Colossians 2:14 having canceled out (AAP) the certificate of debt consisting of decrees against us, which was hostile to us; and He has taken it out (3SRAI) of the way, having nailed (AAP) it to the cross. (NASB: Lockman)
Amplified: Having cancelled and blotted out and wiped away the handwriting of the note (bond) with its legal decrees and demands which was in force and stood against us (hostile to us). This [note with its regulations, decrees, and demands] He set aside and cleared completely out of our way by nailing it to [His] cross. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Barclay: and wiped out the charge-list which set out all your self-admitted debts, a charge-list which was based on the ordinances of the law and was in direct opposition to you. He nailed it to his Cross and put it right out of sight. (Westminster Press)
Lightfoot: then and there canceling the bond which stood valid against us (for it bore our own signature), the bond which engaged us to fulfill all the law of ordinances, which was our stern pitiless tyrant. Yes, this very bond Christ has put out of sight forever, nailing it to his cross and rending it with his body and killing it in his death.
Net: He has destroyed what was against us, a certificate of indebtedness expressed in decrees opposed to us. He has taken it away by nailing it to the cross. (NET Bible)
NIV: having canceled the written code, with its regulations, that was against us and that stood opposed to us; he took it away, nailing it to the cross. (NIV - IBS)
NRS: erasing the record that stood against us with its legal demands. He set this aside, nailing it to the cross.
Phillips: Christ has utterly wiped out the damning evidence of broken laws and commandments which always hung over our heads, and has completely annulled it by nailing it over his own head on the cross. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Weymouth: The bond, with its requirements, which was in force against us and was hostile to us, He cancelled, and cleared it out of the way, nailing it to His Cross.
Wuest: having obliterated the hand-written document consisting of ordinances, the one [which was] against us, which was directly opposed to us, and He removed it out of the midst with the result that it is no longer there, having nailed it to the Cross; (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: having blotted out the handwriting in the ordinances that is against us, that was contrary to us, and he hath taken it out of the way, having nailed it to the cross;
|HAVING CANCELED OUT: exaleipsas (AAPMSN): (Today in the Word: It is Finished)
Regarding the vivid imagery of canceled out or blotted out compare these cross references (Ps 109:14 - see Spurgeon's Note, Neh 4:5, Jer 18:23) and those below…
King David understood his great need (after his adultery with Bathsheba and killing of her husband Uriah) and God's great grace and mercy writing…
Spurgeon commenting on Col 2:14 writes that…
Wendell Kent writes that…
Having canceled out (1813) (exaleipho from ek = out, intensive [adds sense of "completely" - see also Vincent's note below] + aleipho = wipe, cover over, besmear) means literally to completely wipe off. Literally exaleipho means to remove by wiping off, as when a blackboard is erased. The word was applied to the process of obliterating writing on any material. Some of the uses in Scripture retain this literal meaning but most uses speak of a figurative blotting out or wiping off. The idea in all the uses is to cause something to cease by obliterating or eliminating any evidence. Twice in the Revelation God promises He will wipe away every tear. A number of uses in both OT (Septuagint) and the NT use this verb to describe the blotting out or wiping away of sins. Exaleipho was used by Thucydides of whitewashing a wall.
Eadie writes that exaleipho is
Exaleipho - Used 5x in the NT - Acts 3:19; Col 2:14; Rev 3:5; 7:17; 21:4
Vincent adds that
Synonyms would include blotted out, wiped away, obliterated, effaced completely, expunged.
The aorist tense pictures a past completed action - the blotting out has been accomplished by Christ on the Cross. Paul's use in this context pictures God blotting out and totally erasing our certificate of debt (our sin debt).
To understand the word exaleipho is to understand the amazing mercy and lovingkindness of God. The substance on which ancient documents were written was either papyrus, a kind of paper made of the pith of the bulrush, or vellum, a substance made of the skins of animals. Both were fairly expensive and certainly could not be wasted. Ancient ink had no acid in it; it lay on the surface of the paper and did not, as modern ink usually does, bite into it. Sometimes a scribe, to save paper, used papyrus or vellum that had already been written upon. When he did that, he took a sponge and wiped off the writing. Because it was only on the surface of the paper, the ink could be wiped out as if it had never been! God, in his amazing mercy, banished the record of our sins so completely that it was as if it had never been; not a trace remained. Hallelujah!
So when God cancelled out our debt it was accomplished completely and we need to receive and understand this profound truth so that the enemy does not "hound" us with "old sins" that God has completely blotted out! Are you having trouble accepting the forgiveness of God over some sin you have committed? Paul says that it is wiped completely off the slate so forget what lies behind and press on to what lies ahead.
There are only 5 uses of exaleipho in the NT…
There are 34 uses of exaleipho in the Septuagint (LXX) (Gen. 7:4, 23; 9:15; Exod. 17:14; 32:32f; Lev. 14:42f, 48; Num. 5:23; 27:4; Deut. 9:14; 25:6, 19; 29:20; Jdg. 15:16; 21:17; 2 Ki. 14:27; 1 Chr. 29:4; Neh. 13:14; Ps. 9:5; 51:1, 9; 69:28; 109:13, 14; Pr 6:33; Isa. 43:25; Je 18:23; Ezek 9:8; 20:17; 22:30; 25:15; Hos. 11:9) Study the uses in the Septuagint for insight into the meaning of exaleipho…
Jesus completely obliterated and wiped out our "certificate of debt consisting of decrees against us". When someone had a debt in ancient times and it was paid off, they would write "Tetelestai" on the certificate of debt. Tetelestai meant PAID IN FULL and is the same word Jesus uttered ("It is finished") just before He died (Jn 19:30). When the Jews nailed Jesus to the cross they drove the nails into their own law. The old covenant was made obsolete by the blood of the new covenant.
Barnes comments that
THE CERTIFICATE OF DEBT: to kath hemon cheirographon: (Col 2:20; Esther 3:12; 8:8; Lk 1:6; Eph 2:14, 15, 16; Heb 7:18; 8:13; 9:9,10; 10:8,9) (Today in the Word)
Webster says a "bond" is an an interest-bearing certificate of public or private indebtedness.
Certificate of debt (5498) (cheirographon from cheir = hand + grapho = write) is literally handwriting or a handwritten document and then a written record of a debt such as a promissory note. A document is written in one's own hand as a proof of obligation, e.g., a note of indebtedness. The word means primarily a bond written by a person pledging himself to make certain payments.
Friberg writes that figuratively in the only NT use in Colossians 2:14 cheirographon refers not to
Thayer writes that cheirographon means…
TDNT writes that in Colossians 2:14 cheirographon means
For example, in Philemon we find an "IOU" Paul writing
The idea is that of list of our crimes or moral debt before God, a debt no imperfect person can completely pay. But it can be taken out of the way, by payment from a perfect man, Jesus Christ.
Cheirographon then described a note or bond written by hand thus obligating the writer to fulfill the debt that is written out. In other words it is analogous to an "IOU" signed by hand and obligating the signer to repay the debt. Paul's idea seems to be that the sins of mankind had piled up a list of "I.O.U.'s" so large that they could never be repaid. Paul uses cheirographon not as the law itself, but as the record of charges for breaking God's law and which therefore stood against us.
When a criminal was crucified, the charges against him were written down and nailed to his cross. In this case, the charges against Christ encompassed the whole Law of God because Christ was dying for all the sins of all the world (Gal 3:10,13). In the OT, when presented with God's Law, the Jews had agreed to obey (e.g., Ex 19:8, 24:3,24:7). In the New Testament we find the Gentiles while not the written Law, did have the unwritten law in their hearts and the voice of conscience speaking within (Ro 2:14, 15-note). Men were in debt to God because of their sins and they knew it. There was a self-confessed indictment against them, a charge-list which, as it were, they themselves had signed and admitted as accurate. The debt was impossible to pay, but God dealt with it; he had blotted it out and cancelled the bond by nailing it to the cross. This is a vivid way of saying that because Christ was nailed to the cross, our debt has been completely forgiven.
Barnes adds that Paul's
Martin Luther told once how Satan laid heavy condemnation on him because of his sins. Luther told Satan to list them all, and even reminded him of some he had forgotten. Then he told Satan to write across the whole list "paid in full by the blood of Jesus Christ," and Luther rejoiced in the payment Jesus made. We all need an attitude like that of Luther and must keep the list on the cross. Saints get into trouble when they take the list down from the cross and carry it around, forgetting that it was all settled on the almighty cross.
Here Paul describes the "certificate of debt" that was filed against us in the "courtroom of heaven". In other words, because of our sin and rebellion, the laws of God had become a "deadly witness" against us and we were in such deep debt to God that there was no way out.
We owed a debt we could never repay.
CONSISTING OF DECREES AGAINST US AND WHICH WAS HOSTILE TO US: kath hemon… tois dogmasin o en (3SIAI) hupenantion hemin:
Against us (kath' hemon) in the sense that we could not keep these decrees. The "certificate of debt" signifies a claim of unpaid debt but "against us" indicates that it therefore signifies a debt warranting punishment. This hand writing was against us and contrary to us for it threatened our eternal ruin.
Decrees (1378) (dogma from dokeo = to think, to seem) refers to a formal statement concerning rules or regulations that are to be observed. Public decrees, binding rules, ordinances, legal demands, obligations, regulations. This Greek word can refer to a formalized rule (or set of rules) prescribing what people must observe. Dogma has the sense of a fixed and authoritative decision or requirement (as in Acts 16:4).
There is another sense of dogma which is not used in the NT and that is to refer to something taught as an established tenet or statement of belief (ie, dogma).
A decree in English is an order usually having the force of law. In the civil law, a decree is a determination or judgment of the emperor on a suit between parties. In general terms, the English meaning of decree is that of an order, edict or law made by a superior as a rule to govern inferiors. T
Dogma refers to a binding law or edict which was placed on a public place for all to see and this is the meaning in this use in Colossians. The decrees of the Law not only convicted us and condemned us but also demanded that we be punished. Thus the Law stood against us and was hostile to us. This law is conceived here as a bond, a bill of debt, standing against those who have not received Christ. As the form of error at Colossae was largely Judaic, insisting on the Jewish ceremonial law, the phrase is probably colored by this fact. Cp [Eph 2:15].
Dogma - is used 5 times in the NT…
Luke 2:1 Now it came about in those days that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus, that a census be taken of all the inhabited earth.
Acts 16:4 Now while they were passing through the cities, they were delivering the decrees, which had been decided upon by the apostles and elders who were in Jerusalem, for them to observe.
Acts 17:7 and Jason has welcomed them, and they all act contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, Jesus."
Ephesians 2:15 by abolishing in His flesh the enmity, which is the Law of commandments contained in ordinances, that in Himself He might make the two into one new man, thus establishing peace,
Colossians 2:14 having canceled out the certificate of debt consisting of decrees against us and which was hostile to us; and He has taken it out of the way, having nailed it to the cross.
Hostile (5227) (hupenantios from hupó = intensifies meaning + enantios = opposite to, contrary, used by Matthew to describe the wind as contrary, Mt 14:24) literally means set over against or opposite as an enemy or adversary in battle.
In the only other NT use, the writer of Hebrews uses this word to describe God's adversaries
There are 24 uses of hupenantios in the Septuagint (LXX) (Ge 22:17; 24:60; Exod. 1:10; 15:7; 23:27; 32:25; Lev. 26:16; Num. 10:9; Deut. 32:27; Jos. 5:13; 2 Chr. 1:11; 20:29; 26:13; Est. 8:13; Job 13:24; 33:10; Ps. 74:10; Isa. 1:24; 26:11; 59:18; 63:18; 64:2; Lam. 2:4; Nah 1:2) A majority of Septuagint uses are translated as enemy or enemies.
Vine adds that hupenantios means…
Moulton and Milligan write that
A vivid picture of the hostile character or "active hostility" of the bond or note. Paul gives us a parallel thought in Romans writing that
The decrees that were against us are in a sense personified - they have a hostile attitude, even a deep and active antagonism.
Maclaren adds that the
HE HAS TAKEN THEM OUT OF THE WAY HAVING NAILED IT TO THE CROSS: kai auto erken (3SRAI) ek tou mesou proselosas (AAPMSN) auto to stauro:
Taken (142) (airo) means to lift up, to bear or to take away. Airo was used by John in description of Jesus, writing
The perfect tense speaks of a completed action in the past with present effects and thus signifies that Jesus' once for all death on the cross in the past has produced a permanent, eternally efficacious effect, specifically in regard to the removal of the bond that once was against us. The debt is permanently removed and cannot be presented against us again! This truth also helps one understand how it is that he is "complete in Christ" and protects one from persuasive arguments and empty philosophy. John uses airo with a similar meaning in in his first epistle writing
Airo - 101x in NT - Matt. 4:6; 9:6, 16; 11:29; 13:12; 14:12, 20; 15:37; 16:24; 17:27; 20:14; 21:21, 43; 24:17f, 39; 25:28f; 27:32; Mk. 2:3, 9, 11f, 21; 4:15, 25; 6:8, 29, 43; 8:8, 19f, 34; 11:23; 13:15f; 15:21, 24; 16:18; Lk. 4:11; 5:24f; 6:29f; 8:12, 18; 9:3, 17, 23; 11:22, 52; 17:13, 31; 19:21f, 24, 26; 22:36; 23:18; Jn. 1:29; 2:16; 5:8ff; 8:59; 10:18, 24; 11:39, 41, 48; 15:2; 16:22; 17:15; 19:15, 31, 38; 20:1f, 13, 15; Acts 4:24; 8:33; 20:9; 21:11, 36; 22:22; 27:13, 17; 1 Co. 5:2; 6:15; Eph. 4:31; Col. 2:14; 1 Jn. 3:5; Rev. 10:5; 18:21
Out of the way is more literally out of their midst and conveys the picture that God wholly removed the certificate of debt. Parallel Old Testament pictures include the declaration that God
In Isaiah 44:22 God Himself declares
Micah records this beautiful description of our gracious and compassionate God rhetorically asking
Eadie writes that…
Nailed (4338) (proseloo from prós = to + helos = nail, peg, stud) means to affix with nails or spikes and describes the manner in which Christ removed the "I.O.U." (handwriting) against us. God nailed the Mosaic Law with all its decrees to the Cross of Christ when Christ was nailed to the Cross taking upon Himself the curse of the Law. The law with its decrees was abolished in Christ’s death, as if crucified with Him. It was no longer in the midst, in the foreground, as a debtor’s obligation is perpetually before him, embarrassing his whole life.
Vine comments on "nailed" that
Barnes notes that
Another source however records that
Eadie also gives a view somewhat different than Barnes (above) writing that
Cross (4716) (stauros from hístemi = to stand) was an instrument of capital punishment comprised of an upright pointed stake often with a crossbeam above it or intersected by a crossbeam. Paul had earlier taught on the efficacy of Christ crucified on the Cross writing that
Paul reminds us of the centrality of the Cross writing that
And to the Galatians Paul wrote
Devotionals and Illustrations…
REAL CHANGE - J. Vernon McGee told of a man who came to him and said, “I’ll give you $100 if you will show me where the Sabbath day has been changed.” McGee answered, “I don’t think it has been changed. Saturday is Saturday, it is the seventh day of the week, and it is the Sabbath day. I realize our calendar has been adjusted, and can be off a few days, but we won’t even consider that point. The seventh day is still Saturday, and it is still the Sabbath day.”
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Harry Ironside - Why Jesus Was Crucified - Pilate wrote out the inscription to be placed over the head of Christ Jesus, and that in three languages, Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, that all might know why the patient Sufferer from Galilee was being publicly executed. "This is Jesus of Nazareth the King of the Jews." As the people read this they understood that he was being crucified because He made Himself a king and was thus disloyal to Caesar.
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Our Daily Bread - More than four hundred years before Jesus' birth, the Greek poet Agathon said, "Even God cannot change the past." Historically speaking, he was right. What happens cannot be undone. Yet when God sent His Son to die on the cross, He provided a way to erase our sinful past.
The poet said, "I wish there were a land of beginning again." There is. "The blood of Jesus Christ His Son cleanses us from all sin" (1 John 1:7). And the hymn writer said, "Calvary covers it all, my past with its sin and stain; my guilt and despair Jesus took on Him there, and Calvary covers it all."
This is the wonder of the gospel. For those who have accepted Christ's offer of forgiveness, He "wiped out the handwriting of requirements that was against us, … having nailed it to the cross" (Col. 2:14). God has completely cleansed our sin-stained past. —P. R. Van Gorder (Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved)
Salvation can change the worst sinners into the most honored saints.
Paid in Full - The newspaper article reported that a Utah businessman had filed for bankruptcy and declared his debts to be $613 billion. It seemed ridiculous! What's more, the man claimed assets of only $7,310. In other words, if all debts were honored, his creditors would receive about one-millionth of a cent on the dollar. There was no way he could begin to pay his debts.
But drops of grief can ne'er repay
Octavius Winslow - Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross; - Colossians 2:14
Amplified: [God] disarmed the principalities and powers that were ranged against us and made a bold display and public example of them, in triumphing over them in Him and in it [the cross]. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Barclay: He stripped the powers and authorities of all their power and publicly put them to shame, and, through the Cross, led them captive in his triumphal train. (Westminster Press)
GWT: He stripped the rulers and authorities of their power and made a public spectacle of them as he celebrated his victory in Christ. (GWT)
Lightfoot: Taking on him our human nature, he stripped off and cast aside all the powers of evil which clung to it like a poisonous garment. As a mighty conqueror he displayed these his fallen enemies to an astonished world, leading them in triumph on his cross.
NET: Disarming the rulers and authorities, he has made a public disgrace of them, triumphing over them by the cross (NET Bible)
Phillips: And then having drawn the sting of all the powers ranged against us, he exposed them, shattered, empty and defeated, in his final glorious triumphant act! (Phillips: Touchstone)
Weymouth: And the hostile princes and rulers He shook off from Himself, and boldly displayed them as His conquests, when by the Cross He triumphed over them.
Wuest: having stripped off and away from himself the principalities and authorities, He boldly made an example of them, leading them in a triumphal procession in it. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: having stripped the principalities and the authorities, he made a shew of them openly--having triumphed over them in it.
|WHEN HE HAD DISARMED THE RULERS AND AUTHORITIES: apekdusamenos (AMPMSN) tas archas kai tas exousias: (Ge 3:15; Ps 68:18; Isa 49:24,25; 53:12; Mt 12:29; Lk 10:18; 11:22; Jn 12:31; 16:11; Eph 4:8; Heb 2:14; Ro 12:9; 20:2,3,10) (Col 1:16; 2Cor 4:4; Eph 6:12)
Had disarmed (554) (apekduomai [word study] from apo = + ekduo = expression of complete removal) means to take off or strip off clothing and so to to undress or disrobe, stripping off. The idea is to wholly put off for one's self which includes separation from what is put off.
The aorist tense speaks of a past completed action (at the Cross of Christ) and the middle voice is "reflexive" ("He himself") indicating that He initiated and participated in the disarming and divesting the rulers and authorities (exousia = "right & might").
Vine adds that
The terms in this verse are all military and the idea is that Christ has achieved complete victory and has subdued our enemies by His death, so that all creation is now in subjection to Christ. Satan and the demons no longer have authority over a believer who is walking in the light.
The only other NT use of apekduomai is Colossians 3:9 (none in the Septuagint)…
Paul uses the picture of spoiling one's foe to describe how God in Christ has stripped the powers of evil and control over the lives of men. This description would be familiar to his readers as it was used of a triumphant Roman general who stripped his foes, leading them as captives behind his chariot in a victory procession. The word of the Cross (1Cor 1:18) is the message of hope for all who live in "darkness… and… the dominion of Satan" (Acts 26:18, Col 1:13-note, 2Ti 2:26-note, He 2:14, 15-note, 1Jn 3:8, 5:19, cp Mt 4:16; Jn 1:4,5,7,8,9; 3:19, 20, 21; 8:12; 9:5; 12:36; 2Co 4:4; 6:14; Ep 5:8-note, Eph 5:14-note; Col 1:12, 13-note; 1Th 5:5-note; 1Pe 2:9-note; 1Jn 1:7; 2:8, 9, 10, Isa 35:5; 42:6; 61:1) and in continual fear of the evil, supernatural rulers and authorities.
Rulers (746) (arche) in its most sense speaks of primacy (from Latin primus = first) which is the the state of being first as in importance, grade, order, or rank. It speaks of pre-eminence. Arche thus means chief, principle, government and is personified to apply to angels.
Arche - 55x in the NT - Matt. 19:4, 8; 24:8, 21; Mk. 1:1; 10:6; 13:8, 19; Lk. 1:2; 12:11; 20:20; Jn. 1:1f; 2:11; 6:64; 8:25, 44; 15:27; 16:4; Acts 10:11; 11:5, 15; 26:4; Rom. 8:38; 1 Co. 15:24; Eph. 1:21; 3:10; 6:12; Phil. 4:15; Col. 1:16, 18; 2:10, 15; Tit. 3:1; Heb. 1:10; 2:3; 3:14; 5:12; 6:1; 7:3; 2 Pet. 3:4; 1 Jn. 1:1; 2:7, 13f, 24; 3:8, 11; 2 Jn. 1:5f; Jude 1:6; Rev. 3:14; 21:6; 22:13.
The NAS renders arche as beginning(37), Beginning(1), corners(2), domain(1), elementary(1), elementary(1),first(1), first preaching(1), principalities(1), rule(4), rulers(6).
Authorities (1849) (exousia from éxesti = it is permitted, it is lawful) means liberty of action. It thus refers to delegated authority and combines the idea of the "right and the might", these attributes having been granted to someone, the one who has the right and the might. Exousía means the power to do something and was a technical term used in the law courts, of a legal right.
Exousia - 102x in NT - Mt 7:29; 8:9; 9:6, 8; 10:1; 21:23, 24, 27; 28:18; Mk. 1:22, 27; 2:10; 3:15; 6:7; 11:28, 29, 33; 13:34; Lk. 4:6, 32, 36; 5:24; 7:8; 9:1; 10:19; 12:5, 11; 19:17; 20:2, 8, 20; 22:53; 23:7; Jn. 1:12; 5:27; 10:18; 17:2; 19:10, 11; Acts 1:7; 5:4; 8:19; 9:14; 26:10, 12, 18; Rom. 9:21; 13:1, 2, 3; 1 Co. 7:37; 8:9; 9:4, 5, 6, 12, 18; 11:10; 15:24; 2 Co. 10:8; 13:10; Eph. 1:21; 2:2; 3:10; 6:12; Col. 1:13, 16; 2:10, 15; 2 Thess. 3:9; Titus 3:1; Heb. 13:10; 1 Pet. 3:22; Jude 1:25; Rev. 2:26; 6:8; 9:3, 10, 19; 11:6; 12:10; 13:2, 4f, 7, 12; 14:18; 16:9; 17:12f; 18:1; 20:6; 22:14.
The NAS renders exousia as authorities(7), authority(65), control(1), domain(2), dominion(1), in charge(1),jurisdiction(1), liberty (1), power(11), powers(1), right(11).
Vine explains that exousía evolved
The phrase rulers and authorities has already been used by Paul to describe the angelic hierarchy, specifically declaring that Jesus not only created them (Col 1:16-note) but that they are also subject to His authority (Col 2:10-note).
Paul uses a similar phraseology reminding the Ephesians saints (and us) that the
Moses records that angels were present at the giving of the Law writing that
The Septuagint (LXX) translates flashing lightning with the Greek word aggelos (messenger or angel) and so this verse translated into English reads "on his right hand were His angels with Him".
Although the Deuteronomy passage is not completely clear, Luke records that the Jews "received the law as ordained by angels" (Lk 7:53) which would support the Septuagint interpretation.
Paul adds that
The author of Hebrews records that
So what is the point of all this angel talk? The point is to document that the angels played some role in the giving of the Law, albeit the specifics are far from clearly understood (at least by this writer). The point was that great importance was attached to the angels in later rabbinical teachings. The angels were described as those who assisted in the giving the Mosaic Law at Sinai and that probably influenced the shaping of the doctrine of angel worship which undoubtedly was part of the heretical teaching in Colossae. This background helps explain why Paul repeatedly addresses the rulers and authorities.
God had predicted this "disarming of rulers and authorities" in Genesis, directly declaring to the highest angelic ruler, the devil,
Jesus prophesied of Satan's "disarming" at His Crucifixion declaring
In the Temptation of Christ, Satan claimed power over the world, even offering to share it with Jesus (Mt 4:8, 9, 10; Lk 4:5, 6, 7, 8). Jesus did not deny Satan’s power then, but now predicts and proclaims final victory over the Satan, the "prince (arche) of the power of the air".
The writer of Hebrews presents a parallel truth in Hebrews 2 explaining that
Guzik addresses a practical question in light of Paul's teaching asking
It is therefore little surprise that in describing the spiritual warfare, Paul like a general in war commands all saints to
The best way to expose Satan's lies and deceptions is to arm oneself with the Word of Truth.
HE MADE A PUBLIC DISPLAY OF THEM HAVING TRIUMPHED OVER THEM THROUGH HIM: edeigmatisen (3SAAI) en parrhesia thriambeusas (AAPMSN) autous en auto: (Lk 23:39, 40, 41, 42, 43; Jn 12:32; 19:30; Acts 2:23, 24, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36):
Made display (1165) (deigmatizo from deigma = an example from deiknuo = to show, present to one's sight) is literally "made a show of them openly and boldly". To exhibit. To expose. To make a public show or spectacle, such as in a triumphal procession of a victorious general home from the wars, leading his captives and booty in a procession through the streets of Rome. They exposed their captives and the spoils of the conquered enemies to public view in their triumphal processions.
Here in Colossians 2, Christ makes a public exhibition of the vanquished forces, not just by proclamation, but by public display, as in a triumphal procession.
Robertson says that…
Lightfoot says deigmatizo describes Christ’s act regarding the principalities and powers, displaying them
The only other NT use (none in the Lxx) of deigmatizo is by Matthew
Public (3954) (parrhesia from pás = all + rhesis = act of speaking > "speaking all things") conveys the idea of freedom to say all. It is that attitude of openness that originates from freedom and lack of fear ("shaking" fear - godly, reverential fear is always appropriate). The Greeks used parrhesia of those with the right to speak openly in the assembly or in public, which is the way Paul uses it here in Colossians 2:15.
Parrhesia - 31x in the NT - Mk. 8:32; Jn. 7:4, 13, 26; 10:24; 11:14, 54; 16:25, 29; 18:20; Acts 2:29; 4:13, 29, 31; 28:31; 2 Co. 3:12; 7:4; Eph. 3:12; 6:19; Phil. 1:20; Col. 2:15; 1 Tim. 3:13; Philemon 1:8; Heb. 3:6; 4:16; 10:19, 35; 1 Jn. 2:28; 3:21; 4:17; 5:14
Commenting on parrhesia in 2Cor 3:12 John MacArthur writes that…
The NAS renders parrhesia as boldness(4), boldness of speech(1), confidence(13), confidently(1), openly(2),openness(1), plainly(5), public(1), publicly(3).
Vine comments that parrhesia
Spurgeon commenting on Col 2:15 writes that…
Having triumphed over (2358) (thriambeuo from thríambos = triumph) means to lead prisoners of war (and spoils) in a victory procession demonstrating one's successful conquest of the opposition. To lead in triumph.
The picture is that of the triumph of a Roman general returning home from the wars, parading his defeated captives through the streets of Rome. In Colossians 2:15,thriambeuo conveys the idea of the completeness of the victory accomplished by Christ.
Rienecker writes that thriambeuo presents
The only other NT use of thriambeuo is by Paul who writes…
Vine writes that thriambeuo
Vine adds that
A T Robertson adds that
To worship such defeated and humiliated beings would be the height of folly. The cross is the answer to the heretical insistence on worshiping angelic beings.
Through Him is literally "in Him" or "in it", the latter taken as a reference to the Cross.
Consider the following simple study - observe and record the wonderful truths that accrue through Him - this would make an edifying, easy to prepare Sunday School lesson - then take some time to give thanks for these great truths by offering up a sacrifice of praise… through Him.
Jn 1:3 [NIV reads "through Him"], Jn 1:7, John 1:10, Jn 3:17, Jn 14:6, Acts 2:22, 3:16, Acts 7:25, Acts 10:43, Acts 13:38, 39, Ro 5:9 [note], Ro 8:37 [note], Ro 11:36 [note]; 1Co 8:6, Ep 2:18 [note], Php 4:13 [note], Col 1:20 [note], Col 2:15 [note], Col 3:17 [note], Heb 7:25 [note], Heb 13:15 [note], 1Pe 1:21[note], 1John 4:9
Would you like more study on the wonderful topic of through Him? Study also the NT uses of the parallel phrase through Jesus (or similar phrases - "through Whom", "through our Lord", etc) - John 1:17, Acts 10:36, Ro 1:4, 5- note; Ro 1:8-note, Ro 2:16-note, Ro 5:1-note; Ro 5:2-note Ro 5:11-note, Ro 5:21-note, Ro 7:25-note, Ro 16:27-note, 1Cor 15:57, 2Cor 1:5, 3:4, 5:18, Gal 1:1, Eph 1:5-note, Php 1:11-note, 1Th 5:9-note; Titus 3:6-note, He 1:2-note; He 2:10-note, Heb 13:21-note, 1Pe 2:5-note, 1Pe 4:11-note, Jude 1:25)
All things are from Him, through Him and to Him. To Him be the glory forever. Amen.
John MacArthur writes that in this section Paul reminds us that
S. Lewis Johnson adds that
The general who had won a notable victory, would march his victorious armies through the streets of Rome in a long procession preceded by the city magistrates and followed by trumpeters. The captives and spoils of war would precede him, and the general following in a chariot, a slave holding a jeweled crown over his head. Behind the general came the vanquished kings, the leaders and defeated peoples who were openly branded as his spoils. Paul pictures Jesus as our Conqueror enjoying a kind of cosmic triumph, and in his triumphal procession are the powers of evil, beaten forever, for every one to see.
In the death, burial, and resurrection of Christ, God the Father achieved a great victory over the evil powers of this world, making “a public spectacle of them.” Paul wants us to understand that though the evil powers still exist, they are a defeated foe. Believers need no longer fear the outcome of their battle with evil. Christ has conquered! We have conquered through Him! In the vivid word picture inherent in the verb thriambeuo Paul presents the adequacy of the finished work of Christ. Sin is forgiven and evil is conquered; what more is necessary? There is nothing that Gnostic knowledge and Gnostic intermediaries can do for men-Christ has done it all. By dying for the sins of the world, Christ actually defeated Satan because He paid the price to redeem all men from their Satanic captivity. The writer of Hebrews gives us a parallel truth explaining that
Jesus has stripped the powers and authorities and made them his captives. As we have seen, the ancient world believed in all kinds of angels and in all kinds of elemental spirits. Many of these spirits were out to ruin men. It was they who were responsible for demon-possession and the like. They were hostile to men. Jesus conquered them forever. He stripped them; the word used is the word for stripping the weapons and the armor from a defeated foe. Once and for all Jesus broke their power. He put them to open shame and led them captive in his triumphant train.
The image can be seen in Plutarch’s description of the three-day Triumph given the Roman General Aemilius Paulus upon his return from capturing Macedonia. Great scaffolds were erected in the forum and along the boulevards of Rome for spectator seating, and all of Rome turned out, dressed in festive white. On the first day, 259 chariots displayed in procession the statues, pictures, and colossal images taken from the enemy. On the second day, innumerable wagons bore the armor of the Macedonians. Plutarch writes that the spoils were
John Eadie eloquently summarizes this section writing that