|1 Peter 5:11 To Him be dominion forever and ever. Amen. (NASB: Lockman)|
Amplified: To Him be the dominion (power, authority, rule) forever and ever. Amen (so be it). (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: To him [be] glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen. (based on Textus Receptus which has "glory" and a second "ever" in the original Greek text)
Phillips: All power is his for ever and ever, amen! (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: To Him let there be ascribed this power forever and forever. Amen. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: To Him the strength into the ages. Amen.
|TO HIM BE DOMINION FOREVER AND EVER: auto to kratos eis tous aionas, amen: (1Pe 4:11; Revelation 1:6; 5:13)
To Him (auto) Peter addresses this to the God of all grace Who acts so generously and tenderly on behalf of His children. To Him and to Him Alone is all praise due! "Be" is not in the Greek but is supplied by the translators. The literal is even a more striking exclamation of heartfelt adoration
Dominion (2904) (kratos) means strength or might, especially manifested power, the power to rule or control or dominion (power to rule, supreme authority, sovereignty, the right to govern or rule or determine). Krátos denotes the presence and significance of force or strength rather than its exercise. It is the ability to exhibit or express resident strength.
See note by Wayne Barber on kratos.
Kratos -12x times in the NT = Lk. 1:51; Acts 19:20; Eph. 1:19; 6:10; Col. 1:11; 1Ti 6:16; Heb. 2:14; 1Pe 4:11; 5:11; Jude 1:25; Rev. 1:6; 5:13.
NAS translates krátos as: dominion, 6; might, 1; mightily, 1; mighty deeds, 1; power, 1; strength, 2.
Kratos - 17x in the Septuagint (Lxx)- Gen. 49:24; Deut. 8:17; Jdg. 4:3; Ezr. 8:22; Job 12:16; 21:23; Ps. 59:9; 62:11; 76:3; 86:16; 89:9; 90:11; Prov. 27:24; Is 22:21; 40:26; Dan. 4:30; 11:1;
Regarding the derivation of krátos, Vine writes that this word means
Most of the NT uses (10/12) are in references to God Almighty, and make the point that ultimate dominion belongs to God Alone.
In the first NT use we see Mary praising her Lord ("The Magnificat" = the first word in the Latin translation) declaring that
Wuest translates this as "He brought about strength with His arm".
Mary reflects on reflects on God’s power in reversing certain social conditions (read Luke 1:52, 53)
Paul uses krátos in two prayers, praying for the Ephesians
Wuest paraphrases it
Paul prays that the Colossians might be
God’s power is manifested in us through the ministry of the Holy Spirit. To live the supernatural life we need not mere human energy but supernatural strength, the power of the risen Son of God. Note that it is not "out of" but "according to" His glorious might. What's the difference? Out of speaks of a portion of His power. But according to speaks of proportion and God's power is infinite. The former speaks of a miserly giving, the latter of abundant, generous giving. The first is like a billionaire giving you a dollar, the latter of his giving proportionate to his great wealth.
In Col 1:11-note Paul is saying in effect “With all power being empowered according to the might of His glory.” Spiritual growth and maturity comes as we yield to God’s power and permit Him to work in us. We usually think of God’s glorious power being revealed in great feats of daring but the emphasis here is on God's power to effect one's Christian character. As most believers who have walked with the Lord for some time would agree, it is those inner victories in one's soul that are as great as God's more famous miracles (Red Sea, etc). Think about the victory David experienced over his temper when he was being cursed by Shimei. Surely this victory over a spiritual "giant" was no less of a personal victory for David than his triumph over the physical giant Goliath (see 2 Sa 16:5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13)
Paul exhorts the Ephesian saints
God’s best soldiers are those who are conscious of their own weakness and ineffectiveness, and who rely solely on Him.
Five uses of krátos are found as part of a doxology (doxa - glory, praise + logos - word, utterance), a brief worshipful expression of praise to God, literally a "word of glory" or "utterance of praise". The fact that most NT doxologies are often found intimately associated with practical doctrine for living, suggests that believers should seek to live our everyday lives as a "doxology" to our God and Father. The NT writers had also learned that praise is an important factor in achieving victory over discouragement and depression. Note how in the NT
God exercises krátos, the might and power in action, marking Him as the sovereign Ruler over all. Reason, gratitude, love, all utter their deep “Amen’ to the declaration that God through Christ has endless glory and dominion.
Barclay comments that…
Paul ends his first letter to Timothy with a beautiful doxology declaring that
In the Revelation, John concludes his doxology with the only proper response in light of the magnitude of the blessings Christ has given believers, declaring that
All believers now live in the sphere of God’s rule, a kingdom which was entered through the door of faith in Christ Jesus our Lord. As God's royal priests, we now have the privilege to speak forth the excellencies of Him who called us out of darkness into His marvelous light. And as we meditate on such amazing love for those so unlovely, we can only cry out that He is worthy of all the glory, honor, worship, and praise that we can heap upon Him. And He is worthy of dominion over our lives, the church, the world, and the entire universe. Does He really have dominion over my life or do I have one foot in the kingdom of this present evil world? We cannot serve two masters.
In Revelation we read that all believers will be among those who proclaim speak praise (doxology) to God, John recording that
One reference speaks of the power of the Word of God, Luke recording that as a result of the public renunciation of pagan practices
All the devil's forces of the occult and magic arrayed against the Word could not overpower it. The bold preaching of the gospel, the confirming miracles, the defeat of the exorcists, the resultant awe and respect for the name of Jesus, and the public repudiation of the magical arts demonstrated the invincible might of God’s Word and provided a fertile environment in which it would grow. As someone has well said if Christians in America were to burn their trashy books and magazines, then perhaps we might see God's Holy Word would prevail in a much more powerful way in our secular culture.
There is one use of krátos referring to the devil, Hebrews recording that
By conquering death, Jesus rendered Satan powerless against all who are saved. Satan's dominion over the human race was in the form of death. That dominion is now broken by the Cross of Jesus.
Krátos is used 16 times in the Septuagint (LXX - Greek of Hebrew OT). For example, Job although sorely afflicted was still able to praise God and declare that
In one of the many majestic descriptions of Jehovah in Isaiah records
Nebuchadnezzar made a grave mistake in boasting
God immediately removed "the might of his power" and drove him out into the beasts of the field to eat grass like the cattle.
Forever [and ever] (aion) is literally “into (eis) the ages”. Note that the modern Greek manuscripts lack the second "aion" which is found in the Greek Textus Receptus ("aionas ton aionon") used for the KJV. In other words even though the NAS (NIV, RSV, NRSV, etc) uses a Greek manuscript that lacks the second "aion", the translators of most of these modern versions have chosen to translate this verse similar to the KJV ("for ever and ever")!
From the beginning to the end, Scripture declares our God reigns in power forever and ever…
In Exodus Moses records that
In Daniel we find a similar emphasis on the permanence of God's dominion, Daniel recording that
In the Revelation we read that when
Spurgeon observes that
|1 Peter 5:12 Through Silvanus, our faithful brother (for so I regard him), I have written to you briefly, exhorting and testifying that this is the true grace of God. Stand firm in it! (NASB: Lockman)|
Greek: Dia Silouanou humin tou pistou adelphou, os logizomai, (1SPMI) di' oligon egrapsa, (1SAAI) parakalon (PAPMSN) kai epimarturon (PAPMSN) tauten einai (PAN) alethe charin tou theou; eis en stete. (2PAAM)
Amplified: By Silvanus, a true (loyal, consistent, incorruptible) brother, as I consider him, I have written briefly to you, to counsel and urge and stimulate [you] and to declare [to you] that this is the true [account of the] grace (the undeserved favor) of God. Be steadfast and persevere in it. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Phillips: I am sending this short letter by Silvanus, whom I know to be a faithful brother, to stimulate your faith and assure you that the above words represent the true grace of God. See that you stand fast in that grace! (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: Through Silvanus, the faithful brother, which is my estimate of him, briefly I am writing to you, exhorting and testifying that this is the true grace of God, in which stand. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: Through Silvanus, to you the faithful brother, as I reckon, through few words I did write, exhorting and testifying this to be the true grace of God in which ye have stood.
|THROUGH SILVANUS OUR FAITHFUL BROTHER: Dia Silouanou humin tou pistou adelphou: (2 Corinthians 1:19; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:1 ) (Ephesians 6:21; Colossians 1:7; 4:7,9 )
Silvanus means "of the forest" and most authorities agree is the same as Silas ("woody", "person of the woods").
The following Scriptural biographical sketch deals with Silas also known as Silvanus, but it must be admitted that one cannot prove beyond doubt that the Silvanus mentioned by Peter is the same as the one who accompanied Paul on his second missionary journey.
We first encounter Silas in Acts, Luke recording that
In the Antioch church we read that
Shortly thereafter Luke records that
Luke also informs us that Silas was a Roman citizen like Paul. (see Acts 16:36)
Silas was imprisoned and fastened in stocks with Paul at Philippi and
Silas was with Paul in Thessalonica when
Later after the Jews had formed a mob and set the city of Thessalonica in an uproar
Luke records that
It appears that they may not have caught up with him until reaching Corinth, Luke recording that
It seems reasonable to deduce that the report from Silas and Timothy concerning the Thessalonian church prompted Paul to write two epistles, both of which also contain Silvanus' name (1Thes 1:1, 2Thes 1:1)
The last mention of Silvanus is in a letter from Paul written to Corinth from Ephesus in which he reminded the Corinthians that
Vincent notes that
Faithful (4103) (pistos) (Click for detailed word study) describes Silvanus as trustworthy, dependable, reliable, loyal, manifesting steadfast allegiance, firmly adhering to the Word of truth -- certainly a worthy attribute for any servant of God.
As illustrated in the examples that follow, in the NT passages where faithful (pistos) describes a specific individual, faithful conveys the idea that the one so described could be relied upon for a particular mission or purpose. So by analogy, Peter's designation of Silvanus as faithful suggests that he too had been relied upon for some purpose. What purpose? While we cannot be certain, the consensus is that Silvanus was the bearer of Peter's epistle.
Paul underscores the importance of faithfulness, writing to the Corinthians to
A steward is entrusted with his master’s household and possessions and without faithfulness he can ruin both. Paul declares not that a steward be eloquent or to have many gifts, but only that he be found faithful! Paul in the same chapter wrote the Corinthians that
A faithful steward is one who is continually
Writing from prison Paul informs the Ephesian saints that in order that they
Paul reiterates his appraisal of Tychicus writing to the Colossians that
In Colossians we read about
The writer of Hebrews describes Jesus as
Writing to Timothy Paul declared
Paul went on to instruct Timothy to pour himself into faithful (pistos) men writing
FOR SO I REGARD: os logizomai (1SPMI) :
Regard (3049) (logizomai) means to think about something in a detailed and logical manner. It means to put together with one’s mind. The idea is to draw a logical conclusion after considering a given set of facts.
Logizomai was a secular bookkeeping term which describes making an entry in the account book or calculating as when figuring an entry in a ledger. The purpose of the entry was to make a permanent record that could be consulted whenever needed. In a secular document we read the writer's instructions to
This use of the verb logizomai does not imply that others have doubted the ability of Silvanus, but it emphasizes Peter’s confidence in his fidelity.
Note that the KJV translation as suppose (logizomai) suggests that Peter was not sure of the character of Silvanus. But as emphasized above, the Greek word logizomai denotes a settled persuasion or assurance determined after rational consideration of the evidence. Peter's assessment of Silvanus is therefore essentially a recommendation. In short, Peter was fully assured concerning the trustworthy character and work of Silvanus.
Robertson translates logizomai “as I account him.”
J R Michaels writes that…
I HAVE WRITTEN TO YOU BRIEFLY: di oligon egrapsa (1SAAI): (Ephesians 3:3; Hebrews 13:22 )
I have written (gráphō) means to inscribe characters on a surface.
Vincent notes that Peter here gives us
Briefly (di’ oligon) means literally "through few" ("words" is implied) and the idea is that given the importance of the theme and all that he might have said to strengthen and encourage his readers in their sufferings, these are but a few words.
Peter's words are similar the phrase in Hebrews where the writer states
A T Robertson (and many other conservative sources) comment that this section (1Pe 5:12-14) most probably represents a
EXHORTING AND TESTIFYING THAT THIS IS THE TRUE GRACE OF GOD: parakalon (PAPMSN) kai epimarturon (PAPMSN) tauten einai alehte charin tou theou: (Heb 13:22; Jude 3) (Jn 21:21; Acts 20:24; 1Jn 5:9,10; 3Jn 1:12) (Acts 20:24; 1Co 15:1; Gal 1:8,9; 2Pe 2:15)
Here we encounter two participles (end in "-ing") which are used to indicate the purpose of Peter's letter. Hiebert remarks that in this section we find
Exhorting (3870) (parakaleo from para = side of + kaléo = call > the prefixed preposition para in this compound can convey the idea of to call urgently ) conveys the basic idea of calling one alongside to give help, strength or aid. Because a person can be called alongside for many purposes, the word has a wide range of meanings including to entreat, appeal to, summon, comfort, exhort, encourage, even admonish.
Exhorting or encouraging implies an earnest and persuasive address aimed at encouraging the readers to face their trials and may also include the thought of comforting and consoling, although the former meaning seems to be Peter's prime intent.
The present tense speaks of continuous activity. Sometimes parakaleo means convey the idea of comfort, sometimes of exhortation but always at the root there is the idea of enabling a person to meet some difficult situation with confidence and with gallantry.
One of the Greek historians uses parakaleo in a most interesting and suggestive way. There was a Greek regiment which had lost heart and was utterly dejected. The general sent a leader to talk to it to such purpose that courage was reborn and a body of dispirited men became fit again for heroic action. That is what parakaleo means.
In classic Greek parakaleo is used of exhorting troops who are about to go into battle. Peter was certainly addressing "good soldiers of Christ Jesus" who were in a spiritual battle (their "adversary, the devil") and experiences "various trials" of suffering. They were indeed in need of parakaleo.
Parakaleo was used of the defense counsel in a court of law and was the advocate who pleaded the cause of the accused.
Barnes adds that
Testifying (1957) (epimartureo from epí = upon, an intensifier + martureo = witness) means to attest further (attest = affirm to be true or genuine; authenticate by signing as a witness, authenticate officially), affirm (implies conviction based on evidence, experience, or faith), to bear witness, to corroborate (support with evidence or authority: make more certain - this word suggests the strengthening of what is already partly established), to supply evidence that, to confirm that fact by evidence, to testify emphatically or to appear as a witness decidedly for something. The idea of testify is that one provides information about a person or an event concerning which the speaker has direct knowledge.
This verb is used only by Peter in the NT and emphasizes the idea of confirmation, the force being that Peter is "earnestly testifying" (present tense indicates continuous action)
Barnes comments that testifying or
True (alethes from a = without + letho, older form of lantháno = be hid) is literally "not be hid" and thus that which is true, conforming to reality, unconcealed, manifest, in accordance with fact.
The apostle Paul declared
Grace (5485) (charis from chaírō = to rejoice, be glad) usually signifies God’s favor and kindness bestowed on those who do not deserve it and cannot earn it. If God dealt with us only according to truth, none of us would survive but He deals with us on the basis of grace and truth. Jesus Christ, in His life, death, and resurrection, met all the demands of the Law; now God is free to share fullness of grace with those who trust Christ. Grace without truth would be deceitful, and truth without grace would be condemning. The Law said "Do this and live." Grace says "Believe and live."
It is important to remember that it is
Grace is God's provision that can transform trial into triumph and sorrow into joy.
Wuest adds that although grace is free, grace is not license to do as we please for
Whatever begins with grace, leads to glory as both Peter and the Psalmist teach -- Peter writes
The psalmist writes
If there is a true grace of God, then there is also a "false grace of God". Jude for example warns us that there are false teachers who have crept into the church unnoticed,
They twist Christian liberty into license (saying grace permits one to live any way they please), and pervert freedom to serve into freedom to sin. Christian liberty is not a license to sin but an opportunity to serve and the power to obey.
The word grace is used in every chapter of 1 Peter: 1:2, 10, 13; 2:19, 20 ("favor" in both verses); 3:7; 4:10; 5:5, 10, 12. Grace is God’s generous favor to undeserving sinners and needy saints. It is only when we depend on the grace of God that we can glorify God in times of suffering. When we stand firm on God’s grace, we can endure suffering and turn trials into triumphs.
STAND FIRM IN IT: eis en stete. (2PAAM): (Ro 5:2; 2Cor 1:24; 2Pe 1:12)
Eis (preposition meaning into - not effectively translated in most English versions) and "en" (second preposition).
Vincent comments that
Stand firm (histemi), hold your ground, is in the aorist tense, active voice, imperative mood (see aorist imperative) and therefore is a command to do this now, do it effectively and do it even with a sense of urgency. All of you (plural) take your stand in grace. Truly embrace it and profess it and abide in it.
Matthew Henry wisely notes that
This verb histemi was occasionally used in a military sense with the idea to hold a watch post or to stand and hold a critical position on a battlefield while under attack! (cf spiritual warfare implied by the "adversary, the devil… like a roaring lion" in preceding verses)
The intent of the exhortation here is not unlike that of our Lord to the embattled church at Thyatira, whom He commanded, hold fast until I come (Revelation 2:25 note).
Stand firm in grace by being in His word, obeying His word, repenting quickly and returning to your first Love.
Dave Roper adds…
|Greek: Aspazetai (3SPMI) humas e en Babyloni suneklekte kai Markos o huios mou.
Amplified: She [your sister church here] in Babylon, [who is] elect (chosen) with [yourselves], sends you greetings, and [so does] my son (disciple) Mark. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Phillips: Your sister-church here in "Babylon" sends you greetings, and so does my son Mark. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: The [church] in Babylon, chosen out with you, sends greetings; also Mark, my son. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: Salute you doth the assembly in Babylon jointly elected, and Markus my son.
SHE WHO IS IN BABYLON: (Ps 87:4; Rev 17:5; 18:2) ?Peter's wife =1Co 9:5 cf. Mk1:29, 30, 31, Mt 8:14
J Vernon McGee says
She who - Regarding she AT Robertson's comment is interesting:
I like the last part of Robertson's comment… and would add that if the plain sense makes good sense, then make no other sense out of it or it is non-sense!
In Babylon - Peter says Babylon, a geographic location, so why not take him literally? The commentaries are "all over the ballpark" so to speak.
Morris in the Defender's Study Bible writes that
Believer's Study Bible (Criswell, W A. Believer's Study Bible: New King James Version. 1991. Thomas Nelson) interprets Babylon as the actual city rather than a spiritual or figurative allusion to the city of Rome and cites the following supporting evidence…
Matthew Poole writes that this refers to
Sources that do not favor "Babylon" as a place include the Ryrie Study Bible ("The church in Rome"), the Disciple Study Bible ("Babylon stood for evil, so here it probably represents the church living in an evil location, possibly Rome"), the New Geneva study Bible ("Probably a reference to the church in Rome"), NET Bible notes ("it is likely Peter was referring to Rome here").
A T Robertson (Word Pictures) favors "mystical" Babylon, whatever that is. This is also the sense given by the Early church fathers so they make Babylon equate with Rome, as do a number of modern commentaries.
Kenneth Wuest says that
Harold Marshall in IVP commentary on 1Peter
So this latter commentary totally spiritualizes that which can and therefore should be taken literally. It shows how much teaching on "Babylon" in Rev 17,18 has influenced various individuals. Many think that Babylon ceased to exist and will never arise again as a literal city and thus they are forced to spiritualize the teaching in the Revelation and here in 1Peter. But Scripture clearly contradicts this long-standing assumption, even amongst otherwise usually literal evangelical, conservative resources. As always it is amazing how much light the Scriptures will shed on the commentaries! Observe the Biblical text alone diligently first so that you are not confused when you read divergent interpretations in the erudite commentaries.
Undoubtedly some of the confusion here relates to the KJV which reads
Notice that here the KJV translators took the "interpretative liberty" to insert "the church" for "She who". The NKJV corrects this addition reading exactly like the NASB translation.
Another translation "interprets" the Greek rather than translating it: Today's English Version (TEV)
TLB is a bit more intellectually honest even though it also translates as "church"
Even La Reina Valera has an interpretative translation:
Note the older RSV's more literal accuracy
Compare the New RSV's interpretative translation
NKJV, NIV, NASB, ASV, BBE (British), DARBY have
Mark my son is most likely a reference to John Mark (Acts 12:12; 13:5; 15:36-39). Strong early church tradition in the testimony of Papias links Mark's Gospel to the central truths emphasized by Peter in his ministry. The writer of the second Gospel has been referred to as an "interpreter of Peter."
Amplified: Salute one another with a kiss of love [the symbol of mutual affection]. To all of you that are in Christ Jesus (the Messiah), may there be peace (every kind of peace and blessing, especially peace with God, and freedom from fears, agitating passions, and moral conflicts). Amen (so be it). (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Phillips: Give each other a handshake all round as a sign of love. Peace be to all true Christians. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: Greet one another with a kiss of love. Peace be with you all who are in Christ. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: Salute ye one another in a kiss of love; peace to you all who are in Christ Jesus! Amen.
GREET ONE ANOTHER WITH A KISS OF LOVE: aspasasthe (3SPMI) allelous en philemati agapes: (Romans 16:16; 1 Cor 16:20; 2Cor 13:12; 1Thes 5:26)
Kiss of love - a holy kiss is mentioned in (Romans 16:16-note; 1Cor 16:20; 2Cor 13:12; see 1Thessalonians 5:26-note) but here Peter qualifies it as a kiss of love. Here is where one needs to keep the cultural context in mind and be aware that men kissed the men and women kissed the women in Paul's day as form of greeting or farewell.
McGee quips that
Marshall adds that…
PEACE BE TO YOU ALL WHO ARE IN CHRIST: Eirene humin pasin tois en Christo: (1Peter 1:2; Jn 14:27; 16:33; 20:19,26; Ro 1:7; Ep 6:23) (Ro 8:1; 1Cor 1:30; 2Cor 5:17)
It is interesting to note that Paul always ended his letters with a benediction of grace but here Peter closed his letter with a blessing of peace, just as he had opened the letter (1 Peter 1:2 note). It's as if he wants to emphasize from beginning to end that despite the fact that his readers will be sorely tested and experiencing even "fiery" trials, they could know that the peace of God was always available to them. And beloved, His peace is in the same way always accessible to you as you stand in the blazing furnace of an unexpected trial or walk through the valley of the shadow of death.