Amplified: These arrangements having thus been made, the priests enter [habitually] into the outer division of the tabernacle in performance of their ritual acts of worship. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Barclay: Since these preparations have been made, the priests continually enter into the first tabernacle as they perform the various acts of worship. (Westminster Press)
KJV: Now when these things were thus ordained, the priests went always into the first tabernacle, accomplishing the service of God.
NLT: When these things were all in place, the priests went in and out of the first room regularly as they performed their religious duties. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: Under this arrangement the outer tent was habitually used by the priests in the regular discharge of their religious duties. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: But these things having been thus arranged, into the first tent the priests enter continually, fulfilling the sacred service. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: And these things having been thus prepared, into the first tabernacle, indeed, at all times the priests do go in, performing the services
NOW WHEN THESE THINGS HAVE BEEN THUS PREPARED: touton de houtes kateskeuasmenon (RPPNPG):
These things - When the tabernacle was erected the first time and after moving set up again… then it was back to work for the priests as discussed below.
Spurgeon comments that…
Prepared (2680) (kataskeuazo) (perfect tense) means to equip, make ready, construct, furnish. This verb expresses more that mere construction of the house. It includes the supply of all necessary furniture and equipment. It's the idea of adorning and equipping with all things necessary.
THE PRIESTS ARE CONTINUALLY ENTERING THE OUTER TABERNACLE PERFORMING THE DIVINE WORSHIP: eis men ten proten skenen diapantos eisiasin (3PPAI) hoi hiereis tas latreias epitelountes (PAPMPN): (Exodus 27:21; 30:7,8; Numbers 28:3; 2 Chronicles 26:16-19; Daniel 8:11; Luke 1:8-11)
Spurgeon - But the high priest could not go within the veil, because he was not perfect. He had to be sprinkled with the blood, and that made him officially perfect. It would not make him perfect merely to put on the breastplate, or to wear the ephod; he was not perfect till the blood had been sprinkled upon him, and then he went within the veil. But when next year came around he was not fit to go within the veil till blood was sprinkled on him again. And the next year, though he was always a sanctified man, he was not always, officially, a perfect man. He had to be sprinkled with blood again. And so, year after year, the high priest who went within the veil needed afresh to be made perfect in order that he might obtain access to God. We who are the priests of God have a right as priests to go to God’s mercy seat that is within the veil, but it would be to our death to go there unless we were perfect. But we are perfect, for the blood of Christ has been sprinkled on us, and, therefore, our standing before God is the standing of perfection. Our standing, in our own conscience, is imperfection, just as the character of the priest might be imperfect. But that has nothing to do with it. Our standing in the sight of God is a standing of perfection. When He sees the blood, as of old the destroying angel passed over Israel, so this day, when He sees the blood, God passes over our sins and accepts us at the throne of His mercy as if we were perfect.
Priests (2409) (hiereus from hieros = sacred, holy, consecrated to God, used as a noun to mean a sacred place or temple, cp Mark 11:11; cp English derivative "hierarchy" = leadership) is a sacred or consecrated person who serves deity. Priests in the NT refer primarily to the ceremonial officials of Jesus' day, that group of men who offered Temple sacrifices and carried out the other sacred rites associated with the Jewish Temple and Jewish people (cp Heb 8:4) . Most of the uses of hiereus refer to Jewish priests, but Acts 14:13 refers to a priest of the pagan cult of Zeus (patron little g god of the city of Lystra). Jesus is our Great High Priest, which describes His primary ministry in our behalf today (Heb 7:1, 3, 11, 14, 15, 17, 20, 21, 23), one aspect of that ministry being His continual intercession for us (Heb 7:25, Ro 8:34). Hiereus describes the specific position and not necessarily a priest’s character (e.g., see Lk 10:31 where a priest was a "bad Samaritan" so to speak). In Revelation hiereus describes believers who will rule and reign as priests with Christ the Great Priest (Jesus - Heb 10:21 = See Christ as Priest, Rev 1:6, Rev 5:10, Rev 20:6). Even though the hiereus described religious men, it did not signify necessarily that they were saved (cp Acts 6:7).
W. G. Moorehead defines a priest as "One who is duly qualified to minister in sacred things, particularly to offer sacrifices at the altar, and to act as mediator between men and God." (ISBE)
Priest in Latin is pontifex (from pont-, pons = bridge + facere/facio = to make) which literally means a bridge maker, and is word used even today to describe the Pope as "Pontifex Maximus" (maximus = greatest, highest), which literally means the "greatest bridge builder" and in modern parlance "the Highest Priest".
Spurgeon talks about pagan superstitious reverence of priests - A writer on the manners and customs of India, says:: 'I was informed that vast numbers of Shoodras drink the water in which a Brahmin has dipped his foot, and abstain from food in the morning till this ceremony be over. Some persons do this every day, and others vow to attend to it for such a time, in order to obtain the removal of disease. Persons may be seen carrying a small quantity of water in a cup, and intreating the first Brahmin they see to put his toe in it. This person then drinks the water, and bows or prostrates to the Brahmin, who gives him a blessing. Some persons keep water thus sanctified in their houses.' How few steps would land Tractarians in the same degradation! Their priests are the channels of grace to them, from them they receive regeneration and absolution, and from their hands they receive the god of bread whom they adore and eat. Believing all this of their sacerdotal fathers, to drink the water in which they wash their feet would be no humiliation; their minds have stooped to drink far fouler puddle, they may well put their bodies on the same level.
Hiereus- 31x in 31v (and almost 800x in the Septuagint)…
Wayne A Detzler on Priest -
Continually entering -- In the tent of meeting (the holy place), outside the veil (that separated the inner holy of holies) which is before the testimony, Aaron and his sons shall keep it in order from evening to morning before the LORD; it shall be a perpetual statute throughout their generations for the sons of Israel. (Exodus 27:21)
The outer (4413) (protos) refers to the former or first in a series or set, in this case the first of two inner "rooms".
Tabernacle (ISBE Article) (4633) (skene) means tent, booth, cloth hut and here specifically the tabernacle which was made largely of skins and was designed to be portable, which emphasizes the essence of impermanence. The tabernacle gave every impression of being a temporary structure. It is fascinating that while there are only two chapters devoted to the creation, there are some fifty chapters that deal with the Tabernacle (esp Ex 25-40). As so many expositors over the years have noted, the Tabernacle was essentially a "giant portrait of Jesus Christ" (See related study on Covenant: Abrahamic versus Mosaic). Everywhere you look in the Tabernacle you can see the Messiah.
Performing (2005)(epiteleo from epi = “up,” intensive + teleo = goal, end) is a strengthened form of teleo meaning to accomplish perfectly. The idea is to complete something, not by merely bringing to an end but by bringing it to perfection or its intended goal.
Divine worship (2999) (latreia from latris = one hired or latron = reward, wages - see an in depth study of the related word latreuo) in secular Greek referred to service rendered for hire and then to any service, by extension including service to God.
In classical Greek it was used for the service of the gods. In modern Greek it means "adoration, worship." In the NT it is used only for service to God.
In the Septuagint, latreia was used to describe the service of God according to the requirements of the Levitical law (think of "liturgical") and included the regulations of divine worship such as the rituals and ceremonies which composed part of the priestly duties.
As an aside, recall that these OT rituals and ceremonies were instituted by God not as an end in themselves, but as sort of a "picture book" that pointed toward the Messiah. These OT services were divine services, but they were also temporary services, performed in a temporary sanctuary.
Vine adds the noun latreia,
Barclay - Originally (the verb latreuo) meant to work for hire or pay. It was the word used of the labouring man who gave his strength to an employer in return for the pay the employer would give him. It denotes, not slavery, but the voluntary undertaking of work. It then came to mean quite generally to serve; but it also came to mean that to which a man gives his whole life. For instance, a man could be said latreuein kallei, which means to give his life to the service of beauty. In that sense, it came very near meaning to dedicate one’s life to. Finally, it came to be the word distinctively used of the service of the gods. In the Bible it never means human service; it is always used of service to and worship of God. Here we have a most significant thing. True worship is the offering to God of one’s body, and all that one does every day with it. Real worship is not the offering to God of a liturgy, however noble, and a ritual, however magnificent. Real worship is the offering of everyday life to him, not something transacted in a church, but something which sees the whole world as the temple of the living God. (Barclay, W: The Daily Study Bible Series. The Westminster Press)
In sum, latreia is normal word for the service that a priest rendered at the altar in the Temple of God and is the standard word for religious service.
In its sanctuary the Old Covenant had divine services. The priests entered the Holy Place daily to perform their tasks. Morning and evening the lamps were trimmed, and the coals with incense were placed upon the golden altar.
The Showbread was replaced weekly. Every Sabbath they had to change 12 loaves of bread.
They were continually in and out of the Holy Place, ministering in behalf of the people. Burnt offerings were daily Nu 28:3. ("two male lambs one year old without defect as a continual burnt offering every day"--see Ex 29:38-42 for more detail.
The first responsibility of priests each morning was to remove the old ashes from the altar, get the fire burning, and then offer a lamb to the Lord, a symbol of total devotion to God.
The duty was a never-ceasing. In this sense they symbolize the Lord Jesus Christ, Whose work is today and continually without end. How wonderful that our Lord never stops His priestly work for us. He is forever our High Priest.
Today in the Word - Dr. G. Campbell Morgan said this about believers who are reluctant to commit themselves wholeheartedly to Christ:
What an accurate description of the spiritual loss the recipients of Hebrews were in danger of bringing upon themselves! By pulling back from their commitment to Christ--perhaps under persecution from certain Jewish elements or the threat of it--they were risking the loss of unspeakable blessings.
The first half of Hebrews 9 spells out clearly the two choices facing these believers in terms of their commitment. They could go back to the familiar--the old covenant with its repeated sacrifices offered by imperfect priests. Or they could go on with Christ to enjoy the blessings of the new covenant.
We have hinted at this several times, but it becomes very obvious in today's text: if you ever have reason to doubt the advantages we enjoy in Christ, turn to these verses immediately. The contrast could not be greater.
Notice, for example, the difference between the ""earthly sanctuary"" of the old covenant and heaven's ""greater and more perfect tabernacle,"" in which Christ offered His sacrifice (Hebrews 9:1, 11). And this is just the beginning.
The priests under the first covenant had to offer sacrifices ""regularly,"" while the high priest had to go into the ""inner room,"" the Holy Place, every year (Hebrews 9:6-7). But Jesus entered the Most Holy Place in the heavenly tabernacle ""once for all"" (Hebrews 9:12), one of the key phrases in Hebrews. Also, the Old Testament priests brought the blood of animals (Hebrews 9:7, 12-13), while Jesus came into the Holy of Holies on the merit of His own sacrifice (Hebrews 9:12, 14).
And here's the best part. Although the blood of sacrificial animals could not make a final cleansing for sin, the blood of Christ has washed away sin's stain forever (Hebrews 9:10, 14)!
Notice that everything about the old system required human effort.
The tabernacle was built by human beings, someone had to raise the animals for sacrifice, and the blood was offered by human priests. But Christ's sacrifice and present priestly ministry are divine; the writer even says the heavenly tabernacle was ""not man-made.""
The point? The work of redemption has been done for us. We are free to ""serve the living God"" (Hebrews 9:14). Where has He called you to serve Him today, or this week? Serve Him with all your heart! (Copyright Moody Bible Institute. Used by permission. All rights reserved)
F B Meyer comments that…
IN this marvelous paragraph (Hebrews 9:6-14) there are five striking and well-defined contrasts between the picture symbols of Leviticus, and the realities revealed in the New Testament Scriptures. And to their consideration we will at once proceed, thanking God as we do so that we live in the very midst of the heavenly things themselves, rather than in the shadows, which, though they doubtless helped and nourished the devout souls of an earlier age, were confessedly inadequate to supply the deeper demands of man's spiritual life.
Amplified: But into the second [division of the tabernacle] none but the high priest goes, and he only once a year, and never without taking a sacrifice of blood with him, which he offers for himself and for the errors and sins of ignorance and thoughtlessness which the people have committed. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Barclay: But into the second tabernacle the High Priest alone enters, and that once a year and not without blood, which he offers for himself and for the errors of the people. (Westminster Press)
KJV: But into the second went the high priest alone once every year, not without blood, which he offered for himself, and for the errors of the people:
NLT: But only the high priest goes into the Most Holy Place, and only once a year, and always with blood, which he offers to God to cover his own sins and the sins the people have committed in ignorance. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: But into the second, once a year, alone, the high priest entered, not without blood which he offers in behalf of himself and in behalf of the sins of ignorance of the people, (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: and into the second, once in the year, only the chief priest, not apart from blood, which he doth offer for himself and the errors of the people,
BUT INTO THE SECOND ONLY THE HIGH PRIEST ENTERS ONCE A YEAR: de eis de ten deuteran monos ho archiereus hapax tou eniautou: (Heb 9:24,25; Exodus 30:10; Leviticus 16:2-20,34)
But (term of contrast) - The writer is highlighting a vivid contrast for the professing Hebrew believers, reminding them of the infrequent access and mysterious closeness of the Holy of Holies as compared to the constant openness of the outer tent.
Spurgeon - The greatest of the Jewish high priests had to admit that they were sinners themselves, for they had to present sin-offerings on their own account, but our Lord Jesus has no sin of his own; hence in part his ability to bear our sin.
Into the second - The holy of holies, representing the very presence of the Holy One of Israel.
Only - This is "only" one word, but oh, how filled with meaning it is, for it emphasizes the limited access to the holiness of God under the Old Covenant. Not anyone, not everyone, but only the high priest! Dear saint, let us meditate on our present access through our Great High Priest to the holy of holies, the throne of grace. Do we really understand our high and holy privilege? Do we really believe we now have continual access? If so why do we so seldom draw nigh to the heavenly holy of holies, dearly beloved of the Father? Perhaps we are not broken and grieved over our sins against the Holy One, etc. For those of you reading these notes who are now continually drawing nigh, first, praise God for drawing you, and second, I beg of you to lift up a fragrant aroma to the throne pleading with our Father that all of His saints (present writer included) would be so seated at the foot of His throne as you are. Thank you.
Only the high priest - There is no "exception clause", no fine print, no asterisk, for regardless of who one was or how powerful they were, divine access was only granted to the high priest.
Witness the following violation of this regulation by King Uzziah, the writer recording that when…
Christ is clearly pictured in the divine worship of the high priest in the presence of God in the Holy of Holies on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur).
Note that on this most solemn of days to a Jew (then and even today), the only one who works is the high priest. Thus from beginning of this holy day to the end he carries out the divine worship and sacrifices with no help from the other priests (except that there is a person who takes the scapegoat into the wilderness). This serves as a picture of our Great High Priest because He alone was qualified to bring an acceptable sacrifice to a Holy Righteous God. In Lev 8:12 we see a foreshadowing of Christ in the anointing of the high priest (for Christ = anointed one!)…
The Day of Atonement (Lev 16) intended to make sacrifice for all those sins that had not yet been covered (see Lev 16:30,33) and was a great day for liberation of the conscience, but as the writer explains even this great day could not make the worshiper perfect in conscience!
How much better is the New Covenant in our High Priest's BLOOD that allows all blood bought believers have bold continual access into the presence of the Shekinah, access that even the most pious and God-fearing Jew could only view from a distance (except the Aaronic high priests).
We as NT believers are a kingdom of priests and can ''burn incense'' at all times in between (pray without ceasing). Lord, please show us what prayer means to you, how important it is for us, and how it is part of fulfilling our role as Your priests on earth, Your ''go between'' so to speak, interceding for sinful men and women. Amen.
NOT WITHOUT TAKING BLOOD WHICH HE OFFERS FOR HIMSELF: ou choris haimatos ho prospherei (3SPAI) huper heautou: (Heb 5:3; 7:27; 10:19,20)
Spurgeon has the following sermons related to blood…
Not without taking blood - The Jewish high priest had to take blood into the Holy of holies on the Day of Atonement to atone for his own sins because he was a sinner.
Matthew Poole writes…
For himself - The high priest placed his hands on the head of a bull selected as a sacrifice for his own sins and those of his family and according to one source Jewish prayed "O God, I have committed iniquity, transgressed and sinned before thee, I and my house, as it is written in the Law of thy servant Moses, "For on this day shall atonement be made for you to cleanse you; from all your sins shall ye be clean before the Lord." And they answered after him, 227 "Blessed be the name of the glory of his kingdom for ever and ever!" (Yoma, 3.8)
Spurgeon - No one entered the sacred precincts save one man, and he but once a year. The great teaching was, God is hidden from men; sin has made a division between man and God; the way of approach is not yet made manifest. Yet even then there was a hint given that an entrance would be made manifest, for the division was not a piece of brickwork, nor even an arrangement of cedar overlaid with gold. It was a veil that, once in the year, was solemnly lifted, that the high priest might pass beneath. This hinted that sinful men were yet to be permitted to draw nigh unto the Most Holy God through the Christ of God. Notice especially those words, “Not without blood.” There could be no approach to God under the old dispensation without the shedding of blood, and there is no access to the Lord now without the precious blood of Christ. Inasmuch as the new covenant was not the type, but the substance, a more precious sacrifice was needed, and nobler blood than any which is found in the veins of bulls or of goats. Jesus the Son of God must die, or the covenant would be unsealed, the testament without force. No covenant blessing comes to us apart from the death of our great sacrifice, for “apart from the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness,” (9:22) and forgiveness is one of the earliest of the gifts of grace. If we cannot even begin the heavenly life by receiving forgiveness of sins without coming into connection with the blood, we may be sure that no further blessing can come to us apart from it. It seems to be absolutely necessary that when God comes into communication with guilty man it must be through an atonement, and that atonement must be made by blood, or by the sacrifice of a life. The greatest of the Jewish high priests had to admit that they were sinners themselves, for they had to present sin offerings on their own account. But our Lord Jesus has no sin of His own; hence in part His ability to bear our sin.
For (huper) is a preposition which in this context speaks of substitution. It could be translated “for the sake of" or "in behalf of”. Clearly this single preposition pictures the substitutionary character of the atonement by the blood of the sacrificial animal that is carried in by the Levitical high priest. Clearly this ritual foreshadowed the once for all substitutionary and fully atoning sacrifice of the Lamb of God, Who takes away the sin of the world (see Jn 11:50, see note Titus 2:14). The writer will go on to teach that under the Old Covenant the offering of the blood of animals pointed to and was perfectly and finally fulfilled in the offering of the precious blood of the Lamb, the suffering, crucified Messiah of Isaiah 53 and Psalm 22.
This is a good point to stop for a moment and offer up a sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving to the Lamb Who has opened the gates of so great a salvation (click hymn to play and sing along)…
by Robert Lowery
What can wash away my sin?
AND FOR THE SINS OF THE PEOPLE COMMITTED IN IGNORANCE: kai ton tou laou agnoematon: (Leviticus 5:18; 2 Samuel 6:7; 2 Chronicles 33:9; Psalms 19:12; 95:10; Isaiah 3:12; 9:16; 28:7; Isaiah 29:14; Hosea 4:12; Amos 2:14)
Sins… Ignorance (one Greek word) (51) (agnoema from agnoeo = not to know, ignore) in context defines sin committed through ignorance or thoughtlessness. In other words it meant to sin without knowing that one has sinned
Guzik - Sins of ignorance were the specific aim of the Day of Atonement. It was assumed that known sin would be taken care of through the regular sin offerings and the daily sacrifices. In this respect, Jesus’ work is far greater than the work done on the Day of Atonement. Jesus’ work on the cross is sufficient to atone for both the sins we do in ignorance and sins that we know.
Steven Cole commenting on sins… in ignorance writes that..
Adam Clarke explains sins… in ignorance - For transgressions of which they were not conscious: there were so many niceties in the ritual worship of the Jews, and so many ways in which they might offend against the law and incur guilt, that it was found necessary to institute sacrifices to atone for these sins of ignorance. And as the high priest was also clothed with infirmity, he required to have an interest in the same sacrifice, on the same account. This was a national sacrifice; and by it the people understood that they were absolved from all the errors of the past year, and that they now had a renewed right of access to the mercy-seat.
Barnes - The blood of the goat was offered for them, Leviticus 16:15. The word rendered errors—agnoema—denotes, properly, ignorance, involuntary error; and then error or fault in general—the same as the Hebrew מִשְׁנֶּה from שָׁנָה—to err. The object was to make expiation for all the error and sins of the people, and this occurred once in the year. The repetition of these sacrifices was a constant remembrance of sin; and the design was, that neither the priests nor the people should lose sight of the fact that they were violators of the law of God.
See Nu 15:22-31, 30 for contrast of "unintentional" vs "defiant" sins (see Nu 15:32-36 for specific example of "defiant" sin) and compare to writer's warning in Heb 10:26ff.
The offering of the blood of the goat and the carrying away of the scapegoat provided forgiveness only in that they typified the final sacrifice of Christ.
Andrew Murray (Holiest of All) writes…
Lev 16:4: early on the Day of Atonement, high priest cleansed himself ritually and "He shall put on the holy linen tunic, and the linen undergarments shall be next to his body, and he shall be girded with the linen sash, and attired with the linen turban (these are holy garments). (??) Then he shall bathe his body in water and put them on.
Lev 16:6,11: Then he began his daily sacrificing. Unlike Christ, he had to sacrifice for his own sin.
Very likely he would have already slaughtered 22 different animals by the time he reached the event known as the atonement. It was an exceptionally busy and bloody thing that he did on this day.
Lev 16:23: After finishing all these sacrifices, he took off the robes of glory and beauty and went and bathed himself again completely. He then put on a white linen garment, with no decoration or ornament at all, and performed the sacrifice of atonement.
In this ritual, the high priest symbolized Jesus Christ, who, in His true and perfect work of atonement, stripped off all His glory and beauty and became the humblest of the humble. (Phil2:6-7) He dressed Himself in human flesh, pure but plain and unadorned. In all of His humility He never lost His holiness.
When the high priest was done with the sacrifice of atonement, he put the robes of glory and beauty back on, picturing still further the work of our Lord.
In His high priestly prayer, anticipating what would happen after the crucifixion and resurrection, Jesus said, “And now, glorify Thou Me together with Thyself, Father, with the glory which I had with Thee before the world was” (Jn17:5). He was saying in effect, “Give Me back My robes. I’ve done the job of atonement. My work of humility is Over.”
Lev 16:12,13: In the garment of white linen, the high priest took coals off the bronze altar, where sacrifice was going to be made. He put them in a gold censer with incense and carried it into the Holy of Holies.
Here again is a beautiful picture of Christ, interceding for His own before God’s presence.
Lev 16:14: Then the high priest went out and took a bullock purchased with his own money, because it was to be offered for his own sin. After slaughtering the bullock and offering the sacrifice, he had another priest assist him in catching the blood as it drained off. He swirled some of it in a small bowl and carried it into the Holy of Holies, where he sprinkled it on the mercy seat. The people could hear the bells on his robe as he moved about. He hurried out, and the people breathed a sigh of relief at seeing him. Had he entered the Holy of Holies ceremonially unclean, he would have been struck dead.
Lev 16:15, 8, 9, 16,17: When he came out, two goats were waiting for him by the bronze altar. In a small urn were two lots to determine which goat would be used for which purpose. One lot was marked for the Lord and the other for Azazel, for the scapegoat. As each lot was drawn it was tied to the horn of one of the goats. The goat designated for Jehovah was then killed on the altar. Its blood was caught in the same way as that of the bullock and was swirled in the bowl as it was carried into the Holy of Holies. This blood, too, was sprinkled on the mercy seat, but this time for the sins of the people. Again he hurried back out.
Lev 16:21,22: He then placed his hands on the goat that remained, the scapegoat, symbolically placing the sins of the people on the goat’s head. That goat was taken far out into the wilderness and turned loose, to be lost and never to return.
The first goat represented satisfaction of God’s justice, in that sin had been paid for. The second represented satisfaction of man’s conscience, because he knew he was freed of the penalty of sin. Still again we see Christ. In His own death he paid for man’s sin, thereby satisfying God’s justice, and He also carried our sins far from us, giving us peace of conscience and mind. He satisfied both God and man. The two goats actually are two parts of one offering. “And he shall take from the congregation of the sons of Israel two male goats for a sin offering” (Lv 16:5). They represented propitiation and pardon, two aspects of the one atoning sacrifice.
Here is Spurgeon's exposition of Leviticus 16, the Day of Atonement…
Leviticus 16:1, 2. And the Lord spake unto Moses after the death of the two sons of Aaron, when they offered before the Lord, and died, and the Lord said unto Moses, Speak unto Aaron thy brother, that he come not at all times into the holy place within the vail before the mercy seat, which is upon the ark; that he die not: for I will appear in the cloud upon the mercy seat.
Leviticus 16:3. Thus shall Aaron come into the holy place: with a young bullock for a sin offering, and a ram for a burnt offering.
Leviticus 16:4. He shall put on the holy linen coat, and he shall have the linen breeches upon his flesh, and shall be girded with a linen girdle, and with the linen mitre shall he be attired: these are holy garments; therefore shall he wash his flesh in water, and so put them on.
Leviticus 16:5, 6. And he shall take of the congregation of the children of Israel two kids of the goats for a sin offering, and one ram for a burnt offering. And Aaron shall offer his bullock of the sin offering, which is for himself, and make an atonement for himself, and for his house.
Leviticus 16:7. And he shall take the two goats, and present them before the Lord at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
Leviticus 16:8. And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats; one lot for the Lord, and the other lot for the scapegoat.
Leviticus 16:9-14. And Aaron shall bring the goat upon which the Lord's lot fell, and offer him for a sin offering. But the goat, on which the lot fell to be the scapegoat, shall be presented alive before the Lord, to make an atonement with him, and to let him go for a scapegoat into the wilderness. And Aaron shall bring the bullock of the sin offering, which is for himself, and shall make an atonement for himself, and for his house, and shall kill the bullock of the sin offering which is for himself: and he shall take a censer full of burning coals of fire from off the altar before the Lord, and his hands full of sweet incense beaten small, and bring it within the vail: and he shall put the incense upon the fire before the Lord, that the cloud of the incense may cover the mercy seat that is upon the testimony, that he die not: and he shall take of the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger upon the mercy seat eastward; and before the mercy seat shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times.
Leviticus 16:15. Then shall he kill the goat of the sin offering, that is for the people, and bring his blood within the vail, and do with that blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the mercy seat, and before the mercy seat:
Leviticus 16:16. And he shall make an atonement for the holy place, because of the uncleanness of the children of Israel, and because of their transgressions in all their sins: and so shall he do for the tabernacle of the congregation, that remaineth among them in the midst of their uncleanness.
Leviticus 16:17-19 And there shall be no man in the tabernacle of the congregation when he goeth in to make an atonement in the holy place, until he come out, and have made an atonement for himself, and for his household, and for all the congregation of Israel. And he shall go out unto the altar that is before the Lord, and make an atonement for it; and shall take of the blood of the bullock, and of the blood of the goat, and put it upon the horns of the altar round about. And he shall sprinkle of the blood upon it with his finger seven times, and cleanse it, and hallow it from the uncleanness of the children of Israel.
Leviticus 16:20, 21. And when he hath made an end of reconciling the holy place, and the tabernacle of the congregation, and the altar, he shall bring the live goat: and Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins, putting them upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of a fit man into the wilderness:
Leviticus 16:22-25. And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities unto a land not inhabited: and he shall let go the goat in the wilderness. And Aaron shall come into the tabernacle of the congregation, and shall put off the linen garments, which he put on when he went into the holy place, and shall leave them there: and he shall wash his flesh with water in the holy place, and put on his garments, and come forth, and offer his burnt offering, and the burnt offering of the people, and make an atonement for himself, and for the people. And the fat of the sin offering shall he burn upon the altar.
Leviticus 16:26, 27. And he that let go the goat for the scapegoat shall wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward come into the camp. And the bullock for the sin offering and the goat for the sin offering, whose blood was brought in to make atonement in the holy place, shall one carry forth without the camp; and they shall burn in the fire their skins, and their flesh, and their dung.
Leviticus 16:28. And he that burneth them shall wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward he shall come into the camp.
Leviticus 16:29-31 And this shall be a statute for ever unto you: that in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls, and do no work at all, whether it be one of your own country, or a stranger that sojourneth among you: for on that day shall the priest make an atonement for you, to cleanse you, that ye may be clean from all your sins before the Lord. It shall be a sabbath of rest unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls, by a statute for ever.
F B Meyer comments that…
THE HIGH-PRIESTS ARE CONTRASTED WITH CHRIST (vv.7,11). The outer court of the sanctuary might be trodden, under certain conditions, by ordinary Israelites; but for the most part they were excluded, and service was rendered by Levites and priests, at the head of whom stood the high-priest, radiant in his garments of glory and beauty. The garment of fine white linen worn next his person; the linen girdle girt about his loins fitting him for ministry (John xiii. 4); the robe of the ephod, woven all of blue, and fringed with scarlet tassels in the form of pomegranates; the ephod itself, composed of the same materials as constituted the veil; and on his breast the twelve precious stones, engraven with the names of Israel. How grand a spectacle was there!