in a lifetime that a priest obtained the lot of going." This again shows the Lord's providential control over the details. 

    “It was the great moment of Zacharias’s life, and his heart was no doubt alert for the supernatural” (Ragg).

    Burn incense - Hobart finds (this verb) used by medical writers for fumigating herbs. (Robertson)

    Most commentators feel this was the evening sacrifice because of the mention of the crowd. It is interesting that the same angel (Gabriel) appeared to Daniel "about the time of the evening offering." (Da 9:21-note).

    Warren Wiersbe makes an excellent point - The priests on duty drew lots to see which ministries they would perform, and Zacharias was chosen to offer incense in the holy place. This was a high honor that was permitted to a priest but once in a lifetime. The incense was offered daily before the morning sacrifice and after the evening sacrifice, about 3 o’clock in the afternoon. It was probably the evening offering that was assigned to Zacharias. You have probably noticed that God often speaks to His people and calls them while they are busy doing their daily tasks. Both Moses and David were caring for sheep, and Gideon was threshing wheat. Peter and his partners were mending nets when Jesus called them. It is difficult to steer a car when the engine is not running. When we get busy, God starts to direct us. (Bible Exposition Commentary)

    Vincent on burn incense -  Only here in New Testament. The incensing priest and his assistants went first to the altar of burnt-offering, and filled a golden censer with incense, and placed burning coals from the altar in a golden bowl. As they passed into the court from the Holy Place they struck a large instrument called the Magrephah, which summoned all the ministers to their places. Ascending the steps to the holy place, the priests spread the coals on the golden altar, and arranged the incense, and the chief officiating priest was then left alone within the Holy Place to await the signal of the president to burn the incense. It was probably at this time that the angel appeared to Zacharias. When the signal was given, the whole multitude withdrew from the inner court, and fell down before the Lord. Silence pervaded the temple, while within, the clouds of incense rose up before Jehovah.

    Beloved, it is that a beautiful picture of how believers today (who are His temple) should fall down before the Lord morning and evening offering the incense of prayers before Jehovah? Are you burning incense daily? The priest could do it only once in their life, but we have the opportunity of a lifetime every day! O my, how I am convicted that too often I lose sight of the high and holy privilege we as priests of the Most High God (1 Peter 2:9) now have under grace and not law. Not only can we continually offer "incense" John records the incredible fact that this incense is stored away in heaven...

    And another angel came and stood at the altar, holding a golden censer; and much incense was given to him, that he might add it to the prayers of all the saints upon the golden altar which was before the throne. And the smoke of the incense, with the prayers of the saints, went up before God out of the angel's hand. (Rev 8:3-4-note)

    See Alfred Edersheim's The Morning and Evening Sacrifice (Luke 1:8-10) in his classic “The Temple, its Ministry,”). Edersheim has this note related to the fourth lot 

    The Lot for Incense - After this the lot was cast for burning the incense. No one might take part in it who had ministered in that office before, unless in the very rare case that all present had previously so officiated. Hence, while the other three lots held good for the evening service, that for the incense required to be repeated. He on whom this lot fell chose from among his friends his two assistants. Finally, the third was succeeded by the fourth lot, which designated those who were to lay on the altar the sacrifice and the meat-offerings, and to pour out the drink-offering. The incensing priest and his assistance now approached first the altar of burnt-offering. One filled with incense a golden censer held in a silver vessel, while another placed in a golden bowl burning coals from the altar. As they passed from the court into the Holy Place, they struck a large instrument (called the ‘Magrephah’), at sound of which the priests hastened from all parts to worship, and the Levites to occupy their places in the service of song; while the chief of the ‘stationary men’ ranged at the Gate of Nicanor such of the people as were to be purified that day. Slowly the incensing priest and his assistants ascended the steps to the Holy Place, preceded by the two priests who had formerly dressed the altar and the candlestick, and who now removed the vessels they had left behind, and, worshiping, withdrew. Next, one of the assistants reverently spread the coals on the golden altar; the other arranged the incense; and then the chief officiating priest was left alone within the Holy Place, to await the signal of the president before burning the incense. It was probably while thus expectant that the angel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias. As the president gave the word of command, which marked that ‘the time of incense had come,’ ‘the whole multitude of the people without’ withdrew from the inner court, and fell down before the Lord, spreading their hands (The practice of folding the hands together in prayer dates from the fifth century of our era, and is of purely Saxon origin. See Holemann, Bibel St. i. p. 150, quoted by Delitzsch, u.s.) in silent prayer. (The Morning and Evening Sacrifice)

    Spurgeon - Certain offices of the priest were considered to be more honourable than others; and so, to prevent any jealousy, they cast lots as to which they should take in turn. It fell to the lot of Zacharias to burn incense; this did not happen by chance. “The lot is cast into the lap; but the whole disposing thereof is of the Lord;” and there was a special reason why this good man should stand at the altar at this particular time.

    This verse helps substantiate that the ALTAR OF INCENSE was within the outer tabernacle, called the Holy Place. Why? because only the High Priest was allowed into the Holy of Holies and then only once/year. So it would have been impossible to fulfill God's requirement that there always be incense on this altar. Zacharias was not High Priest and would have been prohibited from entering the Holy of Holies. Heb 9:3-4 suggests the "golden altar of incense" is WITHIN the Holy of Holies. Yet we know that Scripture does not contradict Scripture, and from the passages in Ex 40:26, 40:1-5, 2Ki 6:22, we see that the ALTAR OF INCENSE was clearly in the outer tabernacle or the Holy Place. This apparent "discrepancy" is most reasonably resolved by the translation of the term in Heb 9:4 as "golden censer" or "censer of gold" as many of the versions (KJV, NKJV, DARBY, YOUNG'S, WEYMOUTH) have done. Thus once per year when the High Priest entered the Holy of Holies with blood not his own for performing atonement for himself and all the people, he also took a censer of incense

    Luke 1:10  And the whole multitude of the people were in prayer outside at the hour of the incense offering.

    Barclay  The whole congregation of the people was praying outside at the hour when incense was offered. 

    INCENSE AND CORPORATE
    PRAYER ASCENDING

    Spurgeon - While he, in the inner shrine, was burning incense, the multitudes in the outer courts were engaging in prayer. I think that is a very beautiful symbol,-the priest unseen, like the Lord Jesus Christ in the Holy of Holies above, and the mass of the people engaged in prayer while the unseen priest is offering the sacred perfume before the altar of Jehovah.

    Holman New Testament Commentary –Outside, the pious Jewish worshipers and priests joined in prayer, the rising incense giving assurance that God was listening to them. Luke repeatedly emphasized the power of prayer and the need to learn to pray, and to pray together. A praying church finds God's power coming to work among them and accomplish the church's mission.

    Were in prayer (4336)(proseuchomai  from pros = toward, facing, before [emphasizing the direct approach of the one who prays in seeking God’s face] + euchomai = originally to speak out, utter aloud, express a wish, then to pray or to vow. Greek technical term for invoking a deity) in the NT is always used of prayer addressed to God (to Him as the object of faith and the One who will answer one’s prayer) and means to speak consciously (with or without vocalization) to Him, with a definite aim (See study of noun proseuche). Proseuchomai encompasses all the aspects of prayer -- submission, confession, petition, supplication (may concern one's own need), intercession (concerned with the needs of others), praise, and thanksgiving.

    The verb were in prayer is in the "Periphrastic imperfect indicative picturing the posture of the people while the clouds of incense rose on the inside of the sanctuary." (Robertson)

    Vine says that proseuchomai carries with it a notion of worship (but see the Greek word for worship = proskuneo) which is not present in the other words for prayer (eg, aiteo, deomai, both of which involve spoken supplication)

    Wuest adds that the prefixed preposition pros "gives it the idea of definiteness and directness in prayer, with the consciousness on the part of the one praying that he is talking face to face with God...(thus proseuchomai) speaks also of the consciousness on the part of the one who prays, of the fact of God’s presence and His listening ear." (Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans)

    J C Ryle - "Lightfoot remarks on this passage: “When the priest came in unto the holy place to offer incense, notice was given to all, by the sound of a little bell, that the time of prayers was now.” Lightfoot, vol. xii., page 16." (Expository Thoughts Luke 1)

    J R Miller - The old priest was in his place in the temple that day, and his particular duty was to burn incense on the golden altar. Incense was a symbol of prayer. While the priest was offering it on the altar the people were standing outside, engaged in prayer. The prayers arose to God purified and sweetened by the holy offering. It is a beautiful thought that prayers rise up to God—as perfume; that true prayer is fragrant in heaven. This symbol of incense teaches the acceptableness of prayer as it goes up to God. There is another thing that we should remember, however, in this connection. The burnt offering was offered at the same time that the incense was burning, and the incense itself was kindled by fire brought from the altar of burnt offering. Prayer needs the efficacy ofChrist's atonement to make it acceptable. We can pray only in Christ's name and in dependence on His sacrifice.

    Luke 1:11  And an angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing to the right of the altar of incense.

    Barclay  The angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing at the right side of the altar of incense. 

    AN ANGELIC
    ENCOUNTER

    We learn in Luke 1:19 this is Gabriel -  "The angel answered and said to him, “I am Gabriel, who stands in the presence of God, and I have been sent to speak to you and to bring you this good news.""

    Note that this is the first mention of the breaking of God's 400 year silence since His last words in Malachi!

    J C Ryle (1879)  links God's Word given via an angel to Zecharias with Daniel's incredible prophecy of 70 weeks - "It told the believing Israelite that the prophetic weeks of Daniel were at length fulfilled, (Da 9:25-note)—that God’s choicest promise was at length going to be accomplished,—and that “the Seed” (Ge 3:15-note, cp Gal 3:16-note, Gal 4:4-note) was about to appear in whom all the nations of the earth should be blessed. (Ge 22:18.) We must place ourselves in imagination in the position of Zacharias, in order to give the verses before us their due weight." (Expository Thoughts Luke 1)

    An angel of the Lord - This is a literal angel. The same phrase is used several times in the OT but these refer o a pre-incarnate appearance of Christ (see Angel of the LORD). 

    Appeared - This is the same verb used by Paul to describe the supernatural post-resurrection appearances of Jesus (1 Cor 15:5-8)

    Angel (32) (aggelos/angelos [gg in Greek is pronounced ng] possibly from ago = to bring) literally means a messenger (one who bears a message - Lk 1:11, 2:9, etc or does an errand). Most of the NT uses refer to heavenly angels (messengers) who are supernatural, transcendent beings with power to carry out various tasks. All uses of aggelos that refer to angels are masculine gender (the feminine form of aggelos does not occur.) The great news about angels is that they are "ministering spirits" (Heb 1:14), where the word "ministering" is leitourgikos which in Classic Greek referred especially to those who performed public duties or works of public use (public servants). The angels are literally "spirits for serving!"

    Luke mentions angels in 46 verses in his writings (out of 172 verses that use angel in the NT) -Lk. 1:11; Lk. 1:13; Lk. 1:18; Lk. 1:19; Lk. 1:26; Lk. 1:30; Lk. 1:34; Lk. 1:35; Lk. 1:38; Lk. 2:9; Lk. 2:10; Lk. 2:13; Lk. 2:15; Lk. 2:21; Lk. 4:10; Lk. 7:24; Lk. 7:27; Lk. 9:26; Lk. 9:52; Lk. 12:8; Lk. 12:9; Lk. 15:10; Lk. 16:22; Lk. 22:43; Lk. 24:23; Acts 5:19; Acts 6:15; Acts 7:30; Acts 7:35; Acts 7:38; Acts 7:53; Acts 8:26; Acts 10:3; Acts 10:7; Acts 10:22; Acts 11:13; Acts 12:7; Acts 12:8; Acts 12:9; Acts 12:10; Acts 12:11; Acts 12:15; Acts 12:23; Acts 23:8; Acts 23:9; Acts 27:23;

    Vine writes that aggelos refer to "an order of created beings, superior to man, Heb 2:7; Ps. 8:5, belonging to Heaven, Mt. 24:36; Mark 12:25, and to God, Luke 12:8, and engaged in His service, Psa. 103:20. Angels are spirits, Heb. 1:14, i.e., they have not material bodies as men have; they are either human in form, or can assume the human form when necessary, cp. Luke 24:4, with Lk 24:23, Acts 10:3 with Acts 10:30."

    Plummer writes "There is no use in trying to explain away the reality of the angel. We must choose between admitting an objective appearance and a myth."

    Bock on an angel Skeptics immediately discount any text that involves supernatural beings, and they believe they have science on their side. But by definition supernatural beings are beings that are not bound by the natural world. Space and time do not confine them. Since science can deal only with realities confined to our space-time continuum, science can have nothing to say about the existence or nonexistence of supernatural beings such as angels. Thus readers are thrown back on their presuppositions and experiences. The biblical view is that angels exist and are sometimes used to impart knowledge of God’s will (Luke 2:9; Matt 1:20; Acts 5:19; 1 Cor 4:9; Heb 1:4; 1 Pet 3:22; Jude 6; Rev 5:2), and any reader who accepts this testimony at face value is not guilty of being pre-scientific. (Ibid)

    Luke in his gospel and the book of Acts makes mention of angels far more than any other NT writer...

    Luke 1:11 And an angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing to the right of the altar of incense.

    13 But the angel said to him, "Do not be afraid, Zacharias, for your petition has been heard, and your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you will give him the name John.

    18 Zacharias said to the angel, "How will I know this for certain? For I am an old man and my wife is advanced in years."

    19 The angel answered and said to him, "I am Gabriel, who stands in the presence of God, and I have been sent to speak to you and to bring you this good news.

    26 Now in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city in Galilee called Nazareth,

    30 The angel said to her, "Do not be afraid, Mary; for you have found favor with God.

    34 Mary said to the angel, "How can this be, since I am a virgin?"

    35 The angel answered and said to her, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; and for that reason the holy Child shall be called the Son of God.

    38 And Mary said, "Behold, the bondslave of the Lord; may it be done to me according to your word." And the angel departed from her.

    Luke 2:9 And an angel of the Lord suddenly stood before them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them; and they were terribly frightened.

    10 But the angel said to them, "Do not be afraid; for behold, I bring you good news of great joy which will be for all the people;

    13 And suddenly there appeared with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God and saying,

    15 When the angels had gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds began saying to one another, "Let us go straight to Bethlehem then, and see this thing that has happened which the Lord has made known to us."

    21 And when eight days had passed, before His circumcision, His name was then called Jesus, the name given by the angel before He was conceived in the womb.

    Luke 4:10 for it is written, 'HE WILL COMMAND HIS angels CONCERNING YOU TO GUARD YOU,'

    Luke 7:24 When the messengers of John had left, He began to speak to the crowds about John, "What did you go out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken by the wind?

    27 "This is the one about whom it is written, 'BEHOLD, I SEND MY MESSENGER AHEAD OF YOU, WHO WILL PREPARE YOUR WAY BEFORE YOU.'

    Luke 9:26 "For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words, the Son of Man will be ashamed of him when He comes in His glory, and the glory of the Father and of the holy angels.

    52 and He sent messengers on ahead of Him, and they went and entered a village of the Samaritans to make arrangements for Him.

    Luke 12:8 "And I say to you, everyone who confesses Me before men, the Son of Man will confess him also before the angels of God;

    9 but he who denies Me before men will be denied before the angels of God.

    Luke 15:10 "In the same way, I tell you, there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner who repents."

    Luke 16:22 "Now the poor man died and was carried away by the angels to Abraham's bosom; and the rich man also died and was buried.

    Luke 22:43 Now an angel from heaven appeared to Him, strengthening Him.

    Luke 24:23 and did not find His body, they came, saying that they had also seen a vision of angels who said that He was alive.

    Acts 5:19 But during the night an angel of the Lord opened the gates of the prison, and taking them out he said,

    Acts 6:15 And fixing their gaze on him, all who were sitting in the Council saw his face like the face of an angel.

    Acts 7:30 "After forty years had passed, AN angel APPEARED TO HIM IN THE WILDERNESS OF MOUNT Sinai, IN THE FLAME OF A BURNING THORN BUSH.

    35 "This Moses whom they disowned, saying, 'WHO MADE YOU A RULER AND A JUDGE?' is the one whom God sent to be both a ruler and a deliverer with the help of the angel who appeared to him in the thorn bush.

    38 "This is the one who was in the congregation in the wilderness together with the angel who was speaking to him on Mount Sinai, and who was with our fathers; and he received living oracles to pass on to you.

    53 you who received the law as ordained by angels, and yet did not keep it."

    Acts 8:26 But an angel of the Lord spoke to Philip saying, "Get up and go south to the road that descends from Jerusalem to Gaza." (This is a desert road.)

    Acts 10:3 About the ninth hour of the day he clearly saw in a vision an angel of God who had just come in and said to him, "Cornelius!"

    7 When the angel who was speaking to him had left, he summoned two of his servants and a devout soldier of those who were his personal attendants,

    22 They said, "Cornelius, a centurion, a righteous and God-fearing man well spoken of by the entire nation of the Jews, was divinely directed by a holy angel to send for you to come to his house and hear a message from you."

    Acts 11:13 "And he reported to us how he had seen the angel standing in his house, and saying, 'Send to Joppa and have Simon, who is also called Peter, brought here;

    Acts 12:7 And behold, an angel of the Lord suddenly appeared and a light shone in the cell; and he struck Peter's side and woke him up, saying, "Get up quickly." And his chains fell off his hands.

    8 And the angel said to him, "Gird yourself and put on your sandals." And he did so. And he said to him, "Wrap your cloak around you and follow me."

    9 And he went out and continued to follow, and he did not know that what was being done by the angel was real, but thought he was seeing a vision.

    10 When they had passed the first and second guard, they came to the iron gate that leads into the city, which opened for them by itself; and they went out and went along one street, and immediately the angel departed from him.

    11 When Peter came to himself, he said, "Now I know for sure that the Lord has sent forth His angel and rescued me from the hand of Herod and from all that the Jewish people were expecting."

    15 They said to her, "You are out of your mind!" But she kept insisting that it was so. They kept saying, "It is his angel."

    23 And immediately an angel of the Lord struck him because he did not give God the glory, and he was eaten by worms and died.

    Acts 23:8 For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, nor an angel, nor a spirit, but the Pharisees acknowledge them all.

    9 And there occurred a great uproar; and some of the scribes of the Pharisaic party stood up and began to argue heatedly, saying, "We find nothing wrong with this man; suppose a spirit or an angel has spoken to him?"

    Acts 27:23 "For this very night an angel of the God to whom I belong and whom I serve stood before me,

    To the right of the altar of incense - "The right side was the south side, and the angel would be between the altar and the golden candlestick." (Plummer). 

    J C Ryle points out that "Nowhere in the Bible do we find such frequent mention of them, as in the period of our Lord’s earthly ministry. At no time do we read of so many appearances of angels, as about the time of our Lord’s incarnation and entrance into the world. The meaning of this circumstance is sufficiently clear. It was meant to teach the church that Messiah was no angel, but the Lord of angels, as well as of men. Angels announced His coming. Angels proclaimed His birth. Angels rejoiced at his appearing. And by so doing they made it plain that He who came to die for sinners, was not one of themselves, but one far above them, the King of kings and Lord of lords (Rev 19:16-note). One thing, at all events, about angels, we must never forget. They take a deep interest in the work of Christ, and the salvation which Christ has provided. They sung high praise when the Son of God came down to make peace by His own blood between God and man (Lk 2:14-note). They rejoice when sinners repent, and sons are born again to our Father in heaven (Luke 15:10). They delight to minister to those who shall be heirs of salvation (Heb 1:14-note). Let us strive to be like them, while we are upon earth,—to be of their mind, and to share their joys. This is the way to be in tune for heaven. It is written of those who enter in there, that they shall be “as the angels.” (Mark 12:25.) (Expository Thoughts Luke 1)

    Luke 1:12  Zacharias was troubled when he saw the angel, and fear gripped him.

    Barclay -  When Zacharias saw him he was deeply moved and awe fell upon him.

    A TROUBLING
    FEARFUL SIGHT

    Zacharias was troubled - As were other saints when they saw an angel - Daniel in Daniel 8:16-17 and Da 10:7-9. Gideon when he saw the ultimate Messenger, the Angel of the LORD (Jdg 6:22-23). 

    Troubled (disturbed, stirred up) (5015)(tarasso) literally means to shake back and forth and therefore to agitate and stir up (like the pool in John 5:4,7, Lxx = Ezek 32:2, 13, Isa 51:15). To shake together, stir up, disturb, unsettle, throw into disorder (Lxx =2Sa 22:8 = of earth shaking). Most of the NT uses of tarasso are figurative and describe the state of one's mind as stirred up, agitated or experiencing inward commotion. The passive voice is always used in the NT with a negative meaning, conveying the sense of emotional disturbance or inner turmoil, so that one is unsettled, thrown into confusion, or disturbed by various emotions, including excitement, perplexity, fear or trepidation. Tarasso describes Herod when heard of the birth of Jesus (Mt 2:3), Zacharias' fear when he saw the angel (Lk 1:12), the terror of the disciples when they witnessed Jesus walking on the water (Mt 14:26), Jesus' reaction to the lack of faith among the people before He raises Lazarus (Jn 11:33), in Jesus' command to not let their hearts be troubled (Jn 14:1) and of disturbing the faith of someone (Gal 5:10). Tarasso emphasizes the intensity of the Lord's reaction to His impending death (Jn 12:27) and His response to Judas' imminent betrayal.

    Luke uses tarasso 5x (out of 18 NT uses) - Lk 1:12, 24:38, Acts 15:24, 17:8, 17:13. 

    Spurgeon on troubled - He was a good man, yet he was troubled at the sight of an angel. Consciousness of sin, even in an outwardly blameless man, makes us all tremble in the presence of anything heavenly. This bright spirit had come fresh from the courts of God; he was a courtier of the heavenly Temple, and he had come down on a sudden with a sweet and cheering message for the earthly priest; but the priest “was troubled, and fear fell upon him.” Brethren, we cannot know much of heaven here below, because it would cause us trembling; we are as yet unfit for all the glories of that upper state. Good John Berridge wrote,-“

    And now they range the heavenly plains,
    And sing their hymns in melting strains;
    And now their souls begin to prove
    The heights and depths of Jesus’ love.

    “Ah Lord, with tardy steps I creep,
    And sometimes sing, and sometimes weep;
    Yet strip me of this house of clay,
    And I will sing as loud as they.”

    Yes, and so will we; we will be as much at home as the happy saints, who dwell in light, when once we are delivered from this hampering flesh and blood.

    Fear (5401)(phobos gives us English phobia, etc) is used in an active sense to describe that which causes fear, dread, alarm or terror. Luke uses phobos 11x (out of 42x in NT) - Lk 1:12; Lk 1:65; Lk 5:26; Lk 7:16; Lk 8:37; Lk 21:26; Acts 2:43; Acts 5:5; Acts 5:11; Acts 9:31; Acts 19:17. 

    Gripped (1968)(epipipto from epi = upon + pipto = fall) means literally to fall upon (someone) or to press against (Mk 3:10) and is used both literally and figuratively in the NT.

    Literal uses - In Mk 3:10 when they saw Jesus power to heal, they "pressed around Him in order to touch Him."  In Acts 20:10 "Paul went down and fell upon"  Eutychus who had fallen asleep and dropped three stories to his death until Paul's falling upon him brought him back to life. Epipipto described falling upon in order to embrace, as when the father embraced his repentant prodigal son (Lk 15:20) or as when the Ephesian elders "embraced Paul" knowing this was the last time they would see him (Acts 20:37, cp Acts 20:38, cp Lxx - Ge 45:14 = Joseph "fell on his brother Benjamin's neck" and then in Ge 46:29 Joseph "fell on [Jacob's] neck" and Ge 50:1 he "fell on his father's face.").

    Figurative uses -  Of fear "falling" on someone (Lk 1:12, Acts 19:17, Rev 11:11 - when the 2 witnesses came to live and ascended to heaven!; Lxx - Ex 15:16 "terror and dread fell upon" Israel's enemies. Same idea in Josh 2:9; cp Ps 104:38) Figuratively of reproaches falling on someone (Ro 15:3 quoting Ps 68:10). Luke uses ekpipto figuratively three times to describe the Holy Spirit coming down upon or "falling upon" someone (Acts  8:16, 10.44, 11:15). In Josh 11:7 the Israelites "came upon them suddenly" to attack 3 kings.  Solomon wrote "the sons of men are ensnared at an evil time when it suddenly falls on them." (Ecc 9:12)

    Gilbrant - Old Testament wisdom literature uses the word frequently. At times it is used figuratively (e.g., Job 4:13; 33:15; of fear of “falling”), but it can function literally (e.g. Job 6:16, of “falling [melting?] snow”). In the New Testament the word is used most often in a literal, concrete sense. Mark 3:10 and Acts 20:10,37 indicate a literal falling or pressing upon one’s neck as an expression of love or desire for affection or attention. Epipiptō is also used metaphorically when in Luke 1:12 abstractions like fear and darkness can be said to fall upon someone. Likewise, reproach may fall upon someone, as in Romans 15:3. Even this text bears out the fact that the word is never used in the New Testament with hostile intent. Another aspect of the word’s usage is seen in Acts (Acts 10:10,44; 11:15; 13:11; 19:7) which indicates a suddenness with which the “falling upon” occurs. (Complete Biblical Library Greek-English Dictionary)

    Ekpipto - 37x in 36v in the Septuagint - Gen. 14:15; Gen. 15:12 (twice - "a deep sleep fell upon Abram and behold terro and great darkness fell upon him." Gen. 45:14; Gen. 46:29; Gen. 50:1; Exod. 15:16; Lev. 11:32; Lev. 11:37; Lev. 11:38; Num. 35:23; Jos. 2:9; Jos. 11:7; 1 Sam. 26:12; 1 Sam. 31:4; 1 Sam. 31:5; 2 Sam. 17:9; 1 Chr. 10:4; Neh. 6:16; Est. 7:8; Job 4:13; 6:16, 27; 13:11; 18:16; 33:15;Ps. 16:6; 55:4; 58:8; 69:9; 78:28; 105:38; Eccl. 9:12;  Jer. 48:32;; Dan. 4:5; Dan. 4:33; Dan. 10:7 ("a great dread fell on them")

    Ekpipto - 11x in 11v - Usage: embraced*(2), fallen(1), fell(6), gripped(1), pressed around(1).

    Mark 3:10  for He had healed many, with the result that all those who had afflictions pressed around Him in order to touch Him.

    Luke 1:12  Zacharias was troubled when he saw the angel, and fear gripped him.

    Luke 15:20  "So he got up and came to his father. But while he was still a long way off, his father saw him and felt compassion for him, and ran and embraced him and kissed him.

    Acts 8:16  For He (Spirit) had not yet fallen upon any of them; they had simply been baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.

    Acts 10:44  While Peter was still speaking these words, the Holy Spirit fell upon all those who were listening to the message.

    Acts 11:15  "And as I began to speak, the Holy Spirit fell upon them just as He did upon us at the beginning.

    Acts 19:17  This became known to all, both Jews and Greeks, who lived in Ephesus; and fear fell upon them all and the name of the Lord Jesus was being magnified.

    Acts 20:10  But Paul went down and fell upon him, and after embracing him, he said, "Do not be troubled, for his life is in him."

    Acts 20:37  And they began to weep aloud and embraced Paul, and repeatedly kissed him,

    Romans 15:3  For even Christ did not please Himself; but as it is written, "THE REPROACHES OF THOSE WHO REPROACHED YOU FELL ON ME."

    Revelation 11:11  But after the three and a half days, the breath of life from God came into them, and they stood on their feet; and great fear fell upon those who were watching them.

    J C Ryle on Zecharias' fear - The experience of this righteous man here, tallies exactly with that of other saints under similar circumstances. Moses at the burning bush, and Daniel at the river of Hiddekel,—the women at the sepulchre, and John at the isle of Patmos,—all showed like fear to that of Zacharias. Like him, when they saw visions of things belonging to another world, they trembled and were afraid. How are we to account for this fear? To that question there is only one answer. It arises from our inward sense of weakness, guilt, and corruption. The vision of an inhabitant of heaven reminds us forcibly of our own imperfection, and of our natural unfitness to stand before God. If angels are so great and terrible, what must the Lord of angels be? Let us bless God, that we have a mighty Mediator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus. Believing on Him, we may draw near to God with boldness, and look forward to the day of judgment without fear. When the mighty angels shall go forth to gather together God’s elect, the elect will have no cause to be afraid. To them the angels are fellow-servants and friends. (Rev. 22:9.) Let us tremble when we think of the terror of the wicked at the last day. If even the righteous are troubled by a sudden vision of friendly spirits, where will the ungodly appear, when the angels come forth to gather them like tares for the burning? The fears of the saints are groundless, and endure but for a little season. The fears of the lost, when once aroused, will prove well-grounded, and will endure for evermore. (Expository Thoughts Luke 1)

    Luke 1:13  But the angel said to him, "Do not be afraid, Zacharias, for your petition has been heard, and your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you will give him the name John.

    • Fear. Luke 24:36–40. Jdg 6:23. Da. 10:12. Mat. 28:5. Mark 16:6.
    • thy prayer. Ge. 25:21. 1 Sa. 1:20–23. Ps. 118:21. Ac. 10:31.
    • and thy. Ge. 17:10; 18:14. Jdg 13:3–5. 1 Sa. 2:21. 2 Ki. 4:16, 17. Ps. 113:9; 127:3–5.
    • thou. Luke 1:60–63; Luke 2:21. Ge. 17:19. Is. 8:3. Ho. 1:4, 6, 9, 10. Mat. 1:21.
    • Verse-by-Verse - Multiple Commentaries - Luke 1:13 Commentaries
    • Multiple commentaries and sermons on Luke 1

    Barclay - The angel said to him, ‘Do not be afraid, Zacharias, because your request has been heard and your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son and you must call him by the name of John.

    Do not be afraid (me phobou) is a present imperative with a negative meaning stop being afraid or don't start being afraid. Gabriel gave the same command to Mary (Lk 1:30-note).  An unnamed angel told the shepherds "do not be afraid." (Lk 2:9-10-note). Jesus commanded Simon (Peter) "Do not fear" (Lk 5:10). Jesus to the synagogue official whose daughter had died in Lk 8:50. Compare Lk 12:4-5, Luke 12:7, Luke 12:32. Clearly Jesus did not want His disciples to be fearful. 

    J Vernon McGee - Zacharias was praying for a son. Elisabeth was praying for a son. I think that many people were praying that they would have a son. How do I know he is praying for a son? Because the angel said, “Your prayer is heard.” (Ed: And remember they were old and yet they had not given up praying! Is there some prayer you have been praying for years and God seems silent? For many parents it is a "prodigal child" like my wife and I had been praying for 20 years. He was in and out of drug rehab units over most of that time. And toward the end of 20 years, he was seriously contemplating suicide. And yet God intervened 3 years ago and saved him and he has been saved and sober since now with a wife, a newborn son and a new business! Dear parent, don't stop praying for your prodigal! It is always too soon to quit. When I was saved at age 39, I called my father and he related how he had been praying for me daily literally for 20 years! Don't give up beloved!)

    J C Ryle - We learn here, for one thing, that prayers are not necessarily rejected because the answer is long delayed. Zacharias, no doubt, had often prayed for the blessing of children, and, to all appearance, had prayed in vain. At his advanced time of life, he had probably long ceased to mention the subject before God, and had given up all hope of being a father. Yet the very first words of the angel show plainly that the bygone prayers of Zacharias had not been forgotten (Expository Thoughts Luke 1)

    Your petition has been heard - What petition? The immediate context ("and your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son") suggests they had been praying for children, even though they were older. Perhaps they recalled God's miraculous gift of Isaac to Abraham and Sarah despite the fact that "Abraham and Sarah were old, advanced in age and Sarah was past childbearing" (Ge 18:11). 

    Petition (1162)(deesis from deomai = to lack, be in need of) generally refers to urgent requests or supplications to meet a need and are exclusively addressed to God. Deesis prayers arise from one's sense of need (which reflects a humble heart) and in knowing what is lacking. Such an individual makes a plea to God to supply for the need. Deesis in the New Testament always carries the idea of genuine entreaty and supplication before God. It implies a realization of need and a petition for its supply. In Classical Greek deesis (in contrast to the Biblical uses) was not restricted to sacred uses, but was employed of requests preferred to men. In Ephesians 6:18 (note Eph 6:18KJV has supplication) Paul uses deesis twice in his exhortation for saints to pray for one another (implying there is great need on all of our parts! Do we really understand this truth?)

    Deesis is used by Luke in Luke 2:37-note (of aged Anna!), Luke 5:33 and Acts 1:14 (of the prayer meeting which preceding the coming of the Holy Spirit!).

    Spurgeon - The best quietus to fear is answered prayer. If God has heard thee, be not thou again afraid.

    Spurgeon on John - “The grace” or “the gift of God”, so the name “John” signifies; and it is a sweet name for anyone to bear: “Thou shalt call his name John.” I do not think the prayer alluded to here was so much a prayer for a son; if so, methinks that Zacharias had long ago left off praying it, and now his old prayers are heard, after he had discontinued them. I think that it alludes rather to his prayer for the coming of the Christ, the appearance of the Messiah; that prayer was heard, as we shall see further on.

    John - meaning of his name - "Jehovah has shown grace" or "Yahweh is gracious" - "the Lord's gracious gift" (Spurgeon) See "Behind the Name"

    Luke 1:14  "You will have joy and gladness, and many will rejoice at his birth.

    A PROPHECY OF
    FUTURE JOY

    Joy and gladness - The hallmarks of the future Messianic Kingdom (Isa 25:9; Ps 14:7; 48:11). The motif of joy runs through Luke’s gospel (Lk 1:44, 47, 58; 2:10; 6:23; 8:13; 10:17-21; 13:17; 15:5-10, 22-32; 19:6, 37; 24:52).

    Isaiah 35 is one of the great descriptions of the Millennial kingdom that follows the judgments prophesied in Isaiah 34. Isaiah records that...

    1 The wilderness and the desert will be glad, and the Arabah (desert areas) will rejoice and blossom; like the crocus 2 It will blossom profusely and rejoice with rejoicing and shout of joy. The glory of Lebanon will be given to it, the majesty of Carmel and Sharon. They will see the glory of the LORD, the majesty of our God (Israel is to recognize the earth’s newfound fruitfulness as coming from the Lord and attribute to Him the appropriate credit). 3 Encourage the exhausted, and strengthen the feeble.

    4 Say to those with anxious heart, "Take courage, fear not. Behold, your God will come with vengeance; The recompense of God will come, But He will save you." 5 Then the eyes of the blind will be opened, And the ears of the deaf will be unstopped. 6 Then the lame will leap like a deer, and the tongue of the dumb will shout for joy. (God’s restoration in the millennial age is to include physical restoration to the afflicted. Jesus’ first coming gave a foretaste of that future day) For waters will break forth in the wilderness and streams in the Arabah. 7 And the scorched land will become a pool, and the thirsty ground springs of water. In the haunt of jackals, its resting place, grass becomes reeds and rushes. (Water is a precious commodity in Israel but in the Millennium, there will be no lack) 8 And a highway will be there, a roadway, And it will be called the Highway of Holiness. The unclean will not travel on it, But it will be for him who walks that way, And fools will not wander on it. 9 No lion will be there, Nor will any vicious beast go up on it; These will not be found there. But the redeemed will walk there, 10 And the ransomed of the LORD will return, and come with joyful shouting to Zion, with everlasting joy upon their heads. They will find gladness and joy, and sorrow and sighing will flee away. (Isaiah 35:1-10)

    Joy (5479)(chara)(and rejoice) is a feeling of inner gladness, delight or rejoicing. Joy is a feeling of inner gladness, delight or rejoicing. Joy in the NT is virtually always used to signify a feeling of "happiness" that is based on spiritual realities (and independent of what "happens"). Joy is an inner gladness; a deep seated pleasure. It is a depth of assurance and confidence that ignites a cheerful heart. It is a cheerful heart that leads to cheerful behavior. Joy is not an experience that comes from favorable circumstances but is God’s gift to believers. Joy is a part of God’s very essence and as discussed below His Spirit manifests this supernatural joy in His children (Galatians 5:22-note, Acts 13:52, 1Th 1:6-note). Joy is the deep-down sense of well-being that abides in the heart of the person who knows all is well between himself and the Lord. There is a chorus from an old spiritual song that is apropos…Happiness happens gut joy abides.

    Gladness (20)(agalliasis  related verb - agalliao from agan = much + hallomai = jump; gush, leap, spring up = literally to jump much, leap for joy) means gladness or extreme joy, often accompanied by words and/or bodily movements, such as jumping, smiling, etc.  "Literally, “with exultation” as of those who leap for joy." (Jamieson) This quality of rejoicing refers to a demonstrative rejoicing (Arndt). It indicates the joy and happiness that arises from the experience of God’s saving action.

    Agalliasis - Luke has 3 of the 5 NT uses - Lk. 1:14; Lk. 1:44; Acts 2:46; Heb. 1:9; Jude 1:24

    Agalliasis speaks here of the joy at John's birth but it also has eschatological overtones denoting the the jubilation of God’s people when the Messiah returns at Second Coming.

    The idea is this person experiences excessive, ecstatic joy even with leaping and skipping. Gladness is manifest jubilant exultation, a quality of joy that remains unhindered and unchanged by what happens. Agalliasis describes an exceeding joy (independent of dire circumstances) which is enabled or energized by the Holy Spirit.

    Barclay writes that agalliasis "is the joy which leaps for joy. As it has been put, it is the joy of the climber who has reached the summit, and who leaps for joy that the mountain path is conquered." (Daily Study Bible)

    Barclay's picture of jumping joy is great, as long as I'm "on top of the world". What about when I am in the valley? The word agalliasis teaches that believers do not have to be on a mountain top to experience this exceeding joy. In fact, believers, because of their new nature (partakers of the divine nature 2 Peter 1:4), can experience this quality of joy even though they are walking through "the valley" of difficult circumstances!

    Will rejoice (5463)(chairo) means to be "cheer" full, calmly happy or well-off. Chairo implies and imparts joy. Chairo is used in a whole range of situations in which the emotion of joy is evoked. To be in a state of happiness and well being (often independent of what is happening when the Source is the Spirit!). Chairo means to enjoy a state of gladness, to be delighted.

    Luke 1:15  "For he will be great in the sight of the Lord; and he will drink no wine or liquor, and he will be filled with the Holy Spirit while yet in his mother's womb.

    • great. Luke 7:28. Ge. 12:2; 48:19. Jos. 3:7; 4:14. 1 Ch. 17:8; 29:12. Mt 11:9–19. John 5:35.
    • and shall. Luke 7:33. Nu. 6:2–4. Jdg 13:4–6. Mat. 11:18.
    • filled. Zec. 9:15. Ac. 2:4, 14–18. Ep. 5:18.
    • even. Ps. 22:9. Je. 1:5. Ga. 1:15.
    • Verse-by-Verse - Multiple Commentaries - Luke 1:15 Commentaries
    • Multiple commentaries and sermons on Luke 1

    AMP For he will be great and distinguished in the sight of the Lord. And he must drink no wine nor strong drink, and he will be filled with and controlled by the Holy Spirit even in and from his mother's womb (Nu 6:3).

    SPIRIT FILLED AND
    CONTROLLED FROM BIRTH!

    For - Always pause to ponder and query this term of explanation.

    Great - Jesus comments later that "“I say to you, among those born of women there is no one greater than John; yet he who is least in the kingdom of God is greater than he.” (Lk 7:28, Mt 11:11)

    Note that the world has a standard of "greatness" but this is a heavenly standard, God's estimate of greatness and between them there is a vast gulf, the world's being false and temporal, the Lord's being true and eternal. 

    J C Ryle - The measure of greatness which is common among men is utterly false and deceptive. Princes and potentates, conquerors and leaders of armies, statesmen and philosophers, artists and authors,—these are the kind of men whom the world calls “great.” Such greatness is not recognized among the angels of God. Those who do great things for God, they reckon great. Those who do little for God, they reckon little. They measure and value every man according to the position in which he is likely to stand at the last day.

    James Smith notes that this phrase great in the sight of the Lord "assures us that he must have been in a condition of—RIGHTNESS WITH GOD. No one can be great in the favour of God who is not right with Him. Reconciliation is needed to acceptance. LIKENESS TO GOD. It is possible to be justified before Him and yet not be fully conformed to Him. He made the first man after His own likeness. The second Man is the Lord from Heaven, after whose likeness we are now to be created by the same Spirit. READINESS FOR GOD. A man entirely separated for Him, with no interest to come between him and his service for God. He was in no way entangled, a free man to do His will. This is greatness. In himself. "He was filled with the Holy Ghost." Not the greatness of his own will, of purpose, or goodness, but the greatness of God dwelling in him. This implies—1 SELF-ABNEGATION. He died to himself that God might live and move in him. Not I, but Christ in me. Man's original greatness was lowered to the dust through sin, and eternally ruined. The way into greatness in the Divine eyes is not by self-reformation, but by self-abnegation. A going out of the ruined nature into the life of God. I am crucified with Christ, nevertheless I live. 2 DIVINE POSSESSION. Filled with the Holy Spirit. Yielded up to the will of God as taught by His Spirit abiding within. Be not drunk with wine, but be filled with the Spirit. All true greatness comes from Him who alone is great. Great in wisdom, holiness, and power. "Thy gentleness hath made me great" (2 Sam. 22:36). 3. HEAVENLY WISDOM. To be filled with the Spirit is to be filled with the knowledge of His will, so that every thought and act may be in perfect harmony with the mind of God. He worketh in us both to will and to do of His good pleasure. Ye are wise in Christ.  (Great) 3. Among his fellowmen. "Many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God." This greatness then lies in holiness and usefulness. It is not something given us for our own honour, ease, or aggrandisement, but whereby the power of God may come into contact with others. If you would have this greatness you must not seek it for yourself. He will not give His glory to another. Here we see—1. GREAT FAITHFULNESS. His ministry gives abundant evidence of his fearlessness and devotion to the work of God. Like the apostle of the Gentiles he could say, "This one thing I do" (Phil. 3:13) .2. GREAT POWER. Like the greater One who was to come after him, he spoke with power. His word was sharp, and quick, and powerful, because it was a word that burned in his bones. He was in vital sympathy with his message. It was to him no task committed to memory, but the living truth, blazing in a living soul, and dropping from his glowing tongue like coals of fire. 3. GREAT SUCCESS. "Many turned to the Lord." A Holy Ghost ministry is always a success. It is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which is in you. The Spirit of your Father will never speak without telling effect. The secret of his success lay in his exalting the Lord and not himself. He must increase, and I must decrease. "Go thou and do likewise" (Luke 10:37).(Handfuls of Purpose)

    In the sight of (1799)(enopion from en = in + ops = the eye/see [cp optanomai = see, perceive with eyes, look at, implying not only the mere act of seeing but actual perception of what one sees]) means literally in sight, in front of, in the presence of. Being in sight. Before the face and thus the idea of face to face! Of doing something in someone’s presence - Jesus' entire life was lived as it were "Coram Deo" before the face of His Father. What would happen if we (enabled by His Spirit) were to live our lives with a similar mindset? As Thomas à Kempis once said "What thou art in the sight of God, that thou truly art."

    Like parents, like son - Parents "both righteous in the sight of God," (Lk 1:6) and John "great in the sight of the Lord."

    J R Miller applies this truth to our lives - There are people who are great in their own eyes or in the eyes of their friends—who in God's sight are very small. It is well to have people's approval of us and our work—but it is incalculably better to have God's approval. We should strive always to be and to do—what Christ would have us to be and to do. It is well to ask ourselves quiet often—what God thinks of us. We like to please men; let us seek to please God. (Devotional Hours with the Bible)

    Lord (master, owner)(2962)(kurios) describes the supreme one, the one who is sovereign and possesses absolute authority, absolute ownership and uncontested power.

    The description of John the Baptist recalls to mind the OT description of one who took a Nazarite vow...

    (Nu. 6:2-4) “Speak to the sons of Israel and say to them, ‘When a man or woman makes a special vow, the vow of a Nazarite, to dedicate himself to the LORD, 3 he shall abstain from wine and strong drink; he shall drink no vinegar, whether made from wine or strong drink, nor shall he drink any grape juice nor eat fresh or dried grapes. 4 ‘All the days of his separation he shall not eat anything that is produced by the grape vine, from [the] seeds even to [the] skin. 

    Liquor - More literally "strong drink." Oikera described  a sweet intoxicating beverage usually made from something other than grapes (e.g. barley beer). Vincent says this is a "Hebrew word, meaning any kind of intoxicating liquor not made from grapes."

    Spurgeon - I do not say that it is the duty of every man to drink neither wine nor strong drink, but I beg every man to notice that if anyone was to be peculiarly consecrated to a holy calling, it was always to be so; “He shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and shall drink neither wine nor strong drink.” If there be nothing defiling about wine or strong drink, there is certainly nothing sanctifying about it; and the tendency seems to lie the other way, else it is a strange thing that men dedicated to God were so continually bidden to drink neither wine nor strong drink.

    This passage describing John is paralleled in Ephesians by Paul's dual command, first negative, then positive, calling for all saints to be "Nazarite-like," like John the Baptist, even from the day of our spiritual birth to the last day on earth! (Jn 3:3-6)!

    And do not get drunk (the negative command - present imperative with a negative) with wine, for that is dissipation, but be filled (the positive command - present imperative = continually!) with the Spirit, (Eph 5:18-note)

    Comment - Both commands are passive voice, which means the effecting agent exerts its influence from outside of our own personality. But we are not spiritual puppets, so we still must make the daily (even moment by moment) choice to allow either the negative or the positive "power" to influence and control us. It is still our choice to whom we will surrender each morning -- to the world with its antichrist spirit or to the Word and the Spirit of the living God! It's up to you dear child of God! Choose wisely!

    Filled (4092)(pimplemi from the obsolete pláō = to fill) to fill, to make full, to complete. Figuratively of persons filled with something which means they are wholly affected, controlled or influenced with or by what fills them, especially the Holy Spirit (Lk 1:15 = of John the Baptist while still in mother's womb, Lk 2:4, Acts 4:8 = of Peter, Acts 4:31 = the praying believers, Acts 9:17 = of Paul, Acts 13:9 = of Paul). Filled with an emotion (Lk 4:28, Lk 6:11 = filled with rage, Lk 5:26 = filled with fear, Acts 3:10 = wonder and amazement, Acts 5:17 = jealousy, Acts 13:45 = Jews filled with jealousy, compare Acts 19:29 = city filled with confusion). Of time fulfilled or completed (Lk 1:23 = days of priestly service ended, Lk 1:57, 2:6 = pregnancy completed, Lk 2:21-22, Lk 21:22.

    Pimplemi- 22 of 24 NT uses are by Dr Luke - Mt. 22:10; 27:48; Lk. 1:15; Lk. 1:23; Lk. 1:41; Lk. 1:57; Lk. 1:67; Lk. 2:6; Lk. 2:21; Lk. 2:22; Lk. 4:28; Lk. 5:7; Lk. 5:26; Lk. 6:11; Lk. 21:22; Acts 2:4; Acts 3:10; Acts 4:8; Acts 4:31; Acts 5:17; Acts 9:17; Acts 13:9; Acts 13:45; Acts 19:29

    J Vernon McGee - The son of Elisabeth and Zacharias was to be a Nazarite. One of the things the Nazarite vowed was that he would not drink strong drink or wine. He was to find his joy in the Holy Spirit and in God. That is the reason Paul, in Ephesians 5:18-note, says, “And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit.” Get your joy from God, not from a bottle. There are a lot of bottle-babies today. I am not speaking of crib babies but of adult babies hanging over a bar. And there are some Christians today who have to be pepped up and hepped up in order to face life. We need to recognize that the Holy Spirit of God can give us the strength to face life. (E.g., read Ro 15:13-note)

    Yet in his mother's womb - This reminds us of Jeremiah 1:5 where Jehovah tells his prophet "Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you; I have appointed you a prophet to the nations." Note God's omniscience and His sovereignty over salvation. 

    God's message through Gabriel was similar to His message given directly (as the ) to Samson's parents...

    “Now therefore, be careful not to drink wine or strong drink, nor eat any unclean thing. 5“For behold, you shall conceive and give birth to a son, and no razor shall come upon his head, for the boy shall be a Nazirite to God from the womb; and he shall begin to deliver Israel from the hands of the Philistines.” 6Then the woman came and told her husband, saying, “A man of God came to me and his appearance was like the appearance of the angel of God, very awesome. And I did not ask him where he came from, nor did he tell me his name. 7“But he said to me, ‘Behold, you shall conceive and give birth to a son, and now you shall not drink wine or strong drink nor eat any unclean thing, for the boy shall be a Nazirite to God from the womb to the day of his death.’” (Judges 13:4-7-note)


    James Smith - WHAT CONSTITUTES TRUE GREATNESS.
    "He shall be great in the sight of the Lord" (Luke 1:15).

    Introduction. 

    HEAVEN'S STANDARD.

    1. "In the sight of the Lord," not in the sight of men.
    2. There is the world's estimate of greatness, and there is God's estimate.
    3. The one greatly differs from the other.
    4. The former is false and fanciful, the latter true and eternal.
    5. John's greatness was according to the standard of Heaven. In the Lord's estimation he was a great man.

    USEFUL NOT GREAT.

    1. Some are born great, others have greatness thrust upon them.
    2. Most, if not all of us, have no aspiration for earthly greatness.
    3. We have not the slightest expectation of ever becoming great in a worldly sense.
    4. But that is not the reason why we desire it not.
    5. We sympathise much with the poet who wrote:
       "Pay not thy praise to lofty things alone.
       The plains are everlasting as the hills."
    6. The plains are as necessary as the hills.
    7. What should we do if all the globe was but a collection of hills and mountains?
    8. We have no ambition for earthly greatness.
    9. For one thing, greatness fills the pillow with thorns.
    10. We desire rather to be useful than great. 

    USEFUL BECAUSE GREAT.

    1. And we can be useful without earthly greatness.
    2. But that is not so with respect to spiritual greatness. Note little word "and", verse 17.
    3. Goodness and highest usefulness is conditioned on being "great in the sight of the Lord."
    4. John was good and useful because he was great in the Lord's sight.

    Four results of greatness: (1) Parents rejoice; (2) Fellows benefit; (3) Fulness of blessing; (4) Usefulness in service.

    A Longing.

    1. Do you not long that your parents might thank God you were ever given to them?
    2. And that others of your fellows should thank God you were ever born?
    3. Surely we all long for that privilege!
    4. Well, all this is the outcome of becoming great in His sight.
    5. Note that little word "for" and previous verse.

    How to Get Power of Spirit.

    1. Further, how we long to be filled with the Spirit.
    2. How we long to have power in service.
    3. How we long to be the instrument of the conversion of many.
    4. Here you see all this is fruit of being great in His sight. (Ed: I think more accurately it is the "root"!)
    5. Do you not think there is some connection between

    a. Being great in the sight of the Lord,
    b. Being filled with the Holy Spirit,
    c. And turning many to righteousness?

    PROPHECY THAT CAME TO PASS.

    1. This was the prophecy of the angel who announced His birth.
    2. Did the prophecy come to full fruition?
    3. How many lives of promise become tragic failures?
    4. Yes, listen to the words of Jesus. Looking back on the career of this man, the Lord Jesus endorsed the prophecy, declaring that it had become a fact. "Among those that are born of women there is none greater."

    ELEMENTS OF TRUE GREATNESS.

    1. If we want to know the elements of true greatness, the greatness God recognises, we do well if we turn to the life of this man.
    2. Lives of great men like John remind us, we (or rather God) may make our lives sublime.
    3. What was there about John worthy of such noble comment?
    4. We have seven facts to bring to your notice.
    5. And we make bold to declare that all the principles of John's life, character, and service might become ours.

    I. He was a Man of Noble Birth (Luke 1:5). Descendant of Aaron.

    1. He was a descendant of Aaron, belonging to the priestly family.
    2. What a very great honour this was I
    3. He was a noble man of noble birth.
    4. Well begun is half done.

    DISCOURAGED.

    1. Ah, at that word you discourage me.
    2. I am but of humble and lowly origin.
    3. I am but one of the common folk.
    4. No need now to proceed any further. But listen!

    GREAT SOUL.

    1. It was said of one that, he was "a man of mean estate" yet "his soul was great."
    2. So you can have a great soul.

    MORE NOBLE BIRTH.

    1. But you can be of far nobler birth than John.
    2. You can have the very life of the Creator in your soul.
    3. The life of the King of kings within you.
    4. "Partakers of Divine nature." Can you have anything greater than that?

    GREATER THAN HE.

    1. If you think we are romancing, listen to the Saviour (Luke 7:28).
    2. The greatness referred to here is not that of character, but that of position.
    3. The contrast is drawn between being within and being without the kingdom.
    4. John the Baptist only stood upon the threshold, we go right in.
    5. "He that is least within the Kingdom is greater than the greatest without."

    YOU CAN BECOME A RELATIVE.

    1. John was a relative to Jesus.
    2. You, too, can become related to Him.

    II. He was an Unworldly Man (Luke 1:80). "A man clothed in soft raiment?" No. This is seen in different ways:

    a. His love of solitude.
    b. His plain dress.
    c. His plain food.

    DIFFERENT TYPE.

    1. Of course we know our type of holiness is different to that of John.
    2. Concerning the dark middle ages, an historian writes: "In those days John the Baptist's life seems to have been the ideal of holiness far more than that of the Son of Man; to renounce the common food and the common joys of humanity was deemed far nobler than to turn earth's daily bread to Divine uses."
    3. Yet according to his light, he was right.
    4. He was a man who lived above the world.

    III. He was a Man who had Control over his Appetites.

    IV. He was a Man Filled with the Holy Spirit.

    V. He was a Man with a Mission.

    BORN FOR A PURPOSE.

    1. He was born in order to do a specific work.
    2. He did not go aimlessly through life.
    3. So with us.
    4. Every man's life is a plan of God.

    Answered. He answered the purpose of his existence in

    1. Introducing Jesus, and acting as
    2. Fore-runner of Jesus.

    SO WE:

    1. Can we not make it easy for some to come to Jesus.
    2. Can we not introduce others to Jesus?

    VI. He was a Man Obedient to the Call. 

    NOT ONLY KNEW.

    1. He would be told by his parents the circumstances surrounding his birth.
    2. And he obeyed the call.

    ABRAHAM.

    1. The call came to Abraham and the Lord said that if he would leave his home and obey the call, "I will bless thee and make thy name great."
    2. Obedience, then blessing, then greatness. "Whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven" (Matt. 5:19) Mark, do and teach—obedience before teaching.

    VII. He was a Man of Unwavering Firmness and Courage. Not "a reed shaken with the wind."

    COURAGE.

    1. In rebuking sin, even that of King Herod.
    2. He laid down his life.

    ELIZABETH FRY.

    1. Elizabeth Fry, as a girl (born in 1780), "was of pleasing person, gentle in look and manner, loving, obedient, and possessed of an exquisite voice.
    2. Yet she was timid and obstinate.
    3. Yet it is said of her that "her natural timidity in after years, under Divine Grace, was transformed into a chastened courage, and her childish obstinacy, became a finely-tempered decision of character." All the result of the Holy Spirit's presence in her life.

    VIII. He was a Man on Fire for God.

    Luke 1:16  "And he will turn many of the sons of Israel back to the Lord their God.

    A VOICE IN THE WILDERNESS
    CRYING "RETURN!"

    AMP  And he will turn back and cause to return many of the sons of Israel to the Lord their God,

    This is a prophecy that the preaching of John the Baptist will result in the conversion of many Jewish people to the Lord their God. Is the Gospel you are preaching by your life and then your lips causing many lost sons, both Jews and Gentiles, to be born again and to enter into the Kingdom of God? Daniel promises an eternal  blessing 

    Those who have insight will shine brightly like the brightness of the expanse of heaven, and those who lead the many to righteousness, like the stars forever and ever. (Da 12:3-note)

    John prepared the way for the Messiah fulfilling

    Isaiah 40:3-5 A voice (John the Baptist) is calling, “Clear the way for the LORD in the wilderness; Make smooth in the desert a highway for our God.  4 “Let every valley be lifted up, And every mountain and hill be made low; And let the rough ground become a plain, And the rugged terrain a broad valley;  5 Then the glory of the LORD will be revealed, And all flesh will see [it] together; For the mouth of the LORD has spoken.” 

    Henry Morris - This prophecy was fulfilled 700 years later when John the Baptist came to "prepare the way" for Christ (Matthew 3:1-3)(Ed: Esp verse 3 "THE VOICE OF ONE CRYING IN THE WILDERNESS, ‘MAKE READY THE WAY OF THE LORD, MAKE HIS PATHS STRAIGHT!’”).

    Malachi 3:1-note (quoted by Luke 7:27, Mt 11:10, Mk 1:2) "Behold, I am going to send My messenger (John the Baptist), and he will clear the way before Me. And the Lord, whom you seek, will suddenly come to His temple; and the messenger of the covenant, in whom you delight, behold, He is coming,” says the LORD of hosts.

    Henry Morris - fulfilled in John the Baptist, over 400 years later. John did, indeed, "prepare the way" for Christ with his preaching. In fact, some (possibly all) of Christ's disciples were first John's disciples. A similar prophecy had previously been given by Isaiah (Isa 40:3,4)

    Spurgeon - In the third chapter of this Gospel, you will find the record of John beginning to fulfill this prophecy concerning himself. (Luke 3:1-17, 18)

    J C Ryle on turn - He is one who will “turn hearts,”—turn them from ignorance to knowledge, from carelessness to thoughtfulness, from sin to God

    He will turn (cause to return) (1994)(epistrepho from epí = motion toward + strepho = twist, turn quite around or reverse) means literally to  turn around (Mk 8:33), to turn toward (Rev 1:12), to return (in a figurative sense - of Peter in Lk 22:32). The figurative sense as intended here in Lk 1:16-17 where the idea is a definite turn (or return) to God in conduct as well as in one's mind (cp similar idea in Mk 4:12). 

    Epistrepho conveys the idea of turning from idolatry and sin to love and serve God and is used in that sense in the Septuagint of Mal 2:6-note

    “True instruction was in his (Levi's) mouth and unrighteousness was not found on his lips (in stark contrast to the priests of Malachi's day); he walked with Me in peace and uprightness, and he turned many back (Lxx = epistrepho) from iniquity."

    The faithful proclamation of the Word by John the Baptist and Levi of the OT would turn many back to God. Note that not all will turn back. 

    This verb epistrepho is often associated with repentance and conversion as in Peter's exhortation to the Jews in Acts....

    Therefore repent (aorist imperative = command which can be obeyed only in one energized by the Spirit. See Acts 5:31 = Jews and Acts 11:18 = Gentiles) and return (epistrepho in the aorist imperative = command which can be obeyed only in one energized by the Spirit), so that (term of purpose - Ask "What's the purpose?") your sins may be wiped away, in order that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord;  and that He may send Jesus, the Christ appointed for you,(Acts 3:19-20)

    Luke frequently uses epistrepho - 18x (out of a total of 35 verses in the NT) Lk. 1:16; Lk. 1:17; Lk. 2:39; Lk. 8:55; Lk. 17:4; Lk. 17:31; Lk. 22:32; Acts 3:19; Acts 9:35; Acts 9:40; Acts 11:21; Acts 14:15; Acts 15:19; Acts 15:36; Acts 16:18; Acts 26:18; Acts 26:20; Acts 28:27 

    Henry Morris - John was the first--and perhaps greatest--gospel preacher. The Lord used him to lead multitudes to Christ (see notes on Matthew 3:5,6, noting that "all Jerusalem and Judaea" came out to hear his message, repenting, confessing their sins, and being baptized). That his message focused on Christ as sin-bearing Savior is evident from John 1:7,8,29.

    Luke 1:17  "It is he who will go as a forerunner before Him in the spirit and power of Elijah, TO TURN THE HEARTS OF THE FATHERS BACK TO THE CHILDREN, and the disobedient to the attitude of the righteous, so as to make ready a people prepared for the Lord."

    • before. Luke 1:16. John 1:13, 23–30, 34; 3:28. in. Mal. 4:5, 6. Mat. 11:14; 17:11, 12. Mark 9:11–13. John 1:21–24. Re. 20:4.
    • power. 1 Ki. 17:1; 18:18; 21:20. 2 Ki. 1:4–6, 16,
    • Elijah. Mat. 3:4, 7–12; 14:4.
    • turn. Luke 3:7–14. Mal. 4:6.
    • and the. Is. 29:24. Mat. 21:29–32. 1 Co. 6:9–11.
    • to. or, by. to make. 1 Sa. 7:5. 1 Ch. 29:18. 2 Ch. 29:36. Ps. 10:17; 78:8; 111:10. Am. 4:12. Ac. 10:33. Ro. 9:23. Col. 1:12. 2 Ti. 2:21. 1 Pe. 2:9. 2 Pe. 3:11–14. 1 John 2:28.
    • Verse-by-Verse - Multiple Commentaries - Luke 1:17 Commentaries
    • Multiple commentaries and sermons on Luke 1

    AMP - And he will [himself] go before Him in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn back the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient and incredulous and unpersuadable to the wisdom of the upright [which is the knowledge and holy love of the will of God]—in order to make ready for the Lord a people [perfectly] prepared [in spirit, adjusted and disposed and placed in the right moral state]. 

    RESTORATION
    OF HEARTS

    Remember that this is the angel Gabriel prophetically speaking to Zacharias telling him what will transpire in the life of his son John.

    Spurgeon - Happy is the father of such a child! Happy is that man whose office it is to be the herald of Christ! Brethren, many of us are called to that office in a certain sense as we come in our Master’s name, and preach concerning him “’Tis all my business here below To cry, ‘Behold the Lamb.’” And in this way we may be partakers of John the Baptist’s joy.

    Before (in front of) (1799)(enopion from en = in + ops = the eye/see) means literally in sight, in front of,

    It is he who will go before Him - John 1:6-7, 15, 23

    There came a man sent from God, whose name was John. He came as a witness, to testify about the Light, so that all might believe through him....15 John *testified about Him and cried out, saying, “This was He of whom I said, ‘He who comes after me has a higher rank than I, for He existed before me.....23 He said, “I am A VOICE OF ONE CRYING IN THE WILDERNESS, ‘MAKE STRAIGHT THE WAY OF THE LORD,’ as Isaiah the prophet said.” 

    Luke recalls the prophecy of Malachi, the last words of the OT in which a promise was given of  the return of Elijah before the Day of the Lord. (cp Mt 3:4  11:14; Mk 9:11, 12).  

    Behold, I am going to send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and terrible day of the LORD.And he will restore (Hebrew shub/sub = movement back to point of departure; Lxx = apokathistano = restore to a previous condition)  the hearts of the fathers to their children, and the hearts of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the land with a curse (note the OT ends with a "curse!" but the NT opens with Jesus Who became a curse for all who will believe in Him - Gal 3:13-note). (Mal 4:5-6-note)

    The spirit and power of Elijah - Elijah took a bold, uncompromising stand for the Word of God in the face of strong opposition from King Ahab (Read 1Ki 18:17-24). 

    The association of the word spirit (pneuma) and power (dunamis) is common in Luke's writing - Luke 1:35; 4:14; cf. Luke 24:49; Acts 1:8; 10:38.

    J Vernon McGee - Let us understand clearly that although John the Baptist went forth in the spirit and power of Elijah, he was not Elijah. 

    Henry Morris -  Luke 1:17 is paraphrased from Malachi 4:6. John was not Elijah returned to earth, but his message of repentance and reconciliation of the people to the God whom they had largely forsaken was delivered in the same spirit and power shown in Elijah. His wilderness lifestyle was also reminiscent of the prophet whom God had taken to heaven in the flesh. In no way does the coming of John the Baptist negate the still-in-effect prophecy of Elijah's future return to the earth (see Matthew 17:11; Revelation 11:3-6) to complete his mission.

    Constable comments that Elijah had "led the people back to Yahweh after Ahab and Jezebel had pushed Israel’s apostasy farther than it had ever gone by instituting Baal worship as Israel’s official religion. John would possess the same spirit and power that Elijah had. "

    MacArthur on spirit and power of Elijah - That statement is significant because the Jews believed that God would send a messenger before the Day of the Lord judgment and the Messiah’s coming to set up His kingdom (Mal. 3:1).

    “Behold, I am going to send My messenger, and he will clear the way before Me. And the Lord, whom you seek, will suddenly come to His temple; and the messenger of the covenant, in whom you delight, behold, He is coming,” says the LORD of hosts.

    Comment: Malachi's names means "the Lord's Messenger" who himself prophesies that God would send "My messenger who would "clear the way before" Him in keeping with Isaiah's prophecy "A voice is calling, “Clear the way for the LORD in the wilderness; Make smooth in the desert a highway for our God." (Isa 40:3) The NT clearly identifies the Lord's future messenger as John the Baptist ( Mt 3:3; 11:10, 14; Mt 17:12-13.; Mk 1:2; Lk 1:17; 7:26, 27; Jn 1:23)

    Power (1411)(dunamis from dunamai = to be able, to have power) power especially achieving power. It refers to intrinsic power or inherent ability, the power or ability to carry out some function, the power residing in a someone or something by virtue of its nature. Dunamis is the word used often by Paul to refer to divine energy, supernatural power. Vine  says that dunamis "denotes the ability requisite for meeting difficulties and for the fulfillment of the service committed to us." John the Baptist in and of himself did not have power to preach "Repent!" (Mt 3:2), but he did have the filling (cp Lk 1:15-note) and thus the power of the Holy Spirit to accomplish supernaturally what he could not have accomplished naturally. And beloved that same principle applies to you, but there is a caveat. Are you daily yielding to and allowing the Spirit to fill you and energize you? That is a daily question we ALL need to ask ourselves (yours truly included)!

    John the Baptist was not Elijah returned to earth, but his message to Israel to repent and be reconciled to God was proclaimed in the same spirit and power shown in Elijah's ministry and John's life in the wilderness was similar to Elijah's life.

    A T Robertson - John will deny that he is actually Elijah in person, as they expected (John 1:21 "Are you Elijah?”), but Jesus will call him Elijah in spirit (Mark 9:12=Matt. 17:12)

    Elijah was to precede the Messiah, but as Jesus teaches John the Baptist although not the literal Elijah did fulfill the role of a "spiritual Elijah." Study the following passages and comments to help understand Luke's statement that John the Baptist would be in the spirit and power of Elijah:

    Mark 9:11-13   They asked Him, saying, “Why is it that the scribes say that Elijah must come first?”  And He said to them, “Elijah does first come and restore all things. And yet how is it written of the Son of Man that He will suffer many things and be treated with contempt? But I say to you that Elijah has indeed come, and they did to him whatever they wished, just as it is written of him.”

    MacArthur - Jesus directly addressed the disciples’ question: the prophecies of Elijah’s coming had been fulfilled in John the Baptist. Though certainly not a reincarnation of Elijah (cf. Jn 1:21), John came in the “spirit and power of Elijah,” and would have fulfilled prophecies if they had believed (see Mt 11:14; Lk 1:17). Because they did reject both John the Baptist and Jesus, there will be another who will come in the spirit and power of Elijah before the second coming of Christ 

    John Grassmick - The presence of Elijah at the transfiguration (Mk 9:4), the confirmation of Jesus as Messiah (Mk 8:29; 9:7), and His reference to the Resurrection (Mk 9:9) suggested that the end of all things was near. If so, where was Elijah who must come first to prepare the nation spiritually for the Messiah’s coming? (cf. Malachi 3:1–4; 4:5–6) Perhaps the disciples thought Elijah’s work of renewal would mean the Messiah would not need to suffer. In reply, Jesus made two things clear. First, He acknowledged on the one hand that Elijah does come (lit., “is coming”) first (before the Messiah) and restores (“is going to restore”) all things through spiritual renewal (Mal. 4:5–6). On the other hand this does not remove the necessity for the Son of Man to suffer much and be rejected (cf. Ps. 22; Isa. 53, esp. v. 3).Second, however (but in Greek is a strong adversative), Jesus declared that indeed Elijah has come already. In a veiled way Mark recorded how Jesus identified John the Baptist as the one who fulfilled at Jesus’ First Advent the role function expected of the end-time Elijah (cf. Mark 1:2–8; Matt. 17:13; Luke 1:17). Jesus gave John his true significance which John did not even recognize about himself (cf. John 1:21; Matt. 11:14). (Bible Knowledge Commentary)

    Matthew 11:14 And if you are willing to accept it, John himself is Elijah who was to come.

    MacArthur - That is, he is the fulfillment of Malachi 4:5, 6 (see Mt 17:12, 13 below). The Jews were aware that Elijah had not died (cf. 2Ki 2:11). This does not suggest that John was Elijah returned. In fact, John himself denied that he was Elijah (Jn 1:21); yet he came in the spirit and power of Elijah (Lk 1:17). If they had believed, John would have been the fulfillment of the Elijah prophecies. (See Mk 9:13 above; Rev 11:5, 6-note.)

    Barbieri - Those leaders wanted a kingdom, but not the kind Jesus was offering. So they were resisting the message and attempting to establish their own rule. But John’s message was true, and if the nation would accept it, and consequently accept Jesus, John would fulfill the prophecies of Elijah. Only if they accepted the message would John the Baptist be the Elijah who was to come (cf. Mal. 4:5). Because the nation rejected the Messiah, Elijah’s coming is still future (cf. Mal. 4:6 with Acts 3:21).

    Matthew 17:10-13 And His disciples asked Him, “Why then do the scribes say that Elijah must come first?” (They knew that is what Malachi 4:5,6 had predicted) And He answered and said, “Elijah is coming and will restore all things; but I say to you that Elijah already came, and they did not recognize him, but did to him whatever they wished. So also the Son of Man is going to suffer at their hands.” Then the disciples understood that He had spoken to them about John the Baptist.

    MacArthur - The Jewish leaders had failed to recognize John the Baptist (though the disciples did, Mt 17:13). John came in the spirit and power of Elijah—and the Jewish leaders had killed him. The Messiah was “going to suffer” similarly.

    Louis BarbieriElijah had already come in the person of John the Baptist and his ministry was not recognized. Instead of receiving John the Baptist, the religious leaders had rejected him. As they refused to acknowledge John’s ministry and instead rejected him, Jesus too would be rejected. At the first announcement concerning the birth of John, Zechariah his father had been told that he would go before the Lord “in the spirit and power of Elijah” (Luke 1:17). The Lord’s earlier words concerning John (Matt. 11:14) affirmed that he would have been the predicted Elijah if the nation had responded in saving faith. Everything necessary to bring in Messiah’s kingdom had been performed. The only contingency was the acceptance by the nation of her rightful King. (Bible Knowledge Commentary)

    Constable - Jesus later explained that John fulfilled the prophecy of Messiah’s forerunner (Mal. 3:1). He would have completely fulfilled the prophecy of Elijah’s return if the Jews had accepted Jesus (Mal. 5:5–6; Matt. 11:10, 14).

    Turn the hearts - Luke is quoting the first half of Malachi 4:6 "He will restore the hearts of the fathers to their children and the hearts of the children to their fathers" MacArthur explains this shows "that John the Baptist fulfilled that prophecy." The idea is that John would proclaim a message that would turn people from self to Savior, from idols to God (this pattern is  especially well demonstrated in 1Th 1:9-note) even as did his OT predecessor Elijah.

    Robertson - Paternal love had died out. This is one of the first results of conversion, the revival of love in the home

    Turn the hearts....and the disobedient to the attitude of the righteous - "John’s preaching would call the children of Israel back from their disobedience, back from their apostasy, back from their rebellion, back from their sin, back from their self-righteousness to the Lord their God." (MacArthur) And John did so because he was empowered by the Spirit to boldly begin his ministry crying out (commanding) for the sons of Israel to "Repent!" (present imperative = make this your lifestyle!)  (Mt 3:2)

    NET NoteTurn the hearts of the fathers back to their children points to horizontal relationships (fathers => children), while (turn) the disobedient to the wisdom of the just shows what God gives from above in a vertical manner.

    Turn (1994) (epistrepho from epí = motion toward + strepho = twist, turn quite around or reverse) means to turn around, to return and figuratively to convert. The idea is a definite turn to God in conduct as well as in one's mind, which is a description of conversion which is portrayed in many of the NT uses = Mt. 13:15; Mk 4:12; Acts 3:19; 11:21; 14:15; 15:19; 28:27; 1 Th 1:9-note; Jas 5:19–20.

    Hearts (2588)(kardia)  does not refer to the physical organ but is always used figuratively in Scripture to refer to the seat and center of human life. The heart is the center of the personality, and it controls the intellect, emotions, and will. No outward obedience is of the slightest value unless the heart turns to God.

    Disobedient (545)(apeithes from a = without + peitho = to persuade) (See related apeitheiaapeitheo) literally describes one who refuses to be persuaded (unpersuadable), thus picturing one who willfully disregards authority. Impersuasible, incompliant, contumacious. Apeithes pictures a stubborn, stiff-necked attitude and speaks of disbelief manifesting itself in disobedience. Apeithes is opposed to pistis or belief (trust). Apeithes describes someone who will not be persuaded, who stubbornly refuses to believe and obey the truth (John 3:36; Rom. 2:8; 11:30, 31; 1 Peter 2:8; 3:1, 20).

    To the attitude (phronesis - mindset, understanding) of the righteous - The angel prophesies that John's preaching would confront the obstinate, hard hearts of sinners and transform their unrighteous ("upside down") thinking into ("right side up") righteous thinking. These individuals would be prepared for the Lord. The messenger John would prepare the people for the ultimate Messenger and Message, the Gospel of Jesus Christ. 

    Attitude (5428)(phronesis from phroneo = to have understanding, to think <> from phren = midriff, heart, mind, thought) describes practical understanding and discernment of the needs, problems principles of everyday life which leads to right action. This word is used in the Septuagint many times in Proverbs (see here) which is not surprising for this is God's wisdom literature. 

    Vincent on phronesis - This is a lower word than sophia, wisdom (see on Jas. 3:13). It is an attribute or result of wisdom, and not necessarily in a good sense, though mostly so in the New Testament. Compare, however, the use of the kindred word φρόνιμος in Rom. 11:25; 12:16: wise in your own conceits; and the adverb φρονίμως, wisely, of the unjust steward, Luke 16:8. It is practical intelligence, which may or may not be applied to good ends. Appropriate here as a practical term corresponding to disobedient.

    Make ready (2090)(hetoimazo from heteos = fitness - see related hetoimasia) means to make ready, specifically to make ready beforehand for some purpose, use, or activity. This verb also carries idea of willingness and eagerness as well as of readiness -- willing, eager and ready to welcome the Messiah and His message.

    Make ready is in the perfect tense indicating that John's preaching would produce a state of readiness for Christ. 

    Zacharias clearly believed Gabriel for later he in turn prophesied of his son John... 

    “And you, child, will be called the prophet of the Most High, for you will go on BEFORE THE LORD TO PREPARE (hetoimazo) HIS WAYS;  to give to His people the knowledge of salvation by the forgiveness of their sins, (Lk 1:76-77-note)

    Comment: It is worth noting that some think that John's message in Mt 3:1-8 was just one of repentance, but Luke clearly shows his message also included "forgiveness of sins" and Mt 3:8 shows that one's repentance would be shown to be a true heart change by the fact that the individual brought forth spiritual fruit (cp Eph 2:8-9 and Eph 2:10, John 15:5). 

    Henry Morris - The "people prepared for the Lord" certainly included all (or at least many) of Christ's twelve disciples (see John 1:35-37; Acts 1:21-22).

    Constable adds that "Luke spoke often of the people (Gr. laos) that God was preparing for Himself. These people prepared for the Lord included Jewish hearers but also those who formerly were not “a people” (1 Pet. 2:10), namely the Gentiles. They are the elect who would compose the church. With this word Luke constantly reminded his original Greek readers that God’s plan included Gentiles who responded to the gospel as well as Jews."

    Luke 1:18  Zacharias said to the angel, "How will I know this for certain? For I am an old man and my wife is advanced in years."

    AMP - And Zachariah said to the angel, By what shall I know and be sure of this? For I am an old man, and my wife is well advanced in years. 

    ASKING FOR 
    A SIGN

    A good subtitle for this section would be "How not to talk to an angel."

    How will I know - Expressing a degree of doubt, Zacharias asked for a sign for which he is rebuked in Lk 1:20 (cp Lk 11:29).  Abraham also asked for a sign under similar circumstances "He said, “O Lord GOD, how may I know that I will possess it?” (Ge 15:8).

    Eugene Peterson offers this paraphrase, “Do you expect me to believe this?” which captures the note of doubt and skeptical unbelief. Though it was quite true that both Zechariah and Elizabeth were old and past child-bearing years, the angel clearly expected Zechariah to believe what God had said. (Pritchard)

    Mary's question in Lk 1:34 does not express doubt that she could give birth. She simply did not understand how it would happen since she had never been with a man and that was the only way she knew that one could become pregnant.

    Elizabeth testified that Mary did not doubt the promise...

    “And blessed is she who believed that there would be a fulfillment of what had been spoken to her by the Lord.” (Lk 1:45)

    Ray Pritchard explains "Even though the promises made to Mary were much greater (and therefore should have been harder to believe), her response is different than Zechariah’s. When the angel finished his announcement, Mary simply replied, “How will this be, since I am a virgin?” (Lk 1:34) Later she said, “I am the Lord’s slave. May it be done to me according to your word” (Lk 1:38). There is a subtle but important difference at work here. Zechariah wanted proof. Mary wanted understanding....Zechariah’s question really is, “Why should I believe something preposterous like this?” If we compare Zechariah to Mary, we are left with a question like this. Which is harder to believe, that an older couple, well past childbearing years, should have a child or that a virgin would conceive and give birth to a son? While both challenge the mind and both are humanly impossible, surely the virginal conception of Jesus is a miracle of a different order than Elizabeth getting pregnant. Yet she believed, and Zechariah didn’t. What are we to learn from this? (1) Even very strong believers will sometimes stumble through unbelief....Zechariah’s unbelief sprang not from any particular moral weakness but from something more basic. He simply couldn’t conceive of how his wife could conceive. To put it in modern terms, he didn’t have a category for a couple on Medicare having children. Because it didn’t fit his preconceptions, he simply could not and would not allow himself to think differently, not even when Gabriel showed up with a word from the Lord. (2) Sometimes long delays may cause us to doubt that our prayers will ever be answered. The very first thing the angel says is, “Do not be afraid, Zechariah; your prayer has been heard” (Lk 1:14)...There will be times for all of us when it seems as if God has pressed the Mute button so that we do not hear from heaven for a long time. In those periods, let us not grow weary but continue to seek the Lord and to pray. (3) Man’s unbelief will not cancel God’s plans. If God is God, this must be true. The angel’s message contradicted everything Zechariah knew so he simply refused to believe it. 

    Spurgeon - His faith was staggered by the apparent impossibility of the case, as ours too often is when outward providences appear to contradict the promise.

    For (term of explanation) I am an old man and my wife is advanced in years - His doubt concerning the prophecy that he would have a son was because he and his wife were too old. But as God told Abraham (whose wife was also "too old")

    "Is anything too difficult ("hard" in KJV, Hebrew word pala primarily means to be surpassing or extraordinary and is translated "wonderful" when used of Messiah in Isa 9:6-note!) for the LORD? At the appointed time I will return to you, at this time next year, and Sarah shall have a son." (Ge 18:14, context Ge 18:10-15)

    J Vernon McGee - I cannot help but laugh at a verse like this. A great many people do not find humor in the Bible, but there is—and this verse gives us a taste of it. Here is a man, a priest, who has gone to God in prayer. At the altar of incense he says, “Oh, God, give me a son.” Now when God says through the angel Gabriel, “I am going to give you a son,” Zacharias replies, “How do I know?” He says, “My wife is old and I am old, and I do not think we can have a child.” Yet he was praying for a son! Have you ever prayed like that? You ask God for something, but you really do not believe He is going to give it to you. This is one reason we do not receive answers to our prayers. We have no faith at all. This man Zacharias is quite human, and I cannot help but laugh at him because that’s the way I pray sometimes.

    THE PROBLEM OF
    DOUBT

    Steven Cole (Luke 1:18-25 The Problem of Doubt) - Every thinking person has struggled with the problem of doubt. C. S. Lewis, who was an atheist before he was converted to Christianity, acknowledged that just as the Christian has his moments of doubt, so does the atheist. He wrote, “Believe in God, and you will have to face hours when it seems obvious that this material world is the only reality; disbelieve in Him, and you must face hours when this material world seems to shout at you that it is not all. No conviction religious or irreligious will, of itself, end once and for all this fifth-columnist in the soul. Only the practice of faith resulting in the habit of faith will gradually do that.” (Cited in “Focal Point,” July-September, 1989.)
    Doubt comes in varying degrees. There is the doubt of the proud skeptic, who delights in his own intellect. He pits himself against God as if he is a match for the Almighty. He delights in upsetting the faith of weak believers. He sets forth his arguments against God’s existence or the Christian faith as if he is the first brilliant thinker in history to come up with such insights. Such doubters often find jobs teaching at American universities! The Bible dismisses such scoffers with the word, “The fool has said in his heart, ‘There is no God’” (Ps. 14:1).
    Another level of doubt is that of the person who wants to believe, but he’s struggling with difficult questions and he has not yet come to see the glory and excellency of the Lord Jesus Christ as the all-sufficient Savior of sinners. While this person’s questions are often sincere, invariably they are mixed up with sin, especially the sin of wanting to run his own life apart from the lordship of Christ.
    In dealing with this type of person, I often use John 7:17, where Jesus said, “If any man is willing to do His will, he shall know of the teaching, whether it is of God, or whether I speak from Myself.” I’ll point out that while there are some tough questions, the core issue is one of the heart, of being willing to obey God. I encourage such people to read the gospel accounts with an open heart and ask the question, “Who is Jesus Christ?” If He is God in human flesh, who offered Himself as the sacrifice for sinners, then we must trust Him and submit ourselves to Him. Once our hearts are subject to Him, He will give us satisfactory answers to most of the tough questions.
    Another type of doubt is that of the believer who has gotten his eyes off the Lord in the midst of a difficult situation. The disciples were there when they were being swamped by the storm at sea and they shouted, “Save us, Lord; we are perishing!” He first rebuked the disciples, “Why are you timid, you men of little faith?” Then He rebuked the wind and the sea (Matt. 8:25-26). The distraught father was there when the disciples could not cast the demon out of his son. He entreated Jesus, “But if You can do anything, take pity on us and help us!” Jesus responded, “If You can! All things are possible to him who believes.” The father cried out, “I do believe; help my unbelief” (Mark 9:22-24).
    All of us who believe in Jesus Christ as Savior have been there, too. We believe, but we get our eyes off the Lord and onto the trial that looms before us. If you put a penny close to your eye, it will block out the brilliance of the sun. If you let a trial consume your vision, it will block the glorious power of the Almighty God.
    Zacharias was there that day in the temple when Gabriel, the angel who stands in God’s very presence, appeared to him and promised to give Zacharias and his wife, Elizabeth, a son. He should have been ecstatic with joy. Every day for years this devout couple had prayed, “Lord, if it would be Your will, give us a son.” But that had been years ago. Now it was too late. They were both long past the time when even couples who had children were able to conceive. Zacharias had reconciled himself to reality-they were not going to have a son. He had come to terms with God over the matter: “God is sovereign. He is free to bestow His blessings on whom He wishes. For some inscrutable reason, He has withheld that blessing from us.” And now, Zacharias was not willing to open himself to the roller coaster of hopes and fears that he had long left behind. And so he doubted the word of the angel.
     What can Zacharias teach us about the problem of doubt?
    1. We all struggle with the problem of doubt.
    A. Doubt is a problem, even for the righteous.

    Zacharias was “righteous in the sight of God, walking blamelessly in all the commandments and requirements of the Lord” (Lk 1:6). Being righteous in the sight of the Lord means that his godliness was not an outward show, like the “righteousness” of the Pharisees, but a matter of the heart. The man walked with God and he had done so for many years. The fact that such a godly man doubted shows us that none are exempt from the problem.
    Other great men and women of faith in the Bible also had their moments of doubt. Sarah stumbled over a similar situation. When the Lord announced to Abraham that his wife would give birth to a son, Sarah, listening on the other side of the tent wall, laughed in doubt (Gen. 18:10-15).
    The son of Zacharias, John the Baptist, had a time of doubt. He was languishing in prison and he began to wonder, “If Jesus is truly the Messiah, why am I, His messenger, here in prison?” So he sent his disciples to ask Jesus, “Are You the Expected One, or do we look for someone else?” Jesus replied, “Go and report to John what you have seen and heard: the blind receive sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, the poor have the gospel preached to them.” Then He gently rebuked John’s doubt by adding, “And blessed is he who keeps from stumbling over Me” (Luke 7:22, 23). Jesus went on to tell the crowd that among those born of women, there is no one greater than John. He was a godly man, but he had his time of doubt.
    So doubt is a problem, even for those who are righteous in God’s sight. If godly men like Zacharias and John fell into doubt, we should be on guard, so that we do not fall. Since even the godly have fallen, we may wonder, “What is the source of doubt?”
    B. Doubt does not stem from a lack of evidence, but from our sinful hearts.
    Have you ever talked to someone who said, “If I just saw a miracle or had a direct word from God, I would believe”? It doesn’t work that way. Here, Zacharias had an angel suddenly appear and speak a direct revelation from God, but he did not believe. Later in Luke, the rich man in Hades pleaded with Abraham to send someone to warn his brothers, so that they would not also come to that awful place of torment. Abraham replied that his brothers had Moses and the prophets. But the rich man said, “No, Father Abraham, but if someone goes to them from the dead, they will repent!” But Abraham replied, “If they do not listen to Moses and the Prophets, neither will they be persuaded if someone rises from the dead” (Luke 16:27-31). Doubt is not a problem of evidence, but of the sinfulness of the human heart. Even those who are righteous struggle with the sinful nature.
    You may wonder, “How does Zacharias’ question differ from Mary’s question (Lk 1:34)?” When the angel told her that she would become pregnant with Jesus, she asked, “How can this be, since I am a virgin?” The angel did not confront her for doubting. Abraham laughed and brought up the matter of his and Sarah’s old age when he was promised a son, but he was not corrected for doubting, while Sarah was (Gen. 17:17). Gideon twice asked God for a sign, and he was not rebuked. But Zacharias asked the angel for a sign, and was rebuked for his doubting. Why these differences?
    I think John Calvin (Calvin’s Commentaries [Baker], 1:23) is correct when he brings up these varying cases and points out that the difference was not in the words spoken, but in the hearts of each person. He acknowledges that while God is free to punish one person and pardon another, as He sees fit, that is not the explanation here. Rather, God, who sees the hidden secrets of each person’s heart, knew that Zacharias was different than Abraham, Gideon, or Mary. Zacharias was limiting God by the normal course of human nature. He and Elizabeth were too old to have children. Case closed! But he should have acknowledged, as Gabriel says to Mary, “Nothing will be impossible with God” (Lk 1:37).
    Our sinful hearts make us all prone to limit God by human potential. The disciples fell into this error when they were faced with the crowd of 5,000 hungry men, plus women and children. Jesus asked Philip, “Where are we to buy bread, that these may eat?” John explains that Jesus asked this to test Philip, since He knew what He was about to do. Philip did a quick calculation and concluded, “Two hundred denarii worth of bread is not sufficient for them, for everyone to receive a little" (John 6:5-7). Philip may have thought that he was giving a faith-stretching answer, because the disciples clearly did not have 200 denarii to buy bread. But he was limiting God to work through normal human means. But God had a completely different solution, namely, miraculously multiplying the few loaves and fishes they had on hand.
    So even if we’ve walked with God for years, when we are faced with a seemingly impossible situation, we need to look to our hearts, which are prone to limit the Almighty by human possibilities. God has given us abundant evidence in Scripture that He is the God of the impossible. Nothing is too difficult for Him. The source of our doubts is not a lack of evidence. It is rather our, sinful hearts.
    C. Doubt is often connected with disappointments or longterm trials.
    We don’t know how long Zacharias and Elizabeth had been married, but it easily could have been 30 or 40 years. In that society, being childless was a matter of reproach (Lk 1:25). For many of those years, they had entreated God to give them a child and take away their reproach, but God did not answer. Now that they were physically too old to have children, they had come to terms with their disappointment. They had concluded that it must not be God’s will. So when the angel suddenly announced that they would have a child, Zacharias doubted. You’ve been there, haven’t you? You prayed for something so long and your request was denied for so long that you concluded, “It isn’t going to happen.” Then, maybe even after you stopped praying, suddenly there was a glimmer of hope that your prayers were about to be answered. But you didn’t want to get your hopes up, only to have them dashed again. So you protected yourself by saying, “Let’s wait and see.” But in your heart, you were doubting God.
    A humorous story in the Book of Acts shows the early Christians falling into this same error. Herod Agrippa had executed the apostle James and then had arrested Peter, planning to put him to death just after the Passover. No doubt the church had prayed for James to be delivered, but their prayers had not been answered. They were disappointed, but when Peter was imprisoned, they called another prayer meeting. While they were praying, an angel miraculously delivered Peter from his prison cell. He went to where he surmised the church would be gathered, and stood outside knocking on the door. The servant girl recognized Peter’s voice and got so excited that she forgot to let Peter in. She ran in and announced that Peter was at the door. But everyone in the prayer meeting said, “You’re crazy! It must be Peter’s angel.” But Peter continued knocking. When they opened the door, they were amazed (Acts 12:1-17).
    Thankfully, God in His grace often pours out His blessings in spite of our doubts! That was the case with Zacharias. God lovingly disciplined His servant, but Zacharias’ doubts could not thwart the sovereign plan of God. Part of the solution to our doubts is to understand the source of them, as I have been explaining. We’re all prone to doubts because of our sinful hearts, often coupled with disappointments and trials. But Luke also wants us to see that ...
     2. The solution for doubt is to see that God will do what He says He will do.
    Darrell Bock comments, “Zechariah, righteous as he is, needs to learn that God will fulfill his promises when he sovereignly chooses to act.... The major lesson ... is that God will do what he promises in his own way” (Luke [IVP], p. 37). This is a tricky matter where it’s easy to fall off the horse both ways. On the one hand, some Christians deny God’s sovereignty by making their supposed faith sovereign. They command God around by faith, as if God is under obligation to obey because they barked the orders. Not so! God is sovereign, not the prayers of puny man.
    On the other hand, it’s easy to yield to disappointment if God has not answered as we thought He should have, and our disappointment quickly leads us into doubt. The biblical balance is not to waver in unbelief if God doesn’t do something the way we thought He should have. We allow God to be sovereign, but we believe that if He said He would do something, He will do it, even if it takes a different form than we had expected.
    Remember, Luke addressed his gospel to a man who was probably a young believer who needed assurance in his faith. The opposite of doubt is not a leap in the dark. The Christian faith is founded on solid historical evidence. Luke wrote to convince Theophilus and his other readers that God was in fact at work in this amazing history of Jesus’ birth and life. He structured these early narratives with this purpose in mind. There are two strands that come together to dispel our doubts by showing that God does what He says He will do.
    A. We know through His prophetic word that God does what He says.
      Luke underscores this point in several ways. First, there is the structure of the first two chapters of his gospel. There is a parallel pattern here of two birth announcements (John the Baptist, 1:5-25; Jesus the Messiah, 1:26-38); a meeting between the two mothers, Mary and Elizabeth, which serves as the link (1:39-56); and, two birth stories (John, 1:57-80; Jesus, 2:1-40). Through this structure, Luke wants us to see that God is clearly at work in the births of these two men. He sovereignly broke into history and announced what He was about to do. Then He proceeded to do it.
    This theme is further underscored in the angel’s announcement to Zacharias, where he cites the prophet Malachi’s prediction of the return of Elijah the prophet and says that John will fulfill that prediction. He also predicts a number of other features of John’s life and ministry which did, in fact, later happen. Luke is driving home the point that what God says He will do, He will do.
    This is emphasized in one other way that is a bit more obvious in the Greek text than in the English. In verse 18, Zacharias expresses the reason for his doubt by saying, “I am an old man.” It is an emphatic expression, ego eimi in Greek. In verse 19, the angel responds by using the same emphatic expression, “I am Gabriel, who stands in the presence of God; and I have been sent to speak to you ...” It’s a deliberate contrast between the feebleness of man’s word and the power of God’s Word. It’s as if Gabriel said, “You may be an old man, unable to father a child, but I am no less than the angel who stands in God’s very presence and comes to speak His word at His command.” Thus, clearly, the word of God overcomes the word of man.
    Thus one way we can know that God will do what He says He will do is by observing His prophetic word. There are many prophecies in Scripture that were fulfilled later in Scripture. God spoke, and later God did what He said He would do. That should strengthen our faith. Scripture also contains many prophecies yet to be fulfilled. While some of the details may be fuzzy, the overall scheme is pretty clear, and it’s also clear that in our day it is all lining up just as God has said. The world is set up for a powerful leader to bring the nations together under a one-world government, as Revelation predicts. Through the computer revolution, the mechanism is in place to control all buying and selling by giving each person a mark, as the Bible also predicts. The move toward religious unity and tolerance will culminate in the one-world religion, the whore of Revelation 17. So as we see God’s “prophetic word made more sure” (2 Pet. 1:19), we should put our doubts to rest and trust in the Word of God.
     B. We know through His loving discipline that God does what He says.
      Although our doubts do not keep God from graciously blessing us according to His promise, He does lovingly discipline us in our doubts, that we may share His holiness. So the angel struck Zacharias dumb and, apparently, deaf (see Lk 1:62). By doubting God’s ambassador, he was doubting God Himself. God took that seriously. As a loving Father, He taught His erring child a lesson he would never forget. The angel specifically states Zacharias’ sin: “because you did not believe my words” (Lk 1:20). This is further underscored later in the narrative, when Elizabeth exclaims of Mary, “Blessed is she who believed that there would be a fulfillment of what had been spoken to her by the Lord” (Lk 1:45). That’s Luke’s point: Since God will fulfill His word, we should be believing, like Mary, not unbelieving, like Zacharias.
    Zacharias’ chastisement was appropriate for his sin. He shut his mouth in silence when he should have praised God, so he would be silent until the day when his lips were loosed to praise God in front of others (Lk 1:67). Doubt has nothing to say; faith opens the heart and lips in praise to God.
    Thankfully, doubt need never be fatal. We can recover if we will submit to God’s gracious discipline. During his months of silence, Zacharias submitted to God by meditating on His Word and being thankful for His faithfulness in fulfilling His gracious promises. This is evident from the stream of praise that gushes forth when he finally has his speech restored (1:68-79). It is loaded with references to Scripture and how God has fulfilled His promises. If Zacharias had spent those silent months grumbling about how unfair God was to strike him deaf and dumb, he wouldn’t have erupted in praise as he did.
    We should learn from this godly man. When God graciously disciplines us for our doubting hearts, we can either grumble and chafe under it, or we can thankfully submit to His chastening. If, like Zacharias, we submit, we will grow stronger in faith and be filled with joyful, thankful hearts. Thus, We can overcome the problem of doubt if we will see that God does what He says He will do.
    Conclusion
    In the matter of faith and doubt, the crucial thing is not our feelings and not even our faith. The crucial thing is the object of our faith. You can have great faith in a faulty airplane, but it will crash in spite of your great faith because it’s not a trustworthy plane. You can have little faith in a sound airplane, just enough to get you on board, and that’s all it takes to get you where you’re going. It’s not your faith, but the object of it, that matters most.
    Luke wants us to see that God is faithful to His promises, especially in the matter of sending the Lord Jesus Christ to be the promised Savior. We can trust such a God and such a Savior. He has a proven track record of keeping His word.
    The doubts that we all have show us that we need a Savior because we are sinners. Only sinners would doubt the all-powerful, faithful, gracious, sovereign God who has given so many evidences of His trustworthy nature. And the good news of Luke is that it is precisely for sinners that Jesus came to this earth: “The Son of Man is come to seek and to save that which was lost” (Luke 19:10). In your confusion and doubt, call out to Him to save you from your sin. He is mighty to save all who cry out, “God, be merciful to me, the sinner” (Luke 18:13).

    Discussion Questions
      1. How can you discern whether a person’s doubts are honest questions or a smokescreen for his sin?
      2. What issues or questions cause you the most doubt? Why?
      3. Is it doubting to pray, “If it be Your will”? Why/why not?
      4. Faith is not a leap in the dark; it is based on solid evidence. How can we know when we’re demanding too much evidence?

    Luke 1:19  The angel answered and said to him, "I am Gabriel, who stands in the presence of God, and I have been sent to speak to you and to bring you this good news.

    Gabriel (1043) is a transliteration of the Hebrew Gabriy'el which means "man of God," "warrior of God," "(mighty) man of God" or "strong man of God.” Gabriel's ministry involves making special announcements concerning God's plans, plans that impact not only Israel but the entire world. In Daniel 9:21 he conveyed one of the most incredible prophecies in the Bible, outlining the end time events in Daniel 9:24-note, Da 9:25-note, Da 9:26-note, Da 9:27-note, the last verse dealing with the Seventieth Week of Daniel which revealed the coming of the Antichrist which would inaugurate a 3.5 year Great Tribulation (cp Mt 24:15-note, Mt 24:21-note). 

    The are only two good angels named in Scripture,  Gabriel and Michael (“Who is like God?”) (Da 10:13, 21, Da 12:1; Rev 12:7). There is one other angel named in the Bible, the fallen angel Satan.

    Holman Bible Dictionary - The heavenly messenger who interpreted to Daniel the meaning of the vision of the ram and the goat. He appears four times in the Bible, each time bringing to human beings a message from the Lord. Twice he appeared to Daniel (John 8:15-27 ; John 9:20-27 ). In the New Testament he appeared to announce the births of John the Baptist (Luke 1:8-20 ) and Jesus (Luke 1:26-38). 

    Gabriel - 4x 

    Daniel 8:16  And I heard the voice of a man between the banks of Ulai, and he called out and said, "Gabriel, give this man an understanding of the vision."

    Daniel 9:21-note  while I was still speaking in prayer, then the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision previously, came to me in my extreme weariness about the time of the evening offering.

    Luke 1:19  The angel answered and said to him, "I am Gabriel, who stands in the presence of God, and I have been sent to speak to you and to bring you this good news.

    Luke 1:26  Now in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city in Galilee called Nazareth,

    Related Resources on Gabriel:

    I have been sent (649)(apostello from apo = from, away from + stello = to withdraw from, avoid) means to send off, to send forth, to send out. Gabriel was God's representative, sent with a commission to give God's message to Zacharias.

    Uses of apostello by Luke - Lk. 1:19; Lk. 1:26; Lk. 4:18; Lk. 4:43; Lk. 7:3; Lk. 7:20; Lk. 7:27; Lk. 9:2; Lk. 9:48; Lk. 9:52; Lk. 10:1; Lk. 10:3; Lk. 10:16; Lk. 11:49; Lk. 13:34; Lk. 14:17; Lk. 14:32; Lk. 19:14; Lk. 19:29; Lk. 19:32; Lk. 20:10; Lk. 20:20; Lk. 22:8; Lk. 22:35; Acts 3:20; Acts 3:26; Acts 5:21; Acts 7:14; Acts 7:34; Acts 7:35; Acts 8:14; Acts 9:17; Acts 9:38; Acts 10:8; Acts 10:17; Acts 10:20; Acts 10:36; Acts 11:11; Acts 11:13; Acts 11:30; Acts 13:15; Acts 15:27; Acts 15:33; Acts 16:35; Acts 16:36; Acts 19:22; Acts 26:17; Acts 28:28

    Bring...good news (2097)(euaggelizo/euangelizo)  from eu = good, well + aggéllo = proclaim, tell; English = evangelize) means to announce good news concerning something. This use is not the proclamation of the "Gospel" as most of the other uses by Luke are (see below), but of the birth of a son to an "infertile" couple.

    Luke uses euaggelizo in 25 of the 52 verses - Lk. 1:19; Lk. 2:10; Lk. 3:18; Lk. 4:18; Lk. 4:43; Lk. 7:22; Lk. 8:1; Lk. 9:6; Lk. 16:16; Lk. 20:1; Acts 5:42; Acts 8:4; Acts 8:12; Acts 8:25; Acts 8:35; Acts 8:40; Acts 10:36; Acts 11:20; Acts 13:32; Acts 14:7; Acts 14:15; Acts 14:21; Acts 15:35; Acts 16:10; Acts 17:18;

    J Vernon McGee - The Word of God has the seal of God upon it. The Word of God carries authority. What Vernon McGee says is not important, but what the Word of God says is important. God speaks to us through His Word.

    Luke 1:20  "And behold, you shall be silent and unable to speak until the day when these things take place, because you did not believe my words, which will be fulfilled in their proper time."

    A SIGN AND A REBUKE
    FOR UNBELIEF

    Behold you shall be silent and unable to speak - In a sense this was a sign, but also was a rebuke. So for nine long months Zechariah was reminded every time he tried to speak and no sound came forth that by his unbelief he had offended God.

    J C Ryle points out that "Few sins appear to be so peculiarly provoking to God as the sin of unbelief…Let us watch and pray daily against this soul-ruining sin. Concessions to it rob believers of their inward peace, weaken their hands in the day of battle, (and) bring clouds over their hopes. According to the degree of our faith will be our enjoyment of Christ’s salvation, our patience in the day of trial, our victory over the world. Unbelief, in short, is the true cause of a thousand spiritual diseases."

    Adrian Rogers adds that "Unbelief is what locked the doors of the Promised Land to the children of Israel. For all the grumbling, bad attitudes, and discontentment that characterized their demeanor after leaving Egypt, it was their unbelief that kept them at a distance from God's promised reward. (Heb 3:19-note and note that in Heb 3:18-note unbelief in this context equated with disobedience!) Jesus, too, allowed the people's unbelief to tie His hands on His ministry visit to His hometown. The Bible clearly says, "He did not do many miracles there because of their unbelief" (Matt. 13:58). The sovereign God has limited Himself to work according to the faith and belief of the people of God. When you go to the grocery store, you use dollars to pay for your purchases. But when it comes to the Christian life, you receive from God by faith. As I said before, faith is heaven's medium of exchange. It is by far the greatest asset we have. Unbelief, on the other hand, is our greatest stumbling block in life. Unbelief is the chief wickedness. Unbelief is the mother sin, the father sin, the parent sin. It is the sin of all sins. Unbelief caused Eve to sin against God in the Garden of Eden. She failed to believe the Word of God (Ed: And as in Heb 3:18-19, she disobeyed God)."

    Spurgeon - Unbelief is very displeasing to God, and cannot be indulged in, even by the best of men, without involving them in chastisement. If we will not believe a promise, we shall not be permitted the comfort of it, and its fulfilment will be attended with some humiliating circumstance which will mark the Lord’s displeasure at our unbelief.

    Behold (2400)(idou) is the second person singular aorist middle imperative of eidon which means to see, perceive, look at. In the NT idou is used as a demonstrative particle that draws attention to what follows. Idou in the middle voice means "you yourself look, see, perceive!" The aorist imperative is a command emphasizing "Do it now! Don't delay!"

    Spurgeon reminds us that "Behold is a word of wonder; it is intended to excite admiration. Wherever you see it hung out in Scripture, it is like an ancient sign-board, signifying that there are rich wares within, or like the hands which solid readers have observed in the margin of the older Puritanic books, drawing attention to something particularly worthy of observation." I would add, behold is like a divine highlighter, a divine underlining of an especially striking or important text. It says in effect "Listen up, all ye who would be wise in the ways of Jehovah!"

    Idou is used by the Biblical writers to (1) prompt or arouse the reader's attention (introducing something new or unusual), (2) to mark a strong emphasis ("Indeed!" Lk 13:16) and (3) to call the reader to pay close attention (very similar to #1) so that one will listen, remember or consider

    Dear reader, have you experienced this "Behold" in your life? If not, then read Acts 4:12, 16:31, Romans 10:9, 10, John 1:12, 13, Ephesians 2:8,9,10 so that you too might "Behold" the glory of the risen Son in your life (see the following comment) and experience a brand new life in Christ.

    Luke frequently uses Behold (idou) six times in Luke 1 and 4 times in Luke 2 (He wants to grab out attention!) - Lk. 1:20, 31, 36, 38, 44, 48; 2:10, 25, 34, 48; 5:12, 18; 6:23; 7:12, 25, 27, 34, 37; 8:41; 9:30, 38f; 10:3, 19, 25; 11:31, 32, 41; 13:7, 11, 16, 30, 32, 35; 14:2; 15:29; 17:21, 23; 18:28, 31; 19:2, 8, 20; 22:10, 21, 31, 38, 47; 23:14f, 29, 50; 24:4, 13, 49; Acts 1:10; 2:7; 5:9, 25, 28; 7:56; 8:27, 36; 9:10,11; 10:17, 19, 21, 30; 11:11; 12:7; 13:11, 25, 46; 16:1; 20:22, 25; 27:24;

    John Martin writes "A sign in the Old Testament was often associated with a confirming observable phenomenon which accompanied a word of prophecy. For the next nine months Zechariah’s attempts to speak would prove the reality of Gabriel’s message."  (Bible Knowledge Commentary)

    Spurgeon - Many a child of God is dumb, because of unbelief. Mary believed, and therefore she sang a holy, joyous song, — a sweet canticle of delight: “My soul doth magnify the Lord.” But Zacharias, because of his unbelief, was unable to speak. I wonder whether there is a man here who might have spoken for his God with power, but whose mouth is closed because of his unbelief. If so, may the Lord hasten the time when his dumbness shall be ended!

    A J C Ryle quote reminds us not to be too hard on Zecharias - "The holiest actions of the holiest saint that ever lived are all more or less full of defects and imperfections. They are either wrong in their motive or defective in their performance, and in themselves are nothing more than “splendid sins,” deserving God’s wrath and condemnation." As Ray Pritchard says "Ryle has told the truth about the best of us and the rest of us! This side of heaven, we’re a pretty sorry lot, but that’s where God’s grace comes in. No one will be saved by what they do. Our only hope of heaven is to run to the cross and lay hold of Jesus Christ. And we won’t even do that unless God helps us to do it, and even then he must give us the strength to hang on and to keep believing." (Expository Thoughts Luke 1)

    Until the day - Do we not see God's mercy in this time phrase? Zecharias' unbelief would result in a moment of muteness which would be relieved when God brought about the miraculous birth of their son. 

    Because - Always pause to ponder and query this term of explanation, asking at least "What is Luke explaining?"

    Fulfilled (completed) (4137)(pleroo) means to make complete in every detail, which is a description of every prophecy of our non-lying God. What promises of His are you finding it difficult to believe (like Zacharias did in this case)?

    Proper time (due season) (2540)(kairos) means a point of time or period of time, time, period, frequently with the implication of being especially fit for something.

    Luke uses Kairos 21x (almost 1/4 of all NT uses) - Lk. 1:20; Lk. 4:13; Lk. 8:13; Lk. 12:42; Lk. 12:56; Lk. 13:1; Lk. 18:30; Lk. 19:44; Lk. 20:10; Lk. 21:8; Lk. 21:24; Lk. 21:36;  Acts 1:7; Acts 3:19; Acts 7:20; Acts 12:1; Acts 13:11; Acts 14:17; Acts 17:26; Acts 19:23; Acts 24:25

    J Vernon McGee - Zacharias, who has been so vocal, will be dumb for a period of time. Unbelief is always dumb. That is, it never has a message. I agree with Elizabeth Barrett Browning who said that one without faith should be silent. There are many babblers around who are everlastingly spouting off about their unbelief. If they haven’t anything to say, they should keep quiet. Let the man speak who believes in God and has something to say.

    Wiersbe - You would think that the presence of an angel and the announcement of God’s Word would encourage Zacharias’ faith, but they did not. Instead of looking to God by faith, the priest looked at himself and his wife and decided that the birth of a son was impossible. He wanted some assurance beyond the plain word of Gabriel, God’s messenger, perhaps a sign from God. This, of course, was unbelief, and unbelief is something God does not accept. Zacharias was really questioning God’s ability to fulfill His own Word! Had he forgotten what God did for Abraham and Sarah? (Gen. 18:9–15; Rom. 4:18–25) Did he think that his physical limitations would hinder Almighty God? But before we criticize Zacharias too much, we should examine ourselves and see how strong our own faith is.Faith is blessed, but unbelief is judged; and Zacharias was struck dumb (and possibly deaf, Luke 1:62) until the Word was fulfilled. “I believed, and therefore have I spoken” (2 Cor. 4:13). Zacharias did not believe; therefore he could not speak. When he left the holy place, he was unable to give the priestly benediction to the people (Num. 6:22–27) or even tell them what he had seen. Indeed, God had given him a very personal “sign” that he would have to live with for the next nine months.(Ibid)

    Luke 1:21  And the people were waiting for Zacharias, and were wondering at his delay in the temple.

    WAITING AND
    WONDERING

    Zacharias was to offer incense in the Holy place and then come out and pronounce the Aaronic blessing on the multitudes in the court...

    Speak to Aaron and to his sons, saying, ‘Thus you shall bless the sons of Israel. You shall say to them: The LORD bless you, and keep you;  The LORD make His face shine on you, And be gracious to you;  The LORD lift up His countenance on you, And give you peace.’ So they shall invoke My name on the sons of Israel, and I [then] will bless them. (Nu 6:23-27)

    Were waiting (expectantly) (4328) (prosdokao from prós = towards - adds the idea of “mental direction” to the already existing meaning of the verb + dokáo = look for denoting direction of one's mind toward something) means literally to look forward toward, to wait for, to look for, to anticipate. It means to give thought to something that is in the future and the context indicates whether one does this looking/waiting in a hopeful sense, with a longing, with fear (wait with anxiety, live in suspense), or in a neutral state of mind. It describes the attitude saints should have as anticipating, waiting with watchfulness, being in expectation. Prosdokao is in the present tense indicating that multitude was continually looking for Zacharias to emerge from the Temple. They were in a state of anticipation. Luke uses prosdokao in a similar sense in Luke 8:40 "And as Jesus returned, the people welcomed Him, for they had all been waiting (expectantly) for Him."

    Prosdokao is found 16x in 15v in the NT and Luke has 11 of the uses so clearly this is one of his favorite verbs - Lk. 1:21; Lk. 3:15; Lk. 7:19; Lk. 7:20; Lk. 8:40; Lk. 12:46; Acts 3:5; Acts 10:24; Acts 27:33; Acts 28:6

    In chapter 3 Luke uses prosdokao in reference to the people's looking for the Messiah writing…

    Now while the people were in a state of expectation (prosdokao) and all were wondering in their hearts about John, as to whether he might be the Christ, (Luke 3:15, cp similar uses in Lk 7:19, 20 where "look" with expectancy = prosdokao)

    Comment: How wonderful if Christ's church in America were in such a state! How much saltier salt and brighter light the church might be in a land growing spiritually darker each day!

    In Acts 3 Luke uses prosdokao again recording the attitude of the lame man (who had been lame from his mother's womb) toward Peter…

    And he began to give them his attention, expecting (prosdokao) to receive something from them. (Acts 3:5)

    Prosdokao describes the attitude of those on the isle of Malta when Paul was bitten by the viper and they waited and watched expecting him to swell up. (Acts 28:6)

    But they were expecting (prosdokao) that he was about to swell up or suddenly fall down dead. But after they had waited a long time and had seen nothing unusual happen to him, they changed their minds and began to say that he was a god.

    Comment: In this context the waiting is with apprehension concerning impending danger or trouble. The point is that they watched expectantly because they knew it was a certainty (that Paul would fall over dead) and that it could happen any time! That's the idea inherent in the verb "looking." It's an attitude of expectancy and pictures one whose mind is continually turning to the future while enduring the present evil age around them. A characteristic mark of the genuine believer is that of habitual expectation of the "parousia" (of Christ) which in turn produces a powerful motive for godly, holy living. What you are looking for will (should) radically impact what you are living for. See related discussion of "Vertical Vision".

    Fanny Crosby (who ironically was physically blind!) caught the "vision" of expectant living in this stanza from Blessed Assurance --

    "Perfect submission, all is at rest; 
    I in my Savior am happy and blest, 
    Watching and waitinglooking above
    Filled with his goodness, lost in his love." 
    (Play hymn)

    Read that third line again and ponder how the various actions and attitudes are interrelated. If a blind saint can have this Godward "eyesight", how much more should those of us who can see the majestic mountains, the glorious sunsets, the countless stars, etc?

    As an aside there are three other NT verbs with a meaning very similar to prosdokao:

    Prosdechomai (4327) earnestly expect, look forward to, wait for, wait anxiously (Click in depth study)

    Apekdechomai (553) to wait for with hope and patience (Click in depth study)

    Anemeno (362) to wait for with patience and confident expectancy (Click in depth study)

    The people....were wondering at his delay in the temple.

    Were wondering (2296)(thaumazo from thauma [from thaomai = to wonder] = wonder, admiration) means to wonder, or  be struck with astonishment. While it took a little time to throw incense on the heated altar this delay troubled the people Clearly the idea is they were wondering what had happened to Zacharias for he was in the Temple for longer than expected. Ryrie quips "The people probably wondered if Zacharias had died." (See Ex 28:35) His unexpected delay of course was the result of his unexpected encounter with the angel Gabriel. 

    Delay (5549)(chonizo from chronos = a space of time) means to take time, to tarry, to linger, to delay, to defer. To take one's time. To put off one's arrival. To hesitate.

    Chronizo was used in the Lxx of Dt 23:22 (similar use in Eccl 5:4) where Moses instructed the people not to "delay to pay" your vow to the LORD. In distress David cries out to God "You are my help and my deliverer; Do not delay (Heb - achar - tarry; Lxx = chronizo), O my God. (Ps 40:17, cp similar prayers by David in Ps 70:5 and by Daniel in Da 9:19, both of which use chronizo in the Lxx) David's prayer is a good prayer for us to cry out when we are in distress and affliction - "You are my help and my deliverer; Do not delay!" Amen!

    Chronizo is used in the Septuagint to describe an even more famous holy man's delay in returning to appear before the multitude in Exodus 32 and the results were disastrous! 

    Now when the people saw that Moses delayed (Lxx = chronizo) to come down from the mountain, the people assembled about Aaron and said to him, "Come, make us a god who will go before us; as for this Moses, the man who brought us up from the land of Egypt, we do not know what has become of him." (Ex 32:1)

    Chronizo - 5x in 5v - Usage: is not coming for a long time(1), delay(2), delaying(1), long time(2).

    Matthew 24:48  "But if that evil slave says in his heart, 'My master is not coming for a long time,'

    Matthew 25:5  "Now while the bridegroom was delaying, they all got drowsy and began to sleep.

    Luke 1:21  The people were waiting for Zacharias, and were wondering at his delay in the temple.

    Luke 12:45  "But if that slave says in his heart, 'My master will be a long time in coming,' and begins to beat the slaves, both men and women, and to eat and drink and get drunk;

    Hebrews 10:37  FOR YET IN A VERY LITTLE WHILE, HE WHO IS COMING WILL COME, AND WILL NOT DELAY.

    Chronizo - 15 verses in the Septuagint - Gen. 32:4; 34:19; Exod. 32:1; Deut. 4:25; 23:21; Jdg. 5:28; 2 Sam. 20:5; Ps. 40:17; 70:5; Prov. 31:21; Eccl. 5:4; Isa. 13:22; 51:14; Dan. 9:19; Hab. 2:3; 

    Luke 1:22  But when he came out, he was unable to speak to them; and they realized that he had seen a vision in the temple; and he kept making signs to them, and remained mute.

    Unable (ou = absolute negation + dunamai) (1410) (dunamai) to possess capability for doing something, in this case speaking. Zacharias was absolutely unable to pronounce the Aaronic blessing on the multitudes and this alerted them that something supernatural had occurred. Exactly how they knew it was a vision is not apparent from the passage, but most likely Zacharias made a sign indicating he had seen a vision.

    They realized (recognized, understood) (1921)(epiginosko) means to know fully or exactly. Luke uses epiginosko frequently - some 20 out of 44 NT uses - Lk. 1:4; Lk. 1:22; Lk. 5:22; Lk. 7:37; Lk. 23:7; Lk. 24:16; Lk. 24:31; Acts 3:10; Acts 4:13; Acts 9:30; Acts 12:14; Acts 19:34; Acts 22:24; Acts 22:29; Acts 23:28; Acts 24:8; Acts 24:11; Acts 25:10; Acts 27:39; Acts 28:1. Earlier in this chapter it was Luke's purpose that Theophilus might "know the exact truth about the things" he had been taught (Lk 1:4-note).

    Vision (3701)(optasia from optánomai = to appear) describes a coming into view or that which comes into view (cp "optical") - an apparition, a vision. In Scripture optasia refers to a mystical experience of a supernatural appearance. Paul described his vision of the glorified Jesus on the Damascus Road (Acts 26:19) and his rapture to the third heaven as a vision in 2 Cor 12:1 (see 2 Cor 12:2-8). Here and in Lk 24:23 optasia refers to angelic visions.

    Optasia is used in the Lxx of Da 9:23, Da 10:1, Da 10:7-8. In Da 9:23 Gabriel came to give Daniel understanding of the vision of the Seventy Weeks in Daniel 9:24-27. 

    There are 3 words used for visions in the NT and they are used mainly by Dr Luke (horama [11/12 NT uses by Luke], optasia and horasis [1/2 NT uses]). One other word phantasma (apparition, specter, phantom) is not used by Luke (Mt 14:26, Mk 6:49).

    As an aside - "Hórama differs from hórasis in that it contemplates the vision objectively and focuses upon its content presenting the vision as that which results from the act of appearing, namely, that which is manifested, what is seen. Hórasis, contemplates the vision subjectively and focuses upon its character presenting the vision as that which performs the act of appearing, that which appears, that which makes itself visible." (Zodhiates)

    Optasia - 4x in 4v with 3 of the uses by Luke - translated as vision(3), visions(1).

    Luke 1:22  But when he came out, he was unable to speak to them; and they realized that he had seen a vision in the temple; and he kept making signs to them, and remained mute.

    Luke 24:23  and did not find His body, they came, saying that they had also seen a vision of angels who said that He was alive.

    Acts 26:19  "So, King Agrippa, I did not prove disobedient to the heavenly vision,

    2 Corinthians 12:1  Boasting is necessary, though it is not profitable; but I will go on to visions and revelations of the Lord.

    BDAG - 1. an event of a transcendent character that impresses itself vividly on the mind, a vision, celestial sight, of that which a deity permits a human being to see, either of the deity personally or of something else usually hidden from mortals 2. state of being that is experienced by one who has a vision, trance 

    Gilbrant It is difficult to make a clear distinction between dreams and visions in the Bible because visions are called dreams and dreams are called visions (e.g., Acts 2:17; 9:10,12). However, optasia is a waking vision while horama (3568) is a vision seen in a dream. Optasia also means intellectual or spiritual perception that comes by means of mystical or religious experience (Luke 1:22; 24:23; Acts 26:19; 2 Corinthians 12:1). (Complete Biblical Library Greek-English Dictionary)

    James Newell has an excellent summary of Vision in the Bible - An experience in the life of a person, whereby a special revelation from God was received. The revelation from God had two purposes. First, a vision was given for immediate direction, as with Abram in Genesis 12:1-3 ; Lot, Genesis 19:15 ; Balaam, Numbers 22:22-40 ; and Peter, Acts 12:7 . Second, a vision was given to develop the kingdom of God by revealing the moral and spiritual deficiencies of the people of God in light of God's requirements for maintaining a proper relationship with Him. The vision of prophets such as Isaiah, Amos, Hosea, Micah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and John are representative of this aspect of revelation. Several Greek and Hebrew terms are translated by the English word vision. In some references, the literal sense of perception with the physical organs of sight is the intended meaning of the word (Job 27:11-12 ; Proverbs 22:29). In 2 Samuel 7:17 ; Isaiah 22:1 ,Isaiah 22:1,22:5 ; Joel 3:1 ; and Zechariah 13:4 , the Hebrew word refers to the prophetic function of receiving and delivering the word of God by the prophet. Vision in varying forms occurs approximately thirty times in the Book of Daniel. The term denotes the mysterious revelation of that which the prophet described as knowledge of the future. In Ezekiel, the words are used literally and metaphorically. Among the classical prophets (Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, Micah, Obadiah, etc.) the vision was the primary means of communication between God and the prophet. By this avenue, the prophets interpreted the meaning of immediate events in the history of Israel. “Vision” and “Word of Yahweh” became synonymous in these prophetic writings (see Obadiah 1:1). (Holman Bible Dictionary)

    Related Resources:

    • Torrey's Topical Textbook Visions
    • American Tract Society Vision
    • Bridgeway Bible Dictionary Vision
    • Charles Buck Dictionary Vision
    • Easton's Bible Dictionary Vision
    • Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible Vision
    • Hastings' Dictionary of the NT Vision Vision (2)
    • King James Dictionary Vision
    • Morrish Bible Dictionary Visions
    • Hawker's Poor Man's Dictionary Vision
    • Vines' Expository Dictionary Vision
    • Webster Dictionary Vision
    • Watson's Theological Dictionary Vision
    • International Standard Bible Encyclopedia Vision
    • McClintock and Strong's Bible Encyclopedia Vision

    Spurgeon - By the signs he made, he impressed them with the fact that something extraordinary had happened. 

    In the case of Zacharias we cannot be certain of the nature of the signs but it would be reasonable for him to gesture with his hands to somehow depict the angel.

    Kept making signs (1269)(dianeuo) means he was signifying by a nod of his head, beckon, or making signs by gesturing with some part of the body. Thayer - to express one's meaning by a sign, nod to, beckon to, wink at, (dia,, because the sign is conceived of as passing through the intervening space to him to whom it is made)

    BDAG says dianeuo means " to express an idea through motion of a part of the body, such as head (‘nod’), eye, or hand (‘gesture’)." 

    Dianeuo is used only in Luke 1:22 and in Lxx of Ps 35:19 of a "wink" with one's eye to someone.

    Luke 1:23  When the days of his priestly service were ended, he went back home.

    Days...were ended - His seven days of service. Imagine him carrying out his priestly service unable to speak. Of course he could still "speak" to God and no doubt even though mute he would have been offering gratitude to God Who had heard his petition.

    Spurgeon - He did not make his infirmity an excuse for leaving his office, as many would have done. We must work on for the Lord as long as we have any ability left.

    Priestly service (3009)(leitourgia from leitourgeo = to be a public servant, to perform religious or charitable function, to minister; English = liturgy - body of rites prescribed for public worship) generally used of a servant of a superior and suggests a function to be discharged or a necessary service to be rendered. The word was used in secular Greek to refer to a public service or office, such as in Athens and elsewhere, administered by the citizens at their own expense as a part of the system of finance. In the NT, leitourgia referred to service or ministry as of the public ministrations of the Jewish priesthood.

    Robertson on leitourgia - It is common in the papyri for the service of the Egyptian priesthood as we see it in the LXX of Hebrew priests (see also Heb. 8:6; 9:21; 2 Cor. 9:12; Phil. 2:17, 30).

    He went back home - “to the hill country” (Luke 1:39) to tell (or better to write to) Elizabeth the good (miraculous) news. Can you imagine their joy!

    Luke 1:24  After these days Elizabeth his wife became pregnant, and she kept herself in seclusion for five months, saying,

    After these days - How long is not specified but presumably soon after he returned home. 

    Became pregnant (conceived) (4815)(sullambano from sun/syn = together with + lambáno = to take, to seize) means literally to seize or take together and conveys the picture of clasping. Sullambano has several meanings depending on the context, the most common meaning being to arrest someone (7/16 uses) or take them into custody. To apprehend someone by virtue of a warrant from authority. The next most frequent use is to conceive (become pregnant) (5/16 uses) picking up on the basic meaning of clasping in a sexual sense. Luke uses sullambano 11/16 times -   Lk. 1:24; Lk. 1:31; Lk. 1:36; Lk. 2:21; Lk. 5:7; Lk. 5:9; Lk. 22:54; Acts 1:16; Acts 12:3; Acts 23:27; Acts 26:21; Phil. 4:3; Jas. 1:15

    God kept His promise and Elizabeth conceived a son in her old age. “There is nothing too hard for the Lord” (Jer. 32:17-note) And in Jer 32:27-note “Behold, I am the LORD, the God of all flesh; is anything too difficult for Me?” Beloved, what is there in your life that you think is too difficult for God? 

    She kept herself in seclusion for five months - Why? I am not sure, but she certainly would have been the talk of the town if they knew she was pregnant. 

    Kept herself (4032)(perikrupto from perí =  about, and krúpto =, to hide) means to conceal all around, i.e. entirely. To hide completely or carefully. Only use in the NT. The imperfect tense tense pictures her repeatedly hiding herself.

    Luke 1:25  "This is the way the Lord has dealt with me in the days when He looked with favor upon me, to take away my disgrace among men."

    Spurgeon - I do not wonder that, in her solemn joy, she shunned the gossips of the neighborhood and kept herself in seclusion. I do believe that there is many a soul which, when it has found Christ, feels itself much too full of joy to speak, and asks not for a crowded temple, but for a quiet chamber where the heart may pour itself out before God.

    To take away my disgrace among men - This is an allusion to Rachel's declaration in Genesis, Moses recording...

    So she conceived and bore a son and said, “God has taken away my reproach (Lxx = oneidos, same noun Luke uses in Lk 1:25).” (Ge. 30:23)

    Disgrace (reproach) (3681)(oneidos) means notoriety, i.e. a taunt (disgrace), a reproach. BDAG has "loss of standing connected with disparaging speech."

    Oneidos is used only here in the NT but there are 39 uses in the Septuagint - The first use is found in Rachel's statement recorded above. In 1 Sa 17:36 David said Goliath "has taunted the armies of the living God.”

    Oneidos - 39x in the Septuagint - Gen. 30:23; 34:14; Lev. 20:17; 1 Sam. 11:2; 17:36; 2 Sa 13:13; Neh. 2:17; Job 19:5, 7; Ps. 22:6; 31:11; 39:8; 44:13; 57:3; 78:66; 79:4; 89:41; 109:25; 119:22; 123:4; Prov. 3:31; 6:33; 18:3, 13; 19:6; 26:6; Isa. 25:8; 30:3, 5, 6; 54:4; 59:18; Ezek. 16:57; 22:4; Joel 2:17; Mic. 2:6; 6:16

    This noun is used in a Messianic psalm - (Ps 22:6) "But I am a worm and not a man, A reproach of men and despised by the people." See discussion of Psalm 22:6-I Am a Worm

    Spurgeon observes that by Elizabeth's words in this verse we learn that  "The mother of John had more faith than her husband, but both were excellent persons. We may reasonably expect the best preachers to be born of pious parents. Would to God that in our household might be raised up those who will cry, “Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world.”


    Vance Havner - Reflections on the Gospel of Luke

    "Thy Prayer Is Heard" Luke 1:5-25

    ZACHARIAS had prayed through long, lean years for a son. He and Elizabeth had many qualifications for a life of blessing: good ancestry, they "were righteous before the Lord," not merely before men, they walked in all the commandments of the Lord blameless—not faultless, but living up to their light.

    But there follows the sad statement: "And they had no child." Have you sought to live the blameless life, yet your piety seems to have borne no progeny—you are barren? Remember Zacharias. It was now too late, from the natural viewpoint, to have a son, but Zacharias had not forgotten his altar and his duty. He kept offering incense, a symbol of thanksgiving, when there seemed so little to be thankful for. Do not forsake your incense, and the angel will yet appear! The herald from heaven announces a son. God often waits until it is too late with us; it is never too late with Him. Poor Zacharias is doubtful. And doubt leads to dumbness—it always does. When we do not trust, we have no testimony. But God fails not, though Zacharias does. The baby is born, and when neighbors would name him for his father, Zacharias puts God first and names him by the Divine direction. Do not name things after yourself; give God the glory. Then dumbness gives way to delight: Zacharias speaks and so will you!

    John was to drink neither wine nor strong drink, but was to be filled with the Spirit. Three times the New Testament sets wine and the Spirit in contrast (Luke 1:15; Acts 2:13; Eph. 5:18). Wine changes face, walk, talk—stimulates; so does the Spirit.

    God was fulfilling here the prophecy made in Malachi 4:5-6. How marvelously His plans work out exactly on schedule! Zacharias, filled with the Holy Ghost, breaks into prophecy of a Jewish cast setting forth the glory of the coming Christ: "God has visited His people to redeem them." We must bear in mind here that Christ came first to Israel. Zacharias knows the Messiah is to be of the house of David, a testimony to His royal lineage. Prophecy is fulfilled, promises performed, the holy covenant remembered. Notice how complete is this redemption: freedom, "being delivered out of the hand of our enemies"; purpose, "that we might serve Him"; nature of this service, "without fear in holiness and righteousness before Him"; the duration, "all the days of our life." Then Zacharias turns to his own son who is to be called the prophet of the Highest, to go before the face of the Lord to prepare His ways, to give knowledge of salvation, light to those who sit in darkness and the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace. This salvation is through God's tender mercy, whereby the "dayspring from on high"—probably the Branch of Isaiah 11:1 and Zechariah 3:8—hath visited us.

    John grows and waxes strong in the spirit in the desert solitude till the day of his appearing to Israel. There is some obvious difference between this and the closing verse of the next chapter, where Jesus, living a more social life, increases also in favor with man.

    Luke 1:26  Now in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city in Galilee called Nazareth,

    Wuest  Now, in the sixth month there was sent on a mission from God the angel Gabriel to a city of Galilee named Nazareth,

    GABRIEL'S SECOND
    MISSION

    See location of Nazareth on Map - this map also shows Galilee. See Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear a Son

    Galilee - was located about seventy-five to one hundred miles north of Jerusalem.

    Nazareth (3478) (Nazara or Nazaret or Nazareth) is the name of the home town of Jesus fulfilling OT prophecies (not a single prophecy) that Jesus "shall be called a Nazarene." It was so obscure that Nathaniel asked "Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?" Yes, not just any "good thing" but the greatest Person in time and eternity, the God-Man, Christ Jesus. Our Lord was called "Jesus of Nazareth" seven times in the NT (Matt. 26:71; Mk. 1:24; Lk. 4:34; 18:37; Jn. 1:45; Acts 10:38; 26:9)  Although Nazareth was small, it did have a Jewish synagogue and was the site of Jesus "inauguration message" in Lk 4:16. There are no uses in the Septuagint (see The Puzzling Problem of Nazareth)

    Note that the adjective form of Nazareth is Nazarene (nazarenos) which is a different Strong's Number (3479). Nazarene is found 6 times in the NT all in the phrase "Jesus the Nazarene" (Mk. 1:24; 10:47; 14:67; 16:6; Lk. 4:34; 24:19) and once in the phrase "Jesus of Nazareth (Lk 4:34). There are no uses in the Septuagint.

    At this time in history Nazareth was not a spot that religious pilgrims visited! In fact it could hardly be called a city for it was only a small rural village estimated to have a population at that time of no more than 400. In short, like Jesus Himself (Php 2:5-11) and His mother Mary, Nazareth was a humble, obscure village, hardly the place one would expect the King of kings to be born! Mark it down, beloved, this is the way God works, through the meek and humble. You may be "obscure" and little known in your church, but rest assured that God desires to use you in His good work because you are His masterpiece (see Eph 2:10-note and related article "Believers Are God's Masterpiece, His Poiema"). And remember! You may not see all of the effects of your work in His will in this short life, but such works will endure for eternity! (see John 15:8, 16)

    John MacArthur adds that "Nazareth was not on any of the major trade routes; all the important roads bypassed it. It was well off the beaten path, far from the important centers of Jewish culture and religion. Moreover, Galilee, where Nazareth was located, was known as “Galilee of the Gentiles” (Isa. 9:1; Matt. 4:15) because of its proximity to Gentile regions. God’s choice of Nazareth to be Jesus’ birthplace reveals that He is the Savior of the world, not of the powerful and elite of one nation only, but of all “those who are the called, both Jews and Greeks” (1 Cor. 1:24; cf. Isa. 11:10; 42:6; Luke 2:32; Acts 10:34–35; 13:48–49; Rom. 15:9–12)."

    Nazareth - 17x in 17v 

    Matthew 2:23 and came and lived in a city called Nazareth. This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophets: "He shall be called a Nazarene."

    Henry Morris - No one prophet is mentioned here, but rather "the prophets" in general (Ed: See also the allusion to the prophets in John 1:45). As far as known, the despised town of Nazareth did not even exist in the days of the prophets, so it may be that this is a generic summary of the teaching of the prophets that the Messiah would be "despised and rejected of men" (Isaiah 53:3). Some have suggested that this refers to Isaiah 11:1, where He is called a "rod" (Hebrew netzer) out of the "stem" (or, apparently dead stump) of Jesse's family tree. However, see the note on Zephaniah 1:14, which, slightly modified, would yield a reading very closely akin to Matthew's quote.

    Matthew 4:13 and leaving Nazareth, He came and settled in Capernaum, which is by the sea, in the region of Zebulun and Naphtali.

    Ryrie - According to Luke 4:16-30, He left because they tried to kill him. Capernaum. A flourishing city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee and the base of His ministry in Galilee. 

    Matthew 21:11 And the crowds were saying, "This is the prophet Jesus, from Nazareth in Galilee."

    Matthew 26:71 When he had gone out to the gateway, another servant-girl saw him and said to those who were there, "This man was with Jesus of Nazareth."

    Mark 1:9  In those days Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan.
     24 saying, "What business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are-- the Holy One of God!"

    Henry Morris - It is interesting to note that the demons, like their master Satan, knew who Jesus was, even though His countrymen--and even His own human family--did not (Mark 1:34).

    Luke 1:26  Now in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city in Galilee called Nazareth,

    Luke 2:4 Joseph also went up from Galilee, from the city of Nazareth, to Judea, to the city of David which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and family of David,
     39  When they had performed everything according to the Law of the Lord, they returned to Galilee, to their own city of Nazareth.
     51 And He went down with them and came to Nazareth, and He continued in subjection to them; and His mother treasured all these things in her heart.

    Luke 4:16  And He came to Nazareth, where He had been brought up; and as was His custom, He entered the synagogue on the Sabbath, and stood up to read.
     34 "Let us alone! What business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are-- the Holy One of God!"

    Luke 18:37 They told him that Jesus of Nazareth was passing by.

    John 1:45 Philip found Nathanael and said to him, "We have found Him of whom Moses in the Law and also the Prophets wrote-- Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph."
     46 Nathanael said to him, "Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?" Philip said to him, "Come and see."

    Acts 10:38 "You know of Jesus of Nazareth, how God anointed Him with the Holy Spirit and with power, and how He went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with Him.

    Acts 26:9  "So then, I thought to myself that I had to do many things hostile to the name of Jesus of Nazareth.

    Nazareth -  “branch.” (Ed: From the suggestion by some that "Nazarene" is a reference tot he Hebrew word for branch in Isaiah 11:1-note) Nazareth did not enjoy a place of prominence until its association with Jesus. It does not appear in the Old Testament. As He became known as “Jesus of Nazareth” (Matthew 26:71 ; Luke 18:37 ; Luke 24:19 ; John 1:45 ; Acts 2:22 ; Acts 3:6 ;Acts 10:38 ), His hometown became fixed in Christian memory. Nazareth was located in lower Galilee about halfway between the Sea of Galilee and the Mediterranean Sea. It lay in the hill country north of the Plain of Esdraelon. The hills formed a natural basin with three sides, but open toward the south. The city was on the slopes of the basin, facing east and southeast. Cana was about five miles to the northeast. A Roman road from Capernaum westward to the coast passed near Nazareth. Was a small village in Jesus' day, having only one spring to supply fresh water to its inhabitants. Today, the spring is referred to as “Mary's well.” The modern city has about 20,000 citizens, mainly Moslems and Christians. The angel went to Nazareth to announce to Mary and Joseph the coming birth of Jesus (Luke 1:26-28 ). Following Jesus' birth in Bethlehem and the sojourn in Egypt, Joseph and Mary returned with Jesus to Nazareth (Matthew 2:19-23 ), where Jesus grew from boyhood to manhood (Luke 2:39-40 ; Luke 4:16 ), being stamped as a Nazarene (Matthew 2:23 ), apparently a midrashic play on the Hebrew term netser , “shoot” in Isaiah 11:1. Nazareth did not possess a good reputation, as reflected in the question of Nathanael, himself a Galilean (John 1:46 ). The early church received similar scorn as the Nazarene sect (Acts 24:5 ). Such lack of respect was likely due to an unpolished dialect, a lack of culture, and quite possibly a measure of irreligion and moral laxity. Jesus was rejected by His townspeople near the beginning of His public ministry, being cast out of the synagogue at Nazareth (Luke 4:16-30 ; see also Matthew 13:54-58 ; Mark 6:1-6 ). (Holman Bible Dictionary)

    Related Resources:

    THE PUZZLING PROBLEM
    OF NAZARETH

    You might be surprised to discover that Nazareth is not mentioned in the OT or even in the religious writings of the Talmud or the historical writings of Josephus. For this reason those skeptical of the Bible have attacked this as a point of proof that the Bible is not true. Lee Strobel addresses this in his book "The Case for Christ"

    Many Christians are unaware that skeptics have been asserting for a long time that Nazareth never existed during the time when the New Testament says Jesus spent his childhood there. In an article called "Where Jesus Never Walked," atheist Frank Zindler noted that Nazareth is not mentioned in the Old Testament, by the apostle Paul, by the Talmud (although sixtythree other Galilean towns are cited), or by Josephus (who listed forty-five other villages and cities of Galilee, including Japha, which was located just over a mile from present-day Nazareth). No ancient historians or geographers mention Nazareth before the beginning of the fourth century. (Frank Zindler, "Where Jesus Never Walked," American Atheist Winter 1996-1997, 34) The name first appears in Jewish literature in a poem written about the seventh century
    A.D. This absence of evidence paints a suspicious picture. So I put the issue directly to McRay: "Is there any archaeological confirmation that Nazareth was in existence during the first century?"

    This issue wasn't new to McRay. "Dr. James Strange of the University of South Florida is an expert on this area, and he describes Nazareth as being a very small place, about sixty acres, with a maximum population of about four hundred and eighty at the beginning of the first century," McRay replied. However, that was a conclusion; I wanted the evidence. "How does he know that?" I asked. Well, Strange notes that when Jerusalem fell in A.D. 70, priests were no longer needed in the temple because it had been destroyed, so they were sent out to various other locations, even up into Galilee. Archaeologists have found a list in Aramaic describing the twenty-four 'courses,' (divisions) or families, of priests who were relocated, and one of them was registered as having been moved to Nazareth. That shows that this tiny village must have been there at the time."

    In addition, he said there have been archaeological digs that have uncovered first-century tombs in the vicinity of Nazareth, which would establish the village's limits because by Jewish law burials had to take place outside the town proper. Two tombs contained objects such as pottery lamps, glass vessels, and vases from the first, third, or fourth centuries.

    McRay picked up a copy of a book by renowned archaeologist Jack Finegan, published by Princeton University Press. He leafed through it, then read Finegan's analysis: "From the tombs ... it can be concluded that Nazareth was a strongly Jewish settlement in the Roman period."

    McRay looked up at me. "There has been discussion about the location of some sites from the first century, such as exactly where Jesus' tomb is situated, but among archaeologists there has never really been a big doubt about the location of Nazareth. The burden of proof ought to be on those who dispute its existence."

    That seemed reasonable. Even the usually skeptical Ian Wilson, citing pre-Christian remains found in 1955 under the Church of the Annunciation in present-day Nazareth, has managed to concede, "Such findings suggest that Nazareth may have existed in Jesus' time, but there is no doubt that it must have been a very small and insignificant place."

    So insignificant that Nathanael's musings in John 1:46 now make more sense: "Nazareth!" he said. "Can anything good come from there?' (The Case for Christ)

    Luke 1:27  to a virgin engaged to a man whose name was Joseph, of the descendants of David; and the virgin's name was Mary.

    GABRIEL APPEARS
    TO THE VIRGIN MARY

    John MacArthur rightly emphasizes that "The importance of the virgin birth cannot be overstated. A right view of the incarnation hinges on the truth that Jesus was virgin-born."

    Virgin (3933)(parthenos) generally is used of a female who is beyond puberty but not married and still a virgin.  In 2 Cor 11:2 parthenos is used figuratively of the church, the bride pledged to Christ.. Some contexts do not focus on the meaning virginity. The clear sense of parthenos in Mt 1:23 quoted from Isa 7:14-note (Lxx uses parthenos for Heb - 'almah - see below) is of a woman who has not been intimate with a man (cp Lk 1:27).  Paul uses parthenos in First Corinthians to refer to a woman of marriageable age. In Mt 25:1, 7, 11 parthenos refers to young women of marriageable age.

    J D Watson writes that "Even in all their excesses, the ancient Greeks highly valued virginity. It was, in fact, a characteristic of many of the goddesses of pagan religions. The chief examples were the Greek goddesses Artemis (Diana among the Romans) and Athene (Roman, Minerva) (Ed: cp Athena Parthenos). Athene's temple in Athens was actually named the Parthenon (see etymology)."

    In Isa 7:14 quoted in Mt 1:23, and the Hebrew word for virgin is 'almah  (05959).  Almah has several meanings depending on the context - young woman of marriageable age (Ge 24:43), maiden (Pr 30:19), girl (Ex 2:8), virgin. While some argue that 'almah is by no means an unambiguous Hebrew term for a virgin, it is notable that a passage such as Genesis 24:43 describes not only a young woman of marriageable age but one who undoubtedly is a virgin. Thus the use of 'almah by no means excludes the possibility that the intended meaning in Isaiah 7:14 is a literal virgin. 'Almah is never employed of a married woman.

    Charles Ryrie writes, "There is no instance where it can be proved that ʿ'almah designates a young woman who is not a virgin" (Basic Theology).

    W A Criswell adds that "The Septuagint (Lxx) also uses parthenos to translate another Hebrew word meaning "virgin" (bethulah), again underscoring the fact that parthenos meant "virgin" in the Lxx and for Matthew (Ed: See Mt 1:23 below). It is clear that both Matthew and the Lxx translators understood that Isaiah was speaking of a virgin when he used `almah. And this is precisely the purity which both Matthew and Luke ascribe to Mary (cf. Mt 1:18-25; Lk 1:26-35)."

    Related Resources on Virgin Birth: 

    Given the importance of the Virgin Birth in the Incarnation of Jesus Christ you might want to refresh your doctrinal knowledge of the Humanity of Jesus Christ by listening to 3 excellent lectures from Dr Wayne Grudem. You could print out the accompanying outline to take notes. Only a portion of this material deals directly with the Virgin Birth but all three lectures will give you an excellent overview of the Humanity of Jesus Christ. 

    John MacArthur - The most famous medieval Jewish interpreter, Rashi (1040–1105), who was an opponent of Christianity, made the following comment: “‘Behold the ˒almâ shall conceive and bear a son and shall call his name Immanuel’ means that our Creator shall be with us. And this is the sign: The one who will conceive is a girl (na˒ărâ) who never in her life has had intercourse with any man. Upon this one shall the Holy Spirit have power.” It should be noted that in modern Hebrew the word virgin is either ˒'almah or  bethulah. Why did not Isaiah use bethulah? Because it is sometimes used in the Old Testament of a married woman who is not a virgin (Deut. 22:19; Joel 1:8). ˒'Almah can mean “virgin,” and that is how the Jewish translators of the Septuagint (Greek Old Testament) translated the word in Isaiah 7:14 (by the Greek parthenos, “virgin”)-several hundred years before the birth of Christ. The “sign” of which Isaiah spoke was given specifically to King Ahaz, who feared that the royal line of Judah might be destroyed by Syria and Israel. The prophet assured the king that God would protect that line. The birth of a son and the death of the kings would be the signs guaranteeing His protection and preservation. And in the future there would be a greater birth, the virgin birth of God incarnate, to assure the covenant with God’s people. Matthew did not give the term ˒almâ a Christian “twist,” but used it with the same meaning with which all Jews of that time used it. In any case, his teaching of the virgin birth does not hinge on that word. It is made incontestably clear by the preceding statements that Jesus’ conception was “by the Holy Spirit” (Mt 1:18, 20). (Matthew Commentary)

    Clayton Harrop - One who has not engaged in sexual intercourse and thus particular reference to the belief that Jesus was conceived in the womb of Mary by the miraculous action of God without a human father. In the Old Testament two words are generally translated virgin or maiden. The more common word, bethulah , (used about 60 times) is used in a literal way to refer to such virgins as Rebekah (Genesis 24:16 ), the daughter of Jephthah (Judges 11:37-38 ), and Tamar (2 Samuel 13:2 ). Specific command was given that the high priest must marry a virgin (Leviticus 21:13-14 ). The word was also used in a spiritual sense to refer to the nation, especially in the prophets (Isaiah 23:12 ; Isaiah 37:22 ; Jeremiah 14:17 ). In other places the word is often translated maid or maiden (Psalm 78:63 ; Psalm 148:12 ; Ezekiel 9:6 ). In these instances the word means girl, although the idea of chastity may still be involved. The other word in the Old Testament, almah , sometimes translated “virgin” occurs only seven times. Translators differ in their treatment of it. It is translated virgin four times in KJV (Genesis 24:43 ; Song ofSong of Solomon 1:3 ; Song of Song of Solomon 6:8 ; Isaiah 7:14 ). Only one of these is translated virgin (Isaiah 7:14 ) in NAS, and two, in NIV (Song of Song of Solomon 6:8 ; Isaiah 7:14 ). Some versions like REB do not translate this word as virgin in any passage. Isaiah 7:14 is of special interest because of its use in the Gospel of Matthew. Some believe the prophet wrote of a son to be born to his wife or to some other woman of the day and only then with a further reference to the birth of the Messiah. Others claim that the prophet had no reference to anyone in his day but only spoke of the coming Messiah. However, in its context in Isaiah, it seemingly was a message for King Ahaz. The word itself referred to a young woman, usually of marriageable age. God inspired Matthew to interpret Isaiah 7:14 for his day and ours in light of God's miraculous new work in Christ. (Holman Bible Dictionary)

    J D Watson asks "Why is this doctrine important? Because the sin nature is transmitted through the earthly father through Adam, not by the mother through Eve. Adam was the representative of the race and was responsible for the Fall. If Jesus had been born of a man, he would have inherited sin, but as Paul makes clear, "For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him" (2 Cor. 5:21-note)."

    Related Resources:

    Parthenos - 15x in 14v - Usage: chaste(1), virgin(9), virgin's(1), virgins(4).

    Matthew 1:23 "BEHOLD, THE VIRGIN SHALL BE WITH CHILD AND SHALL BEAR A SON, AND THEY SHALL CALL HIS NAME IMMANUEL (see Immanuel-Emmanuel)," which translated means, "GOD WITH US."

    Matthew 25:1  "Then the kingdom of heaven will be comparable to ten virgins, who took their lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom.
     7 "Then all those virgins rose and trimmed their lamps.
     11 "Later the other virgins also came, saying, 'Lord, lord, open up for us.'

    Luke 1:27 to a virgin engaged to a man whose name was Joseph, of the descendants of David; and the virgin's name was Mary.

    Acts 21:9 Now this man had four virgin daughters who were prophetesses.

    1 Corinthians 7:25  Now concerning virgins I have no command of the Lord, but I give an opinion as one who by the mercy of the Lord is trustworthy.
     28 But if you marry, you have not sinned; and if a virgin marries, she has not sinned. Yet such will have trouble in this life, and I am trying to spare you.
     34 and his interests are divided. The woman who is unmarried, and the virgin, is concerned about the things of the Lord, that she may be holy both in body and spirit; but one who is married is concerned about the things of the world, how she may please her husband.
     36  But if any man thinks that he is acting unbecomingly toward his virgin daughter, if she is past her youth, and if it must be so, let him do what he wishes, he does not sin; let her marry.
     37 But he who stands firm in his heart, being under no constraint, but has authority over his own will, and has decided this in his own heart, to keep his own virgin daughter, he will do well.
     38 So then both he who gives his own virgin daughter in marriage does well, and he who does not give her in marriage will do better.

    2 Corinthians 11:2 For I am jealous for you with a godly jealousy; for I betrothed you to one husband, so that to Christ I might present you as a pure virgin.

    Revelation 14:4-note These are the ones who have not been defiled with women, for they have kept themselves chaste. These are the ones who follow the Lamb wherever He goes. These have been purchased from among men as first fruits to God and to the Lamb.

    Comment Mounce - It seems best to take this description of chastity in a figurtaive sense, indicating that they have kept themselves pure from all defiling relationships w. the pagan world. They have resisted the seduction of the great harlot, Rome, w. whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication 

    Parthenos - 53x in 51v in the Septuagint - Gen. 24:14, 16, 43, 55; 34:3; Exod. 22:16f; Lev. 21:3, 13f; Deut. 22:19, 23, 28; 32:25; Jdg. 19:24; 21:11f; 2 Sam. 13:2, 18; 1 Ki. 1:2; 2 Ki. 19:21; 2 Chr. 36:17; Est. 2:17; Job 31:1; Ps. 45:14; 78:63; 148:12; Isa. 7:14; 23:4; 37:22; 47:1; 62:5; Jer. 2:32; 18:13; 31:4, 13, 21; 46:11; 51:22; Lam. 1:4, 15, 18; 2:10, 13, 21; 5:11; Ezek. 9:6; 44:22; Amos 5:2; 8:13; Zech. 9:17

    Gilbrant  on the Septuagint (Lxx) Usage of parthenos - The Hebrew term bᵉthûlāh is often translated by parthenos in the Septuagint. In fact, in 44 out of 50 appearances bᵉthûlāh is translated by parthenos. Of the remaining six texts three are not translated; two are translated as “innocent” or “virgin girl” (korasia aphthora, korasia parthenika; Esther 2:3,17). And on one occasion the Hebrew bᵉthûlāh is translated by numphē, “bride” (Joel 1:8), referring to a bride about to be married whose intended husband died. This last text is of particular interest because it seems to indicate that the Hebrew bᵉthûlāh could occasionally denote a young woman about to be married. The man she was betrothed to would be called her husband: “Lament like a virgin girded with sackcloth for the husband of her youth.” In this context the Septuagint translators did not use parthenos, “virgin,” as the equivalent. It is even more noteworthy, in light of this, that the Septuagint translates the Hebrew ‛almāh into parthenos, “virgin,” in the prophecy of Immanuel's coming in Isaiah 7:14-note. Thus, this demonstrates that for the Septuagint translators of Isaiah the Hebrew term means “virgin.” The meaning of the Hebrew term ‛almāh overlaps with bᵉthûlāh. For example, the terms are used similarly in Genesis 24:16 and 43 where verse 16 reads bᵉthûlāh while verse 43 has ‛almāh. The Septuagint translates both words with parthenos. The other five texts containing ‛almāh in the Old Testament (Exodus 2:8; Psalm 68:25 [LXX 67:25]; Song of Solomon 1:3; 6:8 [LXX 6:7]) are translated by neanis, “girl, young woman,” by the Septuagint translators. Matthew 1:23, like the Septuagint, uses parthenos in its rendering of Isaiah 7:14 (Immanuel prophecy). It emphasizes that the Virgin Birth was a fulfillment of this prophecy. The prophet’s words are thus interpreted in the New Testament as foretelling the Virgin Birth. The variety of interpretations throughout history that have tried to explain away the messianic nature of the prophecy are unsatisfactory. The prophecy is directed not only to Ahaz but to the “house of David,” the people to whom the promise was given that Messiah would come (Isaiah 7:13). That Immanuel is to be understood as the Messiah is further confirmed by Isaiah 8:8-10. Moreover, Immanuel must be identical to the divine child of 9:6 whom Isaiah calls “Mighty God” and “Eternal Father” (NASB). The “sign,” too, which is to be given to the house of David, is that the Messiah is to be born of a virgin. This is closely related to the fact that the Immanuel prophecy is actually a part of a judgment saying (Isaiah 8:17-22). The sign of the virgin, therefore, becomes a judgment of the king. In contrast to the majesty and splendor of an earthly king, Messiah, the son of David, comes not as the son of a king but as the son of a lowly virgin. “And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots” (Isaiah 11:1). The sign of the virgin is linked to the image of Messiah’s coming in humility that we encounter throughout the Book of Isaiah. (Complete Biblical Library Greek-English Dictionary)

    John MacArthur explains Jewish engagement - In Jewish practice, girls were usually engaged at the age of twelve or thirteen and married at the end of a one-year betrothal period. The betrothal, arranged by the parents, was a more binding legal arrangement than a modern engagement. Only death or divorce could sever the contract, and the couple could be referred to as husband and wife. If her betrothed husband died, the girl would be considered a widow. The couple did not live together or have sexual relations during the betrothal period. During that year the girl was to prove her faithfulness and purity, and the boy was to prepare a home for his bride-to-be. When the year was up there was a seven-day wedding feast (cf. Matt. 25:1–13; John 2:1–11), after which the couple began their life together as husband and wife. Only then was the marriage consummated. (Luke Commentary)

    Engaged (3423)(mnesteuo from mnaomai = to remember) in the active voice means to woo and win for marriage, to ask in marriage, to pledge to marry. Mnesteuo is used only in the passive voice in the NT and means to be promised in marriage, to be betrothed, to become engaged. Mnesteuo is used in the NT only in Mt 1:18 (betrothed), Lk 1:27 and Lk 2:5. As used in by the NT writers mnesteuo described a legally binding arrangement, unlike the sense of of engagement as used today.

    Zodhiates has an informative discussion of mnesteuo 

    It is related to the verb used for “remember” because it was a ceremony which was to be remembered when a person was espoused or committed to another for marriage (Sept.: Deut. 22:23, 25, 27, 28). The betrothal ceremony perpetuated in a conventional fashion the recollection of the time when a woman was purchased from her family (Deut. 20:7). When a woman was designated (Ex. 21:8, 9) by the head of her family as the future wife of another man, the prospective bridegroom paid a certain sum of money (or service as in the case of Jacob). A contract, which was inviolable, was then entered into (Gen. 34:12; Ex. 22:17). Until the time of the actual marriage, the bride–to–be remained in her own family. It was not permissible to betroth her to any other man except by action amounting to divorce, and any violation of the rights established by the betrothal was as serious as if the two persons had been ceremonially married (Deut. 22:23, 24). In the OT, it is impossible to say with precision just how soon the wedding followed betrothal. In later times, in the case of a virgin, it was after the lapse of a year, and at least thirty days in the case of a widow. So, too, it is impossible to describe with any great precision the betrothal ceremony, but it certainly included the payment of a particular sum (1 Sam. 18:25) and the making of a betrothal contract (Ezek. 16:8) by the prospective bridegroom. The money payment belonged originally to the family of the woman, but gradually came to belong in part or wholly to the woman herself. The first advances might come from the family of either party. There is no clear evidence that the young woman had any right of appeal as to her family’s choice. The bridegroom himself did not conduct the negotiations, but the matter was in the hands of a third party such as his parents or some trusted servant or friend.

    After the exile, the custom of the earlier period seems to have continued, although with certain modifications. The payment to the bride’s father on the part of the prospective groom had been increasingly regarded as the property, at least in part, of the bride. Such a payment during this period was often supplemented by a dowry in the true sense. No consent of the girl was demanded, nor do we know of the recognition of any legal age of consent, unless, as in somewhat later times, it was not expected that boys would marry before the age of eighteen or girls before twelve. In Talmudic times, there was a distinct tendency to combine the betrothal with the wedding. Today the Jews seem to combine the two ceremonies.

    Probably the ceremony of betrothal in NT times involved the following acts:

    • First, a contract drawn up by the parents or by the friend of the bridegroom.
    • Second, the meeting of the two families concerned, with other witnesses, at which time the groom gave the bride jewelry (Gen. 24:53) and declared his intention to observe the terms of the contract already arranged.
    • Third, the payment of the mōhar (4119 - Ed Note: Gesenius Definition מֹהַר m. a price paid for a wife to her parents, Genesis 34:12; Exodus 22:16; 1 Samuel 18:25. Different from this is the use of the Arab. مَهْرُ i.e. a spousal gift promised to the future wife, and the Latin dos, i.e. the gift given by the parents to their daughter who is about to be married.) by the prospective bridegroom. This occurred during a ceremony at which a priest may have been present.

    The status of the man and woman was now, as in Hebrew times, practically the same as that of married persons, although it was generally customary for the wedding ceremony proper to be celebrated at a later date. As in the older times, separation of betrothed persons demanded a divorce, and there seems to have been no taboo in their living together as man and wife previous to the wedding ceremony. The children of such a union would be regarded as legitimate. Insofar as the virgin Mary and Joseph are concerned, the use of the verb mnēsteúomai, to betroth (Matt. 1:18; Luke 1:27; 2:5), indicates a betrothal ceremony. There is no mention, however, of a subsequent wedding ceremony. It was during this period of betrothal that the angel appeared to Mary (Matt. 1:18). It is clearly stated, however, that the angel appeared to announce to Mary her conception by the Holy Spirit before she had sexual relations with Joseph. The same angel also appeared to Joseph to tell him of the supernatural conception of his betrothed, Mary (Matt. 1:24; see Luke 1:26ff.). (Zodhiates' Word Study Dictionary of the NT - This resource is highly recommended and in my opinion is superior to BDAG because it is so much more readable)

    A man whose name was Joseph, of the descendants of David - Joseph's name means increase or addition. By trade he was an ordinary carpenter but he was of the line of David, from which Messiah would spring forth (2 Sam. 7:12, 16; Ps. 89:35–36; Jer. 23:5; Matt. 22:42; Mark 10:47; Acts 2:30; 13:23; Rom. 1:3). As John MacArthur explains "Matthew’s genealogy of Christ traces His ancestry through Joseph (1:1–17), showing that he descended from David, thus Jesus is also “the son of David” (Matt. 1:1). Although Joseph was not Jesus’ natural father, his adoption of Jesus made Him legally part of David’s lineage. The genealogy in Matthew thus establishes Christ’s claim to the throne of David as Joseph’s legal heir." (Ibid)

    Holman Bible Dictionary on Joseph - Several Josephs are mentioned in the New Testament, the most important being the husband of Mary, mother of Jesus. He was a descendant of David, a carpenter by trade (Matthew 13:55 ), and regarded as the legal or foster father of Jesus (Matthew 1:16 ,Matthew 1:16,1:20 ; Luke 2:4 ; Luke 3:23 ; Luke 4:22 ; John 1:45 ; John 6:42 ). Upon learning of Mary's pregnancy, Joseph, being a righteous man, sought to put her away without public disgrace. His response to God's assurances in a dream further demonstrated his piety and character (Matthew 1:18-25 ). Joseph took Mary to his ancestral home, Bethlehem, was with her at Jesus' birth, and shared in the naming, circumcision, and dedication of the child (Luke 2:8-33 ). Directed through dreams, Joseph took his family to Egypt until it was safe to return to Nazareth (Matthew 2:13-23 ). As dedicated father, he was anxious with Mary at the disappearance of Jesus (Luke 2:41-48 ). Joseph does not appear later in the Gospels, and it is likely that he died prior to Jesus' public ministry.

    Mary - It is interesting that in Luke 1:6-note the mention of Zacharias and Elizabeth was accompanied by commendation (both righteous in the sight of God, walking blamelessly) except that she was a virgin, which was a critically important commendation. If we read her own testimony in Luke 1:46-55 she undoubtedly was righteous and walking blamelessly also. Mary's lineage could also be traced to David as Luke explains in Luke 3:23-38. 

    MacArthur - Luke’s genealogy of Jesus records His ancestry through His mother. Thus Jesus inherited from His adoptive father, Joseph, the legal right to David’s throne, while His physical descent from David came from His mother, Mary. In every legitimate sense—both legally and physically—Jesus Christ was the Son of David and born to be Israel’s true King.

    Luke 1:28  And coming in, he said to her, "Greetings, favored one! The Lord is with you."

    • Hail. Da. 9:21–23; 10:19.
    • highly favoured. or, graciously accepted, or much graced. Luke 1:30. Ho. 14:2. Ep. 1:6.
    • the Lord. Jdg 6:12. Is. 43:5. Je. 1:18, 19. Ac. 18:10.
    • blessed. Luke 1:42; Luke 11:27, 28. Jdg 5:24. Pr. 31:29–31. Mat. 12:48.
    • Verse-by-Verse - Multiple Commentaries - Luke 1:28 Commentaries
    • Multiple commentaries and sermons on Luke 1

    AMP And he came to her and said, Hail, O favored one [endued with grace]! The Lord is with you! Blessed (favored of God) are you before all other women!

    CSB  And the angel came to her and said, "Rejoice, favored woman! The Lord is with you."

    ESV  And he came to her and said, "Greetings, O favored one, the Lord is with you!"

    KJV  And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women.

    NET  The angel came to her and said, "Greetings, favored one, the Lord is with you!"

    NIV  The angel went to her and said, "Greetings, you who are highly favored! The Lord is with you."

    NLT Gabriel appeared to her and said, "Greetings, favored woman! The Lord is with you! "

    Wuest  And having come to her, he said, Be rejoicing because you have been encompassed with favor. The Lord is with you. 

    YLT  And the messenger having come in unto her, said, 'Hail, favoured one, the Lord is with thee; blessed art thou among women;'

    A REASON TO BE
    FULL OF CHEER

    Coming in - In other words Mary was in the house. Gabriel came in and said "Greetings" (like our "Hello").

    Greetings (rejoice, hail) (5463)(chairo) means to be cheerful ("cheer full"). Chairo is used in a whole range of situations in which the emotion of joy is evoked. Chairo was used as here in greetings (welcome, good day, hail to you, I am glad to see you) in the imperative mood (present imperative in Lk 1:28) implying a wish for well being or happiness to the recipient. Oh, what a stark contrast with the greeting in Mt 26:49!

    Favored one - This should have immediately countered any fear she may have had but in the next verse he adds "Do not be afraid," so she still must have had some fear. As noted below the word favored is from charis or grace which speaks of unmerited favor. The point is that in calling Mary favored one, this word indicates that there was nothing in Mary that merited this acknowledgment. Mary like all of us from Adam was a sinner (Ro 5:12, cf. Job 25:4; Ps. 14:1–3; Eccl 7:20; Isa. 53:6; Rom. 3:12, 23), regardless of what some might falsely teach. She needed grace just as all sinners need God's grace (Acts 15:11; 18:27; Rom. 3:24; 5:15, 17; Eph. 1:7; 2:5, 8; 2 Tim. 1:9; Titus 3:7). She was shown favor because God choose to show her favor, not because she deserved His favor. 

    Mary like Noah of old "found favor in the eyes of the LORD." (Ge 6:8, cp Ex 33:13, Pr 3:3, 4) Joseph found favor because of the hand of the Lord on him (Ge 39:3, 4). Luke records that "David found favor in God's sight, and asked that he might find a dwelling place for the God of Jacob." (Acts 7:46)

    Favored one (one on whom it is freely bestowed) (5487)(charitoo from charis = grace) means to cause one to be the recipient of a benefit. The idea in this passage is to bestow grace or favor upon Mary. 

    The only other NT use of charitoo is by Paul in Ephesians 1:6-note writing "to the praise of the glory of His grace, which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved." The idea in Ephesians is that God has extended His favor or grace to us in Christ. Thayer adds that charitoo means to "pursue with grace, compass with favor, to honor with blessings." Favored one is in the perfect tense which speaks of the abiding nature of this bestowal of grace which emphasizes that she is the recipient not the bestower of grace. 

    NET Note - She is a model saint in this passage, one who willingly receives God's benefits. The Vulgate rendering "full of grace" suggests something more of Mary as a bestower of grace, but does not make sense here contextually.

    Notice that the phrase in the KJV is not found in the more modern versions. NET Note says that this phrase also appears in (uk 1:42)  (where it is textually certain). This (Ed: the phrase in Lk 1:28) has the earmarks of a scribal addition for balance; the shorter reading, attested by the most important witnesses and several others." 

    John MacArthur comments on the non-Biblical teaching regarding Mary - The salutation has been confiscated to form the basis of the familiar Roman Catholic prayer known as the Ave Maria (“Hail Mary”). The erroneous premise of that prayer, based on the Latin Vulgate’s rendering of favored one as gratia plena (“full of grace”), is that Mary has been granted and possesses fullness of grace, which she then bestows on others. In his encyclical Ad Diem Illum Laetissimum, Pope Pius X, in a bizarre distortion of truth, has called Mary not the recipient of grace, but the “Dispensatrix [dispenser] of all the gifts that Our Savior purchased for us by His Death and by His Blood; the supreme Minister of the distribution of graces; the distributor … of the treasures of His merits.” Pope Leo XIII agreed, declaring in his encyclical Octobri Mense that “Mary is the intermediary through whom is distributed unto us this immense treasure of mercies gathered by God.” Pope Pius IX’s encyclical Ineffabilis Deus cited the Catholic Church’s belief that Mary is “the seat of all divine graces … adorned with all gifts of the Holy Spirit … an almost infinite treasury, an inexhaustible abyss of these gifts.” Summing up the Catholic view that Mary is the mediator of all graces Ludwig Ott writes, “Since Mary’s Assumption into Heaven no grace is conferred on man without her actual intercessory co-operation” (Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma [St. Louis: B. Herder, 1954], 209). That false, unbiblical view of Mary is an integral part of the Roman Church’s practice of Mariolatry (the veneration and worship of Mary), which blasphemes the Lord Jesus by worshiping another. In reality Mary was a humble, redeemed sinner. She was not sinless from her conception until her bodily assumption into heaven, as Catholic dogma maintains, since as Jesus Himself declared, “No one is good except God alone” (Luke 18:19; cf. Rom. 3:10). Nor is Mary the co-redeemer of the human race, since sinners are “justified as a gift by His grace through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus” (Rom. 3:24; cf. 1 Cor. 1:30; Eph. 1:7; Col. 1:13–14; Heb. 9:12). She does not hear and answer prayers or intercede for anyone, since there is “one mediator … between God and men, the man Christ Jesus” (1 Tim. 2:5). The teaching of Roman Catholicism that “there is no surer or more direct road than by Mary for uniting all mankind in Christ and obtaining through Him the perfect adoption of sons, that we may be holy and immaculate in the sight of God” (Pope Pius X, Ad Diem Illum Laetissimum) is utterly false and blasphemous. The exalted, quasi-deified Mary of Roman Catholic dogma is far removed from the humble, unassuming “bondslave of the Lord” (Luke 1:38) revealed in Scripture. Gabriel’s pronouncement to Mary, “the Lord is with you,” speaks of God’s enabling of her (cf. Jdg. 6:12). It reinforces the truth that Mary was a recipient of God’s grace, not the dispenser of it to others. Only God gives grace to sinners, as Scripture indicates continually (cf. Ro 3:24; 1 Cor. 1:4; Eph. 2:8, and the repeated use of the phrase “the grace of God”). (Luke Commentary)

    See also - What is Mariolatry?


    Vance Havner - "Blessed Among Women"   Luke 1:26-56

    THE beautiful story of the annunciation of the birth of Christ to Mary has suffered from overemphasis among some and underemphasis among others. Mary has been called "The Mother of God," which she was not. She was the mother of the Man Christ Jesus. She was "highly favored" and "blessed among women" for exactly this reason: God had chosen her to be the virgin mother of His only begotten Son as pertaining to the flesh. There is a Mariolatry which ignores our Lord's own attitude toward His mother.

    Genesis 3:15 now received fulfillment, and "the Seed of the woman" is coming to bruise the serpent's head. Isaiah 7:14 here comes to fulfillment in the Son "Immanuel." He is to reign over the house of Jacob from the throne of David, a prophecy yet to be fulfilled. Christ is at the right hand of the throne of God but not now on the throne of David.

    It is significant that the first question asked about the virgin birth was asked by the virgin herself: "How shall this be?" Men have asked it ever since, but here is God's own answer: that it is the supernatural work of the Holy Ghost and the power of God. Much argument is focused on the supernatural birth instead of the supernatural Son. The Son of God required a birth in keeping with His deity. Who He is explains how He was born.

    Mary goes to Elizabeth with the good news and breaks forth into the Magnificat (Luke 1:46-55). Very similar is Hannah's prophetic prayer in 1 Samuel 2:1-10, for both close with reference to Christ: "His king" with Hannah, and the "Help" promised Israel with Mary. The theme through both is the marvelous way in which God puts down the mighty and exalts those of low degree, even as He still does in His choosing of the saints (1 Cor. 1:26-31).

    Elizabeth, filled with the Holy Ghost, had already called Mary "the mother of my Lord." So she was, but mother of Him as man in no way elevates her to be worthy of adoration or worship. Bengel rightly says that she is addressed as a daughter of grace, not as the mother of it (Luke 1:28).

    A beautiful little lesson in faith is gathered from verses 34, 37 and 45. "How shall this be?"—that is the query of men since the beginning when faced with the message of the supernatural power of God. The natural man cannot receive or comprehend how God works His wonders of grace!

    The answer is "With God nothing shall be impossible" (v. 37). God is able to save (Heb. 7:25), to keep (Jude 24), to succor (Heb. 2:18), to deliver (Dan. 3:17), to do (Eph. 3:20), to subdue (Phil. 3:21).

    Then verse 45: "And blessed is she that believed: for there shall be a performance of those things which were told her of the Lord." It is always so when we take Him at His word. He who promises will perform. Do not ask "How?" Take Him at His Word and it shall be done even as He has said.

    Luke 1:29  But she was very perplexed at this statement, and kept pondering what kind of salutation this was.

    AMP - But when she saw him, she was greatly troubled and disturbed and confused at what he said and kept revolving in her mind what such a greeting might mean.

    KJV  And when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be.

    Wuest  But she was greatly agitated by reason of the word, and began reasoning what sort of an exotic greeting this might be.

    She was very perplexed (greatly troubled, disturbed and confused) 1298)(diatarasso from dia = through + tarasso = to agitate or trouble) means literally to be stirred up throughout. Diatarasso is used figuratively (only here in Bible) and describes her mind as greatly disturbed, thrown into great confusion, utterly confounded.

    The root verb tarasso was used in Luke 1:12-note describing Zacharias was "troubled when he saw the angel, and fear gripped him." The verb diatarasso used to describe Mary is a more intense form of the verb which suggests she was even more upset than Zacharias!

    Robertson on cast in her mind (KJV) - Imperfect indicative. Common verb for reckoning up different reasons. She was both upset and puzzled.

    Luke uses the imperfect tense which pictures Mary running this over and over again in her mind trying to make sense of what she had heard.

    Kept pondering (1260)(dialogizomai from dia = intensifies meaning +  logizomai - to reason, reckon, consider. Related to our English word "dialogue" a conversation between two or more people) means to consider, reason or reckon thoroughly, to think through, to deliberate by reflection. "To bring together different reasons." (Vine) To hold a discussion. To take full account of, to stop to consider, to distinguish between. To think about or reason in one's mind alone as was the case with Mary who had an inner wondering to herself about the angel's words (Mt. 21:25; Mk 2:6, 8; Lu 3:15; 5:21, 22; 12:17; Ps 77:6; 119:59). To reason with others with meaning to discuss but in some contexts meaning to argue or debate (Mt. 16:7, 8; Mk 8:16, 17; Lu 20:14). To deliberate in the sense of to take counsel or to devise (Lxx Pr 6:18, Jer 11:19)

    Lawrence Richards - Dialogizomai and dialogismos have a negative tone in the NT. They suggest thinking issues through in a calculated, thorough way; but they are closely linked in Greek culture with the teaching of philosophers. In the NT, they suggest the efforts of unaided human beings to arrive at significant truth. These words are translated “thought(s)” in five passages (Mk 7:21; Lk 2:35; 12:17; 1 Co 3:20; Jas 2:4). (New International Encyclopedia of Bible Words)

    Thayer notes that from the time of Plato dialogizomai signified "the thinking of a man with himself." The most common meaning in ancient Greek was deliberation or reflection.

    Mounce - dialogizomai means “to discuss, consider, argue” about something. It is related to the English word “dialogue” and is used only in the Synoptic Gospels. It describes a kind of thorough consideration of issues that are often of a curious or a spiritual nature. It can refer to a conversation between several parties or to the thoughts of an individual. In both cases, there is an internal aspect to the process. When it refers to an individual, it is often used of deep reflection (lit., thinking in the heart) conveyed by the English “wonder.” For example, the Pharisees were wondering in their hearts about Jesus’ identity after he proclaimed that the paralytic’s sins were forgiven (Mk 2:6, 8; Lk 5:21, 22). Mary wondered about the greeting of the angel of the Lord (Lk 1:29), and the people wondered if John was the Messiah (Lk 3:15). See also Lk 12:17; 20:14.

    W E Vine - DIALOGIZOMAI (διαλογίζομαι , (1260)), to bring together different reasons and reckon them up, to reason, is used in the N.T. (a) chiefly of thoughts and considerations which are more or less objectionable, e.g., of the disciples who reasoned together, through a mistaken view of Christ’s teaching regarding leaven, Matt. 16:7, 8 and Mark 8:16,17; of their reasoning as to who was the greatest among them, Mark 9:33, R.V., “were ye reasoning,” A.V., “ye disputed” (for ver. 34, see DISPUTE;) of the Scribes and Pharisees in criticising Christ’s claim to forgive sins, Mark 2:6, 8 (twice) and Luke 5:21, 22; of the chief priests and elders in considering how to answer Christ’s question regarding John’s baptism, Matt. 21:25; Mark 11:31 (some mss. have logizomai, here, which is nowhere else rendered “to reason”); of the wicked husbandmen, and their purpose to murder the heir and seize his inheritance, Luke 20:14; of the rich man who “reasoned” within himself, R.V. (A.V., “thought”), as to where to bestow his fruits, Luke 12:17 (some mss. have it in John 11:50, the best have logizomai; see ACCOUNT, NO. 4); (b) of considerations not objectionable, Luke 1:29, “cast in (her) mind;” 3:15, R.V., and A.V., marg., “reasoned” (A.V., “mused”).

    NIDNTT - The vb. dialogizomai, calculate, consider, think through, is closely linked with it, and similarly the noun dialogismos, weighing, consideration, thought, discussion.....dialogizomai is used with a neutral connotation for consider, think over (e.g. Ps. 77:5), but more often with the depreciatory sense of harbour ill designs, intrigue (Ps 10:2; 35:20; 36:4).

    Wayne Detzler - There are at least two main words that characterize “thinking” in the New Testament. One of them is dialogizomai, seen in our English word, “dialogue.” It refers to conversation. The poets used it to describe the content of their poems. Philosophers used “dialogue” as a method of teaching. By questions and answers pupils were brought to understand philosophical principles and concepts. A second word for “thinking” is dokeo. It has to do with the thought processes, believing, accepting a concept, developing an opinion, or giving an impression. A related idea is “appearance,” when one thinks something looks similar. This idea was perverted in the early church by the sect of Docetism. This sect taught that Jesus Christ was not a real man, but only appeared to be human. To summarize, dialogizomai speaks of opinions or thoughts which are developed and aired in discussion. On the other hand, dokeo deals with opinions as they develop in the mind.....No matter which word is used for “thinking” (dialogizomai or dokeo) in the New Testament, it is inevitably surrounded with skepticism. In the Gospels, Christ confounded the best thinking of the Pharisees and scribes. The apostolic Christians knew that the only correct thoughts were those which were subjected to the Spirit. In the epistles one sees an awareness that salvation is not thought out, but rather bought by the blood of Christ. (NT Words in Today's Language)

    Dialogizomai is used only in the Gospels and can reflect good reasoning (Mary, people in Lk 3:15), reasoning with evil motives (Mt 21:25, Mk 2:6, 8, Mk 11:31, Lk 5:21, 22, Lk 20:44; Lxx of Ps 10:2, Ps 21:11, 35:20, Ps 36:4, Ps 140:8) or with a sense of complaining (Mt 16:7, 8, Mk 8:16, 17, Lk 12:17)

    TDNT - dialogizomai in the Greek and Hellenistic World. The following are the main senses: 1. “to balance accounts,” 2. “to ponder,” and 3. “to discuss” (sometimes technically for “to hold a convention” for administrative or judicial purposes).

    Dialogizomai - 16x in 16v - Usage: discuss(4), discussing(1), pondering(1), reason(1), reasoned(1), reasoning(7), wondering(1).

    Matthew 16:7 They began to discuss this among themselves, saying, "He said that because we did not bring any bread." 8 But Jesus, aware of this, said, "You men of little faith, why do you discuss among yourselves that you have no bread?

    Matthew 21:25 "The baptism of John was from what source, from heaven or from men?" And they began reasoning among themselves, saying, "If we say, 'From heaven,' He will say to us, 'Then why did you not believe him?'

    Mark 2:6 But some of the scribes were sitting there and reasoning in their hearts,

    Wuest - But what they thought in their hearts, was expressed in their faces, actions, and very personalities. There was a hostile atmosphere in the room, and our Lord sensed it.

    Mark 2:8 Immediately Jesus, aware in His spirit that they were reasoning that way within themselves, said to them, "Why are you reasoning about these things in your hearts?

    Mark 8:16 They began to discuss with one another the fact that they had no bread.  17 And Jesus, aware of this, said to them, "Why do you discuss the fact that you have no bread? Do you not yet see or understand? Do you have a hardened heart?

    Comment: The imperfect tense in Mk 8:16 show that they kept it up!

    Mark 9:33 They came to Capernaum; and when He was in the house, He began to question them, "What were you discussing on the way?"

    Comment: The idea of dialogizomai here suggests that sidea have been taken and the issue has been discussed in detail. 

    Mark 11:31 They began reasoning among themselves, saying, "If we say, 'From heaven,' He will say, 'Then why did you not believe him?'

    Luke 1:29 But she was very perplexed at this statement, and kept pondering what kind of salutation this was.

    Luke 3:15  Now while the people were in a state of expectation and all were wondering in their hearts about John, as to whether he was the Christ,

    Luke 5:21 The scribes and the Pharisees began to reason, saying, "Who is this man who speaks blasphemies? Who can forgive sins, but God alone?"  22 But Jesus, aware of their reasonings (dialogismos), answered and said to them, "Why are you reasoning in your hearts?

    Luke 12:17 "And he began reasoning to himself, saying, 'What shall I do, since I have no place to store my crops?'

    Luke 20:14 "But when the vine-growers saw him, they reasoned with one another, saying, 'This is the heir; let us kill him so that the inheritance will be ours.'

    Dialogizomai - 9x in the Septuagint -2 Sam. 19:19; Ps. 10:2; 21:11; 35:20; 36:4; 77:5; 119:59; 140:8; Prov. 17:12

    Psalm 10:2 In pride the wicked hotly pursue the afflicted; Let them be caught in the plots (dialogismos) which they have devised (dialogizomai).

    Psalm 21:11 Though they intended evil against You And devised a plot, They will not succeed.

    Psalm 36:4 He plans wickedness upon his bed; He sets himself on a path that is not good; He does not despise evil.

    Psalm 77:5 I  (Asaph) have considered the days of old, The years of long ago. (Look at where Asaph was in Ps 77:4)

     Psalm 119:59 I considered my ways and turned my feet to Your testimonies. (O, how all God's children need to consider our ways that these thoughts might drive us to God's testimonies!)

    Luke 1:30  The angel said to her, "Do not be afraid, Mary; for you have found favor with God.

    AMP And the angel said to her, Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found grace (free, spontaneous, absolute favor and loving-kindness) with God.  

    Wuest  And the angel said to her, Stop fearing, Mary, for you found favor in the presence of God.

    NOT FEAR
    BUT FAVOR

    Do not be afraid - Angels are awesome creatures when they are seen by mortal men and women and the most common reaction is fear. There is something fearful about the unseen world. It is one thing to read about it but quite another to see it up close and personal! But beloved, we will see not only the created angels someday, but best of all the Creator of all things Christ Jesus. If you are a believer the application of this passage is "Do not fear for you have found grace with God." Indeed, for us the best is yet to come so do not fear for "it is written, "THINGS WHICH EYE HAS NOT SEEN AND EAR HAS NOT HEARD, AND which HAVE NOT ENTERED THE HEART OF MAN, ALL THAT GOD HAS PREPARED FOR THOSE WHO LOVE HIM." (1 Cor 2:9)

    Do not be afraid is a repeated phrase in Luke's writings...all except Lk 12:4 are present imperative with a negative and passive voice - idea is either "Stop fearing" or "Don't start being afraid"

    Luke 1:13 But the angel said to him, "Do not be afraid, Zacharias, for your petition has been heard, and your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you will give him the name John.

    Luke 1:30 The angel said to her, "Do not be afraid, Mary; for you have found favor with God.

    Luke 2:10 But the angel said to them, "Do not be afraid; for behold, I bring you good news of great joy which will be for all the people;

    Luke 8:50 But when Jesus heard this, He answered him, "Do not be afraid any longer; only believe, and she will be made well."

    Luke 12:4  "I say to you, My friends, do not be afraid of those who kill the body and after that have no more that they can do.

    Luke 12:32  "Do not be afraid, little flock, for your Father has chosen gladly to give you the kingdom.

    Acts 18:9 And the Lord said to Paul in the night by a vision, "Do not be afraid any longer, but go on speaking and do not be silent;

    Acts 27:24 saying, 'Do not be afraid, Paul; you must stand before Caesar; and behold, God has granted you all those who are sailing with you.'

    NET NOTE on find favor - The expression found favor is a Semitism, common in the OT (Gen 6:8; 18:3; 43:14; 2 Sam 15:25). God has chosen to act on this person’s behalf.

    Find (2147)(heurisko) means to learn location of something, either by intentional searching or by unexpected discovery learn whereabouts of something. The idea is to learn something previously not known, frequently involving an element of surprise, which was certainly the case with Mary's angelic encounter.

    Found favor - Luke 1:28 records a similar address "Greetings, favored one! The Lord is with you.”

    Found favor - 32x - Gen. 6:8; 18:3; 19:19; 33:10; 39:4; 47:29; 50:4; Exod. 33:12f, 16f; 34:9; Num. 11:11, 15; 32:5; Jdg. 6:17; Ruth 2:10, 13; 1 Sam. 16:22; 20:3, 29; 27:5; 2 Sam. 14:22; Neh. 2:5; Est. 2:9, 15, 17; 5:8; 7:3; 8:5; Lk. 1:30; Acts 7:46

    Find favor - 12x - Gen. 32:5; 33:8, 15; 34:11; 47:25; Exod. 33:13; Ruth 2:2; 1 Sam. 1:18; 25:8; 2 Sam. 15:25; 16:4; Prov. 3:4

    Robertson on favor - Charis is a very ancient and common word with a variety of applied meanings. They all come from the notion of sweetness, charm, loveliness, joy, delight, like words of grace, Luke 4:22, growing grace, Eph. 4:29, with grace, Col. 4:6. The notion of kindness is in it also, especially of God towards men as here. It is a favorite word for Christianity, the Gospel of the grace of God (Acts 20:24) in contrast with law or works (John 1:16). Gratitude is expressed also (Luke 6:32), especially to God (Ro. 6:17).

    Favor with God - This is more literally "favor beside God," which is even better. Beloved believer, like His grace was beside Mary because He was beside her, so too He has promised you ""I WILL NEVER DESERT YOU, NOR WILL I EVER FORSAKE YOU," so that we confidently say, "THE LORD IS MY HELPER, I WILL NOT BE AFRAID. WHAT SHALL MAN DO TO ME?" (Heb 13:5-6-note) In the Greek sentence actually has five negatives making God's promise very emphatic, "I will never, never, never leave thee." The promise to never leave was made to Joshua when he succeeded Moses [Dt 1:7-8, Jos 1:5,9] and is fulfilled in Jesus [Mt 28:20, Acts 18:9-10 1Ch 28:20]. 

    Favor (grace) (5485)(charis from from chairo = to rejoice) is an act of gracious kindness, an advantage to the benefit of the recipient, bestowal of a privilege upon. Favor is friendly regard shown toward another especially by a superior, in this case THE Superior Being. The Greek word charis gives us our English charity which is apropos for beggars need "charity" even as sinners need grace, for we are all spiritual paupers outside of Christ. As Augustine said "God gives where he finds empty hands." Mary so to speak had "empty hands." Would you describe yourself as having "empty hands?" If so you are in a wonderful position to receive favor from God, for He is opposed to the proud but gives grace to the humble. (James 4:6-note, 1 Peter 5:5-note) If you are meek and weak, you are "in a good way" in God's economy for as Jesus told Paul in this state me, "My grace is sufficient for you, for power is perfected in weakness." (2 Cor 12:9-note)

    Henry Morris on favor - The Greek word for "favor" is the word normally translated as "grace," and this is actually the first mention of grace in the New Testament. The first mention of grace in the Old Testament is Genesis 6:8: "Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD." In both cases, a human believer was selected by God's grace to bring a new beginning into the world--Noah brought the post-Flood economy that would follow the judgment of the Flood on the sin of the world, Mary brought forth the Savior who, through the judgment of the cross, would carry away the sin of the world (John 1:29). Note also how these first two mentions of grace define the very word itself. Grace is not a reward that is earned from God, but a gift from God that is found. And it is found, not by working or searching but "through faith" (Ephesians 2:8). Both Mary and Noah believed, and therefore obeyed, the word of God.

    Disciple's Study Bible - Out of His grace God selected Mary to become the mother of Jesus. God's grace is unmerited favor. His grace operates without regard to our being worthy of His blessing. Virtually all of God's relationships to us are expressions of His grace, in one way or another. Grace, or love, is the very heart of God's existence. Luke emphasized the grace of God throughout this chapter. Notice especially Luke 1:50,54,58,72,78.

    Marvin Vincent has a lengthy note on favor/grace in this verse - Grace (χάριν). From the same root as χαίρω, to rejoice. I. Primarily that which gives joy or pleasure; and hence outward beauty, loveliness, something which delights the beholder. Thus Homer, of Ulysses going to the assembly: “Athene shed down manly grace or beauty upon him” (“Odyssey,” ii., 12); and Septuagint, Ps. 45:3, “grace is poured into thy lips.” See also Prov. 1:9; 3:22. Substantially the same idea, agreeableness, is conveyed in Luke 4:22, respecting the gracious words, lit., words of grace, uttered by Christ. So Eph. 4:29. II. As a beautiful or agreeable sentiment felt and expressed toward another; kindness, favor, good-will. 2 Cor. 8:6, 7, 9; 9:8; Luke 1:30; 2:40; Acts 2:47. So of the responsive sentiment of thankfulness. See Luke 6:32, 33, 34; 17:9; but mostly in the formula thanks to God; Rom. 6:17; 1 Cor. 15:57; 2 Cor. 2:14; 2 Tim. 1:3. III. The substantial expression of good-will; a boon, a favor, a gift; but not in New Testament. See Rom. 5:15, where the distinction is made between χάρις, grace, and δωρεὰ ἐν χάριτι a gift in grace. So a gratification or delight, in classical Greek only; as the delight in battle, in sleep, etc. IV. The higher Christian signification, based on the emphasis of freeness in the gift or favor, and, as commonly in New Testament, denoting the free, spontaneous, absolute loving-kindness of God toward men, and so contrasted with debt, law, works, sin. The word does not occur either in Matthew or Mark.

    William Barclay - To be chosen by God (as was Mary) so often means at one and the same time a crown of joy and cross of sorrow (see Luke 2:35-note). The piercing truth is that God does not choose a person for ease and comfort and selfish joy but for a task that will take all that head and heart and hand can bring to it. God chooses a man in order to use him. When Joan of Arc knew that her time was short she prayed, “I shall only last a year; use me as you can.” When that is realized, the sorrows and hardships that serving God may bring are not matters for lamentation; they are our glory, for all is suffered for God. When Richard Cameron, the Covenanter, was caught by the dragoons they killed him. He had very beautiful hands and they cut them off and sent them to his father with a message asking if he recognized them. “They are my son’s,” he said, “my own dear son’s. Good is the will of the Lord who can never wrong me or mine.” The shadows of life were lit by the sense that they, too, were in the plan of God. A great Spanish saint prayed for his people, “May God deny you peace and give you glory.” A great modern preacher said, “Jesus Christ came not to make life easy but to make men great.” It is the paradox of blessedness that it confers on a person at one and the same time the greatest joy and the greatest task in all the world.

    Luke 1:31  "And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall name Him Jesus.

    AMP And listen! You will become pregnant and will give birth to a Son, and you shall call His name Jesus. 

    Wuest  And behold: you shall conceive in your womb and you shall give birth to a son, and you shall call His name Jesus.

    JESUS THE NAME
    ABOVE ALL NAMES!

    Behold (2400)(idou) is the second person singular aorist middle imperative of eidon which means to see, perceive, look at. In the NT idou is used as a demonstrative particle that draws attention to what follows. Idou in the middle voice means "you yourself look, see, perceive!" The aorist imperative is a command emphasizing "Do it now! Don't delay!" This is one of 6 uses of behold in Luke 1 - Luke 1:20; 31; 36; 38; 44; 48. 

    Spurgeon reminds us that "Behold is a word of wonder; it is intended to excite admiration. Wherever you see it hung out in Scripture, it is like an ancient sign-board, signifying that there are rich wares within, or like the hands which solid readers have observed in the margin of the older Puritanic books, drawing attention to something particularly worthy of observation." I would add, behold is like a divine highlighter, a divine underlining of an especially striking or important text. It says in effect "Listen up, all ye who would be wise in the ways of Jehovah!"

    Luke uses Behold frequently in his writings to arrest the reader's attention - Luke 1:20; 31; 36; 38; 44; 48; 2:10; 25; 34; 48; 5:12; 18; 6:23; 7:12; 25; 27; 34; 37; 8:41; 9:30; 38; 10:3; 19; 25; 11:31; 41; 13:7; 11; 16; 30; 32; 35; 14:2; 15:29; 17:21; 23; 18:28; 31; 19:2; 8; 20; 22:10; 21; 31; 38; 47; 23:14; 29; 50; 24:4; 13; 49 // Acts 1:10; 2:7; 5:9; 25; 28; 7:56; 8:27; 36; 9:10; 10:17; 19; 21; 30; 11:11; 12:7; 13:11; 25; 46; 16:1; 20:22; 25; 27:24

    You will conceive - Matthew 1:18 gives the detail "Now the birth of Jesus Christ was as follows: when His mother Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, before they came together (i.e., before they were intimate) she was found to be with child by the Holy Spirit."

    You will conceive (become pregnant) 4815)(sullambano from sun/syn = together with + lambáno = to take, to seize) means literally to seize or take together and conveys the picture of clasping. To bring together. 

    Luke uses sullambano more than any other NT writer with a variety of meanings including conceiving (Luke 1:24, 31, 36, 2:21), to help (in sense of take hold of together) or come to the aid of (Luke 5:7), to catch or capture an animal (Luke 5:9), of the arrest of Jesus (Lk 22:54, Acts 1:16), of the arrest of Peter (Acts 12:3), of the arrest of Paul (Acts 23:27), of seizing of Paul in the Temple (Acts 26:21). 

    Robertson on conceive in your womb  - Same idiom in Isa. 7:14 of Immanuel.

    Henry Morris - The miraculous conception was unusual in that it took place directly in the womb rather than in the tubes, but it was uniquely miraculous in that no man was involved. "That holy thing" was placed directly in Mary's womb by God "the Holy Ghost" (Luke 1:35) and thus was uniquely "the seed of the woman" (Genesis 3:15). Just as the body of "the first Adam" was directly formed by God (Genesis 2:7), with no genetic connection to either father or mother, so the body of "the second Adam" (1 Corinthians 15:45) was directly formed by God (Hebrews 10:5) with no genetic connection to either parent. Since the very ground was brought under God's curse because of sin (Genesis 3:17), all the elements of the ground ("the dust of the earth") out of which the bodies of Adam and Eve and all their descendants had been formed were contaminated with the "bondage of corruption" (or decay--Romans 8:21,22). This was just as true of Mary's body as of Joseph's, so there could have been no natural genetic connection of Jesus' body to Mary's, any more than to Joseph's. The "holy thing" placed in Mary's womb by the Holy Spirit could have been nothing less than a special creation, just as was the body of Adam. Otherwise, like all men born of women, Jesus would have inherited both physical defects and the sin-nature of Adam and Eve. This could only have been prevented by a miraculous cleansing of the conceptus, and this, of course, would be a special creation. Jesus was the only begotten Son of God, as well as the son of Mary, but He was not the Son 

    Disciple's Study Bible - Birth is a natural physical process. Natural processes do not seal off God's activity. He can interrupt natural processes or work through natural processes to achieve His will. God worked in a special way to allow the virgin Mary to conceive. He worked in a different, yet still miraculous, way to allow the aged, barren Elizabeth to conceive. He worked through natural processes to allow each to carry and bear her son.

    Several hundred years prior the prophet Isaiah had written 

    Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign: Behold, a virgin (Hb =  'almah; Gk = parthenos) will be with child and bear a son, and she will call His name Immanuel. (Isaiah 7:14 Commentary)

    Spurgeon on Isaiah 7:14 - And, first, we see here, in speaking of this birth of Christ, a miraculous conception. The text says expressly, “Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son.” This expression is unparalleled even in Sacred Writ; of no other woman could it be said beside the Virgin Mary, and of no other man could it be written that his mother was a virgin. The Greek word and the Hebrew are both very expressive of the true and real virginity of the mother, to show us that Jesus Christ was born of woman, and not of man. We shall not enlarge upon the thought, but still it is an important one, and ought not to be passed over without mentioning. Just as the woman, by her venturous spirit, stepped first into transgression,—lest she should be despised and trampled on, God in his wisdom devised that the woman, and the woman alone, should be the author of the body of the God-man who should redeem mankind. Albeit that she herself first tasted the accursed fruit, and tempted her husband (it may be that Adam out of love to her tasted that fruit), lest she should be degraded, lest she should not stand on an equality with him, God hath ordained that so it should be, that his Son should be sent forth “born of a woman,” and the first promise was that the seed of the woman, not the seed of the man, should bruise the serpent’s head (See Ge 3:15 - commentary. (From Birth of Christ - sermon on Isaiah 7:14)

    In Mt 1:21 an angel appears to Joseph in a dream and declared "Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary as your wife; for that which has been conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit. And she will bear a Son; and you shall call His name Jesus, for it is He who will save His people from their sins." (Mt 1:20, 21) So here we see His Name and as is so frequent in the Bible, the verse goes on to explain the significance or meaning of His Name. In obedience to the angel’s command, Mary and Joseph named their newborn Son Jesus (Luke 2:21)

    Jesus (2424)(Iesous) is transliteration of the Greek Iesous, which in turn is the transliteration of the Hebrew name Jehoshua (Yehoshua) or Jeshua (Yeshua) which mean Jehovah is help or Jehovah is salvation. Stated another way the Greek Iesous corresponds to the OT Jehoshua (Yehoshua) which is contracted as Jeshua(Yeshua). Most of the NT uses of Iesous refer to our Lord Jesus. In the Gospels the single Name Jesus (Iesous) is used as His personal Name and is found 538 times. In the Epistles Jesus is usually (but not always - e.g., Ro 3:26; 4:24; 1Cor 12:3; 2Cor 11:4; Phil 2:10; 1Th 4:14; Heb 7:22; 10:19, etc) used in combination with Christ or Lord (see next paragraph). Jesus is known by Christ alone some 44 times in the Gospels.

    NET Note on Jesus - The Greek form of the name Iēsous, which was translated into Latin as Jesus, is the same as the Hebrew Yeshua (Joshua), which means “Yahweh saves” (Yahweh is typically rendered as “LORD” in the OT).

    Luke 1:32  "He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David;

    • be great. Luke 1:15; Luke 3:16. Mat. 3:11; 12:42. Phi. 2:9–11.
    • the Son. Luke 1:35. Mark 5:7; 14:61. John 6:69. Ac. 16:17. Ro. 1:4. He. 1:2–8.
    • give. 2 Sa 7:11–13. Ps. 132:11. Is. 9:6, 7; 16:5. Je. 23:5, 6; 33:15–17. Eze. 17:22–24; 34:23, 24; 37:24, 25. Am. 9:11, 12. Mat. 28:18. John 3:35, 36; 5:21–29; 12:34. Ac. 2:30, 36. Ep. 1:20–23. Re. 3:7.
    • Verse-by-Verse - Multiple Commentaries - Luke 1:32 Commentaries
    • Multiple commentaries and sermons on Luke 1

    AMP  He will be great (eminent) and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give to Him the throne of His forefather David, 

    Wuest This One shall be great, and Son of the Most High shall He be called, and God, the Lord, shall give to Him the throne of David His father,

    JESUS - SON OF GOD
    AND KING OF KINGS

    He will be great - Only a four word description but even eternity shall not exhaust the depth and profundity of the greatness of Jesus. Interestingly, John the Baptist was described in a similar way "he will be great in the sight of the Lord" (Lk 1:15), but clearly the greatness of John pales in comparison to the infinite greatness of Jesus. 

    The NET NOTE adds that "Jesus is greater than John, since he is Messiah compared to a prophet. Great is stated absolutely without qualification to make the point."

    Great (megas) is a common adjective used in Luke's writings - Lk. 1:15, 32, 42, 49; 2:9f; 4:25, 33, 38; 5:29; 6:49; 7:16, 28; 8:28, 37; 9:46, 48; 12:18; 14:16; 16:26; 17:15; 19:37; 21:11, 23; 22:12, 24, 26f; 23:23, 46; 24:52; Acts 2:20; 4:33; 5:5, 11; 6:8; 7:11, 57, 60; 8:1f, 7, 9f, 13; 10:11; 11:5, 28; 14:10; 15:3; 16:26, 28; 19:27f, 34f; 23:9; 26:22, 24, 29; 

    The Messiah will be called by God while in the womb (Psalm 22:10; Luke 1:30–33). (From Which psalms predict the coming of Jesus Christ?)

    Paul writes Jesus "was declared the Son of God with power by the resurrection from the dead." (Ro 1:4)

    Son of the Most High...His father David - Jesus is the Son of God but by lineage He is the "son of David" which was the most common Messianic title in the usage of Jesus’ day. (see also Mt 1:1, 12:23, 21:9, 15) MacArthur adds that "Since a son bears his father’s qualities, calling a person someone else’s “son” was a way of signifying equality. Here the angel was telling Mary that her Son would be equal to the Most High God."

    The Most High (compare Lk 1:76-note referring to John the Baptist) - In the OT this is the Name El Elyon: Most High God - Sovereign Over All

    Most High in the NT is used most often by Luke - Mk. 5:7; Lk. 1:32; Lk. 1:35; Lk. 1:76; Lk. 6:35; Lk. 8:28; Acts 7:48; Acts 16:17; Heb. 7:1

    NET Note makes an interesting comment - The expression Most High is a way to refer to God without naming him. Such avoiding of direct reference to God was common in 1st century Judaism out of reverence for the divine name.

    Most High (5310)(hupsistos superlative of hupsos = height from hupsi = high, aloft) in a spatial sense means the highest (highest places). Figuratively of the highest possible status. In view of God's superior rank and power it is an appropriate descriptive Name of God. He is the Most High which also emphasizes His as dwelling in the highest heavens far exalted above all other things. Hupsistos is used in the plural in the phrase "in the highest" (in the "highest" regions, the abode of God) as in Hosanna in the highest (Mt 21:9, Mk 11:10)

    The adjective hupsistos is used in the Septuagint to translate the Hebrew Name of God El Elyon -- "And Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine; now he was a priest of God Most High (hupsistos)." (Ge 14:18, 19, 20, 22, cp Nu 24:16 in connection with Balaam) And it is not surprising, that where there is truth, there is usually a counterfeit - thus the Greeks called Zeus hupsistos, the "highest" to be distinguished from their lesser false gods!

    Hupsistos - 13x in 13v - Usage: highest(4), most high(9).

    Matthew 21:9 The crowds going ahead of Him, and those who followed, were shouting, "Hosanna to the Son of David; BLESSED IS HE WHO COMES IN THE NAME OF THE LORD; Hosanna in the highest!"

    Mark 5:7 and shouting with a loud voice, he said, "What business do we have with each other, Jesus, Son of the Most High God? I implore You by God, do not torment me!"

    Mark 11:10 Blessed is the coming kingdom of our father David; Hosanna in the highest!"

    Luke 1:32 "He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David;
     35 The angel answered and said to her, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; and for that reason the holy Child shall be called the Son of God.
     76 "And you, child, will be called the prophet of the Most High; For you will go on BEFORE THE LORD TO PREPARE HIS WAYS;

    Luke 2:14 "Glory to God in the highest, And on earth peace among men with whom He is pleased."

    Luke 6:35 "But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing in return; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for He Himself is kind to ungrateful and evil men.

    Luke 8:28 Seeing Jesus, he cried out and fell before Him, and said in a loud voice, "What business do we have with each other, Jesus, Son of the Most High God? I beg You, do not torment me."

    Luke 19:38 shouting: "BLESSED IS THE KING WHO COMES IN THE NAME OF THE LORD; Peace in heaven and glory in the highest!"

    Acts 7:48 "However, the Most High does not dwell in houses made by human hands; as the prophet says:

    Acts 16:17 Following after Paul and us, she kept crying out, saying, "These men are bond-servants of the Most High God, who are proclaiming to you the way of salvation."

    Hebrews 7:1 For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the Most High God, who met Abraham as he was returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him,

    Hupsistos - 60x in the Septuagint - Gen. 14:18, 19, 20, 22; Nu. 24:16; Dt. 32:8; 2 Sa 22:14; Est. 8:12; Job 16:19; 25:2; 31:2, 28; Ps. 7:17; 9:2; 13:5; 18:13; 21:7; 46:4; 47:2; 50:14; 57:2; 71:19; 73:11; 77:10; 78:17, 35, 56; 82:6; 83:18; 87:5; 91:1, 9; 92:1, 8; 97:9; 107:11; 148:1; Isa. 14:14; 57:15; Lam. 3:35, 38; Dan. 2:18f; 3:26; 4:1f, 14, 17, 24f, 32, 34; 5:1, 18, 21; 7:18, 22, 25, 27; Mic. 6:6

    The throne - A throne needs a King and a King needs a Kingdom so this word stands for the Kingdom of a the coming King. When Messiah returns He will reign in the Millennium as King of kings (Rev 19:16-note - which implies there will be other "kings!") Compare Ps 2:6-8, Ps 89:26-29. The Lord Jesus Christ is the rightful Heir to the throne of His father David through His legal father Joseph. 

    I will give Him the throne of His father David - This answers to the prophecy in Samuel - 

    even from the day that I commanded judges to be over My people Israel; and I will give you rest from all your enemies. The LORD also declares to you that the LORD will make a house for you. 12“When your days are complete and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your descendant after you, who will come forth from you, and I will establish his kingdom. 13“He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. (2 Sa 7:11-13)

    John MacArthur sums up this previous section - Gabriel’s message to Mary introduces the pivotal point in redemptive history. How people respond to the Child of whom Gabriel spoke will determine their eternal destiny. As Simeon would later say to Mary, “Behold, this Child is appointed for the fall and rise of many in Israel” (Luke 2:34), and the rest of the world as well. And as the Child Himself would warn, “Unless you believe that I am He, you will die in your sins” (John 8:24), since “there is salvation in no one else; for there is no other name under heaven that has been given among men by which we must be saved” (Acts 4:12).

    Luke 1:33  and He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and His kingdom will have no end."

    Amp  And He will reign over the house of Jacob throughout the ages; and of His reign there will be no end. 

    CSB He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and His kingdom will have no end.

    ESV  and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end."

    KJV  And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.

    NET He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and his kingdom will never end."

    NIV  and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever; his kingdom will never end."

    NLT And he will reign over Israel forever; his Kingdom will never end!"

    Wuest  and He shall reign as King over the house of Jacob forever and of His kingdom there shall not be an end.

    YLT and he shall reign over the house of Jacob to the ages; and of his reign there shall be no end.'

    KING OVER
    ISRAEL

    The Messiah’s throne will be eternal (Psalm 45:6–7a; Luke 1:31–33; Hebrews 1:8–9). (From Which psalms predict the coming of Jesus Christ?)

    He will reign over the house of Jacob (cp Isa. 65:17–19; Zeph. 3:11–13; Zech. 14:16–21) - This is another way of saying He will rule over Israel, over the 12 Tribes. Beloved, Israel will exist as a distinct entity in the Millennial Kingdom. Sadly, many modern evangelical scholars have failed to interpret literally the end times prophecies regarding Israel and as a result have misinterpreted them as prophecies applying to the Church. Beloved, Jesus will reign over the house of Jacob.  Many take Paul's passage in Gal 6:16 (see study of Israel of God) as support that Israel has been replaced by the church, but this verse would be another piece of evidence that such an interpretation is simply not tenable! The point is that the church is never called the "house of Jacob" and to make this passage apply to the church is to disregard the simple literal reading of Luke's text. See related discussion - What is replacement theology / supersessionism?

    NET NOTE - The expression house of Jacob refers to Israel. This points to the Messiah’s relationship to the people of Israel.

    He will reign (936)(basileuo from basileus - a king) means literally to exercise supreme authority at a royal level, to reign over, to be king over (Rev 11:15, 17-note of Jesus' reign in the Millennial Kingdom). Basileuo is used figuratively of death personified as reigning from Adam until Moses (Ro 5:14, 17-note), of sin reigning in death and grace reigning through righteousness (Ro 5:21-note), in a command by Paul to "not let sin reign (don't let it be king, don't let sin completely control you, implying it will keep trying to usurp the throne from the Lordship of Jesus) in your mortal body" (Ro 6:12-note). Paul uses basileuo in biting irony of the "imagined exaltation" of the Corinthians which contrasted with the apostle's lowly lot (1 Cor 4:8). In 1 Cor 15:25 basileuo is used in an eschatological sense describing Jesus' Millennial reign in which He will abolish death. In another eschatological passage in Rev 5:10-note (cp Rev 20:4, 6-note) the saints of God are given the glorious promise of a priceless privilege that we shall "reign upon the earth." (contrast the tragic truth regarding those who deny Jesus in the related compound verb sumbasileuo in 2 Ti 2:12-note).

    W E Vine basileuo - is used (I) literally, (a) of God, Rev. 11:17; 19:6, in each of which the aorist tense (in the latter, translated “reigneth”) is “ingressive,” stressing the point of entrance; (b) of Christ, Luke 1:33; 1 Cor. 15:25; Rev. 11:15; as rejected by the Jews, Luke 19:14, 27; (c) of the saints, hereafter, 1 Cor. 4:8 (2nd part), where the apostle, casting a reflection upon the untimely exercise of authority on the part of the church at Corinth, anticipates the due time for it in the future (see No. 2); Rev. 5:10; 20:4, where the aorist tense is not simply of a “point” character, but “constative,” that is, regarding a whole action as having occurred, without distinguishing any steps in its progress (in this instance the aspect is future); v. 6; 22:5; (d) of earthly potentates, Matt. 2:22; 1 Tim. 6:15, where “kings” is, lit., “them that reign”; (II), metaphorically, (a) of believers, Rom. 5:17, where “shall reign in life” indicates the activity of life in fellowship with Christ in His sovereign power, reaching its fullness hereafter; 1 Cor. 4:8 (1st part), of the carnal pride that laid claim to a power not to be exercised until hereafter; (b) of divine grace, Rom. 5:21; (c) of sin, Rom. 5:21; 6:12; (d) of death, Rom. 5:14, 17

    Basileuo occurs in the Septuagint over 240 times - Here are a few uses of basileuo which is consistently understood to mean “to rule, reign”  and refers to political kings who rule (Ge 36:31), or to the Lord who reigns forever and ever (Ex 15:18). Here are a few notable uses several of which parallel the truth of Luke 1:33

    Psalm 10:16 The LORD is King (shall reign) forever and ever; Nations have perished from His land.

    Psalm 47:8 God reigns over the nations, God sits on His holy throne.

    salm 93:1 The LORD reigns, He is clothed with majesty; The LORD has clothed and girded Himself with strength; Indeed, the world is firmly established, it will not be moved.

    Psalm 96:10 Say among the nations, "The LORD reigns; Indeed, the world is firmly established, it will not be moved; He will judge the peoples with equity

    Psalm 97:1 The LORD reigns, let the earth rejoice; Let the many islands be glad.

    Psalm 99:1 The LORD reigns, let the peoples tremble; He is enthroned above the cherubim, let the earth shake!

    Psalm 146:10 The LORD will reign forever, Your God, O Zion, to all generations. Praise the LORD!

    Basileuo - 21x in 18v - Usage: become kings(2), kings(1), reign(12), reigned(4), reigning(1), reigns(1). 

    Matthew 2:22 But when he heard that Archelaus was reigning over Judea in place of his father Herod, he was afraid to go there. Then after being warned by God in a dream, he left for the regions of Galilee,

    Luke 1:33 and He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and His kingdom will have no end."

    Luke 19:14 "But his citizens hated him and sent a delegation after him, saying, 'We do not want this man to reign over us.'
     27 "But these enemies of mine, who did not want me to reign over them, bring them here and slay them in my presence."

    Romans 5:14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the likeness of the offense of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come.
     17 For if by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ.
     21 so that, as sin reigned in death, even so grace would reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

    Romans 6:12  Therefore do not let sin reign in your mortal body so that you obey its lusts,

    Wuest - When the saint counts upon the fact that the power of the sinful nature over him is broken, he obeys the exhortation of Paul, “Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal body.” “Reign” is basileuō , “to exercise kingly power.” The verb is present imperative with the negative mē, which construction forbids the continuance of an action already going on. It is, “Stop allowing the sinful nature to reign as king in your mortal body.” The sinful nature is a dethroned monarch. The believer has the responsibility of keeping it from mounting into the throne of his heart, the place which the Lord Jesus should occupy. The believer is well able to do this. His will is free (Ed: Yes, but as discussed below he must still learn to depend on the Spirit to give him the desire and the power! cp Php 2:13NLT-note). He has the divine nature and the Holy Spirit to urge him on, and give him the desire and the power to refuse the sinful nature and obey the Word. Paul says, “Order your behavior in the sphere of, by means of, the Spirit, and you will positively not fulfill the desires of the flesh” (Gal. 5:16-note). Paul says, “Stop allowing the sinful nature to reign as king in your mortal body with a view to obeying it in the sphere of its passionate cravings.” Now, to what does the word “it” refer, to the sinful nature or the body? Logic would lead us to relate the pronoun to the sinful nature, but Greek grammar refers it back to the body, since the pronoun is neuter, the word “sin” is feminine, and the word “body,” neuter. The pronoun in Greek agrees with its antecedent in gender. It is true that the sinful desires originate with the evil nature, not with the physical body. But why does Paul in this instance relate them to the body? The answer is found in the fact that the sinful nature is an intangible, invisible entity, and cannot be watched. It is an unseen enemy whose tactics cannot be observed and therefore cannot be guarded against. But the saint is able to keep watch over the members of his body, what his eyes look at, his ears listen to, his mind thinks about, his hands do, and where his feet carry him. But not only will the saint who counts upon the fact that the power of the sinful nature is broken (Ro 6:11-note), stop allowing it to reign as king over him, but he will obey Paul’s exhortation, “neither yield ye your members as instruments of unrighteousness unto sin.” The verb is again present imperative with mē, “Stop yielding.” (Ed: As an aside remember that the ONLY WAY to obey these commands is by learning to lean on the power of the indwelling Spirit - cp Ro 8:13-note). The verb is paristēmi, “to place beside or near, to present, to proffer, to put at one’s disposal.” We are to stop putting the members of our body at the disposal of, at the service of the sinful nature. The word “instruments” is hopla. In classical Greek the word referred to the weapons of the Greek soldier. Paul thinks of the members of the Christian’s body as weapons to be used in the Christian warfare against evil. The saint, counting upon the fact that he has been disengaged from the evil nature, does two things, he refuses to allow it to reign as king in his life, and he stops putting his members at its disposal to be used as weapons of unrighteousness. Now, the saint who counts upon the fact that the divine nature has been implanted (cp 2 Peter 1:4-note), will obey Paul’s exhortation, “Yield yourselves to God, and your members as instruments of righteousness to God.” The word “yield” is again paristēmi, but in the aorist imperative, which commands a once for all action to be done at once. Paul says, “Put yourselves at once, and once for all, at the disposal of God, as those who are actively alive out from among those who are dead, and your members as weapons of righteousness, at the disposal of God.” This is a once for all act of the saint dedicating himself to God and His service, an act to be lived by, and upon the basis of its implications, moment by moment. The saint should live his life every day with the consciousness of that fact in his mind. When the saint obeys the instructions laid down in these verses relative to his adjustment to the evil nature and the divine nature, Paul says, “The sinful nature will not exercise lordship over you,” and he gives the reason (Ed: "for" a term of explanation in Ro 6:14), “You are not under law but under grace.” To be under law refers to an unsaved person who attempts to live in obedience to the law of God. To be under grace is to be a saved person who has been the subject of the surgical operation in which the power of the sinful nature has been broken and the divine nature implanted. The poet says, “Do this and live, the law commands, but gives me neither feet nor hands. A better word the gospel brings. It bids me fly and gives me wings.” Wings in Scripture, speak of supernatural power (Ed: Distributed by the indwelling Holy Spirit!)

    1 Corinthians 4:8 You are already filled, you have already become rich, you have become kings without us; and indeed, I wish that you had become kings so that we also might reign with you.

    1 Corinthians 15:25 For He must reign until He has put all His enemies under His feet.

    1 Timothy 6:15 which He will bring about at the proper time-- He who is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords,

    Revelation 5:10 "You have made them to be a kingdom and priests to our God; and they will reign upon the earth."

    Revelation 11:15 Then the seventh angel sounded; and there were loud voices in heaven, saying, "The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ; and He will reign forever and ever."
     17 saying, "We give You thanks, O Lord God, the Almighty, who are and who were, because You have taken Your great power and have begun to reign.
    Revelation 19:6 Then I heard something like the voice of a great multitude and like the sound of many waters and like the sound of mighty peals of thunder, saying, "Hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the Almighty, reigns.

    Revelation 20:4 Then I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of their testimony of Jesus and because of the word of God, and those who had not worshiped the beast or his image, and had not received the mark on their forehead and on their hand; and they came to life and reigned with Christ for a thousand years.
     

    Revelation 20:6 Blessed and holy is the one who has a part in the first resurrection; over these the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ and will reign with Him for a thousand years.

    Revelation 22:5 And there will no longer be any night; and they will not have need of the light of a lamp nor the light of the sun, because the Lord God will illumine them; and they will reign forever and ever.

    Kingdom (932) (basileia from basileus = a sovereign, king, monarch) denotes sovereignty, royal power, dominion. Basileia can also refer to the territory or people over whom a king rules. Kingdom of Heaven/God is both simple and complex and has been the subject of many non-Biblical interpretations (this summary makes no attempt to review these interpretations). It is as simple as the truth that wherever the King (God/Jesus) rules and reigns, there the kingdom is present! It is complex in that a number of references to Kingdom of God/Heaven have prophetic (eschatological) overtones, so it has a present and future aspect. It is also complex in the sense that the Kingdom of God/Heaven is described in both testaments from Genesis to Revelation (See Tony Garland's interesting related summary of Genesis and Revelation as Bookends). It follows that any attempt to give a Biblical definition of kingdom will be woefully lacking --indeed, it will take all eternity to comprehend God's Kingdom, a Kingdom which will endure forever and ever! Amen!

    Will have not end (will absolutely never end) - In Revelation John using the prophetic (proleptic) aorist writes "Then the seventh angel sounded; and there were loud voices in heaven, saying, “The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ; and He will reign forever and ever.” (Rev 11:15-note).

    Luke 1:34  Mary said to the angel, "How can this be, since I am a virgin?"

    AMP And Mary said to the angel, How can this be, since I have no [intimacy with any man as a] husband?

    CSB  Mary asked the angel, "How can this be, since I have not been intimate with a man?"

    ESV  And Mary said to the angel, "How will this be, since I am a virgin?"

    KJV Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man?

    NET  Mary said to the angel, "How will this be, since I have not had sexual relations with a man?"

    NIV  "How will this be," Mary asked the angel, "since I am a virgin?"

    NLT  Mary asked the angel, "But how can this happen? I am a virgin."

    YLT And Mary said unto the messenger, 'How shall this be, seeing a husband I do not know?'

    A HUSBAND I DO
    NOT KNOW

    A husband I do not know - This is the more literal reading and is Mary's testimony that she is a virgin, regardless of what the so-called "higher critics" have to say. Perhaps they should come down to the lowly position of humble, honest Mary and then they would have their eyes opened by the Spirit to see and know truth.

    Zacharias asked "How will I know for certain?" (Lk 1:18-note) Mary asked "How can this be since I am a virgin?" The former question expressed skepticism, the latter expressed simple logic "in wonder filled faith." (Guzik)

    John MacArthur - Mary knew of only one way that she could conceive a son—through sexual relations with a man. She also knew that she had not had such relations, as her question in verse 34, “How can this be, since I am a virgin?” indicates. The concept of a pregnant virgin was utterly inconceivable to her; an impossibility, a contradiction in terms like a married bachelor, or a square circle.

    Since I am a virgin - The Greek literally reads "seeing a husband I do not know," She says since a man I absolutely do not (ou = strongest negative) know. In effect Mary is making a strong declaration regarding her virginity.

    NET Note adds that "The expression in the Greek text (epei andra ou ginosko) is a euphemism for sexual relations. Mary seems to have sensed that the declaration had an element of immediacy to it that excluded Joseph. Many modern translations render this phrase “since I am a virgin,” but the Greek word for virgin is not used in the text, and the euphemistic expression is really more explicit, referring specifically to sexual relations.

    Henry Morris - Mary was not doubting the word of Gabriel (Luke 1:38), as had Zacharias (Luke 1:20), but inquiring as to how He might bring about such a "new thing in the earth" (Jeremiah 31:22), and Gabriel answered her question in his next statement.

    NET Note -  The expression in the Greek text is a euphemism for sexual relations. Mary seems to have sensed that the declaration had an element of immediacy to it that excluded Joseph. Many modern translations render this phrase "since I am a virgin," but the Greek word for virgin is not used in the text, and the euphemistic expression is really more explicit, referring specifically to sexual relations. 

    Luke 1:35  The angel answered and said to her, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; and for that reason the holy Child shall be called the Son of God.

    • The Holy Spirit. Lk 1:27, 31. Mt. 1:20.
    • that. Job 14:4; 15:16; 25:4. Ps. 51:5. Ep. 2:3. He. 4:15; 7:26–28.
    • the Son of God. Luke 1:32. Ps. 2:7. Mat. 14:33; 26:63, 64; 27:54. Mark 1:1. John 1:34, 49; 20:31. Ac. 8:37. Ro. 1:4. Ga. 2:20.
    • Verse-by-Verse - Multiple Commentaries - Luke 1:35 Commentaries
    • Multiple commentaries and sermons on Luke 1

    AMP Then the angel said to her, The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you [like a shining cloud]; and so the holy (pure, sinless) Thing (Offspring) which shall be born of you will be called the Son of God. 

    CSB The angel replied to her: The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore the holy One to be born will be called the Son of God.

    ESV  And the angel answered her, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be called holy--the Son of God.

    KJV  And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.

    NET The angel replied, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore the child to be born will be holy; he will be called the Son of God.

    NIV  The angel answered, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God.

    NLT The angel replied, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the baby to be born will be holy, and he will be called the Son of God.

    YLT  And the messenger answering said to her, 'The Holy Spirit shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee, therefore also the holy-begotten thing shall be called Son of God;

    The Holy Spirit will come upon you and the power of the Most High will overshadow you - We must be honest that is verse is what I would call "holy ground," so we need to take off our shoes and marvel at the mystery and majesty in this description. Even as a physician I would dare not try to explain scientifically this supernatural working of God lest we lose the sense of wonder at such a miraculous work of God. As Robertson says "The wonder of Mary would increase at these words. The Miraculous Conception or Virgin Birth of Jesus is thus plainly set forth in Luke as in Matthew. The fact that Luke was a physician gives added interest to his report."

    The Most High (hupsistos superlative of hupsos = height and Septuagint translation of the Hebrew = El Elyon) - Hupsistos figuratively speaks of the highest possible status a sense conveyed in the KJV rendering "the power of the Highest". Luke uses this descriptive Name of God () five times - Lk 1:32, 35, 76, Luke 6:35, Luke 8:28.  

    Power (Miracles) (1411)(dunamis from dunamai = to be able, to have power) power especially achieving power. It refers to intrinsic power or inherent ability to carry out some function, the power residing in a thing by virtue of its nature. It is often translated miracle and certainly the Spirit's overshadowing Mary and her conception are nothing short of one of the greatest miracles in all time and eternity!

    As creationist Henry Morris says "We cannot comprehend the mechanics of such a miracle; we can only believe God's Word."

    MacArthur - The Spirit plays a prominent role in Luke’s narrative of the Lord’s birth (Lk 1:15, 41, 67; 2:25–27), and would also be the power source throughout His earthly life and ministry (cf. Lk 3:21–22; Mt. 3:13–17; Jn 1:32–34).

    Bengel on overshadow you  - Denoting the mildest and most gentle operation of divine power, that the divine fire should not consume Mary, but make her fruitful. 

    NET Note - The phrase will overshadow is a reference to God’s glorious presence at work (Exod 40:34–35; Ps 91:4).

    Robertson on overshadow - A figure of a cloud coming upon her. Here it is like the Shekinah glory which suggests it (Ex. 40:38) where the cloud of glory represents the presence and power of God. Compare Ex 33:22; Mark 9:7. Compare the classical legend of Semele, who, being beloved of Jove, besought him to appear to her as he appeared in heaven, in all the terrors of the thunderer, and was consumed by his lightning. The metaphor in the word is taken from a cloud, in which God had appeared (Ex 40:34; 1 Ki 8:10)

    In some way Luke's use of the word overshadow speaks of the divine power and influence that rested upon Mary. As the power came upon Mary to accomplish God's purposes, so too did it come upon the disciples at the birth of the church in Acts 1:8-note, Luke recording "you shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be My witnesses both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and even to the remotest part of the earth."

    Overshadow (1982)(episkiazo from epi = upon + skia = shadow) "literally, as darkening by partially blocking out a source of light" (Friberg) and so to throw a shadow upon as in Acts 5:15. To cover as with a cloud. The more common literal use of episkiazo describes the transfiguration where a cloud formed (probably the Shekinah glory cloud) and overshadowed Jesus and the 3 disciples Peter and John and James. 

    John MacArthur comments that episkiazo "means “to surround,” “to encompass,” or in a metaphorical sense, “to influence.” The creative influence of the Spirit of God would overshadow Mary to produce a child in her womb."....This was a creative act of the Holy Spirit, not the sort of divine-human cohabitation sometimes seen in pagan mythology.

    The Dictionary of Biblical Imagery - On the basis of the LXX use of episkiazō (cf. Ex 40:35 and esp. Ps 91:4), the NT uses the image of “overshadowing” to depict not so much divine protection as a divine presence or power, such as that of the Holy Spirit at the conception of Jesus (Lk 1:35) or the cloud at the transfiguration (Mt 17:5). The popular power of such an image is seen in the effort to find healing power in the shadow of Peter (Acts 5:15).

    Episkiazo - 5x in 5v - Usage: fall(1), overshadow(2), overshadowed(1), overshadowing(1). Here are the other 4 uses...

    Matthew 17:5 While he was still speaking, a bright cloud overshadowed them, and behold, a voice out of the cloud said, "This is My beloved Son, with whom I am well-pleased; listen to Him!"

    Mark 9:7 Then a cloud formed, overshadowing them, and a voice came out of the cloud, "This is My beloved Son, listen to Him!"

    Luke 9:34 While he was saying this, a cloud formed and began to overshadow them; and they were afraid as they entered the cloud.

    Acts 5:15 to such an extent that they even carried the sick out into the streets and laid them on cots and pallets, so that when Peter came by at least his shadow (skia ) might fall on (episkiazo) any one of them.

    Episkiazo is used 4x in the Septuagint - Ex. 40:35; Ps. 90:4; 139:8; Pr. 18:11;

    Exodus 40:35 Moses was not able to enter the tent of meeting because the cloud (Shekinah glory cloudhad settled on (episkiazo = overshadowed) it, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.

    Comment: Note the strong parallel between the cloud at Mt Sinai and the transfiguration on the mount (cp Lk 9:28) which is further linked by the use of the same rare verb episkiazo!

    Psalm 91:4 He will cover (episkiazo) you with His pinions, And under His wings you may seek refuge; His faithfulness is a shield and bulwark.

    Spurgeon - A wonderful expression! Had it been invented by an uninspired man it would have verged upon blasphemy, for who should dare to apply such words to the Infinite Jehovah? But as he himself authorised, yea, dictated the language, we have here a transcendent condescension, such as it becomes us to admire and adore. Doth the Lord speak of his feathers, as though he likened himself to a bird? Who will not see herein a matchless love, a divine tenderness, which should both woo and win our confidence? Even as a hen covereth her chickens so doth the Lord protect the souls which dwell in him (cp Mt 23:37); let us cower down beneath him for comfort and for safety. Hawks in the sky and snares in the field are equally harmless when we nestle so near the Lord. His truth—his true promise, and his faithfulness to his promise, shall be thy shield and buckler. Double armour has he who relies upon the Lord. He bears a shield and wears an all surrounding coat of mail—such is the force of the word "buckler." To quench fiery darts the truth is a most effectual shield, and to blunt all swords it is an equally effectual coat of mail. Let us go forth to battle thus harnessed for the war, and we shall be safe in the thickest of the fight. It has been so, and so shall it be till we reach the land of peace, and there among the "helmed cherubim and sworded seraphim, " we will wear no other ornament, his truth shall still be our shield and buckler.

    Psalm 140:7 "O GOD the Lord, the strength of my salvation, You have covered (episkiazo - here the idea seems to be to shield) my head in the day of battle.

    And for that reason the holy Child shall be called the Son of God - For what reason? The clear implication is that this is a holy conception. God the Father, God the Son and God the Spirit are intimately and mysteriously involved in his holy pregnancy. 

    The holy Child (more accurately "the child to be born will be holy" = NET, ESV) - Holy (hagios) means set apart from the common. Yes Jesus was a baby but He was unique and thus the title "holy Child."

    John MacArthur makes an interesting comment - Some have erroneously suggested the reason that Jesus was sinless was that He had no human father. But there is no biblical evidence that the sin nature is passed on genetically only through the father (Ed: I must confess this is an assumption I have held heretofore). All men and women are born sinners because “in Adam all die” (1 Cor. 15:22), since “through the one man’s [Adam’s] disobedience the many were made sinners” (Rom. 5:19). In a manner beyond human comprehension, Jesus was fully human, yet completely sinless from conception. The explanation of how that could be is shrouded in the unfathomable mystery of the incarnation.

    The writer of Hebrews gives us a truth that parallels Luke's description of the child as holy and the Son of God...

    And He is the radiance of His glory and the exact representation of His nature, and upholds all things by the word of His power. When He had made purification of sins, He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high, (Hebrews 1:3-note)

    Son of God - A recognized title of the Messiah. Jesus only rarely called Himself Son of God (Mt 27:43), more often referring to Himself as the Son of Man (Mt. 8:20; 9:6; 10:23; 11:19; 12:8, 32, 40; 13:37, 41; 16:13, 27f; 17:9, 12, 22; 18:11; 19:28; 20:18, 28; 24:27, 30, 37, 39, 44; 25:31; 26:2, 24, 45, 64; Mk. 2:10, 28; 8:31, 38; 9:9, 12, 31; 10:33, 45; 13:26; 14:21, 41, 62; Lk. 5:24; 6:5, 22; 7:34; 9:22, 26, 44, 56, 58; 11:30; 12:8, 10, 40; 17:22, 24, 26, 30; 18:8, 31; 19:10; 21:27, 36; 22:22, 48, 69; 24:7; Jn. 1:51; 3:13f; 5:27; 6:27, 53, 62; 8:28; 9:35; 12:23, 34; 13:31)

    Luke uses the phrase Son of God 8x  - Lk. 1:35; 3:38; 4:3, 9, 41; 22:70; Acts 8:37; 9:20

    Luke 1:36  "And behold, even your relative Elizabeth has also conceived a son in her old age; and she who was called barren is now in her sixth month.

    AMP  And listen! Your relative Elizabeth in her old age has also conceived a son, and this is now the sixth month with her who was called barren.

    Behold (idou) should always get our attention! It's as if the Holy Spirit is saying to Mary "Look at this!" "Don't miss this!" Behold is used 6 times by Luke in chapter 1 - Lk 1:20, 31, 36, 38, 44, 48.

    Spurgeon - So was she (Mary) thus visited, and thus she believed with a wonderful faith, much too wonderful for me to describe in this place. But now let us see what Mary said when she went to visit her cousin Elisabeth.

    Luke 1:37  "For nothing will be impossible with God."

    Greek hoti ouk adunatesei  (3SFAI) para tou theou pan rhema 

    AMP  For with God nothing is ever impossible and no word from God shall be without power or impossible of fulfillment.

    CSB For nothing will be impossible with God."

    ESV  For nothing will be impossible with God."

    KJV For with God nothing shall be impossible.

    NET For nothing will be impossible with God."

    NIV  For nothing is impossible with God."

    NLT  For nothing is impossible with God. "

    YLT  because nothing shall be impossible with God.'

    More literally the Greek reads "No word of God can fail."

    I love the old ASV translation "For no word from God shall be void of power." Amen or oh my! This is great news and should motivate us to read, memorize and claim the manifold promises of God which He has granted to us as His beloved children!

    The Weymouth paraphrase has "For no promise from God will be impossible of fulfilment."

    The OT parallel truth is found in Gen 18:14  “Is anything too difficult for the LORD? At the appointed time I will return to you, at this time next year, and Sarah will have a son.”

    Brenton's translation of the LXX of Ge 18:14:  Shall anything be impossible with the Lord? At this time I will return to thee seasonably, and Sarrha shall have a son. 

    My translation of LXX (Brenton ignores the Greek word "rhema" = spoken word. He also translates adunatei as future but it is actually present tense. He also translates "Theo" as Lord but it is actually "God"). That said here is my rendition = Is any spoken word [continually] too difficult for God?

    Word (4487)(rhema from verb rheo = to speak - to say, speak or utter definite words) refers to the spoken word, especially a word as uttered by a living voice. Laleo is another word translated speak but it refers only to uttering a sound whereas rheo refers to uttering a definite intelligible word. Rhema refers to any sound produced by the voice which has a definite meaning. It focuses upon the content of the communication. 

    NET Note says "In Greek, the phrase pan rhema ("nothing") has an emphatic position, giving it emphasis as the lesson in the entire discussion. The remark is a call for faith. 

    Marvin Vincent has a long note - With God nothing shall be impossible (οὐκ ἀδυνατήσει παρὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ πᾶν ῥῆμα). Ῥῆμα, word, as distinguished from λόγος, word, in classical Greek, signifies a constituent part of a speech or writing, as distinguished from the contents as a whole. Thus it may be either a word or a saying. Sometimes a phrase, as opposed to ὄνομα, a single word. The distinction in the New Testament is not sharp throughout. It is maintained that ῥῆμα in the New Testament, like the Hebrew gabar, stands sometimes for the subject-matter of the word; the thing, as in this passage. But there are only two other passages in the New Testament where this meaning is at all admissible, though the word occurs seventy times. These are Luke 2:15; Acts 5:32. “Kept all these things” (Luke 2:19), should clearly be sayings, as the A. V. itself has rendered it in the almost identical passage, Lk 2:51. In Acts 5:32, Rev. gives sayings in margin. In Luke 2:15, though A. V. and Rev. render thing, the sense is evidently saying, as appears both from the connection with the angelic message and from the following words, which has come to pass: the saying which has become a fact. The Revised Version of the NT rendering of this passage is, therefore, right, though a little stilted: No word of God shall be void of power; for the Authorized Version errs in joining οὐκ and πᾶν, not every, and translating nothing. The two do not belong together. The statement is, Every (πᾶν) word of God shall not (οὐκ) be powerless. The A. V. also follows the reading, παρὰ τῷ Θεῷ, with God; but all the later texts read παρὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ, from God, which fixes the meaning beyond question.

    Streams in the Desert - For with God nothing shall be impossible.” (Luke 1:37.) - FAR up in the Alpine hollows, year by year God works one of His marvels. The snow-patches lie there, frozen with ice at their edge from the strife of sunny days and frosty nights; and through that ice-crust come, unscathed, flowers that bloom.
    Back in the days of the by-gone summer, the little soldanelle plant spread its leaves wide and flat on the ground, to drink in the sun-rays, and it kept them stored in the root through the winter. Then spring came, and stirred the pulses even below the snow-shroud, and as it sprouted, warmth was given out in such strange measure that it thawed a little dome in the snow above its head.
    Higher and higher it grew and always above it rose the bell of air, till the flower-bud formed safely within it: and at last the icy covering of the air-bell gave way and let the blossom through into the sunshine, the crystalline texture of its mauve petals sparkling like snow itself as if it bore the traces of the flight through which it had come.
    And the fragile thing rings an echo in our hearts that none of the jewel-like flowers nestled in the warm turf on the slopes below could waken. We love to see the impossible done. And so does God.
    Face it out to the end, cast away every shadow of hope on the human side as an absolute hindrance to the Divine, heap up all the difficulties together recklessly, and pile as many more on as you can find; you cannot get beyond the blessed climax of impossibility. Let faith swing out to Him. He is the God of the impossible.—Selected.

    Luke 1:38  And Mary said, "Behold, the bondslave of the Lord; may it be done to me according to your word." And the angel departed from her.

    AMP  Then Mary said, Behold, I am the handmaiden of the Lord; let it be done to me according to what you have said. And the angel left her.

    CSB  "I am the Lord's slave," said Mary. "May it be done to me according to your word." Then the angel left her.

    ESV  And Mary said, "Behold, I am the servant of the Lord; let it be to me according to your word." And the angel departed from her.

    KJV And Mary said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word. And the angel departed from her.

    NET  So Mary said, "Yes, I am a servant of the Lord; let this happen to me according to your word." Then the angel departed from her.

    NIV  "I am the Lord's servant," Mary answered. "May it be to me as you have said." Then the angel left her.

    NLT  Mary responded, "I am the Lord's servant. May everything you have said about me come true." And then the angel left her.

    YLT  And Mary said, 'Lo, the maid-servant of the Lord; let it be to me according to thy saying,' and the messenger went away from her.

    May it be done to me according to your word - In other words "Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven!" This is an amazing expression of Mary's profound faith. Not even a "What if...?" No questions. Simply wholehearted acceptance of the Word of God. 

    William Barclay - Mary's submission is a very lovely thing. "Whatever God says, I accept." Mary had learned to forget the world's commonest prayer -- "Thy will be changed" -- and to pray the world's greatest prayer -- "Thy will be done."

    Luke 1:39  Now at this time Mary arose and went in a hurry to the hill country, to a city of Judah,

    AMP  And at that time Mary arose and went with haste into the hill country to a town of Judah,

    CSB  In those days Mary set out and hurried to a town in the hill country of Judah

    ESV  In those days Mary arose and went with haste into the hill country, to a town in Judah,

    KJV  And Mary arose in those days, and went into the hill country with haste, into a city of Juda;

    NET In those days Mary got up and went hurriedly into the hill country, to a town of Judah,

    NIV At that time Mary got ready and hurried to a town in the hill country of Judea,

    NLT A few days later Mary hurried to the hill country of Judea, to the town

    YLT  And Mary having arisen in those days, went to the hill-country, with haste, to a city of Judea,

    MARY VISITS
    ELIZABETH

    Now at this time  - More literally "in those days."

    Mary arose - She set out.

    Arose (450)(anistemi from ana = up, again + histemi = stand, to cause to stand) means literally to get up, to stand up, to stand again, to cause to rise (thus "to raise"), to stand or be erect (Acts 9:41). To rise from a lying or reclined position. To stand straight up from a prostrate position (Acts 14:10). Most uses of anistemi denote the act of getting up from a seated or reclined position especially in the preparation for a journey as in Lk 1:39, Lk 15.18, 20; 17.19. The most important use is of Jesus' resurrection - Jn. 11:23; 24; 20:9, etc.

    Anistemi -  Favorite verb of Luke - 108x in the NT 27x by Luke in his Gospel and 45x in Acts - Lk. 1:39; Lk. 4:16; Lk. 4:29; Lk. 4:38; Lk. 4:39; Lk. 5:25; Lk. 5:28; Lk. 6:8; Lk. 8:55; Lk. 9:8; Lk. 9:19; Lk. 10:25; Lk. 11:7; Lk. 11:8; Lk. 11:32; Lk. 15:18; Lk. 15:20; Lk. 16:31; Lk. 17:19; Lk. 18:33; Lk. 22:45; Lk. 22:46; Lk. 23:1; Lk. 24:7; Lk. 24:12; Lk. 24:33; Lk. 24:46; Acts 1:15; Acts 2:24; Acts 2:32; Acts 3:22; Acts 3:26; Acts 5:6; Acts 5:17; Acts 5:34; Acts 5:36; Acts 5:37; Acts 6:9; Acts 7:18; Acts 7:37; Acts 8:26; Acts 8:27; Acts 9:6; Acts 9:11; Acts 9:18; Acts 9:34; Acts 9:39; Acts 9:40; Acts 9:41; Acts 10:13; Acts 10:20; Acts 10:23; Acts 10:26; Acts 10:41; Acts 11:7; Acts 11:28; Acts 12:7; Acts 13:16; Acts 13:33; Acts 13:34; Acts 14:10; Acts 14:20; Acts 15:7; Acts 17:3; Acts 17:31; Acts 20:30; Acts 22:10; Acts 22:16; Acts 23:9; Acts 26:16; Acts 26:30

    NET Note on "in those days" -  The expression In those days is another general time reference, though the sense of the context is that the visit came shortly after Mary miraculously conceived and shortly after the announcement about Jesus.

    A city in Judah - This could be Hebron (the largest city of this region of Judea) but we do not know with certainty. Click to enlarge the following map to see Mary's likely route to Elizabeth's house. She may have traveled on the King's Highway which paralleled the Jordan River down the Jordan Valley. 

    NET Note - The author does not say exactly where Elizabeth stayed. The location is given generally as a town of Judah. Judah is about a three day trip south of Nazareth. 

    Jamieson on went in a hurry -  the haste, not of trepidation, but of transport, not only at the wonderful announcement she had to make to her relative, but at the scarcely less astonishing news she expected to receive from her of her own condition.

    Expositor's Greek Testament -  no time lost, a most natural visit from one woman with a high hope, to another, a friend, in a similar state of mind.

    With haste(4710)(spoude  from speudo = move quickly, hasten, make haste) refers to eagerness, earnestness, willingness, zeal. Spoude implies more than mere earnest desire, but includes action as well as desire. Spoude "never takes 20 minutes to do a 10 minute job." (William Hill) It denotes Mary's quick movement accompanied by her eager interest in Elizabeth's receipt of divine providence. 

    The distance from Nazareth to the Hill Country is estimated at over 65 miles (estimated because we do not know the city in the hill country - even further if it was actually Hebron -see note below) and if a person on foot could cover about 26 miles in a day, this would have been a journey of a over 2-3 days. Mary must have had plenty of time to ponder what Gabriel had just revealed to her!

    Treasury of Scripture Knowledge (R A Torrey) suggests "This was most probably Hebron, a city of the priests, and situated in the hill country of Judea, (Jos. 11:21; 21:11, 13,) about 25 miles south of Jerusalem, and nearly 100 from Nazareth. Such was the intense desire of Mary’s mind to visit and communicate with her relative Elisabeth, that she scrupled not to undertake this long journey to effect her purpose.

    Luke 1:40  and entered the house of Zacharias and greeted Elizabeth.

    AMP  And she went to the house of Zachariah and, entering it, saluted Elizabeth..

    TWO MIRACULOUSLY PREGNANT
    WOMEN MEET

    Greeted (782)(aspazomai) means to salute, embrace, pay respects. One imagines they embraced.

    Robertson - Her first glance at Elisabeth showed the truth of the angel’s message. The two mothers had a bond of sympathy.

    J C Ryle on Mary's visit to Elizabeth - We should observe in this passage, the benefit of fellowship and communion between believers. We read of a visit paid by the Virgin Mary to her cousin Elizabeth. We are told in a striking manner how the hearts of both these holy women were cheered, and their minds lifted up by this interview. Without this visit, Elizabeth might never have been so filled with the Holy Spirit, as we are here told she was; and Mary might never have uttered that song of praise which is now known all over the Church of Christ. The words of an old divine are deep and true--"Happiness communicated doubles itself. Grief grows greater by concealing--joy by expression." We should always regard communion with other believers as an eminent means of grace. It is a refreshing break in our journey along the narrow way to exchange experience with our fellow travelers. It helps us insensibly and it helps them, and so is a mutual gain. It is the nearest approach that we can make on earth to the joy of heaven. "As iron sharpens iron, so does the countenance of a man his friend." (Pr 27:17 - see William Arnot's note The Countenance of a Friend; Ray Pritchard's Accountability - How to Reach Your Full Potential) We need reminding of this. The subject does not receive sufficient attention, and the souls of believers suffer in consequence. There are many who fear the Lord and think upon His name, and yet forget to speak often one to another. (Malachi 3:16.) First let us seek the face of God. Then let us seek the face of God's friends. If we did this more, and were more careful about the company we keep, we would oftener know what it is to feel filled with the Holy Spirit. (Expository Thoughts Luke 1)

    John Trapp - To whom she could not rest till she had imparted the good news, and both given and received some spiritual gift for mutual confirmation and comfort, Romans 1:11-12. Grief grows greater by concealing, joy by expression. Only the meeting of saints in heaven can parallel the meeting of these two cousins.

    Bengel - The salutations of the saints and those of the ungodly are altogether different. No mere effort of reason can comprehend how powerfully moving and how effectual is the will of the saints, which draws its resources from God by faith and love, and then turns the tide of them on friends capable of receiving them [susceptible to them].

    Luke 1:41  When Elizabeth heard Mary's greeting, the baby leaped in her womb; and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit.

    JOHN THE BAPTIST'S JOYFUL JUMPING:
    HIS FIRST TESTIMONY OF JESUS!

    The baby leaped in her womb - As an expression of joy, John jumped for joy in the womb. He was filled with joy because he was filled with the Spirit (Luke 1:15-note). Joy (independent of circumstances) is a good "barometer" as to whether you are filled with the Spirit are not. See Gal 5:22-note, Acts 13:52, Ro 14:17-note,Ro 15:13-note, 1 Thes 1:6-note. So John begins to fulfill his role of pointing others to Jesus before he is even born! Are you fulfilling the "good work" which God has prepared for you before you were even born (more accurately even before you were created!)? (see Eph 2:10-note).

    Leaped (4640)(skirtao) means to leap, spring, and was used especially of animals (Septuagint - "skip about like calves" - Mal 4:2 = those who fear God, who are saved will one day "skip" about). Leaping is often associated with joy and is an expression of it. Twice (Lk 1:41, 44) this verb describes the baby John leaping in Elizabeth's womb. In the only other NT use in Lk 6:23 skirtao describes the future promise for those who are persecuted on earth that - "You will leap [for joy,] for behold, your reward is great in heaven."

    Skirtao - 5x in the Septuagint - Gen. 25:22; Ps. 114:4; Ps. 114:6; Jer. 50:11; Joel 1:17; Mal. 4:2;

    Genesis 25:22 But the children struggled together within her; and she said, "If it is so, why then am I this way?" So she went to inquire of the LORD.

    Comment: Here skirtao is not associated with joy but with a struggle!

    Psalms 114:4  The mountains skipped like rams, The hills, like lambs. 

    Psalms 114:6  ) O mountains, that you skip like rams? O hills, like lambs? 

    Jeremiah 50:11   “Because you are glad, because you are jubilant, O you who pillage My heritage, Because you skip about like a threshing heifer And neigh like stallions, 

    John Trapp - Such comfort there is in the presence of Christ (though but in the womb) as it made John to spring. What then shall it be in heaven, think we?

    J Vernon McGee - What we are dealing with here is miraculous, and there is no use trying to offer a natural explanation. You either believe what happened in these verses or you do not. I am so weary of people today, especially preachers, who try to appear intellectual by attempting to explain away the miracles in the Bible. You either accept the miracles of the Bible or you do not, and what took place in these verses was a miracle. This woman is filled with the Holy Spirit, and the babe leaps in her womb.

    SPIRITED FILLED
    BELIEVERS

    Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit - This was a Spirit filled family! The mother Elizabeth. The father Zecharias (Lk 1:67-note), The baby John (Luke 1:15-note). Filling with the Spirit prior to Pentecost was not permanent as it was after the coming of the Spirit in Acts 2. And remember that what fills you controls you! If you are filled with wine your emotions and actions are affected! The same applies if you are filled with the Holy Spirit! But if you are filled with rage or anger or jealousy or fear, etc, then you can mark it down that (1) the Spirit of God is quenched/grieved (Eph 4:30-note, 1Th 5:19-note) and (2) your words and actions will be under the control of those emotions! (see Lk 4:28, 5:26, 6:11, Acts 5:17, 13:10, 13:45).

    Luke mentions Spirit filling a number of times so it must be a very important truth (and it is!) - Lk 1:15-note, 1:41, Lk 1:67-note, Acts 2:4, 4:8, 31, 6:3, 6:5, 7:55, 9:17, 11:24, 13:9). In Luke 4:1 Jesus is described as "full of the Holy Spirit" and as such He gives us the perfect example of how we are to imitate Him and walk in the same manner (and with the same supernatural power Source, read Peter's summary of Jesus' ministry Acts 10:36-38) (cp Paul's command in 1Cor 11:1-note and Peter's exhortation in 1 Peter 2:21-note). Are you a believer? Then John is addressing this exhortation to you = " the one who says he abides in Him ought himself to walk in the same manner as He walked. (1 Jn 2:6-see discussion) We often hear the phrase "WWJD?" for "What Would Jesus Do?" This is the wrong question! A better question is How did Jesus walk? He emptied Himself of His divine perogatives and functioned in dependence on prayer to His Father and power from the Spirit. That is the (only) pattern for a victorious Christian life! Too many believers are trying hard to live the Christ life in their own natural power, not realizing that they have access to the supernatural power of the indwelling Spirit. Activating that power depends first on being continually filled with (controlled by) the Spirit (Eph 5:18-note). This begs the question -- Are you Spirit filled? If not, why not? And if not do not be surprised that you are having a difficult time living the supernatural life in your natural power! A proper understanding and practice of this truth about Spirit filling will revolutionize your Christian life! It's a guarantee that the non-lying God Himself stands behind!

    See Related Resources

    Filled (4092)(pimplemi) is a favorite verb with Luke and is used 5x in Chapter 1 and 3x in Chapter 2. - (24 uses in the NT) - Matt. 22:10; Matt. 27:48; Lk. 1:15; Lk. 1:23; Lk. 1:41; Lk. 1:57; Lk. 1:67; Lk. 2:6; Lk. 2:21; Lk. 2:22; Lk. 4:28; Lk. 5:7; Lk. 5:26; Lk. 6:11; Lk. 21:22; Acts 2:4; Acts 3:10; Acts 4:8; Acts 4:31; Acts 5:17; Acts 9:17; Acts 13:9; Acts 13:45; Acts 19:29

    Jim Cymbala on joy - Happiness ebbs and flows based on our changing circumstances. A new baby or grandchild is born, and we’re all smiles. We win a free vacation, and we’re ecstatic! The boss gives a big raise just when we need the extra money, and we’re elated. But the euphoria is only temporary. Inevitably something changes and takes our happiness with it. The baby gets sick; our vacation gets rained on; our job is eliminated by a corporate merger. The positive feeling is fleeting. At best we’re left feeling empty, and at worst, even angry. So how do we get our happiness back when the situation changes? We can’t wish happiness back. We can’t chase it. Trying harder to regain it only produces frustration. If circumstances alone make us happy, then our situation has to change for us to be happy again. Yet that’s precisely the reason we’re unhappy. We don’t, and never will, have control over the things that make for “don’t worry, be happy.” Happiness is circumstantial and elusive, but joy is not circumstantial. We can have joy even when we’re not happy. Some may hear Christians talking about joy and think that joy is just a religious word for happiness. But joy differs from happiness. If the situation is right, anyone can experience happiness. Even people who don’t know God or who curse God can be happy. But they don’t have joy, for that blessing in life has a totally different source. According to Scripture, the Holy Spirit produces joy. “But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, forbearance, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control” (Gal. 5:22–23). Isn’t it interesting that joy is mentioned immediately after love? Obviously God doesn’t want us to live depressed, cranky, and bitter lives. He knows that happiness is fleeting, so through the Spirit, he gives us supernatural joy that transcends our circumstances. Joy is a beautiful gift that accompanies salvation through faith in Jesus Christ. It is a gift imparted by the Holy Spirit to our innermost being. Inexpressible and Glorious Joy - If joy is a gift, we should expect to see more of it in the church, yet we’re often surprised when we do. However, when we recognize that true joy doesn’t come from our circumstances but rather from God, we begin to see joy as a blessing for everyday life. And that joy from the Spirit will make us distinctive to the culture around us.....Peter wrote: “Though you have not seen [Jesus], you love him; and even though you do not see him now, you believe in him and are filled with an inexpressible and glorious joy, for you are receiving the end result of your faith, the salvation of your souls” (1 Peter 1:8–9, emphasis added). Does an “inexpressible and glorious joy” describe your church or mine? It should. The epistle to Rome is Paul’s great theological document regarding justification by faith and other weighty doctrinal matters. Yet toward the end of his letter, the apostle declares that the kingdom of God isn’t essentially about doctrinal positions such as Calvinism or Arminianism. The kingdom isn’t about who is right in the pretribulation or posttribulation rapture debate. Paul said that the kingdom of God is a matter of “righteousness, peace and joy in the Holy Spirit” (Rom. 14:17, emphasis added). That is how important joy is; it makes us distinctive as followers of Jesus Christ. I’m not talking about emotionalism, however, not worked up frenzies or singing choruses endlessly until we create a certain vibe. I don’t want that, and neither do you. What the apostle Paul described was a life of joy that comes from the Spirit. He wrote to the Thessalonian believers, “You welcomed the message in the midst of severe suffering with the joy given by the Holy Spirit” (1 Thess. 1:6, emphasis added). (Spirit Rising: Tapping into the Power of the Holy Spirit - a convicting book. See my related article - A Spirit Filled Church)

    Luke 1:42  And she cried out with a loud voice and said, "Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb!

    CSB   Then she exclaimed with a loud cry: You are the most blessed of women, and your child will be blessed!

    ESV   and she exclaimed with a loud cry, "Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb!

    GWN  She said in a loud voice, "You are the most blessed of all women, and blessed is the child that you will have.

    KJV   And she spake out with a loud voice, and said, Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb.

    NET   She exclaimed with a loud voice, "Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the child in your womb!

    NAB   cried out in a loud voice and said, "Most blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb.

    NIV   In a loud voice she exclaimed: "Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the child you will bear!

    NLT   Elizabeth gave a glad cry and exclaimed to Mary, "God has blessed you above all women, and your child is blessed.

    NJB  She gave a loud cry and said, 'Of all women you are the most blessed, and blessed is the fruit of your womb.

    YLT  and spake out with a loud voice, and said, 'Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb;

    ELIZABETH'S ECSTATIC EXCITEMENT
    AT MARY'S BEATITUDE

    She cried out (anaphoneo) means Elizabeth cried out with a loud voice.

    Vincent - She lifted up her voice with a loud cry; thus rendering in the verb the force of ana, up ( (anaphoneo) ), besides picturing the fact more naturally. Elizabeth’s sudden and violent emotion at the appearance of Mary, and the movement of the child, prompted an exclamation which was followed by words ( said). The verb ἀναφωνέω occurs only here in the New Testament. It was a medical term for a certain exercise of the voice.

    Loud (megas) Voice (shout, cry) (2906)(krauge from krazo = clamor or cry = a word like "croak" ~ suggests a rough and guttural sound = croaking of ravens = croak or cry out with a loud, raucous voice like donkey in Job 6:5, childbirth Is 26:17, war cry in Josh 6:16) in this case refers to Elizabeth's loud cry. Krauge even without megas can mean a loud cry so megas accentuates her excitement.

    Blessed are you among women - Note carefully Elizabeth says "among women" and not "above women!" The NLT paraphrase is incorrect and misleading ("above all women") which makes the point that you always need to remember that the Bible translations (especially the paraphrases) do carry an element of interpretation or commentary. It is therefore wise to compare translations or even better to examine the original language. The NJB is similarly misleading. Note both versions add the word "all" but that Greek word (pas) is absent in the original Greek sentence. Indeed she was blessed in that she was given the privilege of bearing the Messiah.

    This recalls the words of the angel in Luke 1:28-note.

    Warren Wiersbe - Mary was blessed above women but among women, and certainly this is true. While we don’t want to ascribe to Mary that which only belongs to God, neither do we want to minimize her place in the plan of God. The thing that Elizabeth emphasized was Mary’s faith: “Blessed is she that believed” (Luke 1:45). We are saved “by grace … through faith” (Eph. 2:8–9). Because Mary believed the Word of God, she experienced the power of God. (Bible Exposition Commentary)

    Constable - “Blessed” means specially privileged because of God’s favor. She evidently meant that Mary was the most blessed among women. She was most blessed because her Son would be most blessed among all people. “Fruit of the womb” is an old figure of speech for a child (cf. Gen. 30:2; Deut. 28:4).

    Blessed (2127)(eulogeo from eu = good + lógos = word; see cognates eulogetos and eulogia) means speak good or well. When eulogeo is used by men toward men it means to speak well of with praise and thanksgiving (English "Eulogy" = an address in praise for one deceased ). To say good or positive things. The perfect tense signifies past completed action with ongoing effect (blessing). This is a different word than makarios in Luke 1:47.

    Luke 1:43  "And how has it happened to me, that the mother of my Lord would come to me?

    JESUS IS LORD
    OF ALL!

    And how has it happened to me - Notice Elizabeth's humility which is in concord with Luke's description that she was "righteous in the sight of God." O, how we all need to learn from this woman "righteous in the sight of God, walking blamelessly in all the commandments and requirements of the Lord." (Lk 1:6-note) Notice her humility lead her to declare "my Lord" as discussed below. How easy it would have been for Elizabeth to be "green with envy" that Mary had been chosen to bear the Messiah, but to the contrary she sees Mary's visit as a wonderful thing. 

    The mother of my Lord - Elizabeth is not only filled with the Spirit but here she is inspired by the Spirit Who has revealed to her that the baby in Elizabeth's womb is Jesus, the long expected Messiah Whom she appropriately recognizes as "my Lord." (cp Jn 20:28, 13:13, Lk 20:42) So even though Jesus was but a baby in Mary's womb, to Elizabeth He was her Lord. Elizabeth instead of saying "My Lady" correctly focused on "My Lord." Bengel adds "she does not, however, call her, My Lady [i.e. as if she had lordship, like Christ, over all."

    A T Robertson agrees that "Only by the help of the Holy Spirit could Elisabeth know that Mary was to be the mother of the Messiah." This shows us that she was not only filled with the Spirit, she was sensitive to His voice! Humble, not jealous, filled, sensitive! O that we all could have the demeanor of this godly woman Elizabeth!

    J C Ryle - Those words "my Lord" are so familiar to our ears, that we miss the fullness of their meaning. At the time they were spoken they implied far more than we are apt to suppose. They were nothing less than a distinct declaration that the child who was to be born of the Virgin Mary was the long promised Messiah, the "Lord" of whom David in spirit had prophesied, the Christ of God. Viewed in this light, the expression is a wonderful example of faith. It is a confession worthy to be placed by the side of that of Peter, when he said to Jesus, "You are the Christ." (Mt 16:16, 17) Let us remember the deep meaning of the words, "the Lord," and beware of using them lightly and carelessly. Let us consider that they rightly apply to none but Him who was crucified for our sins on Calvary. Let the recollection of this fact invest the words with a holy reverence, and make us careful how we let them fall from our lips. There are two texts connected with the expression which should often come to our minds. In one it is written, "No man can say that Jesus is the Lord but by the Holy Spirit." In the other it is written, "Every tongue shall confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father." (1 Corinthians 12:3.Philippians 2:11.) (Ryle)

    Matthew Poole - Elisabeth in these words acknowledges both the incarnation of Christ, and the union of the Divine and human nature in the one person of the Mediator; she acknowledges Christ her Lord, and Mary to be his mother.

    Jamieson -  High as was the distinction conferred upon herself, Elizabeth loses sight of it altogether, in presence of one more honoured still; upon whom, and on her unborn Babe, in an ecstasy of inspiration, she pronounces a benediction

    Ellicott - “Great “as her own son was to be (Luke 1:15-note "he will be great in the sight of the Lord") in the sight of the Lord, here was the mother of One yet greater, even of the Lord Himself.

    Lord (master, owner)(2962)(kurios from kuros = might or power) means a supreme one, one who is sovereign and possesses absolute authority, absolute ownership and uncontested power. Kurios is used of the one to whom a person or thing belonged, about which he has the power of deciding, the one who is the master or disposer of a thing (Mk 7:28) In classical Greek, kurios was used of the false gods, such as Hermes, Zeus, etc.

    Luke uses almost 30% of the 717 uses of kurios in the NT. Luke 1:69, 78-79

    Luke uses kurios 104x in 96 verses in the Gospel (Mt = 80x in 73v; Mark = 18x in 16v; John 52x in 50v) - Mk. 1:3; Mk. 11:9; Mk. 12:11; Mk. 16:20; Lk. 1:6; Lk. 1:9; Lk. 1:11; Lk. 1:15; Lk. 1:38; Lk. 1:43; Lk. 1:45; Lk. 1:66; Lk. 1:76; Lk. 2:9; Lk. 2:23; Lk. 2:24; Lk. 2:26; Lk. 2:39; Lk. 3:4; Lk. 4:18; Lk. 4:19; Lk. 5:17; Lk. 10:2; Lk. 10:39; Lk. 12:47; Lk. 13:35; Lk. 16:5; Lk. 19:38; Lk. 22:61; Lk. 24:3. 

    Constable suggests Luke uses kurios so often because his Greek readers would not have been familiar with the title Messiah or Christ.

    Luke uses kurios 107x in 101v in the Book of Acts - Acts 2:20; Acts 2:21; Acts 3:20; Acts 4:26; Acts 4:33; Acts 5:9; Acts 5:19; Acts 7:31; Acts 8:16; Acts 8:22; Acts 8:25; Acts 8:26; Acts 8:39; Acts 9:1; Acts 9:28; Acts 9:31; Acts 10:33; Acts 11:16; Acts 11:21; Acts 12:7; Acts 12:23; Acts 13:10; Acts 13:11; Acts 13:12; Acts 13:44; Acts 13:48; Acts 13:49; Acts 15:11; Acts 15:26; Acts 15:35; Acts 15:36; Acts 15:40; Acts 16:32; Acts 18:25; Acts 19:5; Acts 19:10; Acts 19:13; Acts 19:17; Acts 19:20; Acts 20:24; Acts 20:35; Acts 21:13; Acts 21:14; Acts 28:31;

    Wayne Detzler writes that kurios - In the earliest Greek this word meant "to have power or authority." Later it came to describe one who is in control. As classical Greek developed, it became a title for men of importance. Since the gods of ancient Greece were neither creators nor lords of their fate, pagan deities were not called "lord" until much later. By the time of Christ, kings had come to be called "lord." This was true of the Roman Emperor Caligula (A.D. 37-41). It was also true of Candace, the fabled queen of upper Egypt (Ac 8:27). So too Herod the Great, Herod Agrippa I, and Herod Agrippa II were called "lord." (New Testament Words in Today's Language)

    William MacDonald - The Bible never speaks of Mary as “the mother of God.” While it is true that she was the mother of Jesus, and that Jesus is God, it is nevertheless a doctrinal absurdity to speak of God as having a mother. Jesus existed from all eternity whereas Mary was a finite creature with a definite date when she began to exist. She was the mother of Jesus only in His Incarnation.

    John Trapp on "would come to me" - That the Lord Himself should come among us, as He did in the flesh, and doth still by His Spirit. Oh, what a mercy!

    Luke 1:44  "For behold, when the sound of your greeting reached my ears, the baby leaped in my womb for joy.

    Leaped for joy (20)(agalliasis  related verb - agalliao from agan = much + hallomai = jump; gush, leap, spring up = literally to jump much, leap for joy) means gladness or extreme joy, often accompanied by words and/or bodily movements, such as jumping, smiling, etc.  "Literally, “with exultation” as of those who leap for joy." (Jamieson) This quality of rejoicing refers to a demonstrative rejoicing (Arndt). It indicates the joy and happiness that arises from the experience of God’s saving action.

    Agalliasis - Luke has 3 of the 5 NT uses - Lk. 1:14-note; Lk. 1:44; Acts 2:46; Heb. 1:9; Jude 1:24

    The idea is this person experiences excessive, ecstatic joy even with leaping and skipping. Gladness is manifest jubilant exultation, a quality of joy that remains unhindered and unchanged by what happens. Agalliasis describes an exceeding joy (independent of dire circumstances) which is enabled or energized by the Holy Spirit.

    Barclay writes that agalliasis "is the joy which leaps for joy. As it has been put, it is the joy of the climber who has reached the summit, and who leaps for joy that the mountain path is conquered." (Daily Study Bible)

    Barclay's picture of jumping joy is great, as long as I'm "on top of the world". What about when I am in the valley? The word agalliasis teaches that believers do not have to be on a mountain top to experience this exceeding joy. In fact, believers, because of their new nature (partakers of the divine nature 2 Peter 1:4), can experience this quality of joy even though they are walking through "the valley" of difficult circumstances!

    Luke 1:45  "And blessed is she who believed that there would be a fulfillment of what had been spoken to her by the Lord."

    THE BLESSEDNESS OF BELIEF
    OF THE PROMISE OF MESSIAH

    Blessed (3107)(makarios from root makar, but others say from mak = large or lengthy) means to be happy, but not in the usual sense of happiness based on positive circumstances. From the Biblical perspective Makarios describes the person who is free from daily cares and worries because his every breath and circumstance is in the hands of His Maker Who gives him such an assurance (such a "blessing"). As discussed below makarios was used to describe the kind of happiness that comes from receiving divine favor.

    A T Robertson - The word accents the actual inner state rather than the outward appearance as another sees it… It is important to note that in the discussion of righteousness which is to follow Jesus assumes the new heart (Ed: Or serves to challenge unbelievers to believe in Jesus and receive a new heart), which alone makes it possible to come up to the lofty ethical standard here set up.

    Rob Morgan - Makarios (blessed) means happy, fortunate, blissful. Homer used the word to describe a wealthy man, and Plato used it of one who is successful in business. Both Homer and Hesiod spoke of the Greek gods as being happy (makarios) within themselves, because they were unaffected by the world of men-who were subject to poverty, disease, weakness, misfortune, and death. The fullest meaning of the term, therefore, had to do with an inward contentedness that is not affected by circumstances. That is the kind of happiness God desires for His children, a state of joy and well-being that does not depend on physical, temporary circumstances (cf Php 4:11, 12, 13-note). (From his sermon entitled "Blessed")

    Markarios is used 50x in the NT with 17 uses by Luke -  Lk. 1:45; Lk. 6:20; Lk. 6:21; Lk. 6:22; Lk. 7:23; Lk. 10:23; Lk. 11:27; Lk. 11:28; Lk. 12:37; Lk. 12:38; Lk. 12:43; Lk. 14:14; Lk. 14:15; Lk. 23:29;Acts 20:35; Acts 26:2

    Note the clear association of blessing and believing. This should not surprise us because genuine belief is intimately related to immediate obedience and obedience is clearly associated with God's blessing. In fact (Spirit enabled) obedience (not legalistic obedience) is the secret of divine blessing. Are you allowing the Spirit of God to give you the desire and the power (Php 2:13NLT-note) to obey God? 

    Who believed (4100)(pisteuo) means that she not only heard the promise but she accepted it internally, not just intellectually as true, genuine, or real but with a firm conviction as to the goodness, efficacy, or ability of God to carry out with He had promised. Because she had this firm conviction in God's promise it affected her internal condition so that she experienced a state of blessedness wrought by the Spirit of God. Spurgeon has a sermon on genuine belief - John 8:30-32 Believing On Jesus, And Its Counterfeits

    Mary knew by faith that what had been promised by Gabriel would be fulfilled. O, to have such a great faith!

    J C Ryle adds "we should observe in these verses, the high praise which Elizabeth bestows upon the grace of faith. "Blessed," she says, "is she who has believed that what the Lord has said to her will be accomplished!" We need not wonder that this holy woman should thus commend faith. No doubt she was well acquainted with the Old Testament Scriptures. She knew the great things that faith had done. What is the whole history of God's saints in every age but a record of men and women who obtained a good report by faith? What is the simple story of all from Abel downwards but a narrative of redeemed sinners who believed, and so were blessed? By faith they embraced promises. By faith they lived. By faith they walked. By faith they endured hardships. By faith they looked to an unseen Savior, and good things yet to come. By faith they battled with the world, the flesh, and the devil. By faith they overcame, and got safely home. Of this goodly company the Virgin Mary was proving herself one. No wonder that Elizabeth said, "Blessed is she who has believed that what the Lord has said to her will be accomplished!" Do we know anything of this precious faith? This, after all, is the question that concerns us. Do we know anything of the faith of God's elect, the faith which is the working of God? (Titus 1:2. Col.2:12.) Let us never rest until we know it by experience. Once knowing it, let us never cease to pray that our faith may grow exceedingly. Better a thousand times be rich in faith than rich in gold. Gold will be worthless in the unseen world to which we are all traveling. Faith will be owned in that world before God the Father and the holy angels. When the great white throne is set, and the books are opened, when the dead are called from their graves, and receiving their final sentence, the value of faith will at length be fully known. (Rev 20:11-15-note)  Men will learn then, if they never learned before, how true are the words, "Blessed are those who believed." (Ryle)

    GOD KEEPS HIS
    PROMISES!

    God's Word Paraphrase - You are blessed for believing that the Lord would keep His promise to you.

    A fulfillment (5050)(teleiosis) when speaking of an action refers to the "actualization of a promise" (accomplishment; achievement; completing of) as here in Lk 1:45. The only other NT uses of teleiosis refers to a completion of spiritual preparation ("perfection" in Heb 7:11)

    Bock writes that "Mary is seen as a model believer because she believes what God says "will be accomplished.""

    What had been spoken to her by the Lord - Recall it was an angel Gabriel who spoke to Mary and yet she received it as the word from the unseen God. Mary's faith was "the assurance of [things] hoped for (a child supernaturally conceived), the conviction of things not seen."  (Heb 11:1)

    The verb had been spoken is perfect tense indicating past completed action with ongoing effect. God's promise was an enduring promise.

    Matthew Henry says: “We must depend upon the performance of the promise, when all the ways leading up to it are shut up. ‘For all the promises of God in him are yea (yes), and in him Amen (so be it), unto the glory of God by us.’ ” (2 Cor. 1:20.)

        There shall be a performance of those things
          That loving heart hath waited long to see;
        Those words shall be fulfilled to which she clings,
          Because her God hath promised faithfully;
        And, knowing Him, she ne’er can doubt His Word;
        “He speaks and it is done.” The mighty Lord!

        There shall be a performance of those things,
          O burdened heart, rest ever in His care;
        In quietness beneath His shadowing wings
          Await the answer to thy longing prayer.
        When thou hast “cast thy care,” the heart then sings,
        There shall be a performance of those things.

        There shall be a performance of those things,
          O tired heart, believe and wait and pray;
        At eventide the peaceful vesper rings,
          Though cloud and rain and storm have filled the day.
        Faith pierces through the mist of doubt that bars
        The coming night sometimes, and finds the stars.

        There shall be a performance of those things,
          O trusting heart, the Lord to thee hath told;
        Let Faith and Hope arise, and plume their wings,
          And soar towards the sunrise clouds of gold;
        The portals of the rosy dawn swing wide,
        Revealing joys the darkening night did hide.
    —Bessie Porter.

    Luke 1:46  And Mary said: "My soul exalts the Lord,

    CSB  Luke 1:46 And Mary said: My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord,

    ESV  Luke 1:46 And Mary said, "My soul magnifies the Lord,

    GWN  Luke 1:46 Mary said, "My soul praises the Lord's greatness!

    KJV  Luke 1:46 And Mary said, My soul doth magnify the Lord,

    NET  Luke 1:46 And Mary said, "My soul exalts the Lord,

    NAB  Luke 1:46 And Mary said: "My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord;

    NIV  Luke 1:46 And Mary said: "My soul glorifies the Lord

    NLT  Luke 1:46 Mary responded, "Oh, how my soul praises the Lord.

    NJB  Luke 1:46 And Mary said: My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord

    YLT  Luke 1:46 And Mary said, 'My soul doth magnify the Lord,

    MARY MAGNIFIES
    THE MAJESTIC ONE

    Soul (5590)(psuche) or psyche from psucho = to breathe, blow, English = psychology, "study of the soul") is the breath, then that which breathes, the individual, animated creature. However the discerning reader must understand that psuche is one of those Greek words that can have several meanings, the exact nuance being determined by the context. It follows that one cannot simply select of the three main meanings of psuche and insert it in a given passage for it may not be appropriate to the given context. The meaning of psuche is also contingent upon whether one is a dichotomist or trichotomist. Consult Greek lexicons for more lengthy definitions of psuche as this definition is only a brief overview. (Click an excellent article on Soul in the Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology; see also ISBE article on Soul)

    We can outline Mary's "Psalm of Praise" in Luke 1:46-55 as follows:

    • Luke 1:46-49 - Mary gives here personal reasons for her praise
    • Luke 1:50-55 - Mary gives Israel's reasons for her praise

    Marvin Vincent - The soul is the principle of individuality, the seat of personal impressions, having a side in contact with the material element of humanity, as well as with the spiritual element. It is thus the mediating organ between the spirit and the body, receiving impressions from without and from within, and transmitting them by word or sign. Spirit is the highest, deepest, noblest part of our humanity, the point of contact between God and man.

    Exalts (3170)(megaluno from megas - great) to make or declare great. In the literal sense it means to physically enlarge (as the tassels of one's garment - Mt 23:5)  It can mean to show great mercy to someone or to do him great kindness as later in Lk 1:58. Most commonly in the NT it means to magnify or praise (Luke 1:46; Acts 5:13; 10:46; 19:17; 2 Cor. 10:15; Phil. 1:20; Sept.: 2 Sam. 7:26; Ps. 34:3; 69:31).The present tense indicates this was her continual state! To cause something or someone in this case to be held in great esteem. 

    Megaluno - 8x in 8v- Usage: displayed...great(1), enlarged(1), exalted(1), exalting(1), exalts(1), held...in high esteem(1), high esteem(1), lengthen(1), magnified(1).

    Matthew 23:5  “But they do all their deeds to be noticed by men; for they broaden their phylacteries and lengthen the tassels [of their garments.

    Luke 1:46  And Mary said: “My soul exalts the Lord, 

    Luke 1:58  Her neighbors and her relatives heard that the Lord had displayed His great mercy toward her; and they were rejoicing with her. 

    Acts 5:13   But none of the rest dared to associate with them; however, the people held them in high esteem.

    Acts 10:46  For they were hearing them speaking with tongues and exalting God. Then Peter answered,

    Acts 19:17 This became known to all, both Jews and Greeks, who lived in Ephesus; and fear fell upon them all and the name of the Lord Jesus was being magnified.

    2 Corinthians 10:15  not boasting beyond [our] measure, [that is,] in other men’s labors, but with the hope that as your faith grows, we will be, within our sphere, enlarged even more by you,

    Philippians 1:20 according to my earnest expectation and hope, that I will not be put to shame in anything, but [that] with all boldness, Christ will even now, as always, be exalted in my body, whether by life or by death.

    Megaluno - 70x in the Septuagint - Note prominence of this verb in the Psalms which is fitting for here in Luke 1:46 it introduces Mary's "Psalm of Praise." - Gen. 12:2; Gen. 19:19; Gen. 43:34; Num. 15:3; Num. 15:8; 1 Sam. 2:21; 1 Sam. 2:26; 1 Sam. 3:19; 1 Sam. 12:24; 1 Sam. 26:24; 2 Sam. 5:10; 2 Sam. 7:22; 2 Sam. 7:26; 2 Sam. 22:51; 1 Ki. 1:37; 1 Ki. 1:47; 1 Ki. 10:23; 1 Chr. 11:9; 1 Chr. 29:12; 1 Chr. 29:25; 2 Chr. 1:1; 2 Chr. 9:22; Ezr. 9:6; Job 7:17; Job 19:5; Ps. 12:4; Ps. 18:50; Ps. 20:5; Ps. 20:7; Ps. 34:3; Ps. 35:27; Ps. 40:16; Ps. 41:9; Ps. 57:10; Ps. 69:30; Ps. 70:4; Ps. 92:5; Ps. 104:1; Ps. 104:24; Ps. 126:2; Ps. 126:3; Ps. 138:2; Prov. 8:16; Eccl. 1:16; Eccl. 2:4; Eccl. 2:9; Isa. 42:21; Jer. 5:27; Jer. 31:13; Jer. 48:26; Jer. 48:42; Lam. 1:9; Lam. 2:13; Lam. 4:6; Ezek. 9:9; Ezek. 16:7; Ezek. 24:9; Ezek. 38:23; Dan. 2:48; Joel 2:20; Joel 2:21; Amos 8:5; Mic. 1:10; Mic. 5:4; Zeph. 2:8; Zeph. 2:10; Zech. 12:7; Zech. 12:11; Mal. 1:5;

    Representative uses of megaluno in the Septuagint - 

    Genesis 12:2 And I will make you a great nation, And I will bless you, And make your name great; (Lxx = megaluno) And so you shall be a blessing; 

    Psalm 20:7 Some boast in chariots and some in horses, But we will boast (Lxx = megaluno - we will glory in, exalt in) in the name of the LORD, our God. (Psa 20:7 NAU)

    Psalms 34:3  O magnify (Lxx = megaluno - aorist imperative - command to magnify Jehovah) the LORD with me, And let us exalt His name together. 

    Psalm 35:27 Let them shout for joy and rejoice, who favor my vindication; And let them say continually, "The LORD be magnified (Lxx = megaluno - aorist passive imperative - command to magnify Jehovah), Who delights in the prosperity of His servant." 

    Lord (master, owner)(2962)(kurios from kuros = might or power) means a supreme one, one who is sovereign and possesses absolute authority, absolute ownership and uncontested power. 

    William Barclay - HERE we have a passage which has become one of the great hymns of the church-the Magnificat. It is saturated in the Old Testament; and is specially kin to Hannah’s song of praise in 1 Samuel 2:1–10. It has been said that religion is the opiate of the people; but, as Stanley Jones said, “the Magnificat is the most revolutionary document in the world.”
    It speaks of three of the revolutions of God.
    (i) He scatters the proud in the plans of their hearts. That is a moral revolution. Christianity is the death of pride. Why? Because if a man sets his life beside that of Christ it tears the last vestiges of pride from him.
    Sometimes something happens to a man which with a vivid, revealing light shames him. O. Henry has a short story about a lad who was brought up in a village. In school he used to sit beside a girl and they were fond of each other. He went to the city and fell into evil ways. He became a pickpocket and a petty thief. One day he snatched an old lady’s purse. It was clever work and he was pleased. And then he saw coming down the street the girl whom he used to know, still sweet with the radiance of innocence. Suddenly he saw himself for the cheap, vile thing he was. Burning with shame, he leaned his head against the cool iron of a lamp standard. “God,” he said, “I wish I could die.” He saw himself.
    Christ enables a man to see himself. It is the deathblow to pride. The moral revolution has begun.
    (ii) He casts down the mighty—he exalts the humble. That is a social revolution. Christianity puts an end to the world’s labels and prestige.
    Muretus was a wandering scholar of the middle ages. He was poor. In an Italian town he took ill and was taken to a hospital for waifs and strays. The doctors were discussing his case in Latin, never dreaming he could understand. They suggested that since he was such a worthless wanderer they might use him for medical experiments. He looked up and answered them in their own learned tongue, “Call no man worthless for whom Christ died.”
    When we have realized what Christ did for all men, it is no longer possible to speak about a common man. The social grades are gone.
    (iii) He has filled those who are hungry … those who are rich he has sent empty away. That is an economic revolution. A non-Christian society is an acquisitive society where each man is out to amass as much as he can get. A Christian society is a society where no man dares to have too much while others have too little, where every man must get only to give away.
    There is loveliness in the Magnificat but in that loveliness there is dynamite. Christianity begets a revolution in each man and revolution in the world. (Daily Study Bible - Luke)

    Luke 1:47  And my spirit has rejoiced in God my Savior.

    GOD MY DELIVERER

    My Savior is synonymous with My Rescuer, My Deliverer, My Preserver, My Healer, My Protector.

    My Savior in Greek is Soter which is synonymous with 

    • My Rescuer
    • My Deliverer
    • My Preserver
    • My Protector
    • My Healer!

    May you take a moment to lift your hands and heart in praise to Our great Deliverer...below is Rich Mullins' song I had never heard until this morning...I began to weep and praise and lift my hands as I pondered Mary's words in Luke 1:47 with Mullins' words of praise in the song...

    MY DELIVERER

    Praise His holy Name, Jesus Who saves us. Amen

    Waiting for our Jesus Who "rescues us from the wrath to come." (1 Thessalonians 1:10-note)

    Play Rich Mullins song My Deliverer (you won't be disappointed!)

    Spurgeon - She needed a Saviour, you see. Though about to become the mother of Jesus, Mary did not think herself without sin. Her eyes still looked to him who should be her Saviour from guilt and condemnation.

    In Luke 1:46 her soul exalts in the Lord and here it is her spirit that rejoiced. Her entire being was affected by the presence of Jesus in Mary's womb. Imagine the effect He will have on us when we see Him in glory!

    Rejoiced (Exulted, Jumped for joy) (21)(agalliao from agan = much + hallomai = jump; gush, leap, spring up) means literally to "jump much", "leap for joy", skip and jump with happy excitement and so to be exceedingly joyful, overjoyed or exuberantly happy. The idea is Mary demonstrated her excessive, ecstatic joy by leaping and skipping (if not literally certainly feeling like it!). 

    Barclay writes that agalliao "is the joy which leaps for joy. As it has been put, it is the joy of the climber who has reached the summit, and who leaps for joy that the mountain path is conquered." (Daily Study Bible)

    Vincent on God my Saviour (τῷ θεῷ τῷ σωτῆρί μου) - Note the two articles. “The God who is the or my Saviour.” The title Saviour is often applied to God in the Old Testament. See Septuagint, Deut. 32:15; Ps. 24:5; 25:5; 95:1.

    Savior (4990)(soter from sozo = rescue from peril > from saos = safe; delivered) refers to the agent of salvation or deliverance, the one who rescues, delivers, saves and preserves. Anyone who saves or delivers can be called a deliverer or rescuer (a soter). Greeks used soter as a title of divinities such as Asclepius, the god of healing. Soter was used by the mystery religions to refer to their divinities. At an early date soter was used as a title of honor for deserving men, e.g., Epicurus (300BC) was called "soter" by his followers. Soter was used as a designation of the "deified" ruler, e.g., Ptolemy I Soter (323-285BC).

    Soter used frequently in the Septuagint to translate the word "salvation" in reference to God -Ps. 24:5; Ps. 25:5; Ps. 27:1; Ps. 27:9; Ps. 62:2; Ps. 62:6; Ps. 65:5; Ps. 79:9; Ps. 95:1; Isa. 12:2; Isa. 17:10; Isa. 45:15; Isa. 45:21; Isa. 62:11; Mic. 7:7; Hab. 3:18

    In Luke 2:10-11 we see the angel recognizes Jesus as the soter...

    But the angel said to them, “Do not be afraid; for behold, I bring you good news of great joy which will be for all the people (Jews and Gentiles); for today in the city of David (Bethlehem) there has been born for you a Savior (a Deliverer - soter), Who is Christ the Lord.

    Luke's two other uses of Soter referring to Jesus as Savior are in Acts - Acts 5:31 and Acts 13:23. In Jude 1:25-note and Titus 3:4-note (cp Titus 1:3-note; Titus 2:10-note, 1 Ti 1:1, 2:3, 4:10) soter refers to the Father indicating the participation of the Trinity in salvation and placing Jesus on a par with the Father clearly. Thus the term Soter is another testimony to the fact that Jesus is God (cp 2 Pe 1:1-note, Titus 2:13-note).

    The Exegetical Dictionary notes that "In secular Greek usage the gods are deliverers both as helpers of human beings and as protectors of collective entities (e.g., cities); this is the case with Zeus, Apollo, Poseidon, the Dioscuri Castor and Pollux, Heracles, Asclepius as the helper of the sick, and Serapis; it is true also for philosophers (Dio Chrysostom Or. 32.8) and statesmen (Thucydides v.11.1; Plutarch Cor. 11, also in inscriptions and elsewhere). In the Hellenistic ruler cult "theos soter" (god our savior) is attested in writings and inscriptions as a title of the Ptolemies and Seleucids. Inscriptions in the eastern part of the Empire called Pompey “Soter and Founder,” Caesar “Soter of the World,” and Augustus “Soter of Humankind.” Hadrian had the title "Soter of the Kosmos" (Balz, H. R., & Schneider, G. . Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans)

    Luke 1:48  "For He has had regard for the humble state of His bondslave; For behold, from this time on all generations will count me blessed.

    CSB  Luke 1:48 because He has looked with favor on the humble condition of His slave. Surely, from now on all generations will call me blessed,

    ESV  Luke 1:48 for he has looked on the humble estate of his servant. For behold, from now on all generations will call me blessed;

    GWN  Luke 1:48 because he has looked favorably on me, his humble servant. "From now on, all people will call me blessed

    KJV  Luke 1:48 For he hath regarded the low estate of his handmaiden: for, behold, from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed.

    NET  Luke 1:48 because he has looked upon the humble state of his servant. For from now on all generations will call me blessed,

    NAB  Luke 1:48 For he has looked upon his handmaid's lowliness; behold, from now on will all ages call me blessed.

    NIV  Luke 1:48 for he has been mindful of the humble state of his servant. From now on all generations will call me blessed,

    NLT  Luke 1:48 For he took notice of his lowly servant girl, and from now on all generations will call me blessed.

    NJB  Luke 1:48 because he has looked upon the humiliation of his servant. Yes, from now onwards all generations will call me blessed,

    YLT  Luke 1:48 Because He looked on the lowliness of His maid-servant, For, lo, henceforth call me happy shall all the generations,

    For - always pause to ponder this term of explanation. Luke explains that Mary is rejoicing because in spite of her “humble state” (Lk 1:48) she has been blessed by the Lord. The mercy of the Lord that she experienced is overwhelming and undeserved (Lk 1:49–50) and she praises his name because of it. Beloved, can we not identify with Mary? Is not this joy ours every Advent season? If it is not, it should be, because we like Mary realize that the mercy we receive as a result of Jesus' first coming is similarly overwhelming and undeserved. And so we should make the Spirit led choice to rejoice!. And now can can also rejoice even more because we know He is coming again! And Jude links His future coming with future mercy exhorting us to "maintain yourselves in the love of God, while anticipating the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ that brings eternal life. (Jude 1:21NET-note)

    He has had regard (1914)(epiblepo from epí = upon + blépo = look) means literally to look upon, to gaze at especially with a disposition to show favor, pity or partially. The "epi" prefix speaks of directing one's attention to (or upon). The ideas is to pay close attention and thus look attentively at, with implication of personal concern for the one looked at. Sadly this is the word chosen by the Septuagint translators to depict Lot's wife when she "looked back and she became a pillar of salt." (Ge 19:26, 28) Her "look" was not just a quick glance but a longing gaze and it cost her her life. I fear there is a little (or "lot") of Lot's wife in all of us! Epiblepo describes Jehovah when He "looked down on the arm of the Egyptians." (Ex 14:24) which was a demonstration of His regard for Israel (cp Lev 26:9 - "I will turn toward you..." in the Lxx = epiblepo - a promise to be fulfilled upon the nation of Israel in the endtimes)..

    Humble (5014)(tapeinosis is the noun derived from adjective tapeinos; cp the related derivative tapeinophrosune) means low, not high, not rising far from the ground. It speaks of one's condition as lowly or of low degree. It described what was considered base, common, unfit, and having little value. It is notable that to the Greeks tapeinos and derivatives were words of contempt for they saw man as the measure of all things (sounds very contemporary). To be low on the social scale, to know poverty, or to be socially powerless was considered shameful to the proud Greeks. Thus they used tapeinos almost exclusively in a derisive way, most commonly of a slave.

    Behold (2400)(idou) is the second person singular aorist middle imperative of eidon which means to see, perceive, look at. In the NT idou is used as a demonstrative particle that draws attention to what follows. Idou in the middle voice means "you yourself look, see, perceive!" The aorist imperative is a command emphasizing "Listen up!"

    From this time on (apo tou nun) - Luke uses this phrase to signify that from this point on things will be different. Similar uses in Lk 5:10, Lk 12:52, 22:18, 69 point to a difference from now on because of some event.

    Generations (1074)(genea gives us our English genealogy) literally refers to those descended from a common ancestor, but click for more complete discussion.

    Luke 1:49  "For the Mighty One has done great things for me; And holy is His name.

    For -- always pause to ponder this term of explanation.

    The Mighty One - Literally "the mighty." Play the simple chorus Mighty is our God.

    Mighty (strong) (1415)(dunatos  from dunamai = referring to power one has by virtue of inherent ability and resources; see study of dunamis) means powerful, able, strong. Luke alludes to God's mighty power in Luke 18:27 recording "The things that are impossible with people are possible (dunatos) with God." In Acts 18:24 Luke describes Apollos as a man who "was mighty in the Scriptures." What a testimony, one we should all strive by the Spirit's power to attain to!

    In the Septuagint dunatos is used several times to describe God

    Psalm 24:8 "Who is the King of glory? The LORD strong (Lxx - kratos) and mighty (Lxx - dunatos), The LORD mighty (Lxx - dunatos) in battle."

    Ps 45:3 "Gird Your sword on Your thigh, O Mighty One, In Your splendor and Your majesty!" 

    Psalm 89:8 O LORD God of hosts, who is like You, O mighty LORD? Your faithfulness also surrounds You.

    Psalm 103:20 Bless the LORD, you His angels, Mighty in strength, who perform His word, Obeying the voice of His word!

    Done (Performed) (4160)(poieo) conveys the basic meaning of to produce something material (to make). The idea is to to undertake or do something that brings about an event, state, or condition. 

    Great things for me - Mary is alluding to fact that she bore the Messiah in her womb even though she was a virgin. This is surely one of the greatest miracles of all time and eternity.

    Holy (40)(hagios) is used throughout the New Testament to speak of anyone or anything that represents God’s holiness: Christ as the Holy One of God, the Holy Spirit, the Holy Father, holy Scriptures, holy angels, holy brethren, and so on. The secular and pagan use pictured a person separated and dedicated to the idolatrous "gods" and carried no idea of moral or spiritual purity. The manmade gods were as sinful and degraded as the men who made them and there simply was no need for a word that represented righteousness! The worshipper of the pagan god acquired the character of that pagan god and the religious ceremonies connected with its worship. The Greek temple at Corinth housed a large number of harlots who were connected with the "worship" of the Greek god. Thus, the set-apartness or holiness of the Greek worshipper was in character licentious, totally depraved, and sinful.

    Here the very Name of God is holy -- how tragic to watch modern television which repeatedly uses Jesus' holy Name as a curse word! Woe! They will be repaid in due time! See  Ex. 15:11. 1 Sa. 2:2. Ps. 99:3, 9; 111:9. Is. 6:3; 57:15. Rev. 4:8; 15:4.

    Luke 1:50  "AND HIS MERCY IS UPON GENERATION AFTER GENERATION TOWARD THOSE WHO FEAR HIM.

    • Ge. 17:7. Ex. 20:6; 34:6, 7. Ps. 31:19; 85:9; 103:11, 17, 18; 115:13; 118:4; 145:19; 147:11. Mal. 3:16–18. Re. 19:5.

    Mercy (compassion) (1656)(eleos)  is the outward manifestation of pity and assumes need on the part of those who are recipients of the mercy and sufficient resources to meet the need on the part of those who show it. The idea of mercy is to show kindness or concern for someone in serious need or to give help to the wretched, to relieve the miserable. Here the essential thought is that mercy gives attention to those in misery.

    Wuest writes that eleos is "God’s “kindness and goodwill toward the miserable and afflicted, joined with a desire to relieve them” (Vincent). Grace meets man’s need in respect to his guilt and lost condition; mercy, with reference to his suffering as a result of that sin. (Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans)

    Guy King has suggested that grace is needed for every service, mercy for every failure, and peace for every circumstance. Someone else has said, “Grace to the worthless, mercy to the helpless, and peace to the restless.” Hiebert defines mercy as “the self-moved, spontaneous loving kindness of God which causes Him to deal in compassion and tender affection with the miserable and distressed.” 

    Fear (5399)(phobeo from phobos = fear source of our English "phobia") means to be in an apprehensive state that can range from mild uneasiness to stark terror as when one is frightened, terrified or alarmed. (Mt 10:31). Phobeo can be a fear of man (Lk 20:19, Mt 2:22, Mt 21:26, 46) as when Peter feared "the party of the circumcision" (Gal 2:12) which motivated him "to withdraw and hold himself aloof." Pilate experienced fear when he was about to sentence Jesus to death (Jn 19:8). Fear of people kept religious leaders from laying hands on Jesus (Luke 20:19) On the other hand Moses did not fear man (pharaoh - Heb 11:27) Believers were afraid of Paul after his Damascus Road experience, not realizing he had been born again (Lk 9:26).

    John MacArthur on phobeo - the most common use of it in the New Testament represents reverential awe, not cringing fright. It expresses the feeling of a person who is in the presence of someone infinitely superior… (Commenting on phobos and phobeo) In the synoptic gospels and Acts the term is never used to speak of anything other than the feeling in a person’s heart when he is confronted with divine power, and it is declared to be a part of the Christian’s attitude as he seeks to faithfully serve the Lord (Acts 9:31). Reverential awe of God is a part of the truly repentant life (2Cor. 7:10–11), the chaste life (1 Pet. 3:2), the holy life (2 Cor. 7:1), and the godly life (Phil. 2:12). Mutual ministry, love, and respect, as well as powerful evangelism and proper church discipline, are all grounded in reverential awe of the Lord (see 2 Cor. 5:11; Eph. 5:21; 1 Tim. 5:20). It is the substance out of which all right Christian worship, behavior, and service must come. (Matthew Commentary)

    Fear of God takes two forms, a healthy, reverential awe of the creature before the Creator including the idea of fear of offending (Ro 11:20) or the terror and dread of the unregenerate sinner in the presence of the just and holy God (Lxx of Ge 3:10, cp Lk 12:5).

    Puritan Charles Bridges defines fear of God - It is that affectionate reverence by which the child of God bends himself humbly and carefully to his Father's law. His wrath is so bitter, and His love so sweet; that hence springs an earnest desire to please Him, and—because of the danger of coming short from his own weakness and temptations—a holy watchfulness and fear, 'that he might not sin against Him.

    Luke 1:51  "He has done mighty deeds with His arm; He has scattered those who were proud in the thoughts of their heart.

    • shewed. Ex. 15:6, 7, 12, 13. De. 4:34. Ps. 52:9; 63:5; 89:13; 98:1; 118:15. Is. 40:10; 51:9; 52:10; 63:12. Re. 18:8.
    • he has scattered. Ex. 15:9–11; 18:11. 1 Sa. 2:3, 4, 9, 10. Job 40:9–12. Ps. 2:1–6; 33:10; 89:10. Is. 10:12–19. Je. 48:29, 30. Da. 4:37; 5:25, etc. 1 Pe. 5:5.
    • the thoughts. Ge. 6:5; 8:21. De. 29:19, 20. Ro. 1:21. 2 Co. 10:5.
    • Verse-by-Verse - Multiple Commentaries - Luke 1:51 Commentaries
    • Multiple commentaries and sermons on Luke 1

    Mighty (2904)(kratos) means strength or might, especially manifested power, the power to rule or control or dominion (power to rule, supreme authority, sovereignty, the right to govern or rule or determine). Krátos denotes the presence and significance of force or strength rather than its exercise. It is the ability to exhibit or express resident strength.

    Arm (1023)(brachion comparative of brachús 1024 = short) is literally the shorter part of the arm from the shoulder to the elbow.   in the NT figuratively expresses God's powerful activity in analogy to human activity. The arm of man is the principal organ or instrument with which he exerts his strength. 

    Brachion is used in only 3 verses in the NT and 100 in the Septuagint -  Lu 1:51 Jn 12:38  Acts 13:17

    Brachion in Septuagint - Gen. 24:18; Gen. 27:16; Gen. 49:24; Exod. 6:1; Exod. 6:6; Exod. 15:16; Exod. 29:22; Exod. 29:27; Exod. 32:11; Lev. 7:32; Lev. 7:33; Lev. 7:34; Lev. 8:25; Lev. 8:26; Lev. 9:21; Lev. 10:14; Lev. 10:15; Num. 6:19; Num. 6:20; Num. 18:18; Deut. 3:24; Deut. 4:34; Deut. 5:15; Deut. 6:21; Deut. 7:8; Deut. 7:19; Deut. 9:26; Deut. 9:29; Deut. 11:2; Deut. 18:3; Deut. 26:8; Deut. 33:20; Deut. 33:27; Jdg. 15:14; Jdg. 16:12; 2 Sam. 1:10; 2 Sam. 22:35; 2 Ki. 9:24; 2 Ki. 17:36; 2 Chr. 6:32; 2 Chr. 32:8; Job 26:2; Job 31:22; Job 35:9; Job 38:15; Job 40:9; Ps. 10:15; Ps. 18:34; Ps. 37:17; Ps. 44:3; Ps. 71:18; Ps. 77:15; Ps. 79:11; Ps. 89:10; Ps. 89:13; Ps. 89:21; Ps. 98:1; Ps. 136:12; Prov. 31:17; Cant. 8:6; Isa. 9:20; Isa. 15:2; Isa. 17:5; Isa. 26:11; Isa. 30:30; Isa. 40:10; Isa. 40:11; Isa. 44:12; Isa. 51:5; Isa. 51:9; Isa. 52:10; Isa. 53:1; Isa. 59:16; Isa. 62:8; Isa. 63:5; Isa. 63:12; Jer. 17:5; Jer. 21:5; Jer. 32:17; Jer. 32:21; Jer. 51:14; Ezek. 4:7; Ezek. 13:20; Ezek. 17:9; Ezek. 20:33; Ezek. 20:34; Ezek. 30:21; Ezek. 30:22; Ezek. 30:24; Ezek. 30:25; Dan. 2:32; Dan. 9:15; Dan. 10:6; Dan. 11:6; Dan. 11:15; Dan. 11:22; Dan. 11:31; Hos. 7:15; Hos. 11:3; Zech. 11:17

    Representative uses in the Septuagint - note His fearful power, His power to deliver (redeem from bondage), His ability to judge figuratively depicted in the following passages that allude to His arm. 

    Exodus 6:6 “Say, therefore, to the sons of Israel, ‘I am the LORD, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from their bondage. I will also redeem you with an outstretched arm (Heb = zeroa; Lxx = brachion)  and with great judgments.

    Exodus 15:16   “Terror and dread fall upon them; By the greatness of Your arm (Heb = zeroa; Lxx = brachion) they are motionless as stone; Until Your people pass over, O LORD, Until the people pass over whom You have purchased. 

    Deuteronomy 5:15 ‘You shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and the LORD your God brought you out of there by a mighty hand and by an outstretched arm; (Heb = zeroa; Lxx = brachion)  therefore the LORD your God commanded you to observe the sabbath day. 

    Psalm 71:18 And even when I am old and gray, O God, do not forsake me, Until I declare Your strength (Hebrew = zeroa = arm, shoulder, strength, power - translated with brachion in the Lxx) to this generation, Your power to all who are to come. (Same thing in Ps 77:15 and Ps 79:11 where "power" = zeroa; Lxx - brachion)

    Psalms 89:10  You Yourself crushed Rahab like one who is slain; You scattered Your enemies with Your mighty arm. (Heb = zeroa; Lxx = brachion) 

    Psalm 98:1 A Psalm. O sing to the LORD a new song, For He has done wonderful things, His right hand and His holy arm (Heb = zeroa; Lxx = brachion) have gained the victory for Him.

    Isaiah 51:5  “My righteousness is near, My salvation has gone forth, And My arms will judge the peoples; The coastlands will wait for Me, And for My arm they will wait expectantly. 

    Proud (arrogant) (5244)(huperephanos from huper = over, above, + phaíno = shine) is the haughty person pictured with his head held high above others. The man who is huperephanos is the one who shows himself above. This man who because of his feeling of personal superiority, regards others with haughtiness. He is puffed up with a high opinion of himself, and thus regards others with contempt, as if they were unworthy of any social interactions. The noun huperephania is usually translated pride which is one of those sins which Jesus says proceeds out of a man's heart (Mark 7.22 = only NT use of huperephania).

    Thoughts (1271)(dianoia from dianoéomai = to agitate in mind in turn from dia = separation + noeo = to think over, nous = mind, intellect, thought, reason) means thinking through something, meditating, reflecting. It refers to the intellect, moral understanding or the way of thinking. It is the faculty of thinking, comprehending, and reasoning. Dianoia is the seat of perception and thinking, the faculty of understanding, feeling, desiring.

    TDNT writes that dianoia is the "common word for “thought” has such varied senses as (1) thought as a function, (2) the power of thought, the thinking consciousness, (3) the way of thought, (4) the result of thought, e.g., thought, idea, opinion, or judgment, (5) resolve of intention, and (6) the meaning of words or statements. The LXX uses it as an equivalent of kardia, and the usage is much the same in other Jewish works. (Kittel, G., Friedrich, G., & Bromiley, G. W. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Eerdmans)

    Heart (2588)(kardia)  does not refer to the physical organ but is always used figuratively in Scripture to refer to the seat and center of human life. The heart is the center of the personality, and it controls the intellect, emotions, and will. No outward obedience is of the slightest value unless the heart turns to God.

    MacArthur commenting on kardia writes that…

    While we often relate heart to the emotions (e.g., “He has a broken heart”), the Bible relates it primarily to the intellect (e.g., “Out of the heart come evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, slanders,” Matt 15:19). That’s why you must “watch over your heart with all diligence” (Proverbs 4:23-note). In a secondary way, however, heart relates to the will and emotions because they are influenced by the intellect. If you are committed to something, it will affect your will, which in turn will affect your emotions." (Drawing Near. Crossway Books) MacArthur adds that "In most modern cultures, the heart is thought of as the seat of emotions and feelings. But most ancients—Hebrews, Greeks, and many others—considered the heart to be the center of knowledge, understanding, thinking, and wisdom. The New Testament also uses it in that way. The heart was considered to be the seat of the mind and will, and it could be taught what the brain could never know. Emotions and feelings were associated with the intestines, or bowels." (MacArthur, J: Ephesians. 1986. Chicago: Moody Press)

    Luke 1:52  "He has brought down rulers from their thrones, And has exalted those who were humble.

    Brought down (destroyed) (2507)(kathaireo) means primarily to cause something or someone to be lowered or brought down by bring down from one point to another. Figuratively it means to destroy completely by tearing down and dismantling (buildings Lk 12:18, speculations in spiritual matters - 2 Cor 10:5; nations Acts 13:19

    Exalted (lifted up) (5312) (hupsoo from hupsos = height, elevation) means to lift up spatially, to raise high. Figuratively, it can describe lifting one up to a place of honor, fame, power, or position (to exalt). 

    Humble (5011)(tapeinos) means low, not high, not rising far from the ground. It speaks of one's condition as lowly or of low degree. It described what was considered base, common, unfit, and having little value. It pictures one brought low, as for example by grief. Tapeinos is descriptive particularly of attitude and social positions.

    Wuest notes that tapeinos "is found in an early secular document where it speaks of the Nile River in its low stage in the words, “It runs low.” The word means “not rising far from the ground.” It describes the Christian who follows in the humble and lowly steps of his Lord." This reminds me that the best place for us as Christ followers is the foot of the Cross, for that is when grace can best "flow down!"

    And has exalted those who were humble is a truth repeated in the Scripture...

    James 4:10-note   Humble yourselves in the presence of the Lord, and He will exalt you. 

    1 Peter 5:6-note  Therefore humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God, that He may exalt you at the proper time,

    Spurgeon exhorts believers to gladly accept a prone position (the root meaning of humility - see below) in order that grace might flow down most efficaciously…

    Humble hearts seek grace, and therefore they receive grace. Humble hearts yield to the sweet influences of grace, and so grace is bestowed on them more and more largely. Humble hearts lie in the valleys where streams of grace are flowing, and hence they drink of them. Humble hearts are grateful for grace and give the LORD (Jehovah) the glory of it, and hence it is consistent with His honor to give it to them.

    Come, dear reader, take a lowly place. Be little in thine own esteem, that the LORD may make much of thee. Perhaps the sigh breaks out, "I fear I am not humble." It may be that this is the language of true humility. Some are proud of being humble, and this is one of the very worst sorts of pride.

    We are needy, helpless, undeserving, hell-deserving creatures, and if we are not humble we ought to be.

    Let us humble ourselves because of our sins against humility, and then the LORD will give us to taste of His favor. It is grace which makes us humble, and grace which finds in this humility an opportunity for pouring in more grace. (Ed: Read that profound truth again!)

    Let us go down that we may rise.

    Let us be poor in spirit that God may make us rich.

    Let us be humble that we may not need to be humbled but may be exalted by the grace of God (Jas 4:101Pe 5:6-note). (Faith's Checkbook)

    Luke 1:53  "HE HAS FILLED THE HUNGRY WITH GOOD THINGS; And sent away the rich empty-handed.

    • filled. Luke 6:21. 1 Sa. 2:5. Ps. 34:10; 107:8, 9; 146:7. Eze. 34:29. Mat. 5:6. John 6:11–13, 35. Ja. 2:5. Re. 7:16, 17.
    • and. Luke 6:24; 12:16–21; 16:19–25; 18:11–14, 24, 25. 1 Co. 1:26; 4:8. Ja. 2:6; 5:1–6. Re. 3:17, 18.
    • Verse-by-Verse - Multiple Commentaries - Luke 1:53 Commentaries
    • Multiple commentaries and sermons on Luke 1

    He has filled (1705)(empiplemi from en = in + pímplemi = to fill) means to fill in (or up) and so to make full. It means to satisfy (Jn 6:12). In Luke 1:53 it is used metaphorically meaning to fill in regarding one’s desire with good ("well-fed" in Lk 6:25, "satisfying their hearts" in Acts 14:17).

    Here are 2 uses of empiplemi in the Septuagint). Note especially in Jer 31;14 what truly satisfies our hungry soul!

    Psalms 107:9  For He has satisfied the thirsty soul, And the hungry soul He has filled with what is good. 

    Jeremiah 31:14  “I will fill the soul of the priests with abundance, And My people will be satisfied with My goodness,” declares the LORD. 

    Sent away (1821)(exapostello from ek = out, forth + apostéllo = send away or forth) means to send away or forth out of the place where one is and in some contexts as this passage it means to remove someone or dismiss them. It is usd this way in a parable in Lk 20:10 "the vine-growers beat him and sent him away empty-handed."

    The rich (4147)(plouteo from ploutos = wealth) means to be or to become wealthy, to be increased with goods

    12v: Lu1:53 12:21 Ro10:12 1Co4:8 2Co8:9 1Ti6:9,18 Rev3:17,18 18:3, 15, 18:19 

    Empty-handed (2756)(kenos) means literally to be without something material and thus means empty or without content. It was used with this literal meaning (as in Mk 12:3 "they took him and beat him and sent him away empty handed"). More often kenos is used figuratively referring to things that lack effectiveness and thus are futile, useless, of no purpose or without result. Kenos is used to refer to endeavors, labors, acts, which result in nothing and thus are vain, fruitless, without effect and will not succeed. Kenos can refer to being devoid of intellectual, moral, or spiritual value.

    Luke 1:54  "He has given help to Israel His servant, In remembrance of His mercy,


    He has given help (482)(antilambanomai from antí = mutually or against + lambáno = to take, to hold) in the middle voice it means to take hold of another as by the hand and figuratively means to support from falling as by the hand. To support, help, assist (Luke 1:54; Acts 20:35).

    Remember (3403)(mimnesko) means to bring to mind or think of again. It means to keep in mind for attention or consideration. Most of the NT uses convey this sense of recalling information from memory. In Acts 10:31 (Rev 16:19) the idea of mimnesko is to think of and call attention to someone or some thing and to make mention of. The dying thief asked Jesus to keep him in mind when He came into His Kingdom (So what did the thief believe? That Jesus would die but would rise again and live to rule. He believed Jesus was the King!). (Lk 23:42) He was asking Jesus to be concerned about him or to think of him.

    Mercy (1656)(eleos) is an attitude and emotion roused by the affliction of another - pity, compassion. Eleos speaks especially of gracious action demonstrating God's compassion.

    Spurgeon - The Interpreter's Bible - The person chosen to be the mother of the Lord Jesus was a lowly maid, but she was also a godly woman of no mean ability of mind, for her song is written in the highest style of poetry. To the humble and devout the visitations of the Holy Spirit are granted. The manner in which the angel saluted Mary was highly honourable to her, but affords no ground for the superstitious reverence of the Papists, for “he saluted her as a saint, and did not pray to her as a goddess.” Mary confessed herself a sinner needing salvation, for she rejoiced in God her Saviour; it never entered into her mind to claim the homage of mankind. It is a great blessing that in answer to earnest prayer the Holy Spirit will come into our hearts, and make us sing as joyfully as Mary did. Christ will dwell in our hearts by faith, and we shall be numbered with those favoured ones of whom Jesus said, “The same is my brother, and sister, and mother.”

          My soul doth magnify the Lord,
             My spirit doth rejoice;
          To thee my Saviour and my God
             I lift my joyful voice.

          Down from above the blessèd dove
             Is come into my breast,
          To witness thine eternal love,
             And give my spirit rest.


          Hark, the glad sound, the Saviour comes,
             The Saviour promised long!
          Let every heart prepare a throne,
             And every voice a song.

          Our glad hosannas, Prince of Peace,
             Thy welcome shall proclaim;
          And heaven’s eternal arches ring
             With thy beloved name.

    Luke 1:55  As He spoke to our fathers, To Abraham and his descendants forever."

    To Abraham and his descendants - This is an allusion to the everlasting, unconditional covenant God cut with Abraham and his seed. 

    Forever (165)(aion) is the idiom "eis ton aiona" is more literally "to the age" meaning to the end of the age or forever.

    Luke 1:56  And Mary stayed with her about three months, and then returned to her home.

    Luke 1:57  Now the time had come for Elizabeth to give birth, and she gave birth to a son.

    John Hannah outlines this last section:  The advent of John  (Lk 1:57-80)

    1. The birth of John  (Lk 1:57-58)
    2. The naming of John  (Lk 1:59-66)
    3. The song of Zacharias  (Lk 1:67-79)
    4. The childhood of John  (Lk 1:80)

    Luke 1:58  Her neighbors and her relatives heard that the Lord had displayed His great mercy toward her; and they were rejoicing with her.

    Spurgeon - This is a very beautiful way of stating the case, “The Lord had shewed great mercy upon her.” Family events should be looked at in this light, and made the occasion of pious thanksgiving.)

    Luke 1:59  And it happened that on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child, and they were going to call him Zacharias, after his father.

    Luke 1:60  But his mother answered and said, "No indeed; but he shall be called John."

    John - "the Lord's gracious gift" (Spurgeon) See "Behind the Name"

    Luke 1:61  And they said to her, "There is no one among your relatives who is called by that name."

    Luke 1:62  And they made signs to his father, as to what he wanted him called.

    Spurgeon on they made signs - For he was deaf as well as dumb, a double chastisement for his unbelief, which was now to be graciously removed

    Luke 1:63  And he asked for a tablet and wrote as follows, "His name is John." And they were all astonished.

    See map of ministry of John the Baptist

    Luke 1:64  And at once his mouth was opened and his tongue loosed, and he began to speak in praise of God.

    Spurgeon - The dumb man in a moment not only spake, but sang for very joy. The Lord is a God of wonders.

    Luke 1:65  Fear came on all those living around them; and all these matters were being talked about in all the hill country of Judea.

    Luke 1:66  All who heard them kept them in mind, saying, "What then will this child turn out to be?" For the hand of the Lord was certainly with him.

    Luke 1:67  And his father Zacharias was filled with the Holy Spirit, and prophesied, saying:

    Luke 1:68  "Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, For He has visited us and accomplished redemption for His people,

    Luke 1:69  And has raised up a horn of salvation for us In the house of David His servant--

    • an. 1 Sa. 2:10. 2 Sa. 22:3. Ps. 18:2; 132:17, 18. Eze. 29:21. in. 2 Sa. 7:26. 1 Ki. 11:13. Ps. 89:3, 20, etc. Is. 9:6, 7; 11:1–9. Je. 23:5, 6; 33:15–26. Eze. 34:23, 24; 37:24, 25. Am. 9:11. Mark 11:10. Ro. 1:2, 3. Re. 22:16.

    The house of David His servant - Clearly Mary is familiar with the Word of God (as we would expect for a woman chosen to bear the the God of the Word, the Living Word!) The implication is also clear that Mary was familiar with the OT passages that predicted the coming of the Messiah from the line of David (cf Mt 1:1 "The record of the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah, the son of David, the son of Abraham.") See also her allusion of OT Messianic prophecies in Luke 1:78-79. See related discussion of Messianic Prophecy.


    SEVEN ASPECTS OF SALVATION. - James Smith - Handfuls of Purpose
    1. Horn of Salvation—the Power of Salvation, Luke 1:69
    2. Rock of Salvation—the Stability of our Salvation, Psalm 95:1
    3. Tower of Salvation—the Security of our Salvation, 2 Sam. 22:51
    4. Helmet of Salvation—Preservation of our Salvation, 1 Thess. 5:8
    5. Cup of Salvation—the Joy of our Salvation, Psa. 116:13
    6. Wells of Salvation—the Refreshment in our Salvation, Isaiah 12:3

    Luke 1:70  As He spoke by the mouth of His holy prophets from of old--

    Luke 1:71  Salvation FROM OUR ENEMIES, And FROM THE HAND OF ALL WHO HATE US;

    Luke 1:72  To show mercy toward our fathers, And to remember His holy covenant,

    Luke 1:73  The oath which He swore to Abraham our father,

    Luke 1:74  To grant us that we, being rescued from the hand of our enemies, Might serve Him without fear,

    Luke 1:75  In holiness and righteousness before Him all our days.

    Spurgeon - So that there is not a word in this noble song of Zacharias concerning John, or his own relationship to him; he reserves that until he has poured forth his whole soul concerning the Lord’s Christ. Jesus must be first and foremost in his people’s hearts; even our highest spiritual joys must stand second to him. Him will we praise with our best music.

    Luke 1:76  "And you, child, will be called the prophet of the Most High; For you will go on BEFORE THE LORD TO PREPARE HIS WAYS;

    • shalt be. Luke 7:28. Mat. 14:5; 21:26. Mark 11:32.
    • Highest. Luke 1:32, 35; Luke 6:35. Ps. 87:5. Ac. 16:17.
    • thou shalt. Luke 1:16, 17; Luke 3:4–6. Is. 40:3–5. Mal. 3:1; 4:5. Mat. 3:3, 11; 11:10. Mark 1:2, 3. John 1:23, 27; 3:28. Ac. 13:24, 25.
    • Verse-by-Verse - Multiple Commentaries - Luke 1:76 Commentaries
    • Multiple commentaries and sermons on Luke 1

    Luke 1:77  To give to His people the knowledge of salvation By the forgiveness of their sins,

     

    Luke 1:78  Because of the tender mercy of our God, With which the Sunrise from on high will visit us,

    • tender. or, bowels of the. Ps. 25:6. Is. 63:7, 15. John 3:16. Ep. 2:4, 5. Phi. 1:8; 2:1. Col. 3:12. 1 John 3:17; 4:9, 10.
    • Day-spring. or, Sun-rising, or branch. Nu. 24:17. Is. 11:1. Zec. 3:8; 6:12. Mal. 4:2. Re. 22:16.
    • Verse-by-Verse - Multiple Commentaries - Luke 1:78 Commentaries
    • Multiple commentaries and sermons on Luke 1

    Sunrise from on high will visit us - As alluded to above, Mary was familiar with the OT passages that predicted the coming of the Messiah (Greek - Christos; see also article on Messiah - Anointed One) from the line of David (cf Mt 1:1 "The record of the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah, the son of David, the son of Abraham.") See also her allusion of OT Messianic prophecies in Luke 1:78-79. See related discussion of Messianic Prophecy

    Luke 1:79  TO SHINE UPON THOSE WHO SIT IN DARKNESS AND THE SHADOW OF DEATH, To guide our feet into the way of peace."

    • give. Luke 2:32. Is. 9:2; 42:7, 16; 49:6, 9; 60:1–3. Mat. 4:16. John 1:9; 8:12; 9:5; 12:46. Ac. 26:18. Ep. 5:8. 1 Th. 5:4, 5. 1 John 1:5–7. and. Job 3:5; 10:22. Ps. 23:4; 44:19; 107:10, 14. Je. 2:6.
    • to guide. Ps. 25:8–10, 12; 85:10–13. Pr. 3:17; 8:20. Is. 48:17, 22; 57:19–21; 59:8. Je. 6:16. Mat. 11:28, 29. Ro. 3:17..

    Spurgeon - Delightful is the object of the Saviour’s coming; no longer need any believer be in bondage through fear of death. Light has sprung up in the vale of death shade, and peace smooths our pathway even there.


    James Smith on The Way of Peace
    God's Way. "Expounded unto him the way of God more perfectly" (Acts 18:26), was the mission of Aquila and Priscilla, so far as Apollos was concerned.
    1. IT IS THE WAY OF SALVATION (Acts 16:17).
    2. IT IS THE WAY OF RIGHTEOUSNESS (Matt. 21:32). "He leadeth me in the paths of righteousness" (Psa. 23).
    3. IT IS THE WAY OF PEACE (Luke 1:79). "My foot hath held his steps."
    Application. Can you say with Job, "His way have I kept and not declined" (Job 23:11)? If not, will you say Isaiah 2:3: "Come. . . and He will teach us of His ways." To walk in "His way" we must "Come to Him." The reason they "went their ways" was because they left Him. Cling to Him at all costs.


    James Smith - In Darkness.

    Sitting in Darkness, Luke 1:78-79
    Hanging in Darkness, Matt. 27:45-46
    Called Out of Darkness, 1 Peter 2:9
    Turned from Darkness, Acts 26:18

    Four Scriptures which have a close connection with each other, as we shall see in the course of our meditation.

    I. Sitting in Darkness (Luke 1:78, 79). With glee some Bible critics have pointed out here a supposed inaccuracy. "See," say they, "how Zacharias, filled with the Holy Ghost, misquotes Scripture!" This they say on the supposition that he was quoting Isaiah 9:2. But Zacharias did not say so. He was so saturated with Scripture that, on examining his utterance, we find that he was quoting from Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Psalms, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Malachi. As a matter of fact there are in Isaiah two special Scriptures on darkness—1st, one on Walking in Darkness (9:2). But 29 years later, the prophet spake on Sitting in Darkness (42:7).
    It is a picture of deterioration and degeneration, and in our Lord's day it had come true. Once, though in darkness, they exercised an element of freedom and unsettlement and dissatisfaction, for they walked in darkness; now, in fast and fatal bondage, they sit in a dark and loathsome dungeon.
    Allow this picture language to grip you. The late Dr. Jowett has so graphically drawn attention to it. "Sitting in darkness!" Try to realise it. You sit by the fireside on a winter's night, with a bright fire making the room genial and warm. You sit on, until the fire burns low, and eventually dies out, and the warmth gives place to a searching chill. Then the lamp goes out, and darkness is added to coldness. But you still sit on, and terrible bondage becomes yours. And there are people whose soul-life is just like that. There is no fire in the grate, and their light is gone out, and they abide in cold and dreary desolation, and hard bondage.
    It was not ever thus. Once there was a fire in the grate, and a bright light showing and shining. The soul of man was lighted by the presence of the Holy Spirit, and wanned by the fact and presence of Divine love.
    But sin changed all this. Sometimes a darkened room helps an invalid to recover health, but a darkened soul is the result of a spiritual catastrophe, and betokens the presence of a dead spirit, a lifeless soul. Job speaks of "a land where the light is as darkness."

    SITTING IN DARKNESS. This is either a picture of enjoyment, contentment, or enslavement and despondency, or all.

    II. Hanging in Darkness (Matt. 27:45, 46). Have you ever connected Sitting in Darkness with Hanging in Darkness? There is a very close connection. If we had never walked or sat in the darkness of sin, He would never had found it necessary to have hung in darkness. He hung in darkness to atone for our sin, and to make it possible for us to sit in light—the light of His presence and love. The solar darkness He experienced, was an emblem of soul-darkness He endured on our account.

    III. Called Out of Darkness (1 Peter 2:9). This declares that for those sitting in darkness God has a tender regard. That, for them, "a Day-spring from on High hath visited us." That also a voice is heard, calling out of the darkness.

    IV. Turned from Darkness (Acts 26:18). Do you say: "I hear the voice calling me out of darkness, but I am chained fast, and cannot respond." Well, for you there is hope, for there is One Who will turn you out of darkness, for He can liberate you from the fetters of sin, and lead you right out into liberty.

    Luke 1:80 And the child continued to grow and to become strong in spirit, and he lived in the deserts until the day of his public appearance to Israel.

    Child (3813)(paidion  diminutive of pais = child) is a little child of either sex, ranging from an infant (Mt 19:13, 14; Mk 10:13-15; Lk 18:16, 17, etc) to children who are older (Mt 11:16; Mt 14:21; 15:38; 18:2-5, etc) Paidion is used repeatedly of Jesus in Matthew (Mt 2:8-9, 11, 13-14, 20-21). 

    The child continued to grow and to become strong - The exact description is given of Jesus' forerunner, John the Baptist

     And the child continued to grow and to become strong in spirit, and he lived in the deserts until the day of his public appearance to Israel.  (Luke 1:80-note)

    Another child in the OT named Samson had a similar beginning but a radically different finish...

    Then the woman gave birth to a son and named him Samson; and the child grew up and the LORD blessed him. (Judges 13:24-note)

    Continued to grow (837)(auxano means to cause to grow or cause to become greater in extent, size, state, or quality. 

    Become strong (be strengthened) (2901)(krataioo from krataios = strong <> see root kratos) means to be empowered, to be increased in vigor, to strengthen or in the passive voice (as in this verse) to be strengthened. From where was He strengthened? While it is difficult to fully comprehend, this strengthening is surely the effect of the Holy Spirit . 

    Henry Morris - Despite his priestly station, John (like Elijah) stayed in the desert in preparation for his brief, but fruitful, ministry just before Christ was to begin His.

    Spurgeon - Great minds are reared in solitude. Lone places are fit nurses for God’s heroes. We should be all the better if we were oftener alone; in the solemn silence of nature sanctified spirits find a congenial atmosphere.

    Several groups of ascetics inhabited the wilderness regions east of Jerusalem. One was the famous Qumran community, source of the Dead Sea Scrolls. John’s parents, already old when he was born, might have given him over to the care of someone with ties to such a community. In a similar way, Hannah consecrated Samuel to the Lord by entrusting him to Eli (1 Sa 1:22-28). However, there is nothing concrete in Scripture to suggest that John was part of any such group. On the contrary, he is painted as a solitary figure, in the spirit of Elijah as described in Luke 1:17.

    His public appearance - Mark describes this appearance -

    "John the Baptist appeared in the wilderness preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins." (Mk 1;4)

    Matthew adds

    " Now in those days John the Baptist came^, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, saying, "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand." (Mt 3:1-2)

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