1 Peter 5:11-14 Commentary

 

 

Home
Site Index
Inductive Bible Study
Greek Word Studies
Commentaries by Verse
Area Precept Classes
Reference Search
Bible Dictionaries
Bible Maps
It's Greek to Me
Bible Commentaries
Discipline Yourself
Christian Biography
Western Wall
Bible Prophecy

Search chap/verse
Search word: Retrieve verses, illustrations, etc

 


 

INDEX
PREVIOUS

SEE ALSO
Facebook - Preceptaustin

Twitter - Preceptaustin
Blog - Preceptaustin

COLLECTIONS
Commentaries, Word Studies, Devotionals, Sermons, Illustrations
Old and New Testament

   
  

   

 

Search Every Word on Preceptaustin

 
    Help

 

1 Peter 5:11-14 Commentary
Updated 2/27/14

1 Peter 5:11  To Him be dominion forever and ever. Amen. (NASB: Lockman)

Greek: auto to kratos eis tous aionas; amen. 
Amplified: To Him be the dominion (power, authority, rule) forever and ever. Amen (so be it).
 (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
KJV: To him [be] glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen. (based on Textus Receptus which has "glory" and a second "ever" in the original Greek text)
Phillips: All power is his for ever and ever, amen!
 (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: To Him let there be ascribed this power forever and forever. Amen.
 (Eerdmans
Young's Literal: To Him the strength into the ages. Amen.

REFERENCES
Updated 2/27/14

Henry Alford
Paul Apple
William Barclay
Albert Barnes
Brian Bell
Johann Bengel
Joseph Benson
Biblical Illustrator
Charles Bigg
John Brown
John Calvin
Cambridge Greek
Alan Carr
Adam Clarke
Steven Cole
Thomas Constable
F C Cook
Ron Daniel
Robert Deffinbaugh
Expositor's Bible
Expositor's Greek
G F C Fronmuller
A C Gaebelein
John Gill
Doug Goins
L M Grant
David Guzik
Robert Hawker
Matthew Henry
F B Hole
David Holwick
Johnny Hunt
H A Ironside
Jamieson, F, B
J H Jowett
William Kelley
Steve Kreloff
Paul Kretzmann
Robert Leighton
Logos.com
John MacArthur
Alexander Maclaren
Alexander Maclaren
Alexander Maclaren
Alexander Maclaren
Bryn MacPhail
Henry Mahan
J Vernon McGee
F B Meyer
F B Meyer
F B Meyer
F B Meyer
James Moffatt
James Nisbet
Peter Pett
John Piper
Edward Hayes Plumptre
Matthew Poole
Preacher's Homiletical
Preacher's Homiletical
Preacher's Homiletical
Preacher's Homiletical
Ray Pritchard
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary
Grant Richison
Grant Richison
Grant Richison
Ron Ritchie
A T Robertson
Dave Roper
Rob Salvato
C I Scofield
Phillip Schaff
Sermon Bible
Charles Simeon
Chuck Smith
Hamilton Smith
C H Spurgeon
C H Spurgeon
C H Spurgeon
Joseph Sutcliffe
Ron Teed
Derek Thomas
Today in the Word
John Trapp
Bob Utley
Marvin Vincent
Daniel Whedon
Steve Zeisler
Precept Ministries

1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5 Commentary

1 Peter 5 Commentary

1 Peter 5 Sermon Notes

1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5 Multiple Resources
1 Peter 5 Critical and Exegetical Commentary
1 Peter 5:8-11 Commentary 1 Peter 5:12-14 Commentary
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5:5-10 How To Get Your Life Out Of The Pit
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5:6-14 Growing Solid Through Suffering
1 Peter 5 Expository Notes
1 Peter  5 Speaker's Commentary
1 Peter 5:8-14 The Roaring Lion
1 Peter 5:8-14 Suffering, Satan and Standing Firm
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5 Lange's Commentary
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5 Commentary

1 Peter 5:6-11: Satan And Suffering
1 Peter 5 Commentary

1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5 Commentary

1 Peter 5:5-11 God Is Still On Your Side (Select NT)
1 Peter 5:9-11 The Victory To Be Found In Suffering
1 Peter 5 Commentary

1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5:8-10 Through Antagonisms

1 Peter Commentary
1 Peter Sermon Series - only in Mp3 but excellent exposition
1 Peter 5 Commentary

1 Peter 5:10 Missing 1 Peter 5:11 1 Peter 5:12-14

1 Peter 5 Sermons, Illustrations

1 Peter 5:8-14 Fundamental Attitudes for Spiritual Maturity-Pt 3

1 Peter 5:12 Silvanus
1 Peter 5:12 An Apostolic Testimony and Exhortation
1 Peter 5:13 The Church in Babylon
1 Peter 5:13 Marcus, My Son

1 Peter 5:10-14 Certain Victory!
1 Peter 5 Commentary

1 Peter 5 Thru the Bible Mp3
1 Peter 5:10 The Call to Eternal Glory
1 Peter 5:10-14 Certain Victory!
1 Peter 5:10 Illustration - Be A "Bristlecone Pine" Believer
1 Peter 5 Commentary

1 Peter - Everyman's NT Commentary - Verse by Verse Comments
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5 Commentary

1 Peter 5:1-11 Anxieties to be Cast Not Carried
1 Peter 5 Cambridge Commentary
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5 Critical and Exegetical Notes
1 Peter 5:10-14 Homiletics
1 Peter 5:10-14 Suggestive Notes and Sermon Sketches

1 Peter 5 Illustrations to Chapter 5
1 Peter 5:1-11 A Survival Kit for Tough Times
1 Peter 5 Exposition
1 Peter 5:8-11 Suspicion of Satan

1 Peter 5:10 Why We May Make Sure of God's Help in Conflict
1 Peter 5:10 The Manifold Gifts for Manifold Need

1 Peter 5:10-14 Conclusion of the Epistle
1 Peter 5:10 The God of All Grace
1 Peter 5:12-14 Conclusion

1 Peter 5:11 5:12 5:12b 5:12c 5:12d 5:12e
1 Peter 5:13 5:13b 5:13c 5:13d 5:13e 5:13f
1 Peter 5:13g 5:14 5:14b 5:14c

1 Peter 5:1-14 An Encouraging Word
1 Peter 5: Greek Word Studies 
1 Peter 5:1-14: The Kirk at Work
1 Peter 5:10-14 Standing In The Grace Of God
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5:10, 11 God's Goodness An Encouragement to Prayer
1 Peter Notes - see Study Notes
1 Peter Commentary

1 Peter 5:10 Glory!
1 Peter 5:10  New Year's Benediction
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5:8-14 Without the Word of God

1 Peter 5:6-11 Burdens Lifted at Calvary
1 Peter 5:1-7; 5:5-7; 1 Peter 5:7; 1 Peter 5:8; 1 Peter 5:8a  1 Peter 5:8-14
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5 Commentary

1 Peter 5: Greek Word Studies
1 Peter 5 Commentary
1 Peter 5:1-14 The Humble Raised Up
1 Peter Download lesson 1 of 12

TO HIM BE DOMINION FOREVER AND EVER: auto to kratos eis tous aionas, amen:  (1Pe 4:11; Revelation 1:6; 5:13)

To Him (auto) Peter addresses this to the God of all grace Who acts so generously and tenderly on behalf of His children. To Him and to Him Alone is all praise due! "Be" is not in the Greek but is supplied by the translators. The literal is even a more striking exclamation of heartfelt adoration

To Him the dominion into the ages

Dominion  (2904) (kratos) means strength or might, especially manifested power, the power to rule or control or dominion (power to rule, supreme authority, sovereignty, the right to govern or rule or determine). Krátos denotes the presence and significance of force or strength rather than its exercise. It is the ability to exhibit or express resident strength.

See note by Wayne Barber on kratos.

Kratos -12x times in the NT = Lk. 1:51; Acts 19:20; Eph. 1:19; 6:10; Col. 1:11; 1Ti 6:16; Heb. 2:14; 1Pe 4:11; 5:11; Jude 1:25; Rev. 1:6; 5:13.

NAS translates krátos as: dominion, 6; might, 1; mightily, 1; mighty deeds, 1; power, 1; strength, 2.

Kratos - 17x in the Septuagint (Lxx)- Gen. 49:24; Deut. 8:17; Jdg. 4:3; Ezr. 8:22; Job 12:16; 21:23; Ps. 59:9; 62:11; 76:3; 86:16; 89:9; 90:11; Prov. 27:24; Is 22:21; 40:26; Dan. 4:30; 11:1;

Regarding the derivation of krátos, Vine writes that this word means

force, strength, might, more especially manifested power, is derived from a root kra—, to perfect, to complete: “creator” is probably connected. It also signifies dominion, and is so rendered frequently in doxologies." (Vine, W E. Vine's Expository dictionary of Old and New Testament words. Vol. 2, Page 1-333. Old Tappan NJ: Revell)

Most of the NT uses (10/12) are in references to God Almighty, and make the point that ultimate dominion belongs to God Alone.

In the first NT use we see Mary praising her Lord ("The Magnificat" =  the first word in the Latin translation) declaring that

He has done mighty deeds (krátos) with His arm. He has scattered those who were proud in the thoughts of their heart. (Luke 1:51)

Wuest translates this as "He brought about strength with His arm".

Mary reflects on reflects on God’s power in reversing certain social conditions (read Luke 1:52, 53)

Paul uses krátos in two prayers, praying for the Ephesians

that the eyes of your heart may be enlightened, so that you may know what is the hope of His calling, what are the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints, and what is the surpassing greatness of His power (dunamis - inherent power available only to believers) toward us who believe. These are in accordance with the working (energeia - depicts  the energizing force of the Spirit that empowers believers to live for the Lord) of the strength (krátos) of His might (ischus = carries idea of endowed power or ability, power as an enduement) 20 which He brought about in Christ, when He raised Him from the dead, and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places." (see notes Ephesians 1:18; 1:19; 1:20)

Wuest paraphrases it

And what is the superabounding greatness of His inherent power to us who are believing ones as measured by the operative energy of the manifested strength of His might, which (might) was operative in the Christ when He raised Him out from among the dead (emphasizes the magnitude of the power) and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places.

Paul prays that the Colossians might be

strengthened (present tense - continually, passive voice - from outside source = God) with all power (dunamis - inherent power), according to His glorious might (kratos - strength in action, manifested power, power that is put forth in action), for the attaining of all steadfastness and patience." (Col 1:11-note)

God’s power is manifested in us through the ministry of the Holy Spirit. To live the supernatural life we need not mere human energy but supernatural strength, the power of the risen Son of God. Note that it is not "out of" but "according to" His glorious might. What's the difference? Out of speaks of a portion of His power. But according to speaks of proportion and God's power is infinite. The former speaks of a miserly giving, the latter of abundant, generous giving. The first is like a billionaire giving you a dollar, the latter of his giving proportionate to his great wealth.

In Col 1:11-note Paul is saying in effect “With all power being empowered according to the might of His glory.” Spiritual growth and maturity comes as we yield to God’s power and permit Him to work in us. We usually think of God’s glorious power being revealed in great feats of daring but the emphasis here is on God's power to effect one's Christian character. As most believers who have walked with the Lord for some time would agree, it is those inner victories in one's soul that are as great as God's more famous miracles (Red Sea, etc). Think about the victory David experienced over his temper when he was being cursed by Shimei. Surely this victory over a spiritual "giant" was no less of a personal victory for David than his triumph over the physical giant Goliath (see 2 Sa 16:5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13)

Paul exhorts the Ephesian saints

Finally, (present tense - continually, passive voice - His power not ours) be strong in the Lord (be empowered through your union with Him), and in the strength (krátos) of His might (ischus - indwelling strength, capability to function effectively) (that strength which His boundless might provides)." (Ephesians 6:10-note) (Comment: We can be strong in the Lord because as explained especially in chapter 1 regarding our position in Christ, believers are now one with Christ our Living Head, Who Himself is our life {Colossians 3:4 note}, our Way, and our Truth. If He is our life, His strength is our strength but does require that we humble ourselves and submit to His Lordship - see 2Cor 12:9-note, 2Cor 12:10-note, Philippians 4:13-note, 2 Timothy 2:1-note)

God’s best soldiers are those who are conscious of their own weakness and ineffectiveness, and who rely solely on Him.

Five uses of krátos are found as part of a doxology (doxa - glory, praise + logos - word, utterance), a brief worshipful expression of praise to God, literally a "word of glory" or "utterance of praise". The fact that most NT doxologies are often found intimately associated with practical doctrine for living, suggests that believers should seek to live our everyday lives as a "doxology" to our God and Father. The NT writers had also learned that praise is an important factor in achieving victory over discouragement and depression. Note how in the NT

theology leads to doxology. Biblical truth ignites hearts and enflames lives with a fervent, passionate love for God. The more truth about God one learns and personally applies, the more clearly he or she will see, submit to, and worship Him... A Word-filled church will be a worshiping church." (Lawson, Steven. Bibliotheca Sacra. Vol. 158, page 214. April-June, 2001)

Earlier discussing spiritual gifts, Peter wrote that

Whoever speaks, let him speak, as it were, the utterances of God; whoever serves, let him do so as by the strength which God supplies; so that in all things God may be glorified through Jesus Christ (this is the goal of everything), to Whom belongs the glory and dominion (krátos - the definite article in the Greek marks krátos   as a separate and distinct possession, rightfully belonging to Him)  forever and ever (literally “unto the ages of the ages” = strengthened form of “forever” emphasizing the thought of eternity in the strongest way). Amen (“so let it be” = not a wish but a strong affirmation, placing a seal of approval on what has just been said)" (1Peter 4:11-note)

God exercises krátos, the might and power in action, marking Him as the sovereign Ruler over all. Reason, gratitude, love, all utter their deep “Amen’ to the declaration that God through Christ has endless glory and dominion. 

Barclay comments that...

The aim of everything is that God should be glorified. Preaching is not done to display the preacher but to bring men face to face with God. Service is rendered not to bring prestige to the giver but to turn men’s thoughts to God. Selwyn reminds us that the motto of the great Benedictine Order of monks is four letters—IOGD—which stand for the Latin words In Omnibus Glorificetur Deus (in order that in all things God may be glorified). A new grace and glory would enter the Church, if all church people ceased doing things for themselves and did them for God." (W. Barclay. The Daily study Bible series, Rev. ed. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press)

Paul ends his first letter to Timothy with a beautiful doxology declaring that

He who is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords, Who alone possesses immortality and dwells in unapproachable light; whom no man has seen or can see. To Him be honor and eternal dominion (krátos)! Amen." (1 Ti 6:15-16)

In the Revelation, John concludes his doxology with the only proper response in light of the magnitude of the blessings Christ has given believers, declaring that

He has made us to be a kingdom (in which we enjoy His loving, gracious rule and almighty, sovereign protection), priests (believers have the privilege of direct access to the Father) to His God and Father; to Him be the glory and the dominion (krátos) forever and ever. Amen. (Rev 1:6-note

All believers now live in the sphere of God’s rule, a kingdom which was entered through the door of faith in Christ Jesus our Lord. As God's royal priests, we now have the privilege to speak forth the excellencies of Him who called us out of darkness into His marvelous light. And as we meditate on such amazing love for those so unlovely, we can only cry out that He is worthy of all the glory, honor, worship, and praise that we can heap upon Him. And He is worthy of dominion over our lives, the church, the world, and the entire universe. Does He really have dominion over my life or do I have one foot in the kingdom of this present evil world? We cannot serve two masters.

In Revelation we read that all believers will be among those who proclaim speak praise (doxology) to God, John recording that

every created thing which is in heaven and on the earth and under the earth and on the sea, and all things in them, I heard saying, “To Him who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb, be blessing and honor and glory and dominion forever and ever." (see note Revelation 5:13)

Jude records

to the only God our Savior, through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, dominion (krátos here referring to the unchallenged sway which is His by sovereign right) and authority, before all time and now and forever (He was worthy of such praise in the past, He is worthy at the present time, and He will be worthy of it throughout eternity). Amen." (Jude 1:25)

One reference speaks of the power of the Word of God, Luke recording that as a result of the public renunciation of pagan practices

powerfully [krátos] was the word of God increasing and prevailing" in Ephesus (Young's Literal, Acts 19:20)

All the devil's forces of the occult and magic arrayed against the Word could not overpower it. The bold preaching of the gospel, the confirming miracles, the defeat of the exorcists, the resultant awe and respect for the name of Jesus, and the public repudiation of the magical arts demonstrated the invincible might of God’s Word and provided a fertile environment in which it would grow.  As someone has well said if Christians in America were to burn their trashy books and magazines, then perhaps we might see God's Holy Word would prevail in a much more powerful way in our secular culture.

There is one use of krátos referring to the devil, Hebrews recording that

Since then the children share in flesh and blood, He Himself likewise also partook of the same, that through death He might render powerless him who had the power of death, that is, the devil (Heb 2:14-note)

By conquering death, Jesus rendered Satan powerless against all who are saved. Satan's dominion over the human race was in the form of death. That dominion is now broken by the Cross of Jesus.

K
rátos is used 16 times in the Septuagint (LXX - Greek of Hebrew OT). For example, Job although sorely afflicted was still able to praise God and declare that

with (God) are strength (LXX = krátos) and sound wisdom, the misled and the misleader belong to Him." (Job 12:16)

In one of the many majestic descriptions of Jehovah in Isaiah records

Lift up your eyes on high and see Who has created these stars. The One who leads forth their host by number. He calls them all by name. Because of the greatness of His might (LXX has "by the power [krátos] of His might) and the strength of His power not one of them is missing." (Is 40:26)

Nebuchadnezzar made a grave mistake in boasting

Is this not Babylon the great, which I myself have built as a royal residence by the might of my power (LXX = krátos) and for the glory of my majesty?" (Da 4:30)

God immediately removed "the might of his power" and drove him out into the beasts of the field to eat grass like the cattle.

Forever [and ever] (aion) is literally “into (eis) the ages”. Note that the modern Greek manuscripts lack the second "aion" which is found in the Greek Textus Receptus ("aionas ton aionon") used for the KJV. In other words even though the NAS (NIV, RSV, NRSV, etc) uses a Greek manuscript that lacks the second "aion", the translators of most of these modern versions have chosen to translate this verse similar to the KJV ("for ever and ever")!

Weymouth

To Him be all power unto the Ages of the Ages! Amen.

Click all 43 uses of the glorious phrase "forever and ever" in the NASB. (or click for the 47 uses in NKJV)

From the beginning to the end, Scripture declares our God reigns in power forever and ever...

In Exodus Moses records that

Jehovah shall reign forever and ever. (Ex 15:18)

In Daniel we find a similar emphasis on the permanence of God's dominion, Daniel recording that

to Him (in context the "Son of Man", Christ Jesus) was given dominion, glory and a kingdom, that all the peoples, nations, and men of every language might serve Him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion which will not pass away; and His kingdom is one which will not be destroyed...18 'But the saints of the Highest One will receive the kingdom and possess the kingdom forever, for all ages to come." (Da 7:14-note ,Da 7:18-note)

In the Revelation we read that when

the seventh angel sounded and there arose loud voices in heaven, saying, "The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ; and He will reign forever and ever." (Rev 11:15-note)

Psalm 145
(A Psalm of Praise, of David.)
1 I will extol Thee, my God, O King;
And I will bless Thy name forever and ever
2 Every day I will bless Thee,
And I will praise Thy name forever and ever
3 Great is the LORD, and highly to be

Spurgeon observes that

Four times (David) says I will: praise is not to be discharged by proxy; there must be your very self in it, or there is nothing in it."

 

1 Peter 5:12  Through Silvanus, our faithful brother (for so I regard him), I have written to you briefly, exhorting and testifying that this is the true grace of God. Stand firm in it! (NASB: Lockman)

Greek: Dia Silouanou humin tou pistou adelphou, os logizomai, (1SPMI) di' oligon egrapsa, (1SAAI) parakalon (PAPMSN) kai epimarturon (PAPMSN) tauten einai (PAN) alethe charin tou theou; eis en stete. (2PAAM
Amplified: By Silvanus, a true (loyal, consistent, incorruptible) brother, as I consider him, I have written briefly to you, to counsel and urge and stimulate [you] and to declare [to you] that this is the true [account of the] grace (the undeserved favor) of God. Be steadfast and persevere in it.
 (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Phillips: I am sending this short letter by Silvanus, whom I know to be a faithful brother, to stimulate your faith and assure you that the above words represent the true grace of God. See that you stand fast in that grace!
 (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: Through Silvanus, the faithful brother, which is my estimate of him, briefly I am writing to you, exhorting and testifying that this is the true grace of God, in which stand.
 (Eerdmans
Young's Literal: Through Silvanus, to you the faithful brother, as I reckon, through few words I did write, exhorting and testifying this to be the true grace of God in which ye have stood.

THROUGH SILVANUS OUR FAITHFUL BROTHER: Dia Silouanou humin tou pistou adelphou:  (2 Corinthians 1:19; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:1 ) (Ephesians 6:21; Colossians 1:7; 4:7,9 )

Silvanus means "of the forest" and most authorities agree is the same as Silas ("woody", "person of the woods").

The following Scriptural biographical sketch deals with Silas also known as Silvanus, but it must be admitted that one cannot prove beyond doubt that the Silvanus mentioned by Peter is the same as the one who accompanied Paul on his second missionary journey.

We first encounter Silas in Acts, Luke recording that

it seemed good to the apostles and the elders, with the whole church, to choose men from among them to send to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas—Judas called Barsabbas, and Silas, leading men among the brethren" (Acts 15:22)

In the Antioch church we read that

Judas and Silas, also being prophets themselves, encouraged (parakaleo - urged and warned and consoled and encouraged) and strengthened (episterizo - place upon, make to lean on, in context they spoke forth sound doctrine which caused the brethren to become firm and unchanging in their beliefs) the brethren with a lengthy message." (Acts 15:32)

Shortly thereafter Luke records that

there arose such a sharp disagreement (paroxusmós = paroxysm = sudden violent emotion or action, the stirring up of anger, sharp contention, angry dispute) that (Paul and Barnabas) separated from one another and Barnabas took Mark with him and sailed away to Cyprus. But Paul chose Silas and departed, being committed by the brethren to the grace of the Lord. And he was traveling through Syria and Cilicia, strengthening (episterizo - continually placing them firmly upon and so establishing) the churches." (Acts  15:39-41)

Luke also informs us that Silas was a Roman citizen  like Paul. (see Acts 16:36)

Silas was imprisoned and fastened in stocks with Paul at Philippi and

about midnight Paul and Silas were praying and singing hymns of praise to God, and the prisoners were listening to them and suddenly there came a great earthquake, so that the foundations of the prison house were shaken; and immediately all the doors were opened, and everyone’s chains were unfastened." (Acts 16:25-26)

Silas was with Paul in Thessalonica when

for three Sabbaths (Paul) reasoned with (the Jews in their synagogue) from the Scriptures, explaining and giving evidence that the Christ (Messiah) had to suffer and rise again from the dead, and saying, “This Jesus whom I am proclaiming to you is the Christ.” And some of them were persuaded and joined Paul and Silas, along with a great multitude of the God-fearing Greeks and a number of the leading women." (Acts 17:2-4)

Later after the Jews had formed a mob and set the city of Thessalonica in an uproar

the brethren (in Thessalonica) immediately sent Paul and Silas away by night to Berea; and when they arrived, they went into the synagogue of the Jews" (Acts 17:10)

Luke records that

when the Jews of Thessalonica found out that the word of God had been proclaimed by Paul in Berea also, they came there likewise, agitating and stirring up the crowds. And then immediately the brethren sent Paul out to go as far as the sea; and Silas and Timothy remained there.  Now those who conducted Paul brought him as far as Athens and receiving a command for Silas and Timothy to come to him as soon as possible, they departed." (Acts 17:13-15)

It appears that they may not have caught up with him until reaching Corinth, Luke recording that

when Silas and Timothy came down from Macedonia, Paul began devoting himself completely to the word, solemnly testifying to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ". (Acts 18:5).

It seems reasonable to deduce that the report from Silas and Timothy concerning the Thessalonian church prompted Paul to write two epistles, both of which also contain Silvanus' name (1Thes 1:1, 2Thes 1:1)

The last mention of Silvanus is in a letter from Paul written to Corinth from Ephesus in which he reminded the Corinthians that

the Son of God, Christ Jesus, Who was preached among you by us—by me and Silvanus and Timothy—was not yes and no, but is yes in Him." (2Cor 1:19)

Vincent notes that

Brother has the definite article, the faithful brother, designating him as one well known for his fidelity." The expression, “faithful brother,” makes it clear that Silvanus was not only a Christian believer, but a valued co-worker as well.

Faithful (4103) (pistos) (Click for detailed word study) describes Silvanus as trustworthy, dependable, reliable, loyal, manifesting steadfast allegiance, firmly adhering to the Word of truth -- certainly a worthy attribute for any servant of God.

As illustrated in the examples that follow, in the NT passages where faithful (pistos) describes a specific individual, faithful conveys the idea that the one so described could be relied upon for a particular mission or purpose. So by analogy, Peter's designation of Silvanus as faithful suggests that he too had been relied upon for some purpose. What purpose? While we cannot be certain, the consensus is that Silvanus was the bearer of Peter's epistle.

Paul underscores the importance of faithfulness, writing to the Corinthians to

Let a man regard us in this manner, as servants of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries (that which was hidden and can be known only by divine revelation) of God. In this case, moreover, it is required of stewards ("trustees") that one be found trustworthy (pistos)." (1Cor 4:1)

A steward is entrusted with his master’s household and possessions and without faithfulness he can ruin both. Paul declares not that a steward be eloquent or to have many gifts, but only that he be found faithful! Paul in the same chapter wrote the Corinthians that

I have sent to you Timothy, who is my beloved and faithful (pistos) child in the Lord and he will remind you of my ways which are in Christ, just as I teach everywhere in every church." (1Cor 4:17)

A faithful steward is one who is continually

holding fast the faithful (pistos) word which is in accordance with the teaching, that he may be able both to exhort in sound doctrine and to refute those who contradict." (see note Titus 1:9)

Writing from prison Paul informs the Ephesian saints that in order that they

may know about my circumstances, how I am doing, Tychicus, the beloved brother and faithful (pistos) minister in the Lord, will make everything known to you." (see note Ephesians 6:21)

Paul reiterates his appraisal of Tychicus writing to the Colossians that

as to all my affairs, Tychicus, our beloved brother and faithful (pistos) servant and fellow bond-servant in the Lord, will bring you information. For I have sent him to you for this very purpose, that you may know about our circumstances and that he may encourage your hearts and with him Onesimus, our faithful (pistos) and beloved brother, who is one of your number. They will inform you about the whole situation here." (see note Colossians 4:7; 4:8; 4:9)

In Colossians we read about

Epaphras, (Paul's) beloved fellow bond-servant, who (was) a faithful (pistos) servant of Christ on our behalf" (see note Colossians 1:7)

The writer of Hebrews describes Jesus as

faithful (pistos) to Him Who appointed Him, as Moses also was (faithful) in all His house." (see note Hebrews 3:2)

Writing to Timothy Paul declared

I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who has strengthened me, because He considered me faithful (pistos), putting me into service." (1Ti 1:12)

Paul went on to instruct Timothy to pour himself into faithful (pistos) men writing

the things which you have heard from me in the presence of many witnesses, these entrust to faithful (pistos) men, who will be able to teach others also." (see note 2 Timothy 2:2)

FOR SO I REGARD: os logizomai (1SPMI):

Regard (3049) (logizomai)  means to think about something in a detailed and logical manner. It means to put together with one’s mind. The idea is to draw a logical conclusion after considering a given set of facts.

Logizomai was a secular bookkeeping term which describes making an entry in the account book or calculating as when figuring an entry in a ledger. The purpose of the entry was to make a permanent record that could be consulted whenever needed. In a secular document we read the writer's instructions to

put down to one’s account, let my revenues be placed on deposit at the storehouse; I now give orders generally with regard to all payments actually made or credited to the government.

This use of the verb logizomai does not imply that others have doubted the ability of Silvanus, but it emphasizes Peter’s confidence in his fidelity.

Note that the KJV translation as suppose (logizomai) suggests that Peter was not sure of the character of Silvanus. But as emphasized above, the Greek word logizomai denotes a settled persuasion or assurance determined after rational consideration of the evidence. Peter's assessment of Silvanus is therefore essentially a recommendation. In short, Peter was fully assured concerning the trustworthy character and work of Silvanus.

Robertson translates logizomai “as I account him.”

Whom I regard may be appropriately rendered as “whom I know to be” or “whom I am sure is.”

J R Michaels writes that...

The effect of logizomai, “whom I consider” (lit, “as I consider”) is not to weaken Silvanus’ credentials (as if to imply, “that’s just my opinion”) but to strengthen them. It is one of only four first person singular verbs in the entire epistle and as such it carries the personal authority of the apostle." (Michaels, J. R. Vol. 49: Word Biblical Commentary: 1Peter. Word Biblical Commentary. page 307. Dallas: Word, Inc)

I HAVE WRITTEN TO YOU BRIEFLY: di oligon egrapsa (1SAAI): (Ephesians 3:3; Hebrews 13:22 )

I have written (gráphō) means to inscribe characters on a surface.

Vincent notes that Peter here gives us

An example of what is known as the epistolary aorist. The writer regards the time of writing as his correspondent will do when he shall have received the letter. We say in a letter, I write. Paul, writing to Philemon, says anepempsa, I sent; since to Philemon the act of sending would be already past. Therefore in using this form of expression Peter does not refer to the second epistle, nor to another now lost, but to the present epistle." (Vincent, M. R. Word studies in the New Testament. Vol. 1, Page 3-673)

Briefly (di’ oligon) means literally "through few" ("words" is implied) and the idea is that given the importance of the theme and all that he might have said to strengthen and encourage his readers in their sufferings, these are but a few words.

Peter's words are similar the phrase in Hebrews where the writer states

I urge you, brethren, bear with this word of exhortation (the writer’s own description of his epistle), for I have written to you briefly (dia brachus - literally "through few"). (see note Hebrews 13:22)

A T Robertson (and many other conservative sources) comment that this section (1Pe 5:12-14) most probably represents a

postscript in Peter’s own handwriting, (cf Paul in 2Th 3:17). If so, Silvanus (Silas) was the amanuensis (person whose employment is to write what another dictates) and the bearer of the Epistle.

EXHORTING AND TESTIFYING THAT THIS IS THE TRUE GRACE OF GOD: parakalon (PAPMSN) kai epimarturon (PAPMSN) tauten einai alehte charin tou theou: (Heb 13:22; Jude 3) (Jn 21:21; Acts 20:24; 1Jn 5:9,10; 3Jn 1:12) (Acts 20:24; 1Co 15:1; Gal 1:8,9; 2Pe 2:15)

to make an appeal, and to bring testimony that this is true grace from God. For it you must stand!

Here we encounter two participles (end in "-ing") which are used to indicate the purpose of Peter's letter. Hiebert remarks that in this section we find

a pithy summary of the double thrust of the epistle" (Hiebert, D. E. 1 Peter. page 328. Moody)

Exhorting (3870) (parakaleo from para = side of + kaléo = call > the prefixed preposition para in this compound can convey the idea of  to call urgently ) conveys the basic idea of calling one alongside to give help, strength or aid. Because a person can be called alongside for many purposes, the word has a wide range of meanings including to entreat, appeal to, summon, comfort, exhort, encourage, even admonish.

Exhorting or encouraging implies an earnest and persuasive address aimed at encouraging the readers to face their trials and may also include the thought of comforting and consoling, although the former meaning seems to be Peter's prime intent.

The present tense speaks of continuous activity. Sometimes parakaleo means convey the idea of comfort, sometimes of exhortation but always at the root there is the idea of enabling a person to meet some difficult situation with confidence and with gallantry.

One of the Greek historians uses parakaleo in a most interesting and suggestive way. There was a Greek regiment which had lost heart and was utterly dejected. The general sent a leader to talk to it to such purpose that courage was reborn and a body of dispirited men became fit again for heroic action. That is what parakaleo means.

In classic Greek parakaleo  is used of exhorting troops who are about to go into battle. Peter was certainly addressing "good soldiers of Christ Jesus" who were in a spiritual battle (their "adversary, the devil") and experiences "various trials" of suffering. They were indeed in need of parakaleo.

Parakaleo  was used of the defense counsel in a court of law and was the advocate who pleaded the cause of the accused.

Barnes adds that

No small part of the Epistle is taken up with exhortations." (Albert Barnes' Notes on the Bible)

Testifying  (1957) (epimartureo from epí = upon, an intensifier + martureo = witness) means to attest further (attest = affirm to be true or genuine; authenticate by signing as a witness, authenticate officially), affirm (implies conviction based on evidence, experience, or faith), to bear witness,  to corroborate (support with evidence or authority: make more certain - this word suggests the strengthening of what is already partly established), to supply evidence that, to confirm that fact by evidence, to testify emphatically or to appear as a witness decidedly for something. The idea of testify is that one provides information about a person or an event concerning which the speaker has direct knowledge.

This verb is used only by Peter in the NT and emphasizes the idea of confirmation, the force being that Peter is "earnestly testifying" (present tense indicates continuous action)

Barnes comments that testifying or

Bearing witness (was) the main design of the office of the apostles was to bear witness to the truth, and Peter in this Epistle discharged that part of the functions of his office toward the scattered Christians of Asia Minor." (Albert Barnes' Notes on the Bible)

True (alethes from a = without + letho, older form of lantháno = be hid) is literally "not be hid" and thus that which is true, conforming to reality,  unconcealed, manifest, in accordance with fact.

The apostle Paul declared

Grace (5485) (charis from chaírō = to rejoice, be glad) usually signifies God’s favor and kindness bestowed on those who do not deserve it and cannot earn it. If God dealt with us only according to truth, none of us would survive but He deals with us on the basis of grace and truth. Jesus Christ, in His life, death, and resurrection, met all the demands of the Law; now God is free to share fullness of grace with those who trust Christ. Grace without truth would be deceitful, and truth without grace would be condemning. The Law said "Do this and live." Grace says "Believe and live."

Humility is the only soil in which the graces root. The lack of humility is the sufficient explanation of every defect and failure. (Andrew Murray)

It is important to remember that it is

the word of His grace” that performs the work of His grace (Acts 14:26).

Grace is God's provision that can transform trial into triumph and sorrow into joy.

Wuest adds that although grace is free, grace is not license to do as we please for

grace in the form of salvation is so adjusted that the one who receives it, turns from sin to serve the living God and live a holy life, for grace includes not only the bestowal of a righteousness, but the inward transformation consisting of the power of indwelling sin broken and the divine nature implanted, which liberates the believer from the compelling power of sin and makes him hate sin, love holiness, and gives him the power to obey the Word of God." (Wuest's word studies from the Greek New Testament : For the English reader. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans)

Whatever begins with grace, leads to glory as both Peter and the Psalmist teach --  Peter writes

The God of all grace...called you to His eternal glory in Christ

The psalmist writes

For the LORD God is a sun and shield. The LORD gives grace and glory. No good thing does He withhold from those who walk uprightly." (Ps 84:11) (Spurgeon's note)

If there is a true grace of God, then there is also a "false grace of God". Jude for example warns us that there are false teachers who have crept into the church unnoticed,

ungodly persons (on the surface they look like the real thing) who turn the grace of our God into licentiousness (Jude 4)

They twist Christian liberty into license (saying grace permits one to live any way they please), and pervert freedom to serve into freedom to sin. Christian liberty is not a license to sin but an opportunity to serve and the power to obey.

The word grace is used in every chapter of 1 Peter: 1:2, 10, 13; 2:19, 20 ("favor" in both verses); 3:7; 4:10; 5:5, 10, 12. Grace is God’s generous favor to undeserving sinners and needy saints. It is only when we depend on the grace of God that we can glorify God in times of suffering. When we stand firm on God’s grace, we can endure suffering and turn trials into triumphs.

STAND FIRM IN IT: eis en stete. (2PAAM): (Ro 5:2; 2Cor 1:24; 2Pe 1:12)

Eis (preposition meaning into - not effectively translated in most English versions) and "en" (second preposition).

Vincent comments that

the preposition with the verb having the pregnant force of entering into and standing fast in." (Bolding added. Vincent, M. R.  Word studies in the New Testament . Vol. 1, Page 3-673)

Stand firm (histemi), hold your ground, is in the aorist tense, active voice, imperative mood  (see aorist imperative) and therefore is a command to do this now, do it effectively and do it even with a sense of urgency. All of you (plural) take your stand in grace. Truly embrace it and profess it and abide in it.

Matthew Henry wisely notes that

A firm persuasion that we are in the true way to heaven will be the best motive to stand fast, and persevere therein." (and this is Peter bore witness to this truth even when confronted with threat of imprisonment)

This verb histemi was occasionally used in a military sense with the idea to hold a watch post or to stand and hold a critical position on a battlefield while under attack! (cf spiritual warfare implied by the "adversary, the devil...like a roaring lion" in preceding verses)

The intent of the exhortation here is not unlike that of our Lord to the embattled church at Thyatira, whom He commanded, hold fast until I come (Revelation 2:25 note).

Stand firm in grace by being in His word, obeying His word, repenting quickly and returning to your first Love.

Constable writes

Peter explained his purpose for writing this epistle. He wanted to exhort the readers to stand firm in the faith since suffering for the Savior is part of being a recipient of God’s grace (1Pe 5:9). One of Peter’s gifts was exhortation. God’s grace is sufficient (2Cor 12:9)! The “true grace of God” may refer to the help that the readers would obtain from this letter." (Tom Constable's Expository Notes on the Bible).

Dave Roper adds...

You are in the Ark, remember? And though all the fury of Hell itself may break upon the Ark, you are secure. Far from destroying you, God will use everything that comes into your life -- the most adverse circumstance -- to accomplish in you the good thing he is after. He will conform you to the image of Jesus Christ. That is the true grace of God. That is God, giving himself freely to us. That is what grace is -- God's resources poured out to us." (Dave Roper)

 

1 Peter 5:13  She who is in Babylon, chosen together with you, sends you greetings, and so does my son, Mark.

Greek: Aspazetai (3SPMI) humas e en Babyloni suneklekte kai Markos o huios mou. 
Amplified: She [your sister church here] in Babylon, [who is] elect (chosen) with [yourselves], sends you greetings, and [so does] my son (disciple) Mark.
 (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Phillips: Your sister-church here in "Babylon" sends you greetings, and so does my son Mark.
 (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: The [church] in Babylon, chosen out with you, sends greetings; also Mark, my son.
 (Eerdmans
Young's Literal:  Salute you doth the assembly in Babylon jointly elected, and Markus my son.

SHE WHO IS IN BABYLON: (Ps 87:4; Rev 17:5; 18:2) ?Peter's wife =1Co 9:5 cf. Mk1:29, 30, 31, Mt 8:14

J Vernon McGee says

I think “Babylon” here means Babylon, although some think it is a figurative name for Rome. Simon Peter is too practical to have used a figurative term. (McGee, J V: Thru the Bible Commentary:  Thomas Nelson or Logos)

She who - Regarding she AT Robertson's comment is interesting:

the co-elect woman," means Peter's wife [1Cor 9:5] or the church in "Babylon." The natural way to take it is for Peter's wife."

I like the last part of Robertson's comment...and would add that if the plain sense makes good sense, then make no other sense out of it or it is non-sense!

In Babylon - Peter says Babylon, a geographic location, so why not take him literally? The commentaries are "all over the ballpark" so to speak.

Alford says

There is no reason whatever for regarding this any place but the Chaldean capital.

Morris in the Defender's Study Bible writes that

Babylon had a large Jewish population, and Peter had gone there to evangelize and make disciples among them since his special calling was to the Jews, as Paul's had been to the Gentiles (Gal 2:7). Some have speculated that Babylon was a mystical name for Rome, but no basis exists for this idea, with no indication that Peter had ever been there. Paul wrote a letter to Rome about this same time and had no hesitancy in calling the city by name (Ro 1:7)"

Believer's Study Bible (Criswell, W A. Believer's Study Bible: New King James Version. 1991. Thomas Nelson) interprets Babylon as the actual city rather than a spiritual or figurative allusion to the city of Rome and cites the following supporting evidence...

(1) There is no evidence that Rome was ever called Babylon until after the writing of the Book of Revelation in A.D. 90-96, many years after Peter's death.

(2) Peter's method and manner of writing are not apocalyptic. On the contrary, Peter is a man plain of speech, almost blunt, who would not interject such a mystical allusion into his personal explanations and final salutation.

(3) Babylon is no more cryptic than Pontus, Asia, or the other places mentioned when Peter says the elect in Babylon send greetings to the Jews of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia.

(4) Babylon, no longer a great world capital in the time of Peter, was still inhabited by a colony of people, mostly Jews, many of whom Peter befriended and won to Christ.

(5) A study of the chronology of Peter's travels argues for Babylon to be the Babylon on the Euphrates. Such a study reveals these significant points:

(a) In A.D. 40, three years after Paul's conversion and subsequent travels into Arabia, Peter was still in Jerusalem. Around that time, he made his missionary journey through the western part of Judea to Lydda, Joppa, Caesarea, and back to Jerusalem (Acts 9-11).

(b) Imprisoned under Herod Agrippa I, he was miraculously delivered by the angel of the Lord (Acts 12). Peter was probably still in the vicinity of Palestine when Herod Agrippa I died (Acts 12:17, 20, 21,22, 23). The date, according to Josephus, was the fourth year of the reign of Claudius, c. A.D. 45. In A.D. 54, soon after Paul visited Peter again in Jerusalem (Gal. 2), Peter returned the visit by going to Antioch where Paul was working and where the famous interview between the two occurred (Gal. 2:11, 12, 13, 14).

(c) From A.D. 54 to c. A.D. 60, Peter apparently made an extensive missionary journey (or journeys) throughout the Roman provinces of the East, taking his wife with him (1Co 9:5). During their travels in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia, Peter and his wife remained in the Orient, never entering Rome. One can verify this by the last chapter of the epistle to the church at Rome, written c. A.D. 60, in which Paul salutes 27 persons, never mentioning Peter.

It would seem that Paul did not send him greetings simply because Peter neither was there nor ever had been. Those who hold that Peter governed a church at Rome must face the fact of Paul's omission of Peter's name. Had Peter been in Rome, the omission would have been a gross insult. Furthermore, it had been agreed at the Jerusalem Conference that Peter should go to the Jews and Paul to the Gentiles. The church at Rome was Gentile (Ro 1:13), and Paul was eager to go where no other apostle had been (Ro 15:20; 2 Cor 10:15, 16). Since he wrote his Roman epistle to the people at Rome, Paul's desire to witness to that city would be inexplicable had Peter been there at the time, or had he ever spent a number of years there. Neither while Paul was under Roman imprisonment from about A.D. 60 to 63, when he wrote four letters -- Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon -- nor shortly before his death, when he wrote his final letter to young Timothy, did he mention Peter. In his letters he mentioned many fellow Christians who were in Rome, but he stated clearly in 2 Ti4:11 that only Luke was with him.

Matthew Poole writes that this refers to

Babylon in Chaldea, where it is most probable the apostle was at the writing of this Epistle; the Jews being very numerous in those parts, as having settled themselves there ever since the captivity, and Peter being an apostle of the circumcision, his work lay much thereabout." (Matthew Poole's Commentary on the New Testament)

Sources that do not favor "Babylon" as a place include the Ryrie Study Bible ("The church in Rome"), the Disciple Study Bible ("Babylon stood for evil, so here it probably represents the church living in an evil location, possibly Rome"), the New Geneva study Bible ("Probably a reference to the church in Rome"), NET Bible notes ("it is likely Peter was referring to Rome here").

A T Robertson (Word Pictures) favors "mystical" Babylon, whatever that is. This is also the sense given by the Early church fathers so they make Babylon equate with Rome, as do a number of modern commentaries.

Kenneth Wuest says that

It would seem that he is referring to the city of Babylon itself: (although Wuest feels Babylon is used in a mystical sense in Revelation), the other geographical illustrations undoubtedly are literal, so why would he change to a mystical meeting, Revelation was written after 1 Peter, wherever Rome is used in NT it is referred to by the literal name.

Harold Marshall in IVP commentary on 1Peter

She who is in Babylon must be the church in Rome. The affectation of personifying a congregation as a female figure was facilitated by the fact that “church” is a feminine noun in Greek and by the tradition that saw Israel as a female figure, the bride of God. Babylon is a pseudonym for Rome.

So this latter commentary totally spiritualizes that which can and therefore should be taken literally. It shows how much teaching on "Babylon" in Rev 17,18 has influenced various individuals. Many think that Babylon ceased to exist and will never arise again as a literal city and thus they are forced to spiritualize the teaching in the Revelation and here in 1Peter. But Scripture clearly contradicts this long-standing assumption, even amongst otherwise usually literal evangelical, conservative resources. As always it is amazing how much light the Scriptures will shed on the commentaries! Observe the Biblical text alone diligently first so that you are not confused when you read divergent interpretations in the erudite commentaries.

Undoubtedly some of the confusion here relates to the KJV which reads

The church that is at Babylon, elected together with you"

Notice that here the KJV translators took the "interpretative liberty" to insert "the church" for "She who". The NKJV corrects this addition reading exactly like the NASB translation.

Another translation "interprets" the Greek rather than translating it: Today's English Version (TEV)

Your sister church in Babylon, {BABYLON: [As in the book of Revelation, this probably refers to Rome.]}

TLB is a bit more intellectually honest even though it also translates as "church"

The church here in Rome {literally, "She who is at Babylon is likewise chosen"; but Babylon was the Christian nickname for Rome, and the "she" is thought by many to be Peter's wife to whom reference is made in Mt 8:14; 1Co 9:5, etc. Others believe this should read: "Your sister church here in Babylon salutes you, and so does my son Mark."}--she is your sister in the Lord--sends you her greetings; so does my son Mark.

Even La Reina Valera has an interpretative translation:

La iglesia (Church) que está en Babilonia

Note the older RSV's more literal accuracy

She who is at Babylon, who is likewise chosen

Compare the New RSV's interpretative translation

Your sister church {Gk [She who is] } in Babylon..

NKJV, NIV, NASB, ASV, BBE (British), DARBY have

She who is in Babylon...

Mark my son is most likely a reference to John Mark (Acts 12:12; 13:5; 15:36-39). Strong early church tradition in the testimony of Papias links Mark's Gospel to the central truths emphasized by Peter in his ministry. The writer of the second Gospel has been referred to as an "interpreter of Peter."

 

1 Peter 5:14  Greet one another with a kiss of love. Peace be to you all who are in Christ.

Greek: aspasasthe (3SPMI) allelous en philemati agapes. eirene humin pasin tois en Christo 
Amplified: Salute one another with a kiss of love [the symbol of mutual affection]. To all of you that are in Christ Jesus (the Messiah), may there be peace (every kind of peace and blessing, especially peace with God, and freedom from fears, agitating passions, and moral conflicts). Amen (so be it).  (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Phillips: Give each other a handshake all round as a sign of love. Peace be to all true Christians.
 (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: Greet one another with a kiss of love. Peace be with you all who are in Christ.
 (Eerdmans
Young's Literal: Salute ye one another in a kiss of love; peace to you all who are in Christ Jesus! Amen.

GREET ONE ANOTHER WITH A KISS OF LOVE: aspasasthe (3SPMI) allelous en philemati agapes: (Romans 16:16; 1 Cor 16:20; 2Cor 13:12; 1Thes 5:26)

Kiss of love - a holy kiss is mentioned in (Romans 16:16-note; 1Cor 16:20; 2Cor 13:12; see 1Thessalonians 5:26-note) but here Peter qualifies it as a kiss of love. Here is where one needs to keep the cultural context in mind and be aware that men kissed the men and women kissed the women in Paul's day as form of greeting or farewell.

McGee quips that

Someone has said, “A kiss to a young girl is hope, to a married woman is faith, but to an old maid is charity.” In our country and culture, I think we had better just use the handshake as the means of Christian greeting. (McGee, J V: Thru the Bible Commentary:  Thomas Nelson or Logos)

Marshall adds that...

The kiss was a greeting sign of brotherly affection used by the Jews and practiced also among the disciples of Jesus. (The traitorous kiss of Judas was unusual not in that Judas kissed Jesus but rather in that he turned an accepted sign of affection into a means of betrayal.) The kiss was not associated with erotic desire." (Marshall, I. H.  1 Peter. The IVP New Testament commentary series Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press.)

PEACE BE TO YOU ALL WHO ARE IN CHRIST: Eirene humin pasin tois en Christo: (1Peter 1:2; Jn 14:27; 16:33; 20:19,26; Ro 1:7; Ep 6:23) (Ro 8:1; 1Cor 1:30; 2Cor 5:17)

Peace (eirene) (click study of eirene) The source of ultimate peace is "in Christ". Know Christ, know peace. No Christ, no peace! See discussion of in Christ and in Christ Jesus

It is interesting to note that Paul always ended his letters with a benediction of grace but here Peter closed his letter with a blessing of peace, just as he had opened the letter (1 Peter 1:2 note). It's as if he wants to emphasize from beginning to end that despite the fact that his readers will be sorely tested and experiencing even "fiery" trials, they could know that the peace of God was always available to them. And beloved, His peace is in the same way always accessible to you as you stand in the blazing furnace of an unexpected trial or walk through the valley of the shadow of death.

DOWNLOAD InstaVerse for free. It is an easy to install and simple to use Bible Verse pop up tool that allows you to read cross references in context and in the Version you prefer. Only the  KJV is free with this download but you can also download a free copy of Bible Explorer which in turn offers free Bibles that work with InstaVerse, including  the excellent, literal translation, the English Standard Version (ESV). Other popular versions are available for purchase. When you hold the mouse pointer over a Scripture reference anywhere on the Web (as well as offline in Word for Windows, email, etc) the passage pops up immediately. InstaVerse can be disabled if the popups become distractive. This utility really does work and makes it easy to read the actual passage in context and not just the chapter and verse reference.


Home | Site Index | Inductive Bible Study | Greek Word Studies | Commentaries by Verse | Area Precept Classes | Reference Search | Bible Dictionaries | Bible Maps | It's Greek to Me | Bible Commentaries | Discipline Yourself | Christian Biography | Wailing Wall | Bible Prophecy
Last Updated July, 2013

E-Mail