Amplified: I WARN and counsel the elders among you (the pastors and spiritual guides of the church) as a fellow elder and as an eyewitness [called to testify] of the sufferings of Christ, as well as a sharer in the glory (the honor and splendor) that is to be revealed (disclosed, unfolded): (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: The elders which are among you I exhort, who am also an elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed:
NLT: And now, a word to you who are elders in the churches. I, too, am an elder and a witness to the sufferings of Christ. And I, too, will share his glory and his honor when he returns. As a fellow elder, this is my appeal to you: (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: Now may I who am myself an elder say a word to you my fellow-elders? I speak as one who actually saw Christ suffer, and as one who will share with you the glories that are to be unfolded to us. (New Testament in Modern English)
Wuest: Elders therefore who are among you, I exhort, I who am your fellow elder, and one who saw the sufferings of the Christ and who has been retained as a witness to bear testimony concerning them, who also am a fellow partaker of the glory which is about to be unveiled (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: Elders who are among you, I exhort, who am a fellow-elder, and a witness of the sufferings of the Christ, and of the glory about to be revealed a partaker,
Neither NIV or KJV translates "therefore" (3767) (oun) which in fact links this section with the preceding. Because of suffering and persecution, the need of mature leadership was important for the spiritual health of the local churches.
Therefore - This term of conclusion always calls for a pause to ponder the passage - What is the conclusion? What is it based upon?, etc? In the light of this suffering in the church and in the light of the judgment of God that is purifying the church before it punishes the world -- in the light of that, here's how to shepherd the suffering flock. Keeping this in mind -- that this is a short course in elder-shepherding for a suffering church -- will help us get the gist of what follows.
This same point regarding the importance of elders can be deduced from the context of (Acts 14:22,23) where elders were appointed in all the churches in Asia Minor in view of the historical context of the truth about PERSECUTION (cp Acts 14:22: "Through many tribulations we must [verb indicates a necessity not an option!] enter the kingdom of God", not a popular message then or today, but a very necessary part of the whole purpose (Acts 20:27) of God. God dictates a certain "order" for Christ's Body that she might survive and thrive in the midst of a sea of disorder and persecution.
Times of persecution demand that God’s people have adequate spiritual leadership. If judgment is to begin at God’s house (1Peter 4:17 - note), then that house had better be in order, or it will fall apart! This explains why Peter wrote this special message to the leaders of the church, to encourage them to do their work faithfully. Leaders who run away in times of difficulty are only proving that they are hirelings and not true shepherds (John 10:12, 13, 14). Peter was concerned that the leadership in the local churches be at its best. When the fiery trial would come, the believers in the assemblies would look to their elders for encouragement and direction.
I EXHORT THE ELDERS AMONG YOU: Presbuterous oun en humin parakalo (1SPAI): (Acts 11:30; 14:23; 15:4,6,22,23; 20:17,28; Acts 21:18; 1Ti 5:1,19; Titus 1:5)
The context establishes that “elders” is used in an official sense, but from verse 5 it is clear that the term retains something of its original sense of age, “one older than another” (Luke 15:25). The term does not imply “advanced age but merely establishes seniority.
I exhort (3870) (warn, counsel, beseech, encourage) not “I command,” marks Peter’s attitude in addressing these leaders. He does not stress his own authority but rather appeals to their own sense of what is right. He avoids any implication of the imposition of a higher authority but uses instead the method of spiritual persuasion.
Elders (4245) (presbuteros comparative of présbus = an old man) (Click in depth study of presbuteros) referred to men who were older or more senior with no negative connotations but rather a sense of venerability. Presbuteros is transliterated into English as “presbyter” (a leader in one of the Jewish communities--especially a member of the Sanhedrin--or of the early Christian churches) and from which the word “priest” (from Late Latin presbyter) was derived.
The secular practice was for older men with seniority to serve as ambassadors to other states and as advisors within the Greek political community or in the management of public affairs. So these were men of "ripe age" and experience to whom was committed the direction and government of individual churches.
It should be emphasized that in the context of its Biblical use the concept of elder had less to do with age per se than with the quality of one's spiritual character (reputation is what others think about you but character is what those most intimately associated know is really true about you) and possession of the ability to teach. Simply being older, including even being older in the faith, does not by itself qualify a man for leadership in the church.
Presbuteros on rare occasion is used to refer to one who is simply older than another (albeit not necessarily advanced in years) as in the story of the prodigal son where Luke records "Now his older (presbuteros) son was in the field, and when he came and approached the house, he heard music and dancing." (Lk 15:25 cf Septuagint use in Job 1:13). In Hebrews presbuteros is used to refer to those men and women in the Old Testament who were genuine believers, the writer recording that "For by it (faith) the men of old (presbuteros) gained approval." (see Hebrews 11:2-note)
Presbuteros is used some 145 times in the Septuagint (Greek translation of the Hebrew) usually to translate the Hebrew word "zaqen" (thought to be derived from "beard" or "chin") and used to refer to advanced age (as in Ge 18:11 "Now Abraham and Sarah were old [Hebrew = zaqen, Gk = presbuteros], advanced in age. Sarah was past childbearing."), experience, and authority, as well as specific leadership roles. Refer to the article in Holman's Dictionary (Easton; ISBE-NT ISBE-OT) for more in depth discussion of "elders", as used in the Old and New Testaments.
In general, depending on the context, the NT uses presbuteros to refer to several distinct groups:
(1) older persons advanced in years
(2) Jewish elders - this is the primary idea in the 44 uses of presbuteros in the Gospels and Acts where it usually refer to the Jewish leaders who were opposed to Jesus.
These elders in the Jewish community were usually associated with the scribes and Pharisees and at the time of Jesus the elders seem to refer especially to those who were members of the Sanhedrin ("council" in most translations, highest ruling body and court of justice among Jews headed by high priest, composed of 71 men including "elders", and scribes most of whom were Pharisees and granted some authority over religious and judicial matters), the gospel writer Mark recording that
Note that Acts also uses presbuteros to describe the spiritually mature leaders of the young, growing church of Jesus Christ (click discussion of these "elders");
(3) The 24 elders of Revelation
(4) Spiritually mature leaders of the church, as used here in Titus. Presbuteros meaning church elders is discussed initially in Acts, refined in the "pastoral epistles" (especially 1Timothy and Titus), and briefly mentioned in James and 1 Peter.
In first Timothy Paul says
Remember that 1Peter (see note 1 Peter 1:1) was written to numerous believers spread over a huge area, and probably including dozens to hundreds of churches. Peter, without hesitation, addresses the elders in these churches who were leaders. Leadership covers the first four verses. 1Peter 5:5-11 take up "follower-ship." The spiritual health of a local church depends on the authenticity and authority of leadership in that church. When a church has no leadership and is in a state of anarchy, that church is trouble. It will eventually stop winning and discipling people for Christ
AS YOUR FELLOW ELDER: o sumpresbuteros: (Philemon 1:9; 2 Jn 1:1; 3 Jn 1:1)
Fellow-elder (4850) (sumpresbuteros) occurs only here in the NT and places Peter on a level with the elders he is addressing. This observation suggests that Peter is not speaking down to the other elders as a superior addressing his inferiors. Peter was fulfilling the commission given to him by the risen Lord to shepherd His flock.
In John 21 we read that
AND WITNESS OF THE SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST: kai martus ton tou Christou pathematon: (1Peter 1:12; Lk 24:48; Jn 15:26,27; Acts 1:8,22; 2:32; 3:15; 5:30, 31, 32; Acts 10:39, 40, 41)
Witness (3144)(martus/martys gives us English "martyr) is one who has information or knowledge of something and hence can bring to light or confirm something, in this cast that Christ suffered. Here we see Peter fulfilling His Lord's commission to His disciples that they would
Peter's letter was going "even to the remotest part of the earth".
Martus does not denote a spectator but one who testifies to something. The thought of the Messiah suffering was at one time very distasteful to Peter (Mt 16:22), but he has himself seen those sufferings and it is now his task to bear witness to their reality and significance. He has done so repeatedly in this epistle (see notes 1 Peter 1:11 ; 2:21 ;3:18 ; 4 :1, 4:13).
Vincent has this note on martus…
Sufferings (3804) (pathema from pascho = suffer where the suffix –ma indicates the result of a certain action, in this case the result of suffering or that which is suffered) describes what happens to a person (in the want of suffering, misfortune, calamity, affliction) and which must be endured. As indicated by the "-ma" ending pathema is talking about the actual suffering itself (not suffering in general) - it refers to the very pain that we are experiencing right now - those very things that we can "see, touch & feel" - those things that are causing us anguish and emotional trauma. It is that which is suffered or endured. Pathema is always plural (except Heb 2:9) and has 2 general meanings. The less common meaning in some contexts (not here in 1Peter 5:1) is “passions” or “impulses” (Romans 7:5-note) referring to strong inward emotions or strong physical desires especially of a sexual nature.
AND A PARTAKER ALSO OF THE GLORY THAT IS TO BE REVEALED: o kai tes mellouses (to be about to) (PAPFSG) apokaluptesthai (PPN) doxes koinonos: (1Pe 5:4; 1:3-5; Ps 73:24,25; 2Co 5:1,8; Php 1:19,21, 22, 23; 2Ti 4:8; 1Jn 3:2; Rev 1:9)
Partaker (2844) (koinonos from koinos = common, shared by all) (Click for an in depth study of related word koinonia) is one who participates with another in an enterprise or matter of joint concern. It is one who fellowships and shares something in common with another. He or she takes part in something with someone else.
A partaker is one who participates with another in an enterprise. Here in the context of 1Peter 5:1 believers are partakers in the most glorious "enterprise" ever to transpire… "the glory that is to be revealed". "Of the about-to-be-revealed glory" (literal Greek order) points to a glory whose unveiling is eagerly anticipated. Note that suffering and glory are never far apart in Peter’s mind.
Koinonos in the Septuagint (LXX) is translated a companion, one that is closely connected with something similar as for example a person with whom one spends time or travels.
Koinonos is used 5 times in the Septuagint (LXX) (2 Kings 17:11, Esther 8:12, and the other 3 uses below)
Koinonos is found 10 times in the NT…
Glory (1391) (doxa) has the basic idea of manifestation so that the glory of God is the manifestation of His Being, His character and His acts. He is glorified when He is allowed to be seen as He really is. To be where God is will be glory. To be what God intended will be glory. To do what God purposed will be glory.
Revealed (601) (apokalupto from apó = from + kalúpto = cover, conceal) (used 3x in 1 Peter) (Click study of related word apokalupsis) means literally to remove the veil or covering exposing to open view what was before hidden. To cause something to be fully known
Peter had a glimpse of that glory at the Transfiguration, writing that
At that time however Peter did not himself participate in the glory.
Paul wrote to the Roman saints about our "future glory" declaring that since believers are
Peter assured the saints that their future glory was safe,
Paul reiterated this sure hope reminding the Colossian saints that
Elder/shepherds might shrink back from this position not only because they are they vulnerable to man's normal antagonisms, but they are also vulnerable to God's judgment in a peculiar way. You recall that 1Peter 4:17 (note) says God's judgment had begun with the house of God. Compare the solemn warning to elders convey by Eze9 which is a description God's judgment on his rebellious people. He not only began at the house of God; he began with the elders. Ezekiel 9:4, 5, 6 So they started with the elders who were before the temple. (cf 1Peter 4:17 note, 1Co 11:28, 29, 30, 31, 32)
In other words, it has been God's way bring judgment on his own people beginning with the house of God (1Peter 4:17 note) and in the house of God beginning with the elder-shepherds. So it's not surprising that the elders in the churches of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia might have been reluctant to exercise oversight. So Peter says exercise your oversight "not under compulsion, but voluntarily."
Amplified: Amplified: Tend (nurture, guard, guide, and fold) the flock of God that is [your responsibility], not by coercion or constraint, but willingly; not dishonorably motivated by the advantages and profits [belonging to the office], but eagerly and cheerfully;
KJV: Feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof, not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind;
NLT: Care for the flock of God entrusted to you. Watch over it willingly, not grudgingly—not for what you will get out of it, but because you are eager to serve God.
Phillips: I urge you then to see that your "flock of God" is properly fed and cared for. Accept the responsibility of looking after them willingly and not because you feel you can't get out of it, doing your work not for what you can make, but because you are really concerned for their well-being. (New Testament in Modern English)
Wuest: shepherd the flock of God which is among you, doing so not by reason of constraint put upon you, but willingly according to God; not in fondness for dishonest gain but freely (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: feed the flock of God that is among you, overseeing not constrainedly, but willingly, neither for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind,
|SHEPHERD: poimanate (2SAAM): (Song 1:8; Is 40:11; Ezek 34:2,3,23; Mic 5:4; 7:14; Jn 21:15, 16, 17; Acts 20:28)
Shepherd (4165) (poimaino from poimen = shepherd) was one who tended flocks like a shepherd and who carried out oversight, protecting, leading, encouraging, discipling, guarding, guiding and feeding ("feed and lead"). Here Peter applies this agricultural term metaphorically to church leaders who were to exercise administrative and protective activity over the community of believers. English dictionaries say that "to shepherd" means to guide, direct or guard in the manner of a shepherd. Shepherd is in the aorist imperative a command calling for effective action - do this now. Do it effectively. Don't delay. It can even convey a sense of urgency.
In short, the shepherd's role concerning the flock is to…
Graze, Guide and Guard
Poimaino is used 11 times in the NAS ( Matt. 2:6; Lk. 17:7; Jn. 21:16; Acts 20:28; 1 Co. 9:7; 1 Pet. 5:2; Jude 1:12; Rev. 2:27; 7:17; 12:5; 19:15) and is translated: caring, 1; rule, 3; shepherd, 5; tending sheep, 1; tends, 1.
There are 49 uses in the Septuagint - Gen. 30:31, 36; 37:2, 13; Exod. 2:16; 3:1; 1 Sam. 16:11; 17:34; 25:16; 2 Sam. 5:2; 7:7; 1 Chr. 11:2; 17:6; Ps. 2:9; 23:1; 28:9; 37:3; 48:14; 49:14; 78:71f; 80:1; Prov. 9:12; 22:11; 28:7; 29:3; Song 1:7, 8; 2:16; 6:2, 3, Is 40:11; 61:5; Jer. 3:15; 6:3, 18; 22:22; 23:2, 4; Ezek. 34:10, 23; Hos. 13:5; Mic. 5:4, 6; 7:14; Zech. 11:4, 7, 9, 17
Larry Richards writes that…
In the Near East the citizens in a country were referred to as “herd” and the king as “shepherd,” and the OT and NT pick up this imagery. Because shepherds were the sole source of provision, protection, and control for sheep, in ancient Near Eastern usage “shepherd” came to be a term descriptive of political leaders. The law codes of Lipit-ishtar and Hammurabi each refer to the ruler as the divinely appointed shepherd of his people.
Jesus is the ultimate example of a "Good Shepherd" Who leads the sheep and protects the sheep (Jn 10:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13) even to being willing to lay down His life. Jesus' willingness to die for His flock contrasts with hirelings who don't care for the sheep and will depart when the wolves come, leaving the sheep to be ravaged and destroyed. Jesus passes the responsibility of shepherding the flock to Peter (see John 21:15-17 = "Shepherd My sheep") and Peter passes on this same command to the leaders in each church.
In the first use of poimaino Matthew records the Messianic prophecy from Micah 5:2 writing…
John MacArthur commenting on the combination of "Ruler" and "shepherd" in Matthew 2:6 writes that this
In John 21, Jesus instructed Peter using poimaino in the second of 3 commands (which seem similar in the English translation = "tend… shepherd… tend")…
Peter by writing this letter is fulfilling Christ's command to Shepherd or Feed His sheep. Note what happens when there are no "true" shepherds feeding the flock.
Jude uses poimaino in his description of the men who had crept in unnoticed and were turning the grace of God into licentiousness writing that…
In Ezekiel 34 Jehovah condemns the self-centered shepherds who were leading the sheep (Israel) only for self-gain (cf "filthy lucre" below) and who were failing to graze, guide and guard the flock, Ezekiel recording that…
Marvin Vincent has a lengthy note on poimaino writing that…
THE FLOCK OF GOD AMONG YOU: to en humin poimnion tou theou : (Is 63:11; Jer 13:17,20; Ezek 34:31; Zech 11:17; Lk 12:32; 1Co 9:7) (Ps 78:71,72; Acts 20:26,27)
A FLOCK OF
Flock (4168) (poimnion from poimen = shepherd) was literally a flock of sheep but in the NT is applied only figuratively to spiritual sheep that make the community of Jesus' disciples, citizens of the Kingdom of Heaven.
The TDNT explains that
Poimnion is used only 5 times in the NT (twice by Peter, 1Peter 5:2-3), the other 3 uses shown below…
The comparison of God's people to a flock of sheep and the Lord to a Shepherd is prominent in Scripture and it is very instructive (eg, see Ps 23:1, 2, 3, 4, 5; 100:1, 2, 3, 4, 5; Is 40:11; Lk 15:4-6; Jn 10:1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13; Acts 20:28; Heb 13:20, 21; 1Pe 2:25; Rev 7:17). We were once stray sheep, wandering toward ruin; but the Good Shepherd found us and restored us to the fold.
Warren Wiersbe has an excellent amplification of the picture of God's children pictured as sheep…
EXERCISING OVERSIGHT: (episkopountes) (PAPMPN):
Exercising oversight (1983) (episkopeo from epí = upon or intensifying already existing idea in verb + skopeo = regard, give attention to, look at, contemplate) means literally to look upon, and thus to observe, to examine the state of affairs of something, to look after or to oversee. In the NT, episkopeo is used only in Hebrews 12:15 and 1 Peter 5:2, the latter used to describe the work of shepherding the flock. It expresses careful regard of those in position of responsibility.
The writer of Hebrews exhorts his readers to be
Episkopeo describes one who is literally a "watchman" "upon" (prefix "epi-" = upon) the sheep. This verb is in the present tense which pictures these men as constantly, diligently, actively and responsibly overseeing the care of the sheep in their flock. They are constantly examining them for "spiritual parasites" and are ever on the lookout for the ravenous wolves in sheep's clothing (see discussion on Matthew 7:15). Oversight is not the only duty of shepherding, but it is the one Peter mentions here in the situation of suffering.
Episkopeo is made up of two words in Greek just like it is in English - "over" and "sight". Elder-shepherds exercise oversight. They are "overseers". They look out over the flock. God holds them accountable for seeing the big picture and acting for the good of the whole flock.
Vine writes that “exercising” is the right rendering; the word does not imply the entrance upon such responsibility, but the fulfilment of it. It is not a matter of assuming a position, but of the discharge of the duties.
An overseer (1985) (episkopos from epi = over or upon + skopos = goal or end one has in view = English "scope" as in microscope or telescope) is literally one who looks over closely or intently, who views carefully. One who superintends, exercises oversight or watches over others, thus an "overseer" (one looking over another). The Latin equivalent is super-visus, someone who “looks over” things, a manager. From super-visus comes the English supervisor.
Episkopos properly means an inspector, overseer, or guardian, and was given to the ministers of the gospel because they exercised this care over the churches or were appointed to oversee their interests. In the NT the overseers had the responsibility of oversight of the body of Christ, serving as the guardians who were to watch over God's "flock" and lead the sheep by their godly example. It is important to note that Paul here uses the term in the plural and that elsewhere this term is used interchangeably with "elder" (presbuteros). God’s people are like sheep (see Jehovah Roi for discussion of sheep) and in need of shepherds to watch over them, protect them, and lead them. Pray for your spiritual leaders that they might more and more be what God wants them to be.
Episkopos was originally a secular title, designating commissioners appointed to regulate a newly-acquired territory or a colony. It was also applied to magistrates who regulated the sale of provisions under the Romans. In the Septuagint (Greek translation of the Hebrew OT) episkopos signifies "inspectors, superintendents, taskmasters," (2Ki 11:19; 2Chr 34:12,17) or "captains, presidents," (Neh 11:9,14,22). In the ancient Greek culture episkopos was often used to describe pagan gods, who supposedly watched over worshipers and over their nations. (See Ref article ISBE)
NOT (forced into) UNDER COMPULSION: me anagkastos : (Is 6:8; 1Co 9:16,17)
Under compulsion (317) (anagkastos from anagke = necessity) is an adverb that describes the state of being checked, restricted, or compelled to avoid or perform some action (so not voluntary). By force or constraint. Unwillingly. Out of obligation.
This is the only use of this adverb in Scripture (no uses in Lxx).
In other words the shepherd does it not because he is constrained or forced to do it. He should not occupy the office as a reluctant draftee, doing an irksome task because he feels he cannot escape it. Such a feeling may arise out of “a false sense of unworthiness, a reluctance for responsibility, or a desire to do no more than was morally required in the office.” Such feelings are unworthy of one called to sacred service.
BUT VOLUNTARILY ACCORDING TO GOD: alla hekousios kata theon:
Voluntarily (1596) (hekousios from hekoúsios = voluntary) is an adverb meaning willingly, of one's own accord or free will, spontaneously. means willing to do something without being forced or pressured.
In the only other NT use in Heb 10:26 hekousios means deliberately or intentionally,
Hekousios - 2x in the Septuagint - Ex 36:2 (context = working for the Lord), Ps 53:8 (context = giving to the Lord), both should be willingly.
A shepherd's motive must be willingness, not a sense of external compulsion: not because you must, but because you are willing. (1Ti 3:1 oregomai pictures a strong desire to be an elder. How sad when a man is coerced or cajoled into eldership!) The responsibilities of the office of shepherd are great and they "will give an account." (Heb 13:17-note). Clearly, no one should be forced into this position. God will work in men's lives and make them willing to do His will so those who shepherd should be according to God (probably according to His will would be an accurate translation - NET has "under God's direction"; ESV = "as God would have you", NIV = "as God wants you to be") that is, “just as God shepherds His flock.”
Cranfield remarks that the meaning is best illustrated
Dr. George W. Truett was pastor of First Baptist Church in Dallas, Texas for nearly fifty years. Often he was asked to accept other positions, and he refused, saying, “I have sought and found a pastor’s heart.” When a man has a pastor’s heart, he loves the sheep and serves them because he wants to, not because he has to.
AND NOT FOR SORDID GAIN: mede aischrokerdos: (Is 56:11; Jer 6:13; 8:10; Micah 3:11; Mal 1:10; Acts 20:33,34; 2Co 12:14,15; 1 i 3:3,8; Titus 1:7,11; 2Peter 2:3; Revelation 18:12,13)
Sordid gain (KJV - filthy lucre) (147) (aischraischrokerdos from aischros = indecent, dishonorable + kerdos = gain) means a fondness for dishonest gain. It is gain procured in a base and avaricious manner and which would produce shame if uncovered. This does not refer exclusively to material gain such as the demand of a salary which gives the impression that an elder serves primarily from his desire for selfish purposes rather than his desire to be of service. It may also refer to gaining popularity by adulterating the gospel to attract more people to the congregation, and showing special favors and consideration to the rich and the influential in order to gain personal advantage and profit.
The KJV renders aischrokerdos with the graphic phrase "filthy lucre" where "Lucre" is from a Latin word meaning "gain," and only becomes filthy when it corrupts the sincerity of Christian ministry. The pastor is not to commercialize his ministry.
Vincent writes that…
The shepherd must serve the Lord with a willing heart because he loves Christ and the flock, and not simply because he has a job to do. He must never serve for “sordid gain”, whether it be money, prestige, power, or promotion.
False teachers are usually motivated by greed and desire for money, and use their power and position to rob people of their own wealth. A desire for filthy lucre must never be a motive for Shepherds. (cf. 1Ti 3:3; 6:9, 10, 11; 2Ti 2:4; Titus1:7; 2Pe 2:3; also Je 6:13; 8:10; Mic 3:11; Mal 1:10).
This does not prohibit the elder from receiving a fair return for honest toil. Peter, like Paul, accepted the ordinance of Christ that “the laborer is worthy of his wages” (Lk 10:7; 1Ti 5:18). But Peter is warning against taking up the work because of a desire for material gain, “it being a shameful thing for a shepherd to feed the sheep out of love to the fleece.”
To enter the ministry simply because it offers a respectable and intellectually stimulating way of gaining a livelihood is to prostitute that sacred work. This warning also includes the temptation to use the work of the ministry to gain personal popularity or social influence. When a love for gain reigns, the shepherds are prone to become mere hirelings, feeding themselves at the expense of the flock.
BUT WITH EARGERNESS: alla prothumos: (Acts 21:13; Ro 1:15; Titus 2:14; 3:1)
Eagerness (4290) (prothumos from pró = forward + thumos = mind, temperament, passion) means predisposed, ready, willing, eager (moved by a strong and urgent desire or interest; implies ardor and enthusiasm), prompt. It means inclined or favorably disposed in mind.
Shepherds who serve with false motives care only for themselves and devour the flock (Ezekiel 34:2,3). True shepherds are characterized by being ready and willing and favorably inclined to accept the responsibility. Prothumos is extremely strong and expresses enthusiasm and devoted zeal to the task assigned.
The Shepherd must be eager to work (a ready mind), not listless or lazy.
It is the same word Paul used in Ro1:15 (note)—“I am so eager to preach the Gospel” (NIV). It means a willingness to serve because of a readiness and an eagerness within the heart. This is the difference between a true shepherd and a hireling: a hireling works because he is paid for it, but a shepherd works because he loves the sheep and has a heart devoted to them.
Amplified:Not domineering [as arrogant, dictatorial, and overbearing persons] over those in your charge, but being examples (patterns and models of Christian living) to the flock (the congregation). (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: Neither as being lords over God's heritage, but being ensamples to the flock.
NLT: Don't lord it over the people assigned to your care, but lead them by your good example. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: You should aim not at being "little tin gods" but as examples of Christian living in the eyes of the flock committed to your charge. (New Testament in Modern English)
Wuest: nor yet as lording it in a high-handed manner over the portions of the flock assigned to you, but as becoming patterns for the flock. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: neither as exercising lordship over the heritages, but patterns becoming of the flock,
|NOR YET AS LORDING IT OVER: med os katakurieuontes (PAPMPN): (Ezek 34:4; Mt 20:25,26; 23:8, 9, 10; Mark 10:42, 43, 44, 45; Lk 22:24, 25, 26, 27; 1Co 3:5,9; 2Co 1:24; 4:5; 3Jn 1:9,10) (1Pe 2:9; Dt 32:9; Ps 33:12; 74:2; Mic 7:14; Acts 20:28)
Phillips paraphrase is boldly pithy…
The Amplified version also gives a clear picture of the attitude that is not to be manifest by God's shepherds over their sheep…
Lording (2634) (katakurieuo from katá =an intensifier or down + kurieúo = have dominion over) means to have dominion "down" on others and includes the idea of domineering as in the rule of a strong person over one who is weak. It means to exercise dominion over, bring under one's power, bring into subjection, to become master, gain dominion over or to subdue.
The preposition kata (“down”) indicates intensity and depicts a heavy-handed use of authority for personal aggrandizement, manifesting itself in the desire to dominate and accompanied by a haughty demand for compliance. It speaks of a high-handed autocratic rule over the flock, something forbidden of true shepherds. This cautionary note however does not do away with God-ordained, properly exercised authority which is to be administered in the local church by the pastor and the elders. Other Greek verbs are used for the exercise of legitimate authority (see proistemi  = stand before in rank, have charge over in 1Thes 5:12, 1Ti 5:17, poimaino in 1Peter 5:2)
The idea of exerting lordship over others combines elements of power and authority, the root word kurios being derived in turn from a root meaning “to swell,” “to be strong,” so that kurios means “having power,” “empowered,” “authorized,” “valid.” The power denoted is a power of control rather than physical strength.
TDNT writes that…
The present tense describes this behavior as a habitual practice.
Katakurieuo occurs 4 times in the NAS (Matthew; Mark; Acts; 1 Peter) and is translated in NAS as lord it over, 2; lording it over, 1; subdued, 1 and in the KJV as be lord over, 1; exercise dominion over, 1; exercise lordship over, 1; overcome, 1.
In this context, “lording it over” means to dominate someone or some situation and implies leadership by manipulation and intimidation. If you've been a Christian for some time, you most likely have witnessed this attitude from time to time.
The Septuagint (LXX) uses katakurieuo in describing God's lordship in exercising complete dominion writing…
In Genesis 1 the Septuagint (LXX) uses katakurieuo of God's decree to man to exercise appropriate lordship…
In the LXX of Psalm 119 the writer personifies "iniquity" as a harsh lord writing…
Katakurieuo is used in a good sense in Jeremiah, where Jehovah declares to rebellious Israel…
Ezekiel indicted the false shepherds who were "fleecing the sheep" and out only for self-gain writing that
Lording it over others is the third major temptation for a pastor, the first being laziness (1Peter 5:2) and the second being dishonest finances (1Peter 5:2). All are to be assiduously avoided by shepherds and elders!
MacDonald rightly comments that…
Jesus directly condemned such abuse of authority among His followers (Mt 20:25, 26, 27; Mk 10:42, 43, 44). The tragic impact of such an attitude is illustrated by the account of Diotrephes in 3 Jn 9,10. All genuine rule in the church is in no sense a lordship but an administration of Christ’s lordship by His willing servants. Shepherds and elders should be examples, not dictators. They should be walking out in front of the flock, not driving them from behind. They should not treat the flock as if it belonged to them. This strikes at the very heart of authoritarianism!
THOSE ALLOTTED TO YOUR CHARGE: ton kleron:
Allotted to (your) charge (2819) (kleros from kláo = to break) was first a specially marked small object, pebble or a piece of wood used in casting lots as in Acts 1:17, 26. The object was thrown down in order to aid the making decisions a practice based on pagan views of chance (Greeks and Romans), or in the case of believers using the lot and interpreting the result as guided by God (see Acts 1:26 in choosing Judas' replacement).
Kleros is used 11 times in the NAS (Matt. 27:35; Mk. 15:24; Lk. 23:34; Jn. 19:24; Acts 1:17, 26; 8:21; 26:18; Col. 1:12; 1 Pet. 5:3) and is translated: allotted to your charge, 1; inheritance, 2; lot, 1; lots, 5; portion, 1; share, 1.
Kleros - 115x in the Septuagint - Gen. 48:6; 49:14; Exod. 6:8; Lev. 16:8ff; Num. 16:14; 18:21, 24, 26; 26:55f, 62; 27:7; 32:19; 33:53f; 34:13ff; 35:2; 36:2f, 9; Deut. 2:5, 9, 19; 3:18; 4:21; 5:31; 9:29; 10:9; 11:31; 12:1, 12; 14:27, 29; 15:4; 17:14; 18:1f; 19:10, 14; 21:23; 24:4; 25:15, 19; 26:1; 29:8; Jos. 12:7; 13:6; 14:2f, 9, 13f; 17:4, 6, 14, 17; 18:6, 8, 10f; 19:1f, 9f, 17, 24, 32, 40, 49, 51; 21:4, 10; 23:4; 24:30; Jdg. 1:3; 20:9; 1 Chr. 6:54, 61, 63, 65; 24:5, 7, 31; 25:8f; 26:13f; Neh. 10:34; 11:1; Esther 3:7; 4:17; 9:24, 26; 10:3; Ps. 22:18; 68:13; 125:3; Prov. 1:14; 18:18; Is. 34:17; 57:6; Jer. 12:13; 13:25; Ezek. 24:6; 47:22; 48:29; Dan. 12:13; Hos. 5:7; Joel 3:3; Obad. 1:11; Jon. 1:7; Mic. 2:5; Nah. 3:10
Kleros also was used to refer to the allotted portion or inheritance , specifically one's possession or what is possessed (Acts 8:21, 26:18, 20:32, Colossians 1:12-note)
BAGD adds that kleros can refer to something that inevitably happens and so is one's lot or destiny, as used especially of martyrs ("fulfill one's own destiny").
Evidence suggests that the Greek method of casting lots was followed by the Romans. The lots of several parties were properly marked or distinguished and put into a vessel which was violently shaken by one who turned his face away. The lot which first fell upon the ground indicated the man chosen or preferred for the occasion. The Romans attributed divine choice to this method.
Here in 1Peter 5:3, kleros is in the plural and as Vincent notes below, seems to refer to distinct congregations of Christians which fell to the lot, as it were, of different pastors. BAGD agrees writing that here kleros seems
TDNT writes that…
Vincent comments that "lot" (KJV, heritage) is
BUT PROVING TO BE EXAMPLES TO THE FLOCK: alla tupoi ginomenoi (PMPMPN) tou poimniou: (1Co 11:11; Php 3:17; 4:9; 1Th 1:5,6; 2 Th3:9; 1Ti 4:12; Titus 2:7)
But - term of contrast - This conjunction should always cause us to pause and ponder ask what (why?, etc) is being contrasted?
As discussed in more detail below in the word study on tupos, shepherds and elders are to serve as models for "the sheep" to follow. They were not to drive God’s people, but to lead them by their example of mature Christian character. Sheep aren't driven. They are led (cp Jn 10:3, Ps 23:2). So as spiritual shepherds, they must lead as examples, not drive as dictators! And they can only lead as examples as they themselves follow Christ.
Athanasius spoke of Christ's example noting that…
William Arnot expanded on this statement writing that
Henry Drummond wrote
D. W. Lambert adds that…
Be examples - The verb "be" is in the present tense picturing this exemplary living as one's everyday practice, something only possible by surrendering and yielding to the enabling power of the Holy Spirit! And Who is our example? Peter has already explained that "Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example for you to follow in His steps" (1Pe 2:21-note)
Examples (5179) (tupos from túpto = strike, smite with repeated strokes) literally refers to a visible mark or impression made by a stroke or blow from an instrument or object. What is left after the stroke or blow is called a print, a figure or an impression. For example, the most famous reference to a literal mark (tupos) is when Thomas doubted Jesus' resurrection from the dead declaring "Unless I shall see in His hands the imprint (tupos) of the nails" (John 20:25). (See also ISBE Article)
Stated another way tupos properly means a "model" or "pattern" or "mold" into which clay or wax was pressed (or molds into which molten metal for castings was poured), that it might take the figure or exact shape of the mold. Our English word "type" is similar and originally referred to an impression made by a die as that which is struck.
Tupos also came to be used figuratively of a pattern, mold, model, or copy of the original of something, whether a physical object, such as a statute, or a principle or virtue. Thus in a technical sense tupos is the pattern in conformity to which a thing must be made. In an ethical sense, tupos is a dissuasive (tending to dissuade) example, a pattern of warning or an example to be imitated, this last meaning being seen in Paul's charge to Timothy to…
Tupos-14x in the NAS (16x in KJV) - Jn. 20:25; Acts 7:43, 44; 23:25; Ro 5:14; 6:17; 1 Co. 10:6; Phil. 3:17; 1 Thess. 1:7; 2 Thess. 3:9; 1 Tim. 4:12; Tit. 2:7; Heb. 8:5; 1 Pet. 5:3)
NAS translation: example, 3; examples, 2; form, 2; images, 1; imprint, 1; model, 1; pattern, 3; type, 1.
There are 2 uses in the Septuagint - Ex. 25:40; Amos 5:26
Type (tupos) is used to denote a resemblance between something present and something future. For example, in Romans 5:14 (see note), tupos prefigures a future person in this case Adam being called a type of Jesus Christ, each of the two having exercised a preeminent influence upon the human race (the former destructive, the latter, saving) Adam’s act had universal impact and was a "type" of Christ’s act, which also has universal impact. The point of similarity between Adam and Christ is that what each did affected many others. Each communicated what belonged to him to those he represented.
Tupos was used to identify a model to which we should not be conformed. For example, the children of Israel behavior in the OT are a type which is a warning for believers today, because we will be conformed to them if we do not exercise caution. Our doom will correspond to theirs. Therefore, they stand as stern warnings to us. Paul records this tupos warning…
In Acts 7 Luke records back to back uses of tupos which present a striking contrast, one of a gross idol and the other of the glorious tabernacle…
William Barclay has an explanation of type and antitype writing that…
A type is different than a symbol. A symbol was an equivalent, a visible sign of what is invisible, e.g., the tares in the parable of the wheat and the tares (Mt 13:24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43) are a symbol of the activity of the devil and his agents in one's spiritual life. A symbol is an outward manifestation of something inward, an emblem of what is higher.
Vincent notes that…
Paul warned the Ephesian elders of the dangers to the flock commanding them to…
Poimnion - 5 times in the NAS (Lk. 12:32; Acts 20:28, 29; 1 Pet. 5:2, 3) and always translated "flock", both of Peter's uses referring to a "flock" of believers as one would find in a local body.