LOOKING FOR: Prodokontas (PAP): (Hold
pointer over following Scriptures to ponder this needful heart attitude
of every saint - Ge 49:18 Isa 30:18, Ps 123:2, Mt 25:1 Mk 15:43 Lk 2:25,
38 Lk 12:36, Ac 24:15, Ro 8:23, 24, 25; 1Co 1:7; Gal 5:5, Php 3:20,21,
1Th 1:10, 2Ti 4:8, Titus 2:13; Heb 9:28, Heb 10:36,37; 1Pe 1:13, 2Pe
3:12, 13, 14, Jas 5:7,8; Jude 1:21)
Study of Biblical Hope
and how it relates to "LOOKING".
Torrey's Topics "Watchfulness"
Here Peter presents
the concept of expectation.
Since I am headed for eternal glory,
since I am going to be a citizen of God's eternal Kingdom, since I am
going to be delivered from the day of the Lord to enter into the eternal
day of God, I should be living in expectation of that.
(prosdokao from prós = towards - adds the idea of “mental
direction” to the already existing meaning of the verb +
dokáo = look for denoting direction of one's mind toward
something) means literally to look forward toward, to wait for, to look
for, to anticipate. It means to give thought to something that is in the future
and the context indicates whether one does this looking/waiting in a
hopeful sense, with a longing, with fear (wait with anxiety, live in
suspense), or in a neutral state of mind. It describes the attitude saints should have as
anticipating, waiting with watchfulness, being in expectation.
It is notable that this is the third
time Peter uses prosdokao in this chapter! Peter continually
links waiting with watching.
Prosdokao is in the
indicating that this is
one's habit or lifestyle. Are you continually looking for
the return of your Lord? It will radically impact what you are living
Thayer writes that
denotes mental direction; from
Aeschylus and Herodotus down; to expect (whether in thought, in hope, or
in fear); to look for, wait for: when the preceding context shows who or
what is expected
Prosdokao is variously
translated "expecting", "look eagerly for", "waiting
for", "live expecting".
There are several words with
meaning closely related to prosdokao:
earnestly expect, look
forward to, wait for, wait anxiously (Click
in depth study)
to wait for with hope and patience (Click
in depth study)
to wait for with
patience and confident expectancy (Click
in depth study)
Prosdokao: 16x in 15v - Mt
11:3; 24:50; Lk 1:21; 3:15; 7:19, 20; 8:40; 12:46; Acts 3:5; 10:24;
27:33; 28:6; 2Pe 3:12, 13,1 4: NAS = expect, 2; expecting, 2;
look, 4; looking, 2; state of expectation, 1; waited, 1; waiting, 2;
Prosdokao occurs 5 times in
(Deut 32:2; Ps 69:20; 104:27; 119:166; Lam 2:16) and the focus is on God
and His acts. For example the
I hope (LXX
prosdokao = wait for
expectantly) for Thy salvation, O LORD, and do Thy commandments. (Psalm
John the Baptist's disciples came
and said to Him, "Are You the
Expected One, or shall we look for (prosdokao) someone else?" (Mt
Luke uses prosdokao to
describe the attitude of the people while Zacharias was in the Temple...
And the people were waiting
for Zacharias, and were wondering at his delay in the temple. (Luke
1:21) (Comment: Here the waiting is coupled somewhat with fear
Luke records that...
Now while the people were in a state
of expectation (prosdokao) and all were wondering in their hearts
about John, as to whether he might be the Christ, (Luke 3:15) (Comment:
How wonderful if Christ's church in America were in such a state! How
much saltier salt and brighter light the church might be in a land
growing spiritually darker each day!)
In Acts 3 Luke uses prosdokao
again recording the attitude of the lame man (who had been lame from his
mother's womb) toward Peter...
And he began to give them his
attention, expecting (prosdokao) to receive something from them.
Prosdokao describes the
attitude of those on the isle of Malta when Paul was smitten by the
viper and they waited and watched expecting him to swell up. (Acts 28:6)
But they were expecting
(prosdokao) that he was about to swell up or suddenly fall down dead.
But after they had waited a long time and had seen nothing unusual
happen to him, they changed their minds and began to say that he was a
In this context the waiting is
with apprehension concerning impending danger or trouble. The point is that they watched expectantly because they
knew it was a certainty (that Paul would fall over dead) and that it could happen any time! That's the idea
inherent in the verb "looking." It's an attitude of expectancy
and pictures one whose mind is continually turning to the future while
enduring the present evil age around them. A characteristic mark of the
genuine believer is that of habitual expectation of the "parousia" (of
Christ & of the Day of God) and which produces a powerful motive to
holiness and godliness.
Fanny Crosby (who ironically was
physically blind!) caught the "vision" of expectant living in this
stanza from Blessed
"Perfect submission, all is at rest;
I in my Savior am happy and blest,
Watching and waiting,
Filled with his goodness, lost in his love."
Read that third line again and ponder
how the various actions and attitudes are interrelated. If a blind saint
can have this Godward "eyesight", how much more should those of us who
can see the majestic mountains, the glorious sunsets, the countless
Study and be motivated by
the following "real life" examples of Godward, godly "looking" --
Jacob as he prepares to die (Ge 49:18)
Job - blameless, upright, fearing the LORD,
turning away from evil (Job14:14)
Isaiah, the prophet (Isa 8:17)
Micah, the prophet (Mic 7:7)
Simeon, righteous and devout (Lk 2:25)
Anna the prophetess (Lk 2:38)
Joseph of Arimathea (Mk 15:43)
prosdokao calls for this to be a continual expectant looking --
the habit of our lives should be to keep "looking up for our redemption
draweth night". Are you eagerly awaiting the day of the Lord, but even
more importantly are you living like it could be today?
motivates godly living
Instead of living in fear of the future and fear of judgment and fear of
the day of the Lord, you live in holy eagerness, you live with that 1Cor
16:22 word Maranatha on your lips,
come, Lord, living constantly in desirous expectation.
Vernon McGee adds
Today we see a lot of careless,
slipshod living, but also a great emphasis on prophecy. (Ed note:
consider the "Left Behind" Series popularized in 2000-2003) I hear
people say, “Oh, I’m waiting for the Lord to come!” Brother, my question
is not whether you are
looking for the Lord to come, but how are you living down
here? How you live down here
determines whether or not you are really looking for the Lord to come.
The purpose of prophetic truth is not
motivation! It is unfortunate when people run from one prophetic
conference to another, filling their notebooks, marking their Bibles,
drawing their charts, and yet not living their lives to the glory of
God. In fact, some of the saints battle each other more over prophetic
interpretation than perhaps any other subject. Beloved, things ought not
to be this way.
ka speudontas (PAP):
(speudo) can have two meanings, both possible within the context.
One meaning conveys the idea of doing something hurriedly and of causing
something to happen or come into being by exercising special effort
The other meaning is that of
earnestly desiring which would make good sense in the context and
which is certainly easier to explain then the first meaning. If Peter
intends the former meaning, then it appears he is urging his readers to
be God's instruments in furthering the divine purpose. What this
specifically means is the subject of considerable speculation, but
suffice it to say that it seem reasonable to say that it calls for holy
lives that open the door for holy lips in evangelism and intercession.
Hastening can mean eagerly desiring that something
looking for and earnestly desiring (ASV)
expecting and earnestly longing for the coming of the day of God
wait and earnestly long for
looking for and truly desiring (BBE)
look forward to the day of God and
eagerly wait for it to come (GWT 0
wait for the day of God and look
forward to its coming (Int'l Children's Bible)
Christians are not to fear the future
day of God, but eagerly hope for it.
One of the greatest motives for holy
conduct and godliness is
adds this thought:
We don't hasten the Day in an
absolute sense because Acts 1:7 teaches that the Father has fixed the
times and seasons by his own authority and Jesus said in Mk 13:22 that
the Father knows the hour of the Son's return. But from our vantage
point we can hasten the Day by fulfilling the pre-conditions of Christ's
return, namely the preaching of the gospel to all the nations (Mk.
13:10) and the repentance of the full number of the Gentiles who must
come in before the end (Ro 11:25-note).
Evidently Peter believes that lives of holiness and godliness will
indeed fulfill these conditions and hasten the Day of God.
Lenski offers a word about
trying to understand 'hastening:
We need not labor the sense by taking
speudo in the sense of "hasten", speed up the coming of the day of the
Lord so that it will come sooner than it would otherwise come....This
verb is widely used in the sense of "to be eager", which fits perfectly
here as the intensifying synonym of "expecting".
THE COMING OF
THE DAY OF GOD: ten parousia tes tou theou hemeras:
parousia) means not just the coming but
conveys more of a sense of the presence of this glorious day.
2 Peter 1:16
parousia refers to the "power and coming of our Lord
Here the definite article in the
Greek which defines this coming...day as a very specific day
for which the saints have been longing for now over 4000 years and we
enter in to the eternal bliss of Christ's
kingdom followed by the new heavens and new earth and the presence of
In your study of parousia note
that this term refers to more than a single day because the NT uses also emphasize a personal bodily presence
of Jesus Christ. Parousia then is not the presence of an event or
of a place but the presence of a Person.
Day of God - As discussed in
the notes on the preceding page (click
for summary chart "Three Divine Days in the End Times") the “Day of the
Lord” is not the same as the “day of God”, which refers to the
eternal state, immediately preceded in God's timetable by the purging of
the old heavens and earth and the appearance of new heavens and earth.
Paul taught that after Christ had defeated the last enemy death, He
would deliver up the kingdom to God the Father (1Co 15:24, 25, 26, 27,
28) which would be the eternal kingdom described (Revelation
When the day of God comes, man’s
“day” will be over. The corrupting of the universe by man and Satan will
have been terminated and judged, finally and forever. To reiterate the
day of God refers to the eternal state which follows the final phase of
the Day of the Lord when the heavens and earth will be destroyed. The
day of God is the Day of God's complete and final triumph and for this
reason it is a day we should wait for and earnestly desire.
Will you meet me in the Homeland,
Shall we both reach Heav’n at last,
When the training days are ended,
And life’s journeys all are past?
He has promised soon to take me
Where the King shall fill my gaze,
Will your voice with mine be blended
In that perfect hymn of praise?
ON ACCOUNT OF
WHICH THE HEAVENS WILL BE DESTROYED BY BURNING: di en ourano puroumenoi
(PPPMPN) luthesontai (3PFPI): (2Peter 3:10; Ps 50:3; 102:26; Is
34:4 Is 51:6; Zeph 3:8; Mt 24:35; 25:41; 2Th 1:8; Rev 6:13,14 Rev 20:11;
(ouranos) means sky and by extension heaven, the over-arching,
all-embracing heaven beneath which is the earth and all that is therein.
Will be destroyed (3089)
see above) and means to loose that which is bound and so to
set free and is the present context to be dissolved.
(puroo from púr = fire) means to be ignited or set on fire, to be
kindled, to burn, flame set on fire.
MacArthur comments on the nature of
Please note this, the day of the Lord is not the result of any
natural process. It is not the result of any natural calamity. It is not
the result of some nations using nuclear weapons. It is not the result
of any man or any natural event or natural cataclysm. It is a divine
judgment by Almighty God through the power of Christ to whom He has
committed the judgment. It is the work of God...When God's day arrives
the final destruction has taken place. Man's day is over. That's why
it's the day of God. It's not man's day anymore. His corruption
of the universe and that of fallen angels is finally judged.
ELEMENTS WILL MELT WITH INTENSE HEAT: ka stoicheia kausoumena (PPPNPN)
teketai (3SPPI): (2Peter 3:10; Isa 2:1-22; 64:1-12; Micah 1:4)
(stoicheion from stoicheo = march in rank from stoíchos
= row) describes something orderly in arrangement as for example one of
a row and hence a component or element. In most of its uses, it
denotes an elementary or fundamental principle in a subject or
discipline. It refers to the first principles of something.
Stoicheion (“elements”) refers to the
basic building blocks of matter, such as atomic and subatomic particles.
A stoicheion was originally a
line of things as for example a line of soldiers, but came to refer to
the ABC's, and then to any elementary knowledge. Stoicheion also
refers to any first thing from which the others belonging to some series
or composite whole take their rise.
In other words, stoicheion
refers to the basic components of something, the basic unit of which a
series is composed. It can refer to the things that constitute the
foundation of learning, i.e., the fundamental principles. For example,
in grammar, stoicheion would be the ABCs. In speech, stoicheion would be
the basic sounds. In geometry stoicheion would be the axioms. In
mathematics it would be a basic unit such as a point or a line. In
language theory stoicheion would be the individual constituent parts of
a syllable or word, its “smallest constituent parts,” while in music it
would be the individual tone. In the NT, stoicheion is used as a
religious technical term describing the elementary doctrines, the
fundamental teachings or the basic principles of the religion, whether
it be Judaism, asceticism, paganism, etc (see below).
In some instances stoicheion
represents the supernatural powers or forces regarded as having control
over the events of this world. Some commentators apply this meaning to
the interpretation of the passages in Colossians 2 and Galatians 4 (see
Thayer writes that
stoicheion is derived...
from stoichos = a row, rank, series;
hence, properly, that which belongs to any stoichos, that of which a
stoichos is composed; hence "any first thing, from which the others
belonging to some series or composite whole take their rise; an element,
first principle"... the elements, rudiments, primary and fundamental
principles of any art, science, or discipline; e. g. of mathematics"
The kindred verb stoicheo, to
walk, carries the idea of keeping in line, to keep in step, to walk
orderly and then to conform to virtue and piety. (cf "keep in step
[stoicheo] with the Spirit"
Galatians 5:25 - note).
Stoicheion is always plural and means the basic parts, the
rudiments, or the components of something.
Among the ancient Greek philosophers,
stoicheion designated the basic and essential elements of the
universe, including the four elements of the world -- earth, water, air,
and fire. In other words, stoicheion refers to basic elements from which
everything in the world is made and of which it is composed. Peter's use
in 2Pe 3:10, 12 conveys this specific meaning. Later stoicheion
was also used to refer to the planets (heavenly bodies) and the
signs of the zodiac ("the 12 stoicheia of the heavens ").
Stoicheion is used 8 times in
the NAS (Galatians
2 Peter 2x)
and is translated: elemental things, 2; elementary, 1; elementary
principles, 2; elements, 2; principles, 1.
Stoicheion is used as a
reference to the basic elements or rituals of human religion in
Galatians 4:3, 9, Paul writing...
Gal 4:3: So also we, while we
were children, were held in bondage under the elemental things
of the world. (Comment: Here stoicheion refers to the
elemental practices of Judaism)
Gal 4:9: But now that you have come to know God, or rather to be
known by God, how is it that you turn back again to the weak and
worthless elemental things, to which you desire to be
enslaved all over again? (Comment: Among the weak and worthless
elemental things to which some of the Galatians were returning was the
ritualistic observance of days and months and seasons and years)
In Colossians Paul uses
stoicheion in his warning to the saints to
to it (present
imperative) that no
one takes you captive through philosophy and empty deception, according
to the tradition of men, according to the elementary principles
(stoicheion) of the world, rather than according to Christ. (see note
Colossians 2:8) (Comment:
In this context the "elementary principles" probably refers to various
Jewish rituals, ceremonies, and ordinances by which men hoped to obtain
If you have died
with Christ to the elementary principles of the world, why, as if
you were living in the world, do you submit yourself to decrees, such
as, "Do not handle, do not taste, do not touch!" (see note
(Comment: Paul is saying that if the Colossian saints adopt
the practices of asceticism [practice of strict self-denial as a
spiritual discipline] they are practicing a worldly system of religion,
based on elementary principles)
The writer of Hebrews chides
his readers declaring that...
by this time you ought (a strong word
which conveys the sense that this is your duty or obligation) to be
teachers, you have need again for someone to teach you the elementary
principles (stoicheion) of the oracles of God (a striking synonym
for the Scriptures), and you have come to need milk and not solid food.
Hebrews 5:12) (Comment: In this context stoicheion refers to the
first or basic principles of Christian doctrine, the "ABC's" so to
speak. It denotes what an initiate or observer encounters first.)
Here is Vine's summary of
a, the substance of the material
world, 2Peter 3:10, 12
b, the elementary principles of religion, whether Jewish, here, or
Gentile, Colossians 2:8, 20, or both, Gal 4:3, 9
c, the elementary principles (the “ABC”) of the Old Testament as a
revelation from God, Hebrews 5:12-note (Vine,
W. Collected writings of W. E. Vine. Nashville: Thomas Nelson
Will melt (5080)
(teko) means literally that the elements are continually (present
tense) being (passive
voice) liquefied, and in
context the present tense is used with a view to future tense
fulfillment. The present tense depicts the coming event as a vivid
reality (cf Isa 34:4 where the Greek Septuagint
translation of the Hebrew uses teko).
Teko does not imply the annihilation of matter but rather
suggests an alteration of its form.
Intense heat (2741)
(kausoo) means literally being (passive
voice) continually (present
tense) set on fire
with fervent heat. It was a medical term describing a patient burning