|Romans 9:25 As He says also in Hosea, "I WILL CALL THOSE WHO WERE NOT MY PEOPLE, 'MY PEOPLE,' AND HER WHO WAS NOT BELOVED, 'BELOVED.' " (NASB: Lockman)|
|Greek: os kai en to Osee legei, (3SPAI) Kaleso (1SFAI) ton ou laon mou kai ten ouk egapemenen (RPPFSA) egapemenen; (RPPFSA)
Amplified: Just as He says in Hosea, Those who were not My people I will call My people, and her who was not beloved [I will call] My beloved. [Hos. 2:23.] (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Barclay: Just as he says in Hosea: “A people which was not mine I will call my people; and her who was not beloved I will call beloved." (Westminster Press)
ESV: As indeed he says in Hosea, "Those who were not my people I will call 'my people,' and her who was not beloved I will call 'beloved.'" (ESV)
ICB: As the Scripture says in Hosea: "I will say, 'You are my people' to those I had called 'not my people.' And I will show my love to those people I did not love." Hosea 2:1,23 (ICB: Nelson)
NIV: As he says in Hosea: "I will call them 'my people' who are not my people; and I will call her 'my loved one' who is not my loved one," (NIV - IBS)
NKJV: As He says also in Hosea: "I will call them My people, who were not My people, And her beloved, who was not beloved."
NLT: Concerning the Gentiles, God says in the prophecy of Hosea, "Those who were not my people, I will now call my people. And I will love those whom I did not love before." (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: He says in Hosea: 'I will call them my people, who were not my people, and her beloved, who was not beloved'. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: As also in Hosea He says, I will call those, not my people, my people, and those, not beloved, beloved. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: as also in Hosea He saith, 'I will call what is not My people -- My people; and her not beloved -- Beloved,
|Romans — 3:21-5:21||Romans — 6:1-8:39||Romans — 9:1-11:36||Romans — 12:1-16:27|
Jew and Gentile
|Demonstration of Salvation|
|Power Given||Promises Fulfilled||Paths Pursued|
Restored to Israel
|Slaves to Sin||Slaves to God||Slaves Serving God|
|Life by Faith||Service by Faith|
Modified from Irving L. Jensen's excellent work "Jensen's Survey of the NT"
|Romans 9||Romans 10||Romans 11|
Israel's Election by God
Israel's Rejection of God
|God's Ways Higher
God Not Rejecting Israel
Are you confused about God's plan for Israel? Then I highly recommend Tony Garland's 12 Hour Course on Romans 9-11 in which he addresses in depth the question of What Will Happen to Israel? (click) or see the individual lectures below)
Note that when you click the preceding links, each link will in turn give you several choices including an Mp3 message and brief transcript notes. The Mp3's are long (avg 70+ min) but are in depth and thoroughly Scriptural with many quotations from the Old Testament, which is often much less well understood than the NT by many in the church today. Tony Garland takes a literal approach to Scripture, and his love for the Jews and passion to see them saved comes through very clearly in these 12 hours of teaching! Take your home Bible Study group through this series if you dare! Take notes on the tapes as the transcripts are a very abbreviated version of the audio messages. This course is highly recommended for all who love Israel! I think you will agree that Tony Garland, despite coming to faith after age 30 as an engineer, clearly has been given a special anointing by God to proclaim the truth concerning Israel and God's glorious future plan for the Jews. Garland has also produced more than 20 hours of superb audio teaching in his verse by verse commentary on the Revelation (in depth transcripts also available) which will unravel (in a way you did not think was possible considering the plethora of divergent interpretations) God's final message of the triumph and return of the our Lord Jesus Christ as the King of kings and Lord of lords! Maranatha!
AS HE SAYS ALSO IN HOSEA: os kai en to Osee legei (3SPAI): (Hosea 1:1,2) (Hosea 2:23; 1 Peter 2:10)
Denney - Paul here applies to the calling of the Gentiles words which spoke originally of the restoration of Israel—an instance which shows how misleading it may be to press the context of the other passages quoted in this chapter.
In this section Paul begins with some passages from Hosea to establish the acceptability of the Gentiles, then goes on to some from Isaiah to show that the call does not include all Israel.
Paul quoted (Hosea 2:23) somewhat freely using it as a statement to indicate that God would turn (temporarily) from the Jews and call the Gentiles…
Hosea 2:23 "And I will sow her for Myself in the land. I will also have compassion on her who had not obtained compassion (corresponds to Hosea's daughter "Lo-Ruhamah = not compassion, without compassion or love), and I will say to those who were not My people (corresponds to Hosea's son named "Lo-Ammi"- Apostate Israel, God says, was "not My people" for they had lived as heathens and now they had become as heathens. But that was not God’s last word as the next clause shows!), 'You are My people!' (Those whom God wills to restore will be restored) and they will say, 'Thou art my God!'" (Comment: Interpreted in its OT context, Hosea 2:23 refers to Israel and not to the Gentiles. It looks forward to the time when Israel will be restored as God’s people and as His beloved.)
English translation of Hosea 2:23 in the Septuagint: "And I will sow her to me on the earth; and will love her that was not loved, and will say to that which was not my people, Thou art my people; and they shall say, Thou art the Lord my God."
Paul's point is that the call of the Gentiles should not have come as a surprise to the Jews.
God directed Hosea to give his children symbolic names—one son Lo-Ammi (not my people = Gomer's second son, his name symbolized the rejection of Israel, who, at Sinai, had covenanted to be God's people) and the daughter Lo-Ruhamah (not… loved or means "not pitied" or "not having obtained mercy," signifying that Israel will not find mercy when the impending judgment falls).
These names of Hosea's children represented God’s abandonment of the Northern Kingdom of Israel to the Assyrian Captivity and Exile (Hosea 1:2-9). However, God was not permanently casting away the people of Israel.
In the verses quoted by Paul, God promised to restore them as His beloved and as His people. By ethnic heritage the Gentiles were not God’s people, so Paul was led by the Spirit of God to apply these verses to Gentiles—and Jews also—who were sovereignly chosen by God and called to be His people in Christ. The quotation of Hosea 2:23 is rather free with the order of the clauses reversed to fit the application to Gentiles. Paul was applying these verses from Hosea to the Gentiles, not reinterpreting them. He was not saying that Israel of the Old Testament is part of the church.
Dr S Lewis Johnson the respected former professor at Dallas Theological Seminary wrote…
Paul follows with a series of Old Testament quotations in support of the fact that God has called Gentiles to faith and left Israel with a remnant in the earth. In other words if Israel had read the Scriptures, they would have understood what might happen, if they should reject the revelation of God climaxed in the appearance of their Messiah, the Lord Jesus Christ (cf. Ro 9:25-29). Oh! How many things become clear when we read the Scriptures! (Romans 9:14-33)
I WILL CALL THOSE WHO WERE NOT MY PEOPLE 'MY PEOPLE': kaleso (1SFAI) ton ou laon mou laon mou:
Wuest - The contents of these verses refer back to the fact that Paul includes the Gentiles with the Jews within the scope of God’s mercy. The “my people which were not my people,” and the “beloved which was not beloved” are the Gentiles.
Henry Alford - It is difficult to ascertain in what sense the Apostle cites these two passages from Hosea as applicable to the Gentiles being called to be the people of God. That he does so, is manifest from the words themselves, and from the transition to the Jews in Romans 9:27. (Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary)
Peter (1Peter 2:10) uses the same passage from Hosea in his first epistle, but probably with a slightly different desired "endpoint" (see comment after verse below)…
for you once were NOT A PEOPLE, but now you are THE PEOPLE OF GOD; you had NOT RECEIVED MERCY, but now you have RECEIVED MERCY. (see note 1 Peter 2:10)
Comment: In Hosea it is Israel who is not God's people. In Romans it is the Gentiles to whom Paul applies Hosea's words. Thus in 1 Peter the words could apply to both Jews before they met their Messiah and pagan Gentiles before the sanctifying work of the Holy Spirit. This is especially apropos in light of the difficulty to dogmatically label the recipients of Peter's letter as Jewish versus Gentile believers.
As noted above, although Hosea was speaking of the remnant Israel, Paul (writing under the Spirit's inspiration) applies the same principle to God's calling of a remnant of the Gentiles as well
And the LORD said, "Name him Lo-ammi, for you are not My people and I am not your God." (Hosea 1:9).
Marvin Vincent commenting on "that my people which was not My people" notes that "The Greek is much more condensed. “I will call the not-My-people My-people.” See Hos 1:6-9. The reference is to the symbolical names given by the prophet to a son and daughter: Lo Ammi not my people, and Lo Ruhamah not having obtained mercy. The new people whom God will call My people will be made up from both Jews and Gentiles. Hosea, it is true, is speaking of the scattered Israelites only, and not of the Gentiles; but the ten tribes, by their lapse into idolatry had put themselves upon the same footing with the Gentiles, so that the words could be applied to both. A principle of the divine government is enunciated “which comes into play everywhere when circumstances reappear similar to those to which the statement was originally applied. The exiled Israelites being mingled with the Gentiles, and forming one homogeneous mass with them, cannot be brought to God separately from them. Isa 49:22 represents the Gentiles as carrying the sons of Israel in their arms, and their daughters on their shoulders, and consequently as being restored to grace along with them” (Godet). (Word Studies in the NT)
AND HER WHO WAS NOT BELOVED, 'BELOVED: kai ten ouk egaphemenen (RPPFSA) egaphemenen (RPPFSA): (Ro 1:7; Ezekiel 16:8; John 16:27)
And her who was not beloved, "Beloved" - Remember that although Paul quotes an OT prophet's words to Israel, in context he applies the principle to those Gentiles who will become believers in Messiah.
Beloved (25) (agapao) means those who are loved unconditionally, sacrificially as can be perfectly done only by God Himself. God's love for His beloved is not sentimental or emotional but represents the act of His will with the intended goal of the recipient's highest good irrespective of whether they deserved it (which of course they did not)! Clearly agape love flows out of God's grace or unmerited favor. Both uses of beloved in this verse are in the perfect tense which speaks of the enduring effect of God's love to those who were not His beloved but now are His beloved.
Leon Morris in explaining the phrase "not beloved, beloved" (or "I will call her 'my loved one' who is not my loved one.") writes that "Hosea has this before the “not my people” clause and his verb here seems to mean “my pitied one”; Paul has reversed the order of the clauses and has “love” rather than “pity”. He is saying that in Scripture it is the call of God and the love of God that makes the people of God, and this quite irrespective of Jewish or Gentile origin. There is, of course, a sense in which all the people of the world are the objects of God’s love (John 3:16). God loves because it is his nature to love. But there is also a sense in which those who are his people are specially beloved, and this is the theme of the present passage." (Morris, L. The Epistle to the Romans. W. B. Eerdmans; Inter-Varsity Press)
To reiterate, Hosea's words in their original Old Testament context referred to Israel and not to the Gentiles. They looked forward to the time when Israel would be restored as God’s people and as His beloved (this time is yet future - they are back in the nation but largely in unbelief as of 2014). When Paul quotes these OT passages in Romans, he applies them to God's effectual call of the Gentiles. What right does Paul have to make such a radical change? The answer of course is that the Holy Spirit Who inspired the words in the first place has the right to reinterpret or reapply them at a later time.
|Romans 9:26 "AND IT SHALL BE THAT IN THE PLACE WHERE IT WAS SAID TO THEM, 'YOU ARE NOT MY PEOPLE,' THERE THEY SHALL BE CALLED SONS OF THE LIVING GOD." (NASB: Lockman)|
|Greek: kai estai (3SFMI) en to topo ou errethe (3SAPI) autois, Ou laos mou humeis ekei klethesontai (3PFPI) huioi theou zontos (PAPMSG)
Amplified: And it shall be that in the very place where it was said to them, You are not My people, they shall be called sons of the living God. [Hos. 1:10.] (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Barclay: And as he says in that same place where it was said to them: “You are not my people; there they shall be called the sons of the living God.” (Westminster Press)
ESV: "And in the very place where it was said to them, 'You are not my people,' there they will be called 'sons of the living God.'" (ESV)
ICB: "Now it is said to Israel, 'You are not my people.' But later they will be called 'children of the living God.'" Hosea 1:10 (ICB: Nelson)
NIV: and, "It will happen that in the very place where it was said to them, 'You are not my people,' they will be called 'sons of the living God.'" (NIV - IBS)
NKJV: "And it shall come to pass in the place where it was said to them, 'You are not My people,' There they shall be called sons of the living God."
NLT: And, "Once they were told, 'You are not my people.' But now he will say, 'You are children of the living God.'" (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: 'And it shall come to pass in the place where it was said to them, You are not my people, there they will be called sons of the living God'. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: And it shall come to be that in the place where it was said to them, Not my people are you, there they shall be called sons of the living God. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: and it shall be -- in the place where it was said to them, Ye are not My people; there they shall be called sons of the living God.'
Septuagint (LXX) of Hosea 1:10: kai estai (3SFMI) en to topo ou errethe (3SAPI) autois: ou laos mou humeis ekei klethesontai (3PFPI) huioi theou zontos (PAPMSG)
|AND IT SHALL BE THAT IN THE PLACE WHERE IT WAS SAID TO THEM YOU ARE NOT MY PEOPLE: kai estai (3SFMI) en to topo ou errethe (3SAPI) autois ou laos mou humeis:: (Hosea 1:9,10)
Paul continues the sentence quoting directly from the Septuagint of Hosea 1:10 (highlighted Scripture below corresponds to the words Paul quoted)…
This addition from Hosea 1:10 further emphasizes the divine call that makes the "not my people" into "sons of the living God".
Once again, in its Old Testament context Hosea was not speaking of the Gentiles but describing Israel’s future restoration to God’s favor. Yet under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, Paul applies it to God’s acknowledgment of the Gentiles as His sons. This is another illustration of the fact that when the Holy Spirit quotes verses from the OT in the NT, He can rightfully apply them as He wishes.
THERE THEY SHALL BE CALLED SONS OF THE LIVING GOD: ekei klethesontai (3PFPI) huioi theou zontos (PAPMSG):
They - refers to the Gentiles and is a promise included in the original promise to Abraham, Moses recording God's promise…
Inherent in God's promise to bless all the families is the promise of the coming of Abraham's Seed, the Messiah, for it was only through Him that the blessing to Abraham would pass. Paul explains this in the NT in Galatians writing…
Called (2564)(kaleo) means to speak to another in order to bring them nearer, either physically or in a personal relationship. A number of the NT uses convey the nuance of an invitation. (See related study on "the called")
Dr. Harry Ironside writes that in our day…
Commenting on Romans 9:25-26 Thomas Constable writes that "The inclusion of Gentiles in this group is in harmony with Old Testament prophecy. Hosea 2:23 and 1:10 in their contexts refer to a reversal of Israel’s status. Some interpreters say that this is a direct fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy. Others claim that this was an initial partial fulfillment that does not eliminate a future complete fulfillment. A better explanation, I think, is that Paul saw an analogy between God’s present calling of Gentiles and His future calling of Israel. Gentiles were not a distinct people as were the Jews but constituted the mass of humanity. Nevertheless by God’s grace believing Gentiles became members of the new people of God, the church." (Romans 9 Notes)
Living (2198) (zao) refers literally to natural physical life (opposite of death, Acts 22:22, 25:24, 28:4, Ro 7:1-3, 1Cor 7:39, of Adam = 1Cor 15:45; 2Cor 4:11 = refers to natural lives of believers; Php 1:22 - "to live on in the [physical] flesh"; 1Th 4:15,17 = believers physically alive at time of Rapture; Heb 2:15; Heb 9:17; James 4:15 = "we shall live" physically if God so wills it!), to come to life after death (Mt 9:18), to recover life after sickness (Jn 4:50). Zao refers to supernatural, spiritual life (cf Jn 11:25, 26), Paul explaining that Christ "lives because of the power of God." (2Cor 13:4) In Rev 16:3 "living thing" refers to the biological life of all the sea animals. In Rev 19:20 the Antichrist and his False Prophet will be "thrown alive into the lake of fire," indicating they will have conscious awareness of their torment (forever and ever).
Zao refers to the new birth wrought by one's faith in the Gospel (Ro 1:17)
Zao refers to to means of compensation in 1Cor 9:14 ("get their living from the Gospel")
In Php 1:21 Paul said "to live (zao) is Christ" indicating his (as should every believer's) life found it summa bonum, it's highest good, it's truest meaning, it's greatest satisfaction, it's most complete fulfillment, IN CHRIST, in His life lived out through us!
In ancient Greece, Attics rarely used the verb zao except in the present and imperfect tenses, supplying the other tenses from bióo (980) which means to spend one’s existence, simply to pass one’s life, from which is derived our word “biography,” the narrative of how one spent his life.
Faith is intimately, vitally associated with zao in the life of believers who "live by faith" (Ro 1:17, Gal 3:11, Heb 10:38)
To live is used frequently as a metaphorical description of one's behavior, lifestyle or daily conduct (Lk 15:13, cp "loose living" = ungodly conduct; lived as a Pharisee = Acts 26:5; live in the sphere, "atmosphere," and power/dominion of sin as one's lifestyle = Ro 6:2 [cf Col 3:7] which contrasts with Jesus life He lives for He "lives to God" = Ro 6:10, Gal 2:19; live like the Gentiles = Gal 2:14; 2Ti 3:12 = live godly as their lifestyle; believers no longer have to live their lives subject to the power of the fallen flesh = Ro 8:12; Ro 10:5 = "live by that righteousness" based on law, legalism - see also Gal 3:12; Titus 2:12 = "live sensibly" referring to believers daily conduct; to "live to righteousness" is now our privilege and power - 1Pe 2:24; believers supernaturally "live through" Christ = 1Jn 4:9). Zao describes Jesus' present heavenly ministry - "He always lives to make intercession" for us (Heb 7:25). The phrase "new and living way" refers to Christ (Heb 10:20; cf "the Way" Jn 14:6). Believers have a living hope based on the resurrection of Jesus Christ (1Pe 1:3).
Zao speaks of the believer's source of a brand new quality of life, a supernatural life in Christ (Ro 6:11, 13; Gal 2:20, Gal 5:25; 1Thes 5:10 = "live together with Him" = speaks of glorified state) and in the Spirit in contrast to living in the unregenerate state (in the flesh) (Ro 8:13). Zao refers to the believer's present "resurrection life" ("alive from the dead" - Ro 6:13). Heb 12:9 emphasizes that godly discipline encourages us and lead us to live godly lives.
In the phrase "living and the dead," zao in the used in the context of judgment to refer to those who are born again (the living) and the dead are those who have rejected Christ (Acts 10:42, 2Ti 4:1, 1Pe 4:5)
Zao speaks of God as the source of life (in Him we live Acts 17:28).
In Romans 7:9 zao is used in the phrase "sin became alive," referring to the ability of the Law to stimulate, excite or stir up our fallen sin nature (to then commit actual sins).
Zao describes Jesus' healing (resurrecting in a sense) of those with fatal illnesses (John 4:50, 51, 53, cf Peter raising Tabitha - Acts 9:41, Paul raising the boy who feel asleep during his sermon, feel out of the window and died - Acts 20:12, 9-10).
Zao, live (living) is used in the context of the resurrection and life after death (in general = Mt 22:32, Mark 12:27; in reference to Jesus living post-resurrection = Mk 16:11, Lk 24:5, 23, Acts 1:3, Paul's assertion in Acts 25:19; Jesus use of the phrase "As I live" = while He has always lived, this appears to refer to His post-resurrection life; Rev 1:18, 2:8). The phrase "came to life" refers to the resurrection of believers (Rev 20:4). Jesus will be worshipped as the One Who "lives forever and ever." (Rev 4:10, 10:6). Zao describes the counterfeit resurrection of the Antichrist (Rev 13:14).
God is not a dead god like the idols but is the "Living Father" (Jn 6:57) and the "Living God" (Mt 16:16, Acts 14:15, Ro 9:26, 2Cor 3:3, 6:16, 1Ti 3:15, 4:10, Heb 3:12, Heb 9:13, 10:31, 12:22, Rev 7:2). Jesus is referred to as the "living One" (Luke 24:5, Rev 1:18) and the "Living Bread" (Jn 6:51) which all must "eat" (clearly speaks of belief as explained in Jn 11:25. Eating probably speaks of entering an unbreakable union of eternal covenant with Jesus - pictured by married couples feeding each other cake) of Him will live (Jn 6:51, 57). His Word is more life giving than physical bread (Mt 4:4, Lk 4:4). Living water (Jn 4:10,11) in context describes Jesus' message of salvation, the Gospel. In the future we will drink from "springs of the water of life" (NIV = "Living water" = Rev 7:17) Jesus is our living Stone (1Pe 2:4 and because of our union with him, we are "living stones" 1Pe 2:5). In John 7:38 living water refers to the Holy Spirit. Believers are to present themselves to God as a living… sacrifice (Ro 12:1) which is our act of worship. God's word is described as living (living oracles = Acts 7:38, living and active = Heb 4:12; living and abiding Word of God = 1Pe 1:23). "Living creatures" describes those around the Throne of God (Rev 4:9, 5:14, Rev 15:7).
ALL THE USES OF ZAO
IN THE NEW TESTAMENT
Zao - 140x in 124 verses - Usage: alive(15), get their living(1), holding(1), life(6), life*(1), live(53), lived(3), lives(19), living(44).
Zao - 523v in non-apocryphal Septuagint - Gen 1:20, 24; 2:7, 19; 3:20, 22; 5:3, 5ff, 9f, 12f, 15f, 18f, 21, 25ff, 30; 8:21; 9:3, 10, 12, 15f, 28; 11:11ff; 12:13; 17:18; 19:19f; 20:7; 21:19; 25:6f; 26:19; 27:40, 46; 31:32; 35:28; 42:2, 18; 43:7f, 27f; 45:3, 26, 28; 46:30; 47:19; 50:22; Exod 4:18; 19:13; 21:35; 22:4; 33:20; Lev 11:10; 13:10, 14; 14:4ff, 49ff; 16:10, 20f; 18:5, 18; 25:35f; Num 4:19; 5:17; 14:21, 28, 38; 16:30, 33, 48; 19:17; 21:8f; 24:23; Deut 4:1, 4, 10, 33, 42; 5:3, 24, 26; 6:24; 8:1, 3; 11:8; 12:1, 19; 16:20; 19:4f; 30:6, 16, 19; 31:13, 27; 32:39f; 33:6; Josh 3:10; 4:14; 8:23; 9:21; Judg 8:19; 15:19; Ruth 2:20; 3:13; 1 Sam 1:26, 28; 5:12; 10:24; 14:39, 45; 15:8f; 17:36; 19:6; 20:3, 14, 21, 31; 25:26, 34; 26:10, 16; 28:10; 29:6; 2 Sam 1:10; 2:27; 4:9; 11:11; 12:5, 18, 21f; 14:11, 19; 15:21, 34; 16:16; 18:14, 18; 19:6; 20:3; 22:47; 1 Kgs 1:25, 29, 31, 34, 39; 2:24, 35; 3:22f, 25f; 8:40; 12:6, 24; 17:1, 12, 23; 18:10, 15; 20:18, 32; 21:15; 22:14; 2 Kgs 1:2; 2:2, 4, 6; 3:14; 4:7, 16f, 30; 5:16, 20; 7:4, 12; 8:8ff, 14; 10:14, 19, 21; 11:12; 13:21; 14:17; 18:32; 19:4, 16; 20:1; 2 Chr 6:31; 10:6; 18:13; 23:11; 25:25; Neh 2:3; 5:2; 6:11; 9:29; Esth 4:17; 6:13; 8:12; Job 7:16; 8:17; 12:10; 14:14; 18:19; 21:7; 27:2; 42:16; Ps 18:46; 22:26, 29; 27:13; 38:19; 39:5; 41:2; 42:2; 49:8; 52:5; 55:15; 56:13; 58:9; 69:28, 32; 72:15; 84:2; 89:48; 115:18; 116:9; 118:17; 119:17, 25, 37, 40, 50, 77, 88, 93, 107, 116, 144, 149, 154, 156, 159, 175; 124:3; 138:7; 142:5; 143:2, 11; Prov 1:12; 3:22; 9:6, 11, 18; 28:16; Eccl 4:2, 15; 6:3, 6; 7:2, 14; 9:4f; 10:19; 11:8; Song 4:15; Isa 8:19; 37:4, 17; 38:1, 16, 19; 49:18; 55:3; Jer 4:2; 5:2; 11:19; 12:16; 16:14f; 21:9; 22:24; 23:7f; 35:7; 38:2, 16f, 20; 44:26; 46:18; 49:11; 52:33; Lam 3:39; 4:20; Ezek 3:18, 21; 5:11; 13:19, 22; 14:16, 18, 20; 16:22, 48; 17:16, 19; 18:3, 9, 13, 17, 19, 21ff, 28; 20:3, 11, 13, 21, 25, 31, 33; 33:10f, 15f, 19, 27; 34:8; 35:6, 11; 37:3, 6, 9f, 14; 47:9; Dan 2:4, 28, 30; 3:9, 24; 4:1, 17, 22, 27, 34; 5:10, 23; 6:6, 20f, 26; 12:7; Hos 1:10; 4:15; 6:2; 14:7; Amos 5:4, 6, 14; 8:14; Jonah 4:3, 8; Hab 2:4; Zeph 2:9; Zech 1:5; 13:3; 14:8
Amplified: And Isaiah calls out (solemnly cries aloud) over Israel: Though the number of the sons of Israel be like the sand of the sea, only the remnant (a small part of them) will be saved [from perdition, condemnation, judgment]! (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Barclay: And Isaiah cries about Israel: “Even though the number of the sons of Israel shall be as the sand of the sea, only the remnant will be saved, (Westminster Press)
ESV: And Isaiah cries out concerning Israel: "Though the number of the sons of Israel be as the sand of the sea, only a remnant of them will be saved, (ESV)
ICB: And Isaiah cries out about Israel: "There are so many people of Israel. They are like the grains of sand by the sea. But only a few of them will be saved. (ICB: Nelson)
NIV: Isaiah cries out concerning Israel: "Though the number of the Israelites be like the sand by the sea, only the remnant will be saved. (NIV - IBS)
NKJV: Isaiah also cries out concerning Israel: "Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, The remnant will be saved.
NLT: Concerning Israel, Isaiah the prophet cried out, "Though the people of Israel are as numerous as the sand on the seashore, only a small number will be saved. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: And Isaiah, speaking about Israel, proclaims: 'though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, the remnant will be saved. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: And Isaiah cries in anguish concerning Israel, If the number of the sons of Israel be as the sand of the sea, the remnant will be saved. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: And Isaiah doth cry concerning Israel, 'If the number of the sons of Israel may be as the sand of the sea, the remnant shall be saved;
Septuagint (LXX) of Isa 10:22 kai ean genetai (3SAMS) o laos Israel os e ammos tes thalasses to kataleimma auton sothesetai (3SFPI)
|AND ISAIAH CRIES OUT CONCERNING ISRAEL: Esaias de krazei (3SPAI) huper tou Israel: (Isaiah 1:1) (Isaiah 10:20, 21, 22, 23)
In quoting this Old Testament passage Paul is shifting his emphasis form the inclusion of Gentiles in the people of God to explain the truth of remnant (which permeates the entire OT - see discussion), explaining that only a remnant of Israel will be saved.
Note there is some difference between the Greek Textus Receptus (source of KJV, NKJV) and more modern Greek manuscripts (source of NASB, NIV, etc) in the specific Greek word translated "remnant". Here is the version of the Greek used in the NAS translation…
Paul in quoting Isaiah 10:22 quotes not from the Hebrew text but the Greek text (LXX) which explains in part why the phrase "A destruction is determined, overflowing with righteousness" which is found only in the Hebrew, is not used here in Romans 9:27
Cries (2896) (krazo) refers to speaking or demanding with a loud voice, crying out, screaming, shrieking, making a vehement outcry. To communicate something in a loud voice. This may bring out the thought of urgency rather than simply being loud.
Note use of present tense which says the prophet continues to cry out. Isaiah cried in anguish over the outlook for Israel, but his cry contains the prophetic hope (certainty) of a future remnant of Israel (Jews who believe in their Messiah for redemption, in so doing entering into the New Covenant in His blood, even as Jeremiah had prophesied about in Jeremiah 31:31 "new covenant")
Marvin Vincent comments that krazo is
Paul is now underscoring the truth that only the remnant of the Jews will be saved -- that is what He had always said and thus it proves that the word of God has indeed not failed.
THOUGH THE NUMBER OF THE SONS OF ISRAEL BE AS THE SAND OF THE SEA IT IS THE REMNANT THAT WILL BE SAVED: ean e (3SPAS) o arithmos ton huion Israel os e ammos tes thalasses to hupoleimma sothesetai (3SFPI): (Ro 11:4, 5, 6; Ezra 9:8,14; Isaiah 1:9; 10:20,21; 11:11; 24:13; Jeremiah 5:10; Ezekiel 6:8; Micah 5:3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)
Number (706) (arithmos) means a cardinal number or as in this context a numerical total, the actual number not being specified except figuratively (compared to grains of sand).
What a dramatic contrast Paul is laying out… sons of Israel as numerous as grains of sand but only a small number of "grains" of which will be saved!
Hosea makes a prediction similar to Isaiah's…
Sea (2281) (thalassa) refers to a large body of water and in the NT is used to refer to several different named bodies (Mediterranean, Red, Galilee). Here the use is figurative the sand of the seashore symbolizing numberlessness.
Remnant (5275 = verb form hupoleipo) (hupoleimma from verb hupoleipo <> from hupo = under, beneath + leipo = leave, lack) (Click study of the remnant especially from an Old Testament perspective) means a remnant, remainder or residue, a small number or a relatively small surviving group. The definite article preceding hupoleimma in the Greek indicates this is a very specific remnant, the Jews who listen to the message of truth, the gospel of their salvation and believe in the Messiah. This is not just "a" remnant, but "the remnant", which as previously discussed is a doctrinal truth that runs throughout the pages of OT Scripture like a golden lifeline and runs intimately throughout Romans 9-11. The doctrine of the remnant will reach its consummation and ultimate fulfillment in the book of the Revelation. (See related offsite discussion or as a The Doctrine of the Remnant and the Salvation of Israel in Romans 9-11)
Saved (4982)(sozo) has the basic meaning of rescuing one from great peril. Additional nuances include to protect, keep alive, preserve life, deliver, heal, be made whole. Sozo is sometimes used of physical deliverance from danger of perishing (see Mt 8:25; Mt 14:30; Lu 23:35; Acts 27:20 27:31), physical healing from sickness (Mt 9:21-22; Mk 5:23, Acts 4:9), and deliverance from demonic possession (Lu 8:36). More often sozo refers to salvation in a spiritual sense as illustrated in the following passages: Matthew recorded the angel's conversation with Joseph declaring
Here sozo is equated with deliverance from sins (guilt and power of) with Jesus' name being a transliteration of Joshua meaning "Jehovah is salvation".
The reality that many among Israel would reject Messiah Jesus, but that a remnant would be preserved by God is a major theme in Romans 9-11. Paul is quoting these OT prophets to show that these ideas had always been part of God's sovereign plan and was thus driven by His electing purpose (see discussion of "chosen in Him" Eph 1:4-note). The elect remnant of Jewish believers are the true Israel, the "Israel of God" (See related discussion) as Paul referred to believing Jews in Galatians 6:16. It is also important to keep in mind that the national aspects of the OT promises made to Israel (e.g., the boundaries of the promised land have never been occupied to the extent God promised they would be occupied by Israel, the throne of David, the restoration of Jerusalem) are preserved in and for the believing Jewish remnant according to God's election (Ro 11:5-note).
What is this prophecy referring to? This prophecy is quoted from Isa 10:22
The Bible Knowledge Commentary writes that…
|Greek: logon gar suntelon (PAPMSN ) kai suntemnon (PAPMSN) poiesei (3SFAI) kurios epi tes ges.
Amplified: For the Lord will execute His sentence upon the earth [He will conclude and close His account with men completely and without delay], rigorously cutting it short in His justice. [Isa. 10:22, 23.] (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Barclay: for the Lord will carry out his sentence on earth completely and summarily.” (Westminster Press)
ESV: for the Lord will carry out his sentence upon the earth fully and without delay." (ESV)
ICB: For the Lord will quickly and completely punish the people on the earth." Isaiah 10:22-23 (ICB: Nelson)
NIV: For the Lord will carry out his sentence on earth with speed and finality." (NIV - IBS)
NKJV: For He will finish the work and cut it short in righteousness, Because the LORD will make a short work upon the earth."
NLT: For the Lord will carry out his sentence upon the earth quickly and with finality." (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: For he will finish the work and cut it short in righteousness, because the Lord will make a short work upon the earth'. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: For the Lord will execute His word upon the earth, finishing and cutting it short. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: for a matter He is finishing, and is cutting short in righteousness, because a matter cut short will the Lord do upon the land.
|FOR THE LORD WILL EXECUTE HIS WORD UPON THE EARTH THOROUGHLY AND QUICKLY kai suntemnon (PAPMSN) poiesei (3SFAI) kurios epi tes ges: logon gar suntelon (PAPMSN) kai suntemnon (PAPMSN) poiesei (3SFAI) kurios epi tes ges: (Isaiah 28:22; 30:12-14; Daniel 9:26,27; Matthew 24:21)
For (gar) is a term of explanation, which should always prompt you to pause and ask yourself what is the Spirit seeking to explain?
Note that the Greek Textus Receptus from which the KJV, NKJV and Young's Literal are translated has the added phrase "in righteousness" (see above) (Psalms 9:8; 65:5; Isaiah 5:16; Acts 17:31; Revelation 19:11)
NET Note - a more literal (and more cumbersome) rendering would be: "The Lord will act by closing the account [or completing the sentence], and by cutting short the time." The interpretation of this text is notoriously difficult.
The Leon Morris writes that this verse…
Execute (4160) (poieo) means to do, expressing action either as completed or continued (in this case that which will be completed).
What is this prophecy referring to? This prophecy is quoted from Isa 10:23
Isaiah's prophecy was fulfilled when God used the Babylonians to judge Israel for her unbelief and unfaithfulness, His justice was thorough with only a remnant of true believers escaping. Similarly the destruction of Jerusalem 70AD was thorough and quick. It is clear from other prophetic passages, that a given prophecy may have more than one fulfillment. Thus although there has been an original fulfillment by Babylon in 586BC and a partial fulfillment by Rome in 70AD, there appears to be a yet future and final fulfillment associated with Isaiah's prophecy.
I agree with Warren Wiersbe who states that
After the Great Tribulation, a remnant of believing Jews (1/3 of the nation according to Zechariah 13:9) will enter into the millennial kingdom (see Millennium 1, Millennium 2, Millennium 3) inaugurated by Jesus Christ when He returns to earth as King of kings and Lord of lords.
Thoroughly (4931) (sunteleo from sun = together or an intensifier + teleo = to finish, related word - sunteleia) means to bring together to culmination or completion. The bringing together of an intended purpose. Sunteleo speaks of an activity which is brought to an end, completed or finished. All of the NT uses of sunteleo to one degree or another convey an eschatological sense. The cognate verb teleioo is a key NT term for the completion of God's plan (Lk 12:50, 22:37, Jn 19:30). To finish entirely or completely (eg, Jesus ends the Sermon on the Mount - Mt 7:28, Satan's temptations, the Lord's testings of Jesus came to an end - Lk 4:13). The idea is to bring to a successful finish and thus to consummate, complete entirely, accomplish or fulfill an activity (or a prophecy Mk 13:4). Used in contexts which speak of time (Lk 4:2, Acts 21:27, Lxx of Ge 2:2, Dt 34:8, 1Ki 6:9, Job 36:11). To accomplish or fulfill (Mk 13:4 - clearly an eschatological context; Ro 9:28, Lxx = Isa 10:22 = Lxx = logon gar suntelon kai suntemnon en dikaiosune ~ [roughly translated] for the word is bringing this to completion and cutting it short in righteousness). The use in Hebrews 8:8 means to put into effect.
Sunteleo - 6x in 6v - Usage: effect(1), ended(1), finished(1), fulfilled(1), over(1), thoroughly(1).
Sunteleo - 152 verses in non-apocryphal Septuagint - Gen 2:1f; 6:16; 17:22; 18:21; 24:15, 45; 29:27; 43:2; 44:5; 49:5; Ex 5:13f; 36:2; 40:33; Lev 16:20; 19:9; 23:22, 39; Num 4:15; 7:1; Deut 26:12; 31:1, 24; 32:23, 45; 34:8; Josh 3:17; 4:1, 10f; 21:42; Jdg 3:18; Ru 2:23; 3:3; 1Sa 10:13; 13:10; 15:18; 20:7, 9, 33f; 24:16; 25:17; 2Sa 6:18; 11:19; 13:36; 21:5; 22:38; 1Kgs 1:41; 2:35; 3:1; 5:17; 6:3, 9; 7:1, 40; 8:1, 12, 54; 9:1; 22:11; 2Kgs 10:25; 1Chr 16:2; 27:24; 28:20; 2Chr 4:11; 5:1; 7:1, 11; 18:10; 20:23; 24:14; 29:17, 28f, 34; 30:22; 31:1, 7; Esther 3:13; 4:1; 8:12; Job 1:5; 14:14; 15:4; 19:26f; 21:13; 33:27; 35:14; 36:11; Ps 7:9; 119:87; Pr 1:19; 8:31; 22:8; Isa 1:28; 8:8; 10:12, 22; 18:5; 28:22; 32:6; 44:24; 46:10; 55:11; Jer 5:3; 6:11, 13; 13:19; 14:12, 15; 15:16; 16:4; 34:8, 15; Lam 2:17; 4:11; Ezek 4:6, 8; 5:12f; 6:12; 7:8, 15; 11:15; 13:14f; 16:14; 20:8, 21; 22:12f, 31; 23:32; 42:15; 43:23; Dan 4:33; 5:26; 9:24; 10:3; 11:16, 36; 12:7; Hos 13:2; Joel 2:8; Amos 7:2; Mic 2:1; Nah 1:15; Zech 5:4; Mal 3:9 -
In the Septuagint sunteleo is used several ways - (1) to finish (off), to accomplish 2Chr 24:14; Ge 2:2; to finish, to leave off Ge 43:2; Ge 17:22; to bring to accomplishment, to fulfill Jer 41:8;; to make an end to Lev 23:39; to continue till the end Dt 31:1; to consume 1Sa 15:18; to kill 2Sa 21:5 (3) to finish (off), to accomplish Ge 44:5; to perpetrate Ge 18:21 (2) to have come to an end, to be over Dt 34:8; to be accomplished Ge 2:1; to be fulfilled; to be completely formed Isa 18:5;
Quickly (4932) (suntemno from sun = an intensifier + témno = to cut or divide) means to cut short or shorten and figuratively speaks of an allotted time cut short or abruptly brought to an end. Suntemno means to cause a duration to come to an abrupt end, with the implication of sooner than expected. Vine on suntemno - to cut short; thus, to bring to an end or accomplish speedily; it is said of a prophecy or decree.
Ray Stedman has this comment on Romans 9:22-28…