Amplified: Indeed all who delight in piety and are determined to live a devoted and godly life in Christ Jesus will meet with persecution [will be made to suffer because of their religious stand]. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Barclay: And those who wish to live a godly life in Christ Jesus will be persecuted;
KJV: Yea, and all that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution.
NJB: But anybody who tries to live in devotion to Christ is certain to be persecuted. (NJB)
Rotherham: Yea and, all who are determined to live in a godly manner in Christ Jesus, will be persecuted." Are you determined to do what is right in the sight of God
Phillips: Persecution is inevitable for those who are determined to live really Christian lives, (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: And all indeed who desire to be living a life of piety towards God in Christ Jesus shall be persecuted. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: and all also who will to live piously in Christ Jesus shall be persecuted,
|AND INDEED ALL WHO DESIRE: kai pantes de oi thelontes (PAPMPN):
All (pas) means everyone without exception -- with the caveat that they must fulfill certain qualifications in order to receive the "promise" of persecution! What are the conditions one must meet? There must first be the right attitude - a desire and this desire must have God-ward direction. And lastly, and most important, they must be the right "energy". Paul says a godly, Christlike life is only possible by abiding in Him, in Christ, in the Vine, the Ark of our salvation. See related discussion of the phrases in Christ and in Christ Jesus.
It follows that from a practical standpoint every saint desiring to live godly should not regard the resulting experience as peculiar, but only as part of the price of loyal service to Christ. Jesus made it very clear to His disciples that...
In the sermon on the mount Jesus said there was a beatitude in store for those who suffered in His place...
Paul explained to the saints at Philippi that...
Peter has a parallel warning exhortation...
Paul encouraged the Thessalonians with words about the inevitability of their suffering reminding them that
Desire (thelo) refers to a desire that comes from one’s emotions and indicates an active decision of the will, thus implying volition and purpose.
Vine adds that thelo
Vincent translates this as all
The present tense points to those whose who have an abiding determination to live a godly life. Notice that desire in the present tense indicates this is not an occasional desire to choose to live godly, but a persistent passion which manifests itself in their lifestyle. They recognize that they are not in a religious "100 meter dash" but a spiritual "marathon". And so Paul exhorted Timothy to...
Yes, pursuit of godliness is costly now but eternity will show it to be worth the cost of commitment.
If anyone proposes to introduce into his life a loyalty which surpasses all earthly loyalties, there will be clashes with this "present evil age" (Gal 1:4) that loves self rather than the Savior. And that is precisely the loyalty that Christ demands of a disciple. (Matthew 6:24-note)
In sum, it is vital for every young "Timothy" to remember that persecution is an integral part of the godly life in Christ Jesus. Otherwise, when we encounter persecution, we might be tempted to think that he has failed the Lord or that the Lord is displeased.
As Steven Cole observes this "promise of persecution" means that...
William Hendricksen has written that...
TO (continually) LIVE GODLY IN CHRIST JESUS: eusebos zen (PAN) en Christo Iesou: (2Co1:12; 1Ti 2:2; 3:16; 6:3; Titus 1:1; 2:12; 2Pe 3:11)
The TEV paraphrases it
Vance Havner said...
Live (zao) can refer to living a natural physical life, to the general idea how one conducts themselves or behaves (as in this verse) and to the supernatural, spiritual life, resurrected eternal life which is available to believers now. The present tense depicts one who is making it a habit to daily determine to die to self (Mk 8:34), to present one's self as a living sacrifice (Romans 12:1-note), daily making the choice that Christ is Lord of every area of my life. And so we see a godly life is not native to the human heart but can only be lived "in Christ Jesus". The only way to live godly is in vital spiritual union with Christ Jesus (cf Galatians 2:20-note Ro 6:5-note Ro 7:4-note), abiding in the Vine (John 15:5) and living in obedience to Him in the grace He provides. He is the only source and sphere of a truly godly life. The believer experiences fellowship with Christ in suffering as a part of the mystical union with Him. On the other hand, it is possible to be persecuted for being obnoxious, rather than for being obedient. Disciples are not called to go looking for trouble but simply to obey Christ and when you do trouble is not far behind!
Paul writing to Titus explains that it is possible to live godly because "the grace of God has appeared...instructing ("child training" - in context what trains us?) us to deny ungodliness and worldly desires and to live sensibly, righteously and godly in the present age (continuously, earnestly, expectantly) looking for the blessed hope and the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus (what should motivate us to "live godly"?). (Titus 2:11; 12; 13; 2:14-see notes Titus 2:11; 12; 13; 2:14)
Hugh Latimer has an interesting thought postulating that...
Godly (2153) (eusebos from eu = well + sebomai = reverence <> Sebomai is from root "seb" = sacred awe ) is an attitude of reverence exhibited in one's actions. In secular Greek use eusebos described practical piety towards one's parents. The Greek root was also commonly used in the Greco-Roman world of Paul to describe respect for the pagan gods. For example in one ancient text we read
In summary, eusebos means reverence or awe that is well directed. It is not talking "godly" but living "godly". The godly person lives a life characterized by a "Godward" attitude leading to actions that are well-pleasing to Him.
Spurgeon "qualifies" the persecution Paul is referring to admonishing the disciple to...
Pope writes that...
Hiebert writes that
Noah Webster's 1828 dictionary defines "godly" as
Vine emphasizes that godly...
Edwards adds that
As H T Mahan said...
Milner phrased it similarly writing that...
Bishop Ryle agrees writing that...
Realize also that "suffering for Christ" is not only physical abuse but can include social ostracism and verbal insults:
WILL BE PERSECUTED: diocthesontai (3PFPI): (Jos 17:14; Ps 37:12, 13;37:14, 37:15 Mt 5:10, 5:11, 5:12; 10:22;10:23, 24, 25, 16:24; 23:34; Mk 10:30; Lk 14:26; 27 Jn 15:19;20, 21, 16:2; 33; 17:14; Acts 14:22; Ro 8:17 1Co 15:19; 1Th 3:3; 4 Heb 11:32, 33; 34, 35, 36, 37, 38 1Pe 2:20; 21, 3:14; 4:12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 5:9; 10 Rev 1:9; 10, 7:14; 12:4, 7, 8, 9, 10)
See sermon by the great revival preacher George Whitfield Persecution: Every Christian's Lot
Steven Cole (Spiritual Faithfulness) observes that "While the type and intensity of the persecution will vary from ridicule or rejection to physical violence or even death, every true Christian who lives a godly life in this evil world will experience persecution. If you are honest at work, your honesty will convict those who cheat, and they will try to get you. If you speak out about injustice or evil, you will be ridiculed and attacked. Calvin (Calvin's Commentaries [Baker], on 2 Ti 3:12, p. 244) put it plainly: they who wish to be exempt from persecutions must necessarily renounce Christ.
Barclay - If anyone proposes to accept a set of standards quite different from the world's, he is bound to encounter trouble. If anyone proposes to introduce into his life a loyalty which surpasses all earthly loyalties, there are bound to be clashes. And that is precisely what Christianity demands that a man should do. (2 Timothy 3 - William Barclay's Daily Study Bible)
Calvin - Persecutions are in a way seals of adoption to the children of God.
B E Fernando echoes the conclusion that...
Or as Billy Graham put it...
Persecuted (1377) (dioko [word study]) means literally to be hunted, and then to be followed or pressed hard after, pursued with earnestness and diligence with repeated acts of enmity (See J C Ryle's sermon esp part III Formalism). The picture of the verb dioko is of a fox being chased and hunted by the bloodhounds. Samuel Rutherford in fact wrote that...
Paul is reminding Timothy, as well as us, that persecutions and afflictions are required courses in Christ's school of discipleship, not electives!
William Barclay wrote that when...
Opposition will come when we attempt to bring the light of Christ into a world that loves darkness. Jesus described this same principle in His nighttime conversation with the Jewish teacher Nicodemus declaring that...
As Paul wrote to the Galatians he did not shrink back from proclaiming the truth because of fear of persecution:
Or as stated in paraphrase:
Vine adds that
Because of the abiding antagonism of the world to genuine godliness, persecution is the natural lot of the godly. Persecution and suffering for sake of Christ is a truth interwoven all through the NT in stark contrast to the paucity of preaching on persecution from pulpits in pampered American Christianity.
Jesus emphasized that His disciples would
In Acts Paul forewarned the new converts that God had a wonderful plan for their life and it included the truth that
Hiebert adds that persecution
Indeed some persecution may be overt but some persecution is subtle coming in the form of rejection, including being ignored, being patronized, being mocked (by word or a look), condescension, etc. And we can be sure that whatever form it takes the persecution will hurt for as Augustine once said it will be painful...
When our will is dedicated to God, Satan's will is to demolish our resolve with persecution.
Webster says that persecution means to oppress or harass persistently implying a relentless and unremitting subjection to annoyance or suffering. Don't get a "persecution complex" when you're persecuted for the sake of Christ, for as the Puritan Thomas Watson wrote "The weight of glory makes persecution light."
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia defines persecution as
Gill writes that persecution of the godly
Hast thou no scar?
Hast thou no scar?
So do you think you've been persecuted for the Lord's sake? Read a few sequential entries from the diary of John Wesley a "vessel for honor" used mightily by God for the "good work" of national spiritual revival (The First Great Awakening). Notice the school that he had to "graduate from" in preparation for his being used mightily! And then commit to...
Wesley's diary entries...
MacArthur adds that
Some practical applications: Don't be surprised and in fact even expect it when the world held fast in the grip of "the evil one" (1Jn 5:19) despises and hates you. We should be prepared for persecution in one form or another and not be surprised by it or fearfully shrink from it to avoid it. Such forewarning allows the thoughtful Christian to be armed with commitment and ready for certain and incessant spiritual warfare. We should consider that persecution may be one evidence that one indeed has the spirit of Christ, and are His true friends. When one is treated as the Master was they must recall that they are in good company with the prophets, apostles, and martyrs who were all likewise persecuted. If we are persecuted, we should carefully inquire, before we avail ourselves of this consolation that our Master was also persecuted, whether we are persecuted because we “live godly in Christ Jesus,” or for some other reason. If we have never experienced persecution for the sake of righteousness, we have cause to examine whether we are truly His disciples or at the very least we should question the depth of our commitment.
As John Wesley said
Peter also encourages us to live godly in Christ Jesus for
Amplified: But wicked men and imposters will go on from bad to worse, deceiving and leading astray others and being deceived and led astray themselves. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Barclay: while evil men and impostors will go from bad to worse, deceived themselves and deceiving others.
KJV: But evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse, deceiving, and being deceived.
Phillips: while wicked and deceitful men will go from bad to worse, deluding others and deluding themselves. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: But pernicious men and impostors shall go on from bad to worse, leading astray and being led astray. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: and evil men and impostors shall advance to the worse, leading astray and being led astray.
|BUT EVIL MEN: poneroi de anthropoi: (2 Ti 3:8-note; 2Ti 2:16-note, 2Ti 2:17-note; 2Th 2:6;2:7, 2:8, 2:9, 2:10, 1Ti 4:1; 2Pe 2:20-note; 2Pe 3:3-note; Rev 12:9-note; Re 13:14-note; Re 18:23-note)
But (1161) - Now Paul presents a striking contrast in character and consequences. Persecution for godliness is far better than deception for wickedness.
Evil (4190) (poneros from poneo = work or toil, Robertson says the idea is that labor is an annoyance, bad, evil; Noun poneria derived from poneros) means evil including evil, malignant character, pernicious (see Webster 1828 definition below), that which is morally or socially worthless, wicked, base, bad, degenerate. Poneros denotes determined, aggressive, and fervent evil that actively opposes what is good. Poneros is not just bad in character (like kakos - see below), but bad in effect (injurious)!
Poneros describes evil in active opposition to good. It means not only evil in its nature but viciously evil in its influence and actively harmful. Poneros used to describe Satan (ho poneros = "Evil one"), the god of this age, who is corrupting man and dragging him to destruction. This denotes someone who is not content in being corrupt themselves. They seek to corrupt others and draw them into the same destruction!
Webster on evil - morally reprehensible, sinful, arising from actual or imputed (Ed: We all have Adam's "bad character" imputed!) bad character or conduct (Ed: Bad character always precedes bad conduct, the latter being the most visible manifestation of the former), causing discomfort or repulsion, offensive, causing harm, pernicious, deficient in quality in a physical sense and thus worthless (Mt 7:17-18). Webster's 1828 Edition on evil = 1. Having bad qualities of a natural kind; mischievous; having qualities which tend to injury, or to produce mischief. Some evil beast hath devoured him. Gen. 37. 2. Having bad qualities of a moral kind; wicked; corrupt; perverse; wrong; as evil thoughts; evil deeds; evil speaking; an evil generation. Scripture. 3. Unfortunate; unhappy; producing sorrow, distress, injury or calamity; as evil tidings; evil arrows; evil days.
Webster's 1828 edition on pernicious = PERNI´´CIOUS, a. [L. perniciosus, from pernicies; perneco, to kill; per and nex, necis, death.] 1. Destructive; having the quality of killing, destroying or injuring; very injurious or mischievous. Food, drink or air may be pernicious to life or health. 2. Destructive; tending to injure or destroy. Evil examples are pernicious to morals. Intemperance is a pernicious vice.
There are two Greek words for evil - poneros and kakos, the latter describing that which is inherently evil. Poneros on the other hand refers to the one who (or the thing that) is not only evil but is not content unless it carries out active evil, evil is actively harmful, hurtful and corrupting. It is therefore not surprising that poneros is one of the synonyms for "Satan" himself. The Greek ho poneros means "the (specific) evil" (translated "the evil one") and is used of the Devil (diabolos) in Mt 13:19, 38, Eph 6:16, 2Th 3:3, 1Jn 2:13-14, 3:12, 5:18-19. Indeed, the Devil is called the evil one, not only because he is intrinsically evil, but also because he is an evil doer, out to deceive and harm his victims. Some would add he is described in Mt 6:13 where Jesus instructs us to pray "deliver us from evil (literally "tou ponerou" ~ "the evil")." The NET Note on Mt 6:13-note says "The term ponerou may be understood as specific and personified, referring to the devil, or possibly as a general reference to evil. It is most likely personified since it is articular (tou ponerou). Cf. also "the evildoer" in Mt 5:39, which is the same construction." Vine - "Kakos may simply mean what is evil in itself; poneros carries with it the idea of what is pernicious and acts detrimentally to others, not only evil (passively bad), but evilly disposed (actively harmful), whether in matters of false doctrine, or temptations in the moral sphere. The young men who are addressed have so far proved faithful, and have not yielded themselves to the corrupting influences around them."
Vine - akin to ponos, "labor, toil," denotes "evil that causes labor, pain, sorrow, malignant evil"; it is used (a) with the meaning bad, worthless, in the physical sense, Matthew 7:17,18 ; in the moral or ethical sense, "evil," wicked; of persons, e.g., Matthew 7:11 ; Luke 6:45 ; Acts 17:5 ; 2 Thessalonians 3:2 ; 2Timothy 3:13 ; of "evil" spirits, e.g., Matthew 12:45 ; Luke 7:21 ; Acts 19:12,13,15,16 ; of a generation, Matthew 12:39,45; 16:4 ; Luke 11:29 ; of things, e.g., Matthew 5:11; 6:23; 20:15 ; Mark 7:22; Luke 11:34 ; John 3:19; 7:7 ; Acts 18:14 ; Galatians 1:4 ; Colossians 1:21 ; 1 Timothy 6:4 ; 2 Timothy 4:18; Hebrews 3:12; 10:22 ; James 2:4; 4:16 ; 1John 3:12 ; 2John 1:11 ; 3John 1:10 ; (b) with the meaning toilsome, painful, Ephesians 5:16, 6:13 ; Revelation 16:2 . Cp. poneria, "iniquity, wickedness."...the adjective poneros is used as a noun, (a) of Satan as the "evil" one, Matthew 5:37; 6:13; 13:19,38 ; Luke 11:4 (in some texts); John 17:15 ; Ephesians 6:16 ; 2Thessalonians 3:3 ; 1John 2:13,14; 3:12; 5:18,19 ; (b) of human beings, Matthew 5:45 ; (probably ver. 39); Mt 13:49; 22:10; Luke 6:35; 1Corinthians 5:13 ; (c) neuter, "evil (things)," Matthew 9:4; 12:35; Mark 7:23; Luke 3:19 ; "that which is evil," Luke 6:45 ; Romans 12:9 ; Acts 28:21 , "harm." (Evil, Evil-Doer - Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words)
Liddell-Scott - toilsome, painful, grievous, Theogn., Ar. II. in bad case, in sorry plight, useless, good-for-nothing, Ar., Plat., etc.:-Adv., to be in bad case, Thuc. III. in moral sense, bad, worthless, knavish, Lat. pravus, improbus, Aesch., Eur.; rogue and son of rogues, Ar.; laboriously wicked, . 2. base, cowardly, Soph.
Poneros is an adjective that modifies a wide variety of subjects in the NT including (but not inclusive)...
Friberg - ; (1) adjectivally; (a) as what is physically disadvantageous = bad, harmful, evil, painful (Eph 5.16; Rev 16.2); (b) of persons and things, as of little worth to anyone = useless, unprofitable, unserviceable (Mt 7.18; 18.32; perhaps Mt 6.23 and Lk 11.34); (c) in a moral sense of persons and things characterized by ill will = evil, wicked, malicious (Mt 12.35; probably Mt 6.23 and Lk 11.34); (2) substantivally; (a) of persons = evildoer, wicked person, bad person (Mt 13.49); (b) as a term for the devil = the evil or wicked one (Mt 13.19)
Poneros - 78x in 72v - NAS = bad(5), crimes(1), envious(1), envy*(1), evil(50), evil one(5), evil things(1), malignant(1), more evil(1), more wicked(1), vicious(1), wicked(6), wicked man(1), wicked things(1), worthless(1).
Poneros - 367v in non-apocryphal Septuagint (Lxx) - Gen 2:9, 17; 3:5, 22; 6:5; 8:21; 12:17; 13:13; 28:8; 31:24, 29; 34:30; 35:22; 37:2, 20, 33; 38:7, 10; 39:9; 41:19; 44:4f; 47:9; 50:17, 20; Ex 33:4; Lev 26:6; 27:10, 12, 14, 33; Num 11:1, 10; 13:19; 14:27, 35ff; 20:5; 24:13; 32:13; Deut 4:25; 6:22; 7:15; 9:18; 13:5, 11; 15:21; 17:1f, 7, 12; 19:19f; 21:21; 22:14, 19, 21f, 24; 23:9; 24:7; 28:20, 35, 59f; 31:29; Josh 23:15; Jdg 2:11; 3:7, 12; 4:1; 6:1; 9:23; 10:6; 13:1; 1 Sam 3:21; 8:6; 15:19; 16:14ff, 23; 18:8; 19:9; 25:3, 21; 30:22; 2Sam 3:39; 4:11; 11:25, 27; 12:9; 13:22; 14:17; 1 Kgs 5:4; 11:6; 12:24; 14:22; 15:26, 34; 16:19, 25, 30; 21:20, 25; 22:52; 2 Kgs 1:18; 2:19; 3:2; 4:41; 8:18, 27; 13:2, 11; 14:24; 15:9, 18, 24, 28; 17:2, 13, 17; 21:2, 6, 9, 11, 15f, 20; 23:32, 37; 24:9, 19; 1Chr 2:3; 21:7; 2Chr 7:14; 12:14; 21:6, 15, 19; 22:4; 29:6; 33:2, 6, 9, 22; 36:2, 5, 9, 12; Ezra 4:12; 9:13; Neh 2:2f, 10; 4:1, 7; 6:13; 9:28, 35; 13:8, 17; Esther7:6; Job 1:1, 8; 2:7; 12:6; 21:30; 34:17; 35:12; 37:16; Ps 10:15; 34:21; 35:12; 37:19; 41:1; 49:5; 51:4; 64:5; 78:49; 94:13; 97:10; 101:3; 109:20; 112:7; 119:101; 140:1; 144:10; Pr 3:15; 7:5; 8:13; 11:15; 20:8; 22:3; 24:20; Eccl 1:13; 2:17; 4:3, 8; 5:14, 16; 6:2; 8:3, 5, 11f; 9:3, 12; 10:13; 11:2; 12:14; Isa 1:4; 3:9, 11; 5:20; 7:5, 15; 9:17; 14:20; 25:4; 28:19; 30:4; 31:2; 32:7; 35:9; 53:9; 56:11; 65:12; 66:4; Jer 2:13; 3:5, 17; 7:30; 11:19; 12:14; 15:21; 16:12; 17:17f; 18:10ff; 23:2, 10, 14, 22; 24:2f, 8; 25:5; 26:3; 32:30; 35:15; 36:3, 7; 38:4; 44:29; 49:23; Ezek 5:17; 11:2; 13:22; 14:15, 21; 18:23; 34:25; 36:31; 38:10; Hos 3:1; 7:15; 12:1; Amos 5:13ff; Jonah 3:8, 10; Mic 2:3, 9; 3:2; Nah 1:11; Hab 1:13; Zech 1:4; Mal 2:17.
Here is an OT use of poneros which effectively charted the course of Israel for almost 300 years -- we need to read and heed this truth about poneros!
Poneros in Septuagint Lexicon - evil (of things) Ge 2:9; evil, wicked (of persons) Nu 14,27; evil, ferocious (of animals) Ge 37:20; bad 2Kgs 2:19; severe Ge 12:17; ta. ponera, wicked thoughts, evil deeds Ge 6:5; evil things, immorality Hab 1:13; the evil man Dt 13:6; bad name Sir 5,15;
Here are some representative OT uses of poneros, the first group being notable as they speak of the effect of poneros on the entire world, including every person of every age...
(Gen 2:9) Out of the ground the LORD God caused to grow every tree that is pleasing to the sight and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.
(Gen 2:17) but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat from it you will surely die.”
(Gen 3:5) “For God knows that in the day you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.”
(Gen 3:22) Then the LORD God said, “Behold, the man has become like one of Us, knowing good and evil; and now, he might stretch out his hand, and take also from the tree of life, and eat, and live forever”–
(Gen 6:5) Then the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great on the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.
(Gen 8:21) The LORD smelled the soothing aroma; and the LORD said to Himself, “I will never again curse the ground on account of man, for the intent of man’s heart is evil from his youth (Ed: We are all born with this "evil" seed, the "evil" propensity is inherent in all from the moment of conception, for we have all inherited the "evil" virus from Adam - Ro 5:12-note); and I will never again destroy every living thing, as I have done.
Here is a most encouraging use (implying the antidote for the evil in us [Lk 11:13] is to fear the Lord, which by default will cause us to hate evil. The opposite of hate is love, which also seems to link fear of God with love of God, which would make sense)...
(Proverbs 8:13) "The fear of the LORD is to hate evil; Pride and arrogance and the evil way And the perverted mouth, I hate. (See William Arnot's thoughts in his great book - Laws from heaven for life on earth)
These evil men epitomize the adage "Like father, like son" and are the very ones Paul has described in the earlier, 2Ti 3:2, 3, 4, 5 (notes) describing specifically the character and conduct of evil men and 2Ti 3:6, 7, 8, 9 (notes) the character and conduct of the "imposters".
How does the truth of the worsening state of evil men and imposters relate to the prior verse? The connection is that Timothy was not to expect that he would be exempt from persecution by any change for the better in the evil men to who Paul referred. To the contrary Timothy must realize that not only are difficult days going to bring difficult people (cf 2Ti 3:1, 2, 3, 4, 5) but these days would grow more dangerous and more deceptive spiritually and the likelihood of his being persecuted for the sake of righteousness would certainly not decrease.
To reiterate Timothy (and all believers) should not expect any let up in the conflict and persecution he must face. Both men in general ("evil men," poneros) and religious counterfeits ("imposters," goes) will "grow worse and worse." Literally it reads, "they will cut forward to what is worse." This same imagery of "cutting forward" to greater ungodliness has been previously alluded to in 2Ti 2:16 (note). As they seek to lead others away from the truth ("deceiving"), they themselves fall prey to "being deceived" and thus become the blind leading the blind into greater and greater darkness. These are the kind of men who will seek to influence and intimidate Timothy as he presses on towards completely fulfilling his God-appointed ministry. We can also expect the same!
AND IMPOSTERS WILL PROCEED FROM BAD TO WORSE: kai goetes prokopsousin (3PFAI) epi to cheiron: (cf 2Ti 2:16)
Even Shakespeare recognized that...
Imposters (1114)(goes [góēs] from goao = to wail or howl) originally described one who tried to control the wind by wailing or howling. It later came to be used of jugglers, enchanters, sorcerers, wizards, magicians, because many of this group commonly used wailing or howling in their incantations. And so it evolved to mean one who misleads with chants and thus an imposter, a swindler or a cheat. It describes one who has the habitual practice of fooling others through pretense.
A swindler is one who cheats and defrauds others grossly or with deliberate artifice.
An imposter is one that assumes false identity or title for the purpose of deceiving or defrauding others.
All sorts of impostors are proliferating in the New Age movement as well as under the guise of "Christianity" (cf "form of godliness" see 2Timothy 3:5-note).
The word for imposters (goes) is found only here in the New Testament and describes men who will be out to deceive by whatever trick or sleight of hand it takes to "deceive the hearts of the simple."
In Greek writings the word góēs is found in combination with the Greek word pharmakeus (one who enchants with drugs) and also with the Greek term sophistes which refers to one who is a crafty pretender.
TDNT writes that goes...
This mostly has the strict sense of a “magician,” especially one who works with verbal formulae. Those who believe in demons take him quite seriously, though he is sometimes detested, especially by the educated... In Eur. Ba., 234 Dionysus is called a goes, obviously in the sense of one who entices to impious action by apparently pious words, and this is the meaning in 2Ti 3:13.
Lloyd-Jones once said that...
ISBE has this note
Watch out for those jugglers! In the first-century, jugglers were often traveling con men, like those fellows who run Three-Card Monty games or shell games on the sidewalks of big cities. They claim to be running honest games, but everything is rigged against you. The world is filled with religious charlatans who want more than your money, they want your soul. Let the buyer beware.
Stephen Slocum wrote that...
Proceed (4298)(prokopto [word study]) is same word translated "progress" in (2Ti 3:9-note) and means to blaze a path by beating or cutting forward as if with repeated strokes, and so to go forward and make progress. Literally they shall “Shall cut forward to the worse stage.”
The metaphor is of pioneers cutting a way before an army and so furthering its march or advance. What an ironic picture Paul paints - progressing only in inward moral and spiritual degeneracy and thus "advancing backwards" further and further from the Truth. The march of these soldiers of Satan was on a path from bad to worse which will reach the height of deception in the Great Tribulation when the false prophet
When one begins by deceiving others, in so doing they lose their sense of distinction between truth and falsehood, and with their moral compass thus distorted, eventually end up by being deceived by the deceptions of others. Sin sown, reaps its own punishment. This is the general law of depravity - that if men are not converted, they are always growing worse, and sinking deeper into iniquity. The breach between light and darkness, so far from being healed, becomes ever widened.
DECEIVING AND BEING DECEIVED: planontes (PAPMPN) kai planomenoi (PPPMPN): (Job 12:16; Isa 44:20; Eze 14:9;14:10 2Thes 2:11)
Deceiving (4105)(planao [word study]) in the active voice (the first use in this verse) means to go astray, wander, roam about and can describe physical wandering (English word - planet) but is often used figuratively of leading others away from the truth and into error and thus to deceive them. It means to deliberately cause someone to regard as correct something that is really wrong.
Vincent says that the verb planao spoke primarily of those who wandered or roved, such as vagabonds, and then came to mean deceivers or seducers.
Webster's 1828 Dictionary says that the English word deceive (from Latin decipio - to take aside, to ensnare) means to mislead the mind; to cause to err; to cause to believe what is false, or disbelieve what is true; to impose on; to delude.
Robertson remarks that...
Being deceived is in the passive voice which describes the subject (the imposters) as being led astray themselves and the present tense indicates this is a progressive or continuous deception. So on one hand the imposters actively lead others astray from the Truth (the Gospel of Jesus Christ) by either their conduct, speech, or writing but on the other hand their just reward is that in the very process of deceiving they are being led astray themselves!
As MacDonald says...
Error feeds on itself or as our Lord Jesus taught...
Solomon wrote that...
Peter spoke of the entrapping effects of sin writing of false teachers who were...
Bengel adds that
Matthew Poole comments they are...
Peter describes a similar spiritual dynamic in the last days mockers warning us to...
In the Revelation John adds that
However there is another power indwelling every man in Adam (which is every human every born - see Romans 5:12-note), and that power is his old self, the fallen sin nature for as the writer of Hebrews teaches, men can be
Matthew Henry adds that
Vine has has an interesting note: