|Romans 2:7 to those who by perseverance in doing good seek (PAPMPD) for glory and honor and immortality, eternal life (NASB: Lockman)|
Greek: tois men kath hupomonen ergou agathou doxan kai timen kai aphtharsian zetousin (PAPMPD) zoen aionion,
Amplified: To those who by patient persistence in well-doing [springing from piety] seek [unseen but sure] glory and honor and [the eternal blessedness of] immortality, He will give eternal life. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
ICB: Some people live for God's glory, for honor, and for life that has no end. They live for those things by always continuing to do good. God will give life forever to them. (ICB: Nelson)
NLT: He will give eternal life to those who persist in doing what is good, seeking after the glory and honor and immortality that God offers. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: and that means eternal life to those who, in patiently doing good, aim at the unseen (but real) glory and honour of the eternal world. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: to those on the one hand who by steadfastness of a good work seek glory and honor and incorruptibility, life eternal (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: to those, indeed, who in continuance of a good work, do seek glory, and honour, and incorruptibility -- life age-during;
|Romans — 1:18-3:20||Romans — 3:21- 5:21||Romans — 6:1-8:39||Romans — 9:1-11:36||Romans — 12:1-16:27|
Restored to Israel
TO THOSE WHO BY PERSEVERANCE IN DOING GOOD DEEDS: tois men kath hupomonen ergou agathou: (Ro 8:24,25; Job 17:9; Ps 27:14; 37:3, 34; La 3:25, 26; Mt 24:12,13; Lk 8:15; Jn 6:66, 67, 68, 69; 1Co 15:58; Gal 6:9; 2Ti 4:7,8; Heb 6:12,15;10:35,36; Jas 5:7,8; Rev 2:10,11) (Torrey's Topic Patience; Perseverance, Easton Perseverance of the saints, ISBE Perseverance)
Perseverance in doing good deeds - Note carefully that this phrase does not describe the way of salvation but the way the saved conduct their lives. In other words, their good works give clear evidence that they are genuinely saved.
Perseverance (5281) (hupomone [word study] from hupo = under + meno = abide) means literally abiding under, as one would abide under a heavy load. As an aside he who abides in Christ will be enabled to abide "under" any load (cp Php 4:13-note).
Hupomone describes steadfastness and endurance when circumstances are difficult. "God… gives perseverance" (Ro 15:5-note) and thus hupomone is not simply you by yourself "gritting your teeth" nor is it a passive acceptance of the circumstances. To the contrary, hupomone is manifest strong (Spirit enabled) fortitude in the face of opposition or difficulty.
Hupomone is used 32 times in the NT - Lk. 8:15; 21:19; Rom. 2:7; 5:3, 4; 8:25; 15:4, 5; 2 Co. 1:6; 6:4; 12:12; Col. 1:11; 1Th 1:3; 2Th 1:4; 3:5; 1 Tim. 6:11; 2 Tim. 3:10; Titus 2:2; Heb. 10:36; 12:1; Jas. 1:3, 4; 5:11; 2 Pet. 1:6; Rev. 1:9; 2:2, 3, 19; 3:10; 13:10; 14:12
Hupomone is that spirit which bears things not simply with resignation, but with blazing hope (absolute assurance of future good not "I hope so"). In other words, if something happens in your life that is hard and painful and frustrating and disappointing, and, by grace, your faith looks to Christ and to His power and His sufficiency and His fellowship and His wisdom and His love, and you don't give in to bitterness and resentment and complaining, then your faith endures and perseveres. How did you do this past week? If you have slipped backwards, don't be discouraged for God is your "very present help in trouble" (Ps 46:1-Spurgeon's note). Recall that
"The steps of a man are established by Jehovah and He delights in his way. When he falls, he shall not be hurled headlong because Jehovah is the One Who holds his hand." (Ps 37:23 24 cf Jude 1:24, 25; Php 1:6-note)
Dearly beloved, be encouraged for by His promise and power you shall persevere to the end.
Patient continuance in well doing does not mean that we are saved by doing good. Although a superficial reading of this verse might suggest that eternal life can be gained by doing good Romans clearly teaches justification (declared in right standing before God) is only by faith (Ro 3:22-note).
As already discussed, the subject of this verse is judgment, not justification. Believers who continue in good works will receive rewards in the life to come. Rewards will be based on works accomplished here on earth. A person’s doing good shows that his heart is regenerate. Such a person, redeemed by God, has eternal life. Conversely a person who continually does evil and rejects the truth shows that he is unregenerate, and therefore will be an object of God’s wrath.
Good deeds can not even begin until one is born again! (Click for discussion of what constitutes Good Deeds) Here Paul speaks of the reward that shall be given to those who persevere in living holy lives. Living a holy life does not save us but does prove we are saved, because the only one who can live a holy life is the one who possesses the indwelling Holy Spirit. Paul is not explaining how a man is saved in this section but is showing how a man is judged. All men will be judged on the basis of deeds (see the discussion in preceding verse).
Speaking of believers, Paul explains that
"each man's work (ergon = deeds) will become evident (NIV = "shown for what it is"), for the day will show it, because it is to be revealed with fire; and the fire itself will test the quality of each man's work. If any man's work which he has built upon it remains, he shall receive a reward. If any man's work is burned up, he shall suffer loss; but he himself shall be saved, yet so as through fire." (1Cor 3:11 12 13 14, 15). (See discussion of Judgment Seat of Christ = bema)
By contrast (see Table in preceding section) unbelievers at the Great White Throne will be
"judged from the things… written in the books, according to their deeds… every one of them according to their deeds" (Rev 20:11, 12, 13, 14, 15-see notes) to determine the degree of their everlasting punishment in "the lake of fire" (See Births, Deaths, and Resurrections).
William Newell sums up "patient continuance in well-doing" (KJV) as follows
The "patient continuance in well-doing" is not at all set forth as the means of their procuring eternal life, but as a description of those to whom God does render life eternal. Well-doing is subjection to and obedience to the light God has vouchsafed.
To Abel, "well-doing" meant approaching God by a sacrifice, as a sinner, as he had been taught to do.
To Noah, "continuance in well-doing" meant building an ark to save his house and preserve life upon the earth, involving years of labor, and the ridicule of man.
To Abraham, it meant leaving his country, his relatives, and his father's house, and becoming a stranger and pilgrim on earth.
To Job, it meant his God-fearing, evil-rejecting life; and afterwards, in the midst of his great affliction, bowing before the presence of God in dust and ashes.
To Matthew the publican, it meant rising from his business and following the Lord Jesus
To Cornelius the centurion, a life of patient prayer and generosity, -and then believing the gospel at Peter's lips.
To Lydia, it meant humble and faithful attendance at "the place of prayer" till Paul came and "her heart was opened" to give heed to the gospel of grace spoken by the apostle, whence followed her "obedience of faith."
In every age since man sinned there have been those like Jabez, who was "more honorable than his brethren, and called upon God" (1Chr 4:9,10) ; and like Joseph, who was "separate from his brethren."
There always have been choosers of God and rejectors of God. (Romans 2) (Bolding added)
SEEK (continuously) FOR GLORY AND HONOR AND IMMORTALITY ETERNAL LIFE: doxan kai timen kai aphtharsian zetousin (PAPMPD) zoen aionion: (glory: Ro 8:18-note; Ro 9:23-note; Jn 5:44; 2Co 4:16, 17, 18; Col 1:27-note; 1Pe 1:7-note; 1Pe 1:8-note; 1Pe 4:13-note, 1Pe 4:14-note; Torrey's topic: Glory) (immortality: 1Co 15:53,54; 2Ti 1:10-note ISBE topic Immortality, Nave's topic Immortality) (eternal life: Ro 6:23-note; 1Jn 2:25) (Torrey's Topic Reward of Saints)
Seek (2212) (zeteo) implies giving attention and priority to and deliberately pursuing after. The most common sense of this word is to "seek". Webster says that to seek means to go in search or quest of, to look for, to try to discover, to search for by going from place to place. To inquire for; to ask for; to solicit; to endeavor to find or gain by any means.
Zēteō in classical Greek is often used as a technical term for philosophical investigation, something “examined, considered” or “deliberated.” The Old Testament tradition of seeking after God, the prophets, false gods, etc., was shown by Paul (Ro 10:20). The most striking application of zēteō is the New Testament religious application. Jesus came to seek and to save the lost which implies far more than a mere “looking around” (as seen in Mt 6:32,33; 13:45,46; Lk 15:8) and includes the idea of diligently, earnestly, and tenaciously searching after something, sparing no effort, for the sought object is valued to the highest degree. Likewise, believers are to seek God in the same way.
The present tense in Ro 2:8 speaks of habitual conduct or lifestyle, whether good or evil, both of which reveal the true condition of one's heart, whether it is regenerated or not by faith in Christ. Jesus taught (speaking of false teachers but applicable in principle) that "You will know them by their fruits. Grapes are not gathered from thorn bushes, nor figs from thistles, are they?… So then, you will know them by their fruits. (Mt 7:16-note, Mt 7:20 -note)
Zeteo can refer to people “searching for” wisdom (1Co. 1:22); spiritual blessing (Mt 7: 7; Lk 11:19); rest (Mt 12:43); peace (1Pe. 3:11); a sign (Mk 8:11); death (Rev. 9: 6). People are also said to “seek after” the kingdom of God (Mt 6:33; Lk 12:31; 13:24).
While zeteo most often means “seek” in most of its nearly 117 uses in the NT, in Lk 12:48 and 1Co 4:2 zeteo is used passively to indicate that which is required (i.e., demanded) of faithful servants of God.
Stephen Renn - The meaning “seek” in the sense of “attempt” is indicated in contexts where there is an intention to destroy or kill (cf. Mt 2:20; 21:31). In particular, such an intent is recorded in connection with the campaign of the Jewish authorities to have Jesus Christ killed (cf. Mt 21:46; Mk 11:18; Lk 19:47; Jn 5:16; 7:1, 19 ff.; 8:37 ff.). Elsewhere, zeteo refers to the “attempt” to obtain eternal life or glory (Ro 2: 7; Col. 3: 1). See also Lk 17:33. It also refers to people touching Jesus in order to obtain a cure for disease (cf. Lk 6:19). Christ, as the Son of Man, “seeks” to do the will of God (Jn 5:44); and “seeks out” those who are spiritually lost in order to save them (cf. Lk 19:10). God is said to seek those who will worship him in Jn 4:23. (Expository Dictionary Of Bible Words - Word Studies for Key English Bible Words - Stephen D. Renn)
Zeteo describes the way Onesiphorus sought for Paul in Rome (2Ti 1:17) and there carries the idea of "diligent searching." Onesiphorus didn't make a few inquiries and quit. He diligently and with great determination searched for Paul until he found him. Oliver B. Greene wrote "The majority of friends. (so-called) will forsake us in the darkest hour of need; but the friend who is to be treasured as a jewel is the man who stands with us when we need encouragement, when all others are against us, and seemingly we have lost the battle. No words could ever express the worth of such a friend"!
Zeteo can speak of to seek what is lost, as "lost souls" in Luke 19:10, a shepherd seeking his lost sheep (Mt. 18:12) or a woman for her lost coin (Luke 15:8). But the same term can also be used of God's holy "demand" that requires much of him to whom He has given much (Luke 12:48 "required" [sought]), and that expects fruit from the tree (Luke 13:6-7 where "looking" = zeteo)
Wayne Detzler - The Greek term translated "seek" is zeteo. In its basic form it means to seek, investigate, or search for something. Homer used it to describe the striving after knowledge; it especially applied to philosophical investigation. Later on the term took on a legal flavor, as it was used to portray a judicial investigation. From the first century before Christ onward it meant to seek, investigate, to strive for knowledge. This word appeared more than 400 times in the Septuagint (see uses below), the Greek translation of the Old Testament. Sometimes "seek" simply meant to concentrate on finding someone. Joseph sought his brothers (Gen. 37:16), and Saul sought his father's female donkeys (1Sa 10:2). Also in the Septuagint this word was used for seeking after God (Isa 9:13). Conversely, God sought after His prodigal people (Ezek. 34:12-16). The words based on zeteo occur 120 times in the New Testament. Simply speaking, they relate to seeking what was lost. In Jesus' Parable of the Pearl, a merchant sought diligently to find expensive pearls (Matt. 13:45). Luke's Gospel contains a whole cluster of parables relating to seeking. In addition to the Lost Sheep and the Lost Son Parables, Jesus told about a Lost Coin. A woman lit a torch and sought diligently to found her coin (Luke 15:8). Another major emphasis in the Scriptures is the search for God. (Some would argue that God is not lost; we are. Still the New Testament speaks of applying effort to find God.) Christ exhorted His hearers to seek God's kingdom before anything else (Matt. 6:33; Luke 12:31). Likewise Jesus urged urgency in the search for God (Matt. 7:7; Luke 11:9). In the same vein the Apostle Paul told his Athenian hearers to seek after God (Acts 17:27). When a sinner is saved, he or she has searched seriously for God, though God really did the pursuing. There are some references in the Scripture to show what God is seeking in His people. Jesus sought figs on a fig tree, and He seeks spiritual fruit in our lives (Luke 13:6). God is also seeking true worshipers (John 4:23). When the Lord came into this world, His primary aim was to seek and to save the lost (Luke 19:10). God seeks in His people a heart to worship and serve Him, and where this is lacking He moves on. One kind of seeking that is condemned in the Scriptures is self-seeking. Before Christ came, people were consumed with a desire to seek righteousness on their own terms, not on God's terms (Rom. 10:3). Even among Christians Paul found many people who sought after their own interests rather than the things of God (Phil. 2:21). He contrasted this self-seeking with Christ's life of self-sacrifice (2:5-11). Paul had learned not to seek his own ends, but the building up of the church (1 Cor. 10:33). Another perversion of this seeking was the Jewish habit of seeking a sign from God to validate the messianic message (Mark 8:12). If the people did not see a miracle, they would not believe. But despite all the miracles they saw, many still did not believe. The Apostle Paul likewise warned the Corinthians about this fundamental error (1 Cor. 1:21-23). The whole of the Christian life can be summarized in seeking. God in His grace and mercy seeks and finds us. We have hearts which are disposed to seek after God until we find Him (Note: Actually Ro 3:11 would argue against this statement by Detzler - to be sure there is a "God shaped vacuum" in every soul, but some are "seeking" for God in "all the wrong places!"). After conversion, God seeks in us true worship, while we seek to please Him by what we do. When Jesus lived on earth, He went around seeking and saving. Now we who are the body of Christ should be constantly involved in seeking and saving the lost. Otherwise we have no reason to remain on earth. (NT Words in Today's Language)
ILLUSTRATIONS of seek - God's marvelous means of winning us for Himself are all bound up with the act of seeking. In fact Francis Thompson (1859-1907) wrote an excellent poem, "The Hound of Heaven." After studying for the priesthood, Thompson turned to medicine at the University of Manchester. Before long he became a helpless opium addict, in London. In 1888 Wilfred Meynell found him and won him for Christ. Thompson claimed that all along God had sought him like "the hound of heaven." Another similar story is that of Augustine (A.D. 354-430). Despite the pleadings of his godly mother, Monica, he launched into a life of immorality and debauchery. Along the way he fell in with the Manichean sect, and later he became a disciple of Neo-Platonism. Finally in Milan during 386 he read the Bible, and God arrested Augustine. Consequently the church has been immensely enriched by his life and writings. Augustine explained this searching in his testimonial book, Confessions. Here he recorded this powerful prayer: "Thou has created us for Thyself, and our heart cannot be quieted till it may find repose in Thee." He knew the double searching of God for the sinner and the sinner for God. Another person who understood this seeking after God was Chicago preacher A. W. Tozer. One of the collections of his writings is titled, The Pursuit of God. In this compendium of essays Tozer took his readers on a quest for the holiness of God. The son of my colleague had grown up, but not completely. In rebellion he turned his back on everything his father stood for. One time the boy even stole his father's car and ended up in jail. In sheer desperation, to escape his Christian home, the boy joined the U.S. Army. Of course God was still pursuing him, seeking him. Soon a Christian came into the boy's life, and he came to a personal faith in the Lord. Now that retired rebel is studying for the ministry. Because God is eager to seek us, true Christians engage in evangelism to seek others. The need for going after the lost was emphasized by Myron S. Augsburger, a Mennonite evangelist. "Too many clergymen have become keepers of the aquarium," argued Augsburger, "instead of fishers of men—and often they are just swiping each other's fish." On the same subject of seeking the lost, John Wesley (1703-91) issued a stern warning: "The church has nothing to do but to save souls; therefore spend and be spent in this work. It is not your business to speak so many times, but to save souls as you can; to bring as many sinners as you possibly can to repentance." (Ibid)
Here is a summary of uses of zeteo
(1) Searching for what is lost in order to find it (Lk 19:10, once possessed then lost - Mt 28:5, Mk 1:37)
(2) Searching or seeking for God (Acts 17:27). To seek God means to turn to Him, to strive humbly and sincerely to follow and obey Him
(3) A divine requirement of man (Lk 12:48).
(4) Seeking in the sense of making an inquiry or conducting an investigation, as when examining or questioning (Jn 16:19)
(5) To endeavor to obtain something, to strive for something even with earnestness. To devote serious effort to realize one’s desire or objective, strive for, aim (at), try to obtain, desire, wish (for) (Mt 6:33, Lk 12:31)
(6) Speaks of man's desire toward something (1Cor 10:24).
NAS translates zeteo - deliberating(1), demanding(1), inquire(1), looking(11), made efforts(1), search(4), searched(1), seek(36), seek after(1), seeking(35), seeks(9), sought(4), striving(1), tried(1), trying(6), kept trying to obtain(2).
Zeteo - 117x in 114v in NAS -
Matt 2:13 (Herod is going to search for the Child to destroy Him.), Mt 2:20 (for those who sought the Child's life are dead); Mt 6:33 (seek [present imperative] first His kingdom; Mt 7:7, 8 (seek and you shall find); Mt 12:43, 46f; 13:45 (the kingdom of heaven is like a merchant seeking fine pearls); Mt 18:12 (and search for the one that is straying); Mt 21:46 (they sought to seize Him); 26:16, 59; 28:5;
Mark 1:37; 3:32; 8:11f; 11:18; 12:12; 14:1, 11, 55; Mk 16:6;
Luke 2:48f; 5:18; 6:19; 9:9; 11:9f, 16, 24, 29; Lk 12:29, 31, 48; 13:6f, 24; 15:8; 17:33; 19:3, 10, 47; 20:19; 22:2, 6; 24:5;
John 1:38; 4:23, 27; 5:18, 30, 44; 6:24, 26; 7:1, 4, 11, 18ff, 25, 30, 34, 36; Jn 8:21 (I go away, and you shall seek Me, and shall die in your sin; where I am going, you cannot come), Jn 8:37, 40 (you seek to kill Me), Jn 8:50; 10:39; 11:8, 56; 13:33; 16:19; 18:4, 7f; 19:12; 20:15;
Acts 9:11; 10:19, 21; 13:8, 11; 16:10; 17:5, 27; 21:31; 27:30;
Ro 2:7; Ro 10:3 (= to seek, to search for, to try to, w. inf. Pres. part. emphasizes the continuing search, and indicates a deliberate and sustained intention, reflecting their zeal), Ro 10:20; 11:3;
1 Cor 1:22; 4:2; 7:27; 10:24, 33; 13:5; 1Cor 14:12 (seek to abound for the edification of the church);
2 Cor 12:14; 13:3; Gal 1:10; 2:17; Phil 2:21; Col 3:1 (Vine - "to seek, signifies here, not to search for, but to desire earnestly and to strive after"); 1Th 2:6; 2Ti 1:17; Heb 8:7; 1 Pet 3:11; 5:8; Rev 9:6
Zeteo - 313x in the Non-apocryphal Septuagint - Gen 19:11; 37:15f; 43:9, 30; Ex 2:15; 4:19, 24; 10:11; 33:7; Lev 10:16; Num 16:10; 35:23; Deut 4:29 (A prophecy - "“But from there you will seek the LORD your God, and you will find Him if you search for Him with all your heart and all your soul."); 13:10; 22:2; Jdg 4:22; 14:4; 18:1; Ruth 3:1; 1 Sam 9:3; 10:2, 14, 21; 13:14; 14:4; 16:16; 19:2, 10; 22:23; 23:10, 14f, 25; 24:2, 9; 25:26, 29; 26:2, 20; 27:1, 4; 28:7; 2Sa 3:17; 4:8; 5:17; 11:3; 12:16; 14:16; 16:11; 17:3, 20; 20:19; 21:1f; 1 Kgs 1:2f; 10:24; 11:22, 40; 12:24; 18:10; 19:10, 14; 20:7; 2Kgs 1:6, 16; 2:16f; 6:19; 1Chr 4:39; 10:13f; 13:3; 14:8; 15:13; 16:10f; 21:3, 30; 22:19; 28:8f; 2Chr 7:14; 9:23; 11:16; 15:12, 15; 16:12; 18:4, 7; 20:4; 22:9; 25:15; 26:5; 33:12; 34:3, 21, 26; Ezra 2:62; 7:6, 10; 8:21ff; Neh 2:4, 10; 5:12, 18; 7:64; 12:27; Esther 1:1; 2:2, 21; 6:2; 8:12; Job 6:5; 9:26; 38:41; 39:8, 29; Ps 4:2; 10:15; 24:6 (This is the generation of those who seek Him, Who seek Thy face–even Jacob. Selah); Ps 27:8 (When Thou didst say, “Seek My face,” my heart said to Thee, “Thy face, O LORD, I shall seek.”); Ps 34:14 (Depart from evil, and do good; Seek peace, and pursue it.); Ps 35:4; 37:10, 25, 32, 36; Ps 38:12; 40:14, Ps 40:16 (Let all who seek Thee rejoice and be glad in Thee; Let those who love Thy salvation say continually, “The LORD be magnified!”); Ps 54:3; 63:9; 69:6; 70:2, 4; 71:13, 24; Ps 83:16; 86:14; 104:21; 105:3 (Glory in His holy name; Let the heart of those who seek the LORD be glad.) Ps 105:4 (Seek the LORD and His strength; Seek His face continually.); Ps 119:176; Pr 1:28 (“Then they will call on me, but I will not answer; They will seek me diligently, but they shall not find me); Pr 2:3, 4; Pr 8:17 (“I love those who love me; And those who diligently seek me will find me.); Pr 9:6; 11:27; 14:6; 15:14; 16:7; 17:9, 16; 18:1, 15; 23:35; 28:5; Eccl 3:6, 15; 7:25, 28f; 8:17; 12:10; Song 3:1f; 5:6; 6:1; Isa 8:19; 21:12; 34:16; 40:20; 41:12, 17; 45:19; 51:1; 55:6; 58:2; 65:1, 10; Jer 2:24, 33; 4:30; 5:1; 11:21; 19:7; 21:7; 22:25; 26:21; 29:7 (‘And seek the welfare of the city where I have sent you into exile, and pray to the LORD on its behalf; for in its welfare you will have welfare.’) Jer 29:13 (And you will seek Me and find Me, when you search for Me with all your heart), Jer 30:17; 36:24; 44:30; 45:5; 49:37; 50:4, 20; Lam 1:11, 19; 3:25; Ezek 7:25f; 22:30; 34:4, 12, 16; 36:37; Dan 1:20; 2:11, 13, 18; 4:36; 6:4; 7:16, 19; 8:15; Hos 2:7; Amos 8:12; Mic 3:2; Nah 3:7, 11; Zeph 1:6; 2:3; Zech 11:16; Zech 12:9; Mal 2:15; 3:1 (“Behold, I am going to send My messenger, and he will clear the way before Me. And the Lord, whom you seek, will suddenly come to His temple; and the messenger of the covenant, in whom you delight, behold, He is coming,” says the LORD of hosts.);
Glory (1391) (doxa from dokeo = to think) means to give a proper opinion or estimate of something and thus the glory of God expresses all that He is in His Being and in His nature, character, power and acts. True believers continually (present tense) seek glory, primarily God's glory and secondarily personal glory.
MacArthur on seeking glory - the highest and most wonderful desire of a believer is glory, above all, God’s glory. A person who does not have such a desire deep within him cannot be a true believer. “Whether, then, you eat or drink or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God,” Paul admonishes (1Cor 10:31). To live to the glory of God is to manifest the very nature of God as a willing vehicle for His own divine working. A believer also seeks glory for himself, not in the fleshly, self-seeking way that is common to fallen human nature, but by looking forward to his sharing God’s own glory some day when his salvation is perfected (see Ro 8:21, 30; 2Th. 2:14; cf. Ps. 17:15). We know that any “momentary, light affliction is producing for us an eternal weight of glory far beyond all comparison” (2 Cor. 4:17) and that “when Christ, who is our life, is revealed, then [we] also will be revealed with Him in glory” (Col. 3:4). In seeking this heavenly glory it is really a seeking of Christlikeness.
Honor (5092)(time from tio = to pay honor or respect; see verb timao) is the worth or value ascribed to a person or thing. That which is paid in token of worth or value.
MacArthur - a true believer seeks honor, again not the worldly honor that most men long for but the honor that comes from God, the honor of His saying, “Well done, good and faithful slave; you were faithful with a few things, I will put you in charge of many things, enter into the joy of your master” (Matt. 25:21).
Immortality (861) (aphtharsia from a = not + phthartos = corruptible from the verb phtheiro = to corrupt, shrivel, wither, spoil by any process, ruin , deprave, defile, destroy) is literally that which cannot decay or be corrupted (deteriorated or lowered in quality, implying loss of soundness, purity & integrity) and is that which experiences unending existence. Aphtharsia is a state of not being subject to decay or death - immortality, incorruptibility (state of being free from physical decay), perpetuity. It speaks of an unending existence, of that which is not capable of corruption. Aphtharsia indicates immunity to the decay that infects all of creation.
That aspect of aphtharsia for which we seek is especially described by Paul…
1Cor 15:53 For this perishable must put on the imperishable, and this mortal must put on immortality.
Aphtharsia - 7x in 7v - Ro. 2:7; 1Co. 15:42, 50, 53, 54; Ep 6:24; 2Ti 1:10. NAS = immortality(2), imperishable(4), incorruptible(1).
This incorruptible existence was made possible
The Latin Vulgate has incorruptio which in the context of the New Testament refers in part to the glorified resurrection body
"sown a perishable body, (but) raised an imperishable body" (1Co 15:42) and described by Paul as when "DEATH IS SWALLOWED UP in victory" (1Co 15:54)
Aphtharsia thus means more than simply duration, because even unbelievers will live forever, but also refers to a new quality of life (Jn 17:3). Jesus came that we
"may have life, and have it to the full" (abundantly) (Jn 10:10NIV).
Vine writes that aphtharsia is used
(a) of the resurrection body, 1Cor 15:42, 50, 53, 54;
(b) of a condition associated with glory and honour and life, including perhaps a moral significance, Ro 2:7; 2Ti 1:10; this is wrongly translated “immortality” in the AV;
(c) of love to Christ, that which is sincere and undiminishing, Eph 6:24 (Vine, W E: Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words. 1996. Nelson
Eternal life is a not just "quantitative" but is also "qualitative". In other words, eternal life is a kind (quality) of life, a holy life of the eternal God given to (and now within) believers. As Paul so beautiful put it…
I have been crucified with Christ; and it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me, and delivered Himself up for me. (Galatians 2:20-note)
Writing to the saints at Colossae who were being "bombarded" with all manner of empty philosophy and false teaching regarding their position in Christ (Col 2:8), Paul assures them that eternal life is "Christ… our life" (there is no verb "is" in the Greek text) (Col 3:4-note). We receive this present possession the moment we are converted (Ro 6:23-note; 1Jn 5:13, Jn 20:31). Eternal life is also our future possession (Mk 10:30) and as Peter said represents an..
"inheritance which is imperishable and undefiled and will not fade away, reserved in heaven" (1Pe 1:4-note)
Easton's Dictionary adds that immortality refers to
"perpetuity of existence. The doctrine of immortality is taught in the Old Testament. It is plainly implied in the writings of Moses (Ge 5:22,24; 25:8; 37:35; 47:9; 49:29, Compare Heb 11:13, 14, 15, 16; Ex 3:6, Compare Mt 22:23). It is more clearly and fully taught in the later books (Isa 14:9; Ps 17:15; 49:15; 73:24). It was thus a doctrine obviously well known to the Jews. With the full revelation of the gospel this doctrine was "brought to light" (2Ti 1:10; 1Co 15; 2Cor 5:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; 1Th 4:13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18).
Christ is -1 John 1:2; 5:20
Revealed by Christ -John 6:68; 2 Timothy 1:10
To know God and Christ is -John 17:3
By God -Psalms 133:3; Romans 6:23
By Christ -John 6:27; 10:28
In Christ -1 John 5:11
Through Christ -Romans 5:21; 6:23
To all given to Christ -John 17:2
To those who believe in God -John 5:24
To those who believe in Christ -John 3:15,16; 6:40,47
To those who hate life for Christ -John 12:25
In answer to prayer -Psalms 21:4
Revealed in the Scriptures -John 5:39
Drinking the water of life -John 4:14
Eating the bread of life -John 6:50-58
Eating of the tree of life -Revelation 2:7
They who are ordained to, believe the gospel -Acts 13:48
Have promises of -1 Timothy 4:8; 2 Timothy 1:1; Titus 1:2; 1 John 2:25
Have hope of -Titus 1:2; 3:7
May have assurance of -2 Corinthians 5:1; 1 John 5:13
Shall reap, through the Spirit -Galatians 6:8
Shall inherit -Matthew 19:29
Look for the mercy of God to -Jude 1:21
Should lay hold of -1 Timothy 6:12,19
Are preserved to -John 10:28,29
Shall rise to -Daniel 12:2; John 5:29
Shall go into -Matthew 25:46
Shall reign in -Daniel 7:18; Romans 5:17
The self-righteous think to inherit, by works -Mark 10:17
Cannot be inherited by works -Ro 2:7; 3:10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19
Have not -1John 3:15
Judge themselves unworthy of -Acts 13:46
Exhortation to seek -John 6:27
Greek: tois de ex eritheias kai apeithousi (PAPMPD) te aletheia peithomenois (PPPMPD) de te adikia orge kai thumos
Amplified: But for those who are self-seeking and self-willed and disobedient to the Truth but responsive to wickedness, there will be indignation and wrath. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
NLT: But he will pour out his anger and wrath on those who live for themselves, who refuse to obey the truth and practice evil deeds. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: It also means anger and wrath for those who rebel against God's plan of life, and refuse to obey his rules, and who, in so doing, make themselves the very servants of evil. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: but to those on the other hand who out of a factious spirit are both also non-persuadable with respect to the truth and persuadable with respect to unrighteousness, wrath and anger. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: and to those contentious, and disobedient, indeed, to the truth, and obeying the unrighteousness -- indignation and wrath,
|BUT TO THOSE ARE SELFISHLY AMBITIOUS: Tois de ek eritheias: (Pr 13:10; 1Co 11:16; 1Ti 6:3,4; Titus 3:9-note)
Selfishly ambitious (2052) (eritheia) means self seeking, strife, contentiousness, extreme selfishness, rivalry and those who seek only their own. In a word, eritheia is the desire to be number one no matter the cost!
Thayer adds that it refers to
Eritheia describes personal gratification and self-fulfillment at any cost, which are the ultimate goals of all fleshly endeavors. Eritheia has no room for others, much less genuine humility. It is that ultimate self-elevation rampant in the world today which is the antithesis of what the humble, selfless, giving, loving, and obedient child of God is called to be in Christ and only possible in the power of His Spirit.
As discussed below eritheia did not originally have such a negative connotation but merely referred to a day laborer. It came to be used metaphorically, and almost exclusively, of a person who persistently seeks personal advantage and gain, regardless of the effect on others and by New Testament times, it had come to mean unbridled, selfish ambition in any field of endeavor. Eritheia was often associated with personal and party rivalry, quarreling, infighting, and strife (as KJV renders it five times). It usually conveys the idea of building oneself up by tearing someone else down, as in gambling, where one person’s gain is derived from others’ losses. The word accurately describes someone who strives to advance himself by using flattery, deceit, false accusation, contentiousness, and any other tactic that seems advantageous. It is hardly surprising, then, that Paul lists eritheia (“disputes”) as one of the works of the flesh (Gal. 5:20-note).
Eritheia is used 7 times in the NT (see below) and is translated in the NAS as - disputes, 2; selfish ambition, 3; selfishly ambitious, 1; selfishness, 1. It is not used in the Septuagint (LXX)
Romans 2:8 (note) but to those who are selfishly ambitious and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, wrath and indignation.
2 Corinthians 12:20 For I am afraid that perhaps when I come I may find you to be not what I wish and may be found by you to be not what you wish; that perhaps there may be strife, jealousy, angry tempers, disputes, slanders, gossip, arrogance, disturbances;
Galatians 5:20 (note) idolatry, sorcery, enmities, strife, jealousy, outbursts of anger, disputes, dissensions, factions,
Philippians 1:17 (note) the former proclaim Christ out of selfish ambition, rather than from pure motives, thinking to cause me distress in my imprisonment.
Philippians 2:3 (note) Do nothing from selfishness or empty conceit, but with humility of mind let each of you regard one another as more important than himself;
James 3:14 But if you have bitter jealousy and selfish ambition in your heart, do not be arrogant and so lie against the truth.
James 3:16 For where jealousy and selfish ambition exist, there is disorder and every evil thing.
Eritheia originally referred to spinning thread for hire, then more broadly to sewing for hire, then more broadly still to any sort of work or undertaking that was done for personal gain -- the work of a hired laborer (root word erithos). So it came to refer essentially to any work done for pay. Sadly eritheia degenerated into a description of the work which is done for no other motives than for pay. The one who works solely for pay works from a low motive and is out solely to benefit self. Eritheia therefore evolved into a description of one who was out for an office as a means of magnifying self and came to be connected with politics (wonder why?!) and to mean canvassing for political or public office. And so it described a person who wanted office, not from a motives of public service, but for what he could get out of it. At it's base level eritheia came to describe the utterly selfish and self-centered ambition which has no desire to serve another but is only in something for what it can get out of it for self. Furthermore, the person who is eritheia does not care what level or method it must stoop in order to attain its objective! Eritheia is more eager to display self than to display the truth. It is interested more in the victory of its own opinions than in the victory of the truth. Crooked politicians, who serve in office only for what they can get out of it, are a good example of this.
Eritheia is found before NT times only in Aristotle where it denotes a self-seeking pursuit of political office by unfair means. Thayer says it is "used of those who electioneer for office, courting popular applause by trickery and low arts." (Times haven't changed very much have they!) The idea is that this person is like a mercenary, who does his work simply for money, without regard for the issues or any harm he may be doing. Everything he does is for the purpose of serving and pleasing SELF. Certainly this fits the Bible’s emphasis that the basic problem of unregenerate man is his being totally wrapped up in SELF and having no place in his life for God.
William Barclay adds his interesting analysis of eritheia writing that it…
If there could be found one who genuinely was doing good at all times, they could merit eternal life of their own accord - but there is none, because all, in some way or another are or have been or will be self-seeking and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness.
William Newell observes that…
AND DO NOT OBEY THE TRUTH: kai apeithousi (PAPMPD) te aletheia: (Ro 1:18; 6:17; 10:16; 15:18; Job 24:13; Isa 50:10; 2Th 1:8; Heb 5:9; 11:8; 1Pe 3:1; 4:17)
In Ro 1:18 men continually suppress (actively hold down) the truth. Here they refuse to obey the truth. The volitionally, as an act of their will (active voice) refuse to be persuaded by the truth such that it brings forth good fruit. In Romans 1:25 men exchange the truth of God for a lie.
Apeitheo in the present context in Romans means that these individuals possess an attitude of unbelief because they deliberately disobey, consciously resist and rebel against authority and finally manifest an obstinate rejection of the will (truth) of God. The present tense indicates that this is their lifestyle (i.e., disobedience to the Divine will), the way the carry on their life is in continual disobedience against God! To be sure, we all disobey from time to time. That is not what Paul is referring to here. Instead he is describing the individual with an unregenerate heart who habitually, continually disobeys (as a lifestyle) what he or she knows to be the truth.
Apeitheo means not to allow oneself to be persuaded; not to comply with and to refuse or withhold belief (in the truth, but elsewhere in Christ, in the gospel)
Apeitheo speaks of a stubborn, stiff-necked attitude. It speaks of disbelief manifesting itself in disobedience. It is opposed to pisteuo, the verb translated "believe".
In studying apeitheo it is important to understand that
Marvin Vincent in discussing apeitheo in John 3:36 writes that..
From the above comments, it should not surprise you to discover that in the New Testament the word group translated disobey, disobedience, etc (apeitheo and the related ) does not stand in contrast with obedience but in contrast with faith!
Other words in this word group…
Apeitheo is used 34 times in the Septuagint (LXX), (Ex 23:21; Lv 26:15; Nu 11:20; 14:43; Dt 1:26; 9:7, 23, 24; 21:20; 32:51; Josh 1:18; 5:6; 2Ki 5:16; Neh 9:29; Ps 67:19; Pr 1:25; 24:21; Hos 9:15; Zec 7:11; Is 1:23, 25; 3:8; 7:16; 8:11; 30:12; 33:2; 36:5; 50:5; 59:13; 63:10; 65:2; 66:14; Je 13:25; Ezek 3:27) where it often translates the Hebrew verb "marah" a verb meaning to be rebellious and most often descriptive of rebellion against God to such a degree that it provoked Him to action. For example Moses warns Israel…
Below are the 14 uses of apeitheo. This verb makes a fascinating study. Go through the passages and make a simple list asking the questions who? what? why?, etc. You may need to examine the context (study them in context which you can do by clicking the link) to get an accurate sense (context is king ruling accurate interpretation) of the meaning of each use. Be sure and factor in the verb tenses remembering that present tense often conveys the sense that the action of the verb is as a lifestyle or is habitual. Aorist tense can refer to a definite completed action without specifying when this took place ("timeless").
Apeitheo is translated in the KJV as believe not, 8; disobedient, 4; obey not, 3; unbelieving, 1
Apeitheo is translated in the NAS as disbelieved, 1; disobedient, 10; do not obey, 1; obey, 2. The NAS renders apeitheo - disbelieved(1), disobedient(10), do not obey(1), obey(2).
What is the essence of disobedience? Clearly unbelief, lack of faith, without which no man can be saved.
The truth - not just truth in general but "the" specific truth about God and the way of salvation (the Gospel).
Truth (225) (aletheia from alethes = true in turn from a + lêthô = that which is hidden or lanthanô = conceal, this combination meaning out in the open, containing nothing that is hidden) describes the body of reality (facts, events, etc) or the content which is true, or which is in accordance to what actually occurred.
Truth is the unveiled reality lying at the basis of and agreeing with an appearance; the manifested, the veritable essence of matter.
Truth is the correspondence between a reality and a declaration which professes to set it forth. Words are true when they correspond with objective reality. Persons and things are true when they correspond with their profession. Hence a truth is a declaration which has corresponding reality, or a reality which is correctly set forth. Since God is Himself the great reality, that which correctly sets forth His nature is pre-eminently the Truth. Obviously whatever God says is "the truth", and in fact "the Truth" is actually embodied in the Person of Christ Jesus!
So these men do not obey the truth and refuse to answer the gospel invitation which continually holds out the gracious offer that
Instead, they have chosen as the habitual practice of their life to obey unrighteousness as their master (Ro 6:13-note). And so it should not be surprising that their lives are characterized by strife, wrangling, and disobedience, all indicators that they were never saved.
Here are the 109 uses of aletheia in the NT - Matt. 22:16; Mk. 5:33; 12:14, 32; Lk. 4:25; 20:21; 22:59; Jn. 1:14, 17; 3:21; 4:23f; 5:33; 8:32, 40, 44ff; 14:6, 17; 15:26; 16:7, 13; 17:17, 19; 18:37f; Acts 4:27; 10:34; 26:25; Rom. 1:18, 25; 2:2, 8, 20; 3:7; 9:1; 15:8; 1 Co. 5:8; 13:6; 2 Co. 4:2; 6:7; 7:14; 11:10; 12:6; 13:8; Gal. 2:5, 14; 5:7; Eph. 1:13; 4:21, 24f; 5:9; 6:14; Phil. 1:18; Col. 1:5f; 2 Thess. 2:10, 12f; 1 Tim. 2:4, 7; 3:15; 4:3; 6:5; 2 Tim. 2:15, 18, 25; 3:7f; 4:4; Tit. 1:1, 14; Heb. 10:26; Jas. 1:18; 3:14; 5:19; 1 Pet. 1:22; 2 Pet. 1:12; 2:2; 1 Jn. 1:6, 8; 2:4, 21; 3:18f; 4:6; 5:6; 2 Jn. 1:1ff; 3 Jn. 1:1, 3f, 8, 12
BUT (continuously) OBEY UNRIGHTEOUSNESS WRATH AND INDIGNATION: peithomenois (PPPMPD) de te adikia orge kai thumos: (Jn 3:18, 19, 20, 21; 2Th 2:10, 11, 12; Heb 3:12,13) (See Torrey's Topic, ISBE article on Wrath) (Ro 9:22; Ps 90:11; Nah 1:6; Heb 10:27; Rev 14:10; 16:19)
Obey (3982) (peitho) means to be persuaded and to cause to come to a particular point of view or course of action. In the New Testament peitho suggests an actual outward conduct as the result of the inward persuasion. Obey is in the present tense which indicates that obedience is the general tendency of their life. They manifest a lifestyle of obedience to sin rather than the Savior! Their means will justify their end (so to speak)!
Peitho - 52x in 52v - Matt 27:20, 43; 28:14; Luke 11:22; 16:31; 18:9; 20:6; Acts 5:36f, 39; 12:20; 13:43; 14:19; 17:4; 18:4; 19:8, 26; 21:14; 23:21; 26:26, 28; 27:11; 28:23f; Rom 2:8, 19; 8:38; 14:14; 15:14; 2 Cor 1:9; 2:3; 5:11; 10:7; Gal 1:10; 5:7, 10; Phil 1:6, 14, 25; 2:24; 3:3f; 2 Thess 3:4; 2 Tim 1:5, 12; Philemon 1:21; Heb 2:13; 6:9; 13:17f; Jas 3:3; 1 John 3:19. NAS = assure(1), confident(3), convinced(7), followed(2), have confidence(2), having confidence(2), listen(1), obey(3), obeying(1), persuade(4), persuaded(8), persuading(1), put… trust(1), put confidence(1), put… confidence(1), relied(1), seeking the favor(1), sure(2), took… advice(1), trust(2), trusted(1), trusting(1), trusts(1), urging(1), win… over(1), won over(2).
Unrighteousness (93) (adikia [word study] from a = without + dike = justice) is a condition of not being right, whether with God, according to the standard of His holiness and righteousness or with man, according to the standard of what man knows to be right by his conscience.
John gives us a good "working definition" of unrighteousness…
Adikia is a lack of right conduct toward God and toward men, a conduct which is not conformable with God's standard of what is right. These men are continuously listening to and obeying "adikia". The result of their obedience is a conduct which may be observed. On the other hand when a man obeys God he gives the only possible evidence that in his heart he truly believes God.
In secular Greek adikia referred to unjust acts, or to deeds which caused personal injury. Rather than a general concept of injustice, this word was taken, in the writings of Plato, to mean an unjust act which injures a specific person. Such an act was not necessarily a violation of some specific law, but rather an affront against the just order of society. Among the acts which fell into this category were theft, fraud, and sexual crimes. Later this word came to mean a neglect of duty toward the pagan gods. The Septuagint (LXX) used this word to describe social sins, those deeds which violated human relations or the political order of society. Among these injustices were deceit, fraud, and lying.
Adikia - 25x times in NT - Lk. 13:27; 16:8f; 18:6; Jn. 7:18; Acts 1:18; 8:23; Rom. 1:18, 29; 2:8; 3:5; 6:13; 9:14; 1 Co. 13:6; 2 Co. 12:13; 2Th 2:10, 12; 2 Tim. 2:19; Heb. 8:12; James. 3:6; 2 Pet. 2:13, 15; 1 Jn. 1:9; 1Jn 5:17 and in the NAS is translated "doing wrong, 1; evildoers, 1; iniquities, 1; iniquity, 2; injustice, 1; unrighteous, 2; unrighteousness, 12; wickedness, 4; wrong."
Wrath" (3709) (orge [word study]) is a settled or abiding condition of mind, frequently with a view to taking revenge. The word wrath comes from the idea of something which teems or swells until it becomes so swollen that it bursts forth which gives a perfect picture of God's holy "orge" which is His settled indignation and controlled passionate feeling against sin. Orge applies not to a petulant outburst like humans are so prone to but to an anger that proceeds from God's settled nature. Men make themselves the object of God's orge when they sin and become a part of the destructiveness of evil. The concept of wrath includes God’s present displeasure with evil as well as the ultimate confinement and defeat of all evil in eternal hell (Mt 8:12).
Orge - 36x in 34v - Matt 3:7; Mark 3:5; Luke 3:7; 21:23; John 3:36; Rom 1:18; 2:5, 8; 3:5; 4:15; 5:9; 9:22; 12:19; 13:4f; Eph 2:3; 4:31; 5:6; Col 3:6, 8; 1 Thess 1:10; 2:16; 5:9; 1 Tim 2:8; Heb 3:11; 4:3; Jas 1:19f; Rev 6:16f; 11:18; 14:10; 16:19; 19:15. NAS = anger(6), wrath(30)
Newell notes that…
C H Spurgeon writes that…
A W Pink adds that God’s wrath is
Indignation (2372) (thumos [word study] from thúo = move impetuously, particularly as the air or wind, a violent motion or passion of the mind; move violently, rush along) describes passion (as if breathing hard) and so speaks of an agitated or "heated" anger that rushes along (impulse toward a thing). Thumos describes a tumultuous welling up of the whole spirit; a mighty emotion which seizes and moves the whole inner man. Thumos (especially when accompanied by breathing violently or hard) pictures a "panting rage". We've all seen individuals in whom there was a sudden outburst of this type of passionate anger. You can even see their nasal passages widening to take in more air in the heat of their passion.
Thumos - 18x in 18v - Luke 4:28; Acts 19:28; Ro 2:8; 2Cor 12:20; Gal 5:20; Eph 4:31; Col 3:8; Heb 11:27; Re 12:12; 14:8, 10, 19; 15:1, 7; 16:1, 19; 18:3; 19:15. NAS = angry tempers(1), fierce(2), indignation(1), outbursts of anger(1), passion(2), rage(2), wrath(9).
In sum, thumos indicates a more agitated condition of the feelings than "orge". Thumos describes an outburst of anger from inward indignation that quickly blazes up and quickly subsides.
Orge is less sudden in its rise than thumos but more lasting in it nature.
Thumos expresses more the inward feeling,
Orge the more active emotion. 10/18 uses of thumos in are in Revelation!
Indignation comes from the idea of "boiling up" and pictures a passionate outburst by God. The day of His forbearance and patience (Ro 2:4) has come to an end.