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JEHOVAH NISSI -
THE LORD OUR BANNER
EXPOSITION OF EXODUS 17:8-16
Jehovah Nissi: The LORD Our Banner
Then Amalek came and fought against
Israel at Rephidim.
For context see -
Exodus 17:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
reminds us that...
"Only a few weeks had elapsed from the
time the children of Israel left Marah, the place of bitter waters, till
they reached Rephidim, the scene of Jehovah's revelation of Himself to them
as Jehovah-nissi, Jehovah my banner. At Marah, we will recall, in healing
the bitter waters of that place, He had revealed Himself as
(Jehovah Rophe), Jehovah Who heals, the One Who alone has the remedy for the
sins of mankind, the balm for the sorrows and sufferings of His people; Who
has sweetened the bitter waters of human misery and death through Christ,
the Tree of life and the sweet and living waters. The children of Israel had
gone from Marah to Elim, the place of refreshing and rest (Ex15:27). From
there they journeyed to the wilderness of Sin (Ex 16) where they murmured
against Moses because there was no food, and where they longed for the
fleshpots of Egypt. There, Jehovah appeared in the cloud of glory and began
to feed them with the wilderness manna. Then they came to Rephidim where
there was no water (Ex 17). At Marah the waters were bitter. Here there was
no water at all. Hunger is difficult and discouraging enough to bear, but
the sufferings and torments of thirst are unbearable. Their murmurings and
threatenings against Moses were rather a tempting of Jehovah. They doubted
God. Forgotten, the marvelous passage of the Red Sea and the drowning of
Pharaoh and his hosts; forgotten, the miraculous healing of Marah's waters!
Ignoring the coming down of the manna from heaven, they questioned God's
goodness and even His presence. "Is the Lord among us, or not?" they said.
And there from the rock in Horeb, that rock which Paul tells us was Christ
(1 Cor. 10:4), Jehovah caused waters to spring forth to quench the
multitude's thirst. Then came the experience which occasioned Jehovah's
revelation of Himself to His people as Jehovah Nissi. Israel discovered that
perhaps there were worse enemies than even hunger and thirst. They now
learned that their pathway was to be contested and barred by implacable
human foes." (Hemphill,
Nathan: Names of God. Moody. 1944)
circumstances Israel had just experienced (Exodus 17:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) they
how God provided water (and food in Ex 16 "manna"). Israel's "learning"
however was at best incomplete for they continued to grumble and quarrel with
God even after clearly and indisputably seeing Jehovah's gracious hand of
provision for their every essential need...but don't I likewise as a blood
bought, heaven bound believer often manifest the same forgetful, ungrateful
spirit? And yet despite these great lessons from God, Israel had not yet
experienced individual combat in
Two observations are
worth commenting upon...
(1) "Rephidim" means
"rests" (plural). One cannot take this too
far but it does at least raise the thought that we are often most vulnerable
when everything seems calm and restful. The point is that our enemy never
sleeps and we too must remain ever vigilant and on guard...even when we
(2) The verb "fought" is translated in the
translation of the Hebrew Old Testament) with the verb
meaning to make war or fight and is in
You say "so what?" The point is that the imperfect tense conveys the picture
of a repeated action, and thus one begins to understand that the Amalekites
were attacking over and over again.
God Himself had fought for them when
Pharaoh's army pursued them, backing them up against the Red Sea. At that
"battle" they were instructed to
"stand by and see the salvation of
Jehovah which He will accomplish for you today...Jehovah will fight for you
while you keep silent."
Although one must use considerable caution in interpreting "Type" (Click for
well done discussion of
types in ISBE - see also
Approach to Interpretation of God's Word
for caveats) (cf Paul's use of
1 Corinthians 10:6 and 10:11)
in the OT, there is a consensus among most conservative expositors that the
Topic - Amalekites)
are representative of all evil forces
opposed to God's people throughout all the ages.
And in the light of NT teaching, those enemies are most
"conveniently" grouped into
The "FLESH" which is
the "Sin principle" (see study of
as the evil disposition)
that every human born has inherited (Ro 5:12 -note)
theologians call it "inherent sin") from Adam (every human born has
inherited the deadly "Sin virus" from Adam and we pass on this "Sin
virus" to all our offspring) which in turn produces in them the desire
propensity to commit personal sins. In other words, "Sin" (singular
and in the original Greek in Romans usually modified with the definite
article "the" = the
is the power of sin to rule over man (Ro 6:1, 2, 3 -see notes
(plural) are the outworking of the power in thoughts, words and deeds = sins
that are committed. For a believer the
principle" has been rendered inoperative when we were crucified with
Christ (Ro 6:6, 7, Gal 2:20 -see notes
releasing us from the power that
as a principle or ruling force once had in our lives. The practical import
of this truth is that believers have been delivered from the power of
(Ro 6:7, 11, 12, 13, 14 -see notes
Ro 6:11; 12; 13; 14)
and now have the ability to say "No" to the "lusts (strong
desires) of the flesh". And yet the
does remain in "latent" form in our physical bodies and is still capable of
rearing its ugly "Amalekite-like" head to wage war against us (Ro
6:12, 13, 8:13-see
Ro 6:12; 13;
Paul emphasizes this perpetual
(until our glorification - Hallelujah!) struggle in Galatians 5:17 (note)
teaching us that the
tense = continuously)
its desire against the Spirit and the Spirit against the flesh, for
these are (present
tense = continuously) in opposition
(literally lined up face to face against!) to one
another so that you may not do the things that you please (or that you
"continuously desire" =
Peter also reminds us that understand that we
strangers" on earth
and as such must
continually "abstain (Gk means hold oneself away from ~
put some separation between)
from fleshly lusts, which (continually =
wage war (see
word study on
strateuomai related to English "strategy" or "stratagem"
= trick in war for deceiving and outwitting the enemy! - meditate on this
verse now with these added insights)
against the soul." (see note
1 Peter 2:11)
One should be able to see the parallel between these NT truths and
Ex17:16 which teaches that "the LORD will have war against Amalek from generation to generation."
And beloved, if the Amalekites war against God, they will also continuously
carry out war against His children (Jn 1:12).
(2) The "WORLD"
represents sum total of the thoughts, ideas
and actions that are opposed to God, which continually suppress His truth in unrighteousness and which influence
drive all men and women still "dead in their trespasses and sins" (Eph
2:1, 2, 3 -see
3, cp 1Jn 2:15, 16, 17,
word study on
aion) in this sense does not refer to the
literal physical creation but to the world’s system of values and way of
doing things -- these put pressure on each person to try to get them to
conform to the world's way (Ro 12:2 -note). The unregenerate person either consciously or unconsciously
is controlled by the
values and attitudes of this world and behaves accordingly. The leader
of this "WORLD"
for John teaches us that "whole world lies in the power of the evil
one."(1Jn 5:19). (See
Piper's comment on "world")
(3) The third "Amalekite"
who continuously wages war against God and His children from generation to
"the great dragon...the serpent of old who is called the
whole world" (see note
believers we have been
(see word study on
...from the domain (exousia
= right and might -
see word study)
of darkness and transferred...to the kingdom of His beloved Son" (see
And so as we study this section on warfare, let us keep in mind that
things happened to them (Israel) as an
and they were written for our
discussion of verb form),
upon whom the ends of the ages have come" (1Cor 10:6,11)
Paul adds that if any one of us thinks he or she can stand in our own strength against
the "Amalekites" then we need to
heed lest (we) fall."
had to learn in warfare that even though they were to personally "fight
the good fight of faith", victory was found ONLY in Jehovah Nissi, the
LORD our Banner, their rallying point. This is the same lesson all believers
must learn (and re-learn), lest we become overwhelmed and dismayed by the "Amalekites"
who attack unfairly, unexpectedly and unremittingly! Also keep in mind that
every "physical battle" is but a picture and manifestation of the
underlying eternal spiritual struggle between good and evil. Israel's physical
enemy in this battle was the Amalekites
who were descendants of Esau's grandson,
(Ge 36:12). They were nomads in the desert south of Canaan (1Sa 15:7; 27:8)
who because they
did not fear God
(Dt 25:18) attacked God's people Israel. Their mode of attack was from the
rear, assaulting the stragglers (Dt 25:17, 18, 19 Nu 24:20) who were "faint
I don't know what your experience is but when I
am tired and weary that is often the very time that the "Amalekites"
mount their "sniper" attacks. This is why Jesus warned His disciples,
commanding them to
tense = continuously) keep
in depth discussion of
gregoreuo) and praying that you may not enter into temptation. The spirit is willing but
the flesh is weak." (Mt 26:41).
In a similar way Peter also warned us to
"Be of sober spirit, be on the alert.
the devil, prowls about like a roaring
lion, seeking someone to devour. But
him, firm in your faith, knowing that the same
experiences of suffering are being accomplished by your brethren who are in
the world. And after you have suffered for a little while, the God of all
grace, who called you to His eternal glory in Christ, will Himself perfect,
confirm, strengthen and establish you." (see notes
1 Peter 5:8;
In Deut 25:17-19,
just before the 2nd generation of Israelites from Egypt enters the promised
land, Moses reminds them that when the LORD gives them rest from their
enemies, they are to completely blot out the memory of Amalek and that this
command is not optional! In a similar vein, believers likewise cannot strike
a truce with any of the "Amalekites", Satan, the world (Jas
4:4,1Jn 2:15, 16, 17) or our flesh (1Pe 2:11-note;
When there is compromise with SIN ("Amalekites") by God's people, SIN
begins its insidious work to corrupt and ultimately to destroy
(see relationship between sins
of battles in Nu 14:42, 43, 44, 45,
Jdg 6:1, 2, 3, 4-note)
Amalekites must always be utterly blotted out. We must not deal
lightly with the presence of sins in our life (Heb 12:1, 2-note
1Jn 1:9: "If we confess our sins, He is
faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all
unrighteousness"' as if it were little more than a "spiritual
band-aid" and then turn right around and immediately commit that sin again. We can
be tempted to think that these personal sins are small (cf to the "little foxes" in
Our Daily Bread "Tiny Evils, Big Fall")
and that they really do not impact our lives and that we have a "forgiveness credit
card" that lets us commit sins with impunity and without consequences. But
we forget that our sins grieve the heart (cf Ge 6:3, 5,6, Ps 78:40, Ezek
6:9, Lk 19:41, 42, Acts 7:51, Eph 4:30-note,
Is 63:10, Heb 3:17-note)
of a thrice Holy God and they negate our spiritual victory and disturb our
inner peace (see above - study
for effect of sin on war with Amalekites).
Our sins are like a silent but potentially deadly malignant tumor -- once
the cancer gain a foothold, it begins to metastasize to other parts of the
body and ultimately brings death to the body. The best cure for aggressive
cancer is total obliteration of the cancer cells -- to "utterly blot them
And so we began to appreciate the severity and seriousness of God's
command to Israel to
blot out the memory of the Amalek from under heaven in (Dt 25:19),
noting that in (Ex
17:14) it is God Who says
I will utterly blot out the memory of Amalek from under heaven.
These seemingly contradictory verses remind us that
in spiritual warfare,
we are responsible for our part of the "blotting out" process, but it is ultimately our
Jehovah Nissi Who gives the victory. Paul reflects on this mysterious interaction of
and God's sovereignty
in (Php 2:12, 13 - see notes
13) exhorting us as believers to
command to continually)
(our) salvation with fear
trembling, (How? Why?)
for (introduces explanation) it is God who is at work (energeo
= energizing) in (us), both to will (He even gives us the "want to" because
our old nature does not "want to"!) and to
work (energeo) for His good pleasure."
for a schematic depiction of this important spiritual principle)
As Puritan John Owen wrote "Kill sin or
it be killing you." (see John
Piper's sermon "How
to Kill Sin, Part 2")
(See also John Owen's classic treatise
Mortification of Sin in Believers)
Is a Unredeemable "Beast"
An illustration of the deadliness of sin
comes from the tragic tale that began with a frantic 911 call from a woman
who could only state that she needed help because she was being killed.
When the police arrived, they found a bloody knife beside her lifeless body
on the kitchen floor. Blood was spattered across the room, yet when the
police examined the body, they found to their amazement not a single cut or
puncture wound. The only evidence on her body was a large mark across her
chest and neck. They then noticed a trail of blood leading into the next
room. Following the blood they found a dying boa constrictor.
The woman had
apparently raised the snake as a pet. On this particular day, the snake had
apparently wrapped itself around the woman as she prepared food in the
kitchen. For whatever reason, she had allowed the snake to entwine her body.
Once the muscular snake began to constrict itself, the woman had apparently
sensed the danger. In a panic, she had grabbed a knife and began to slash
away. She managed to mortally wound the snake, but she was killed in the
This story is an incredible example of the
Sin in our
lives. We often take subtle compromises into our lives like an innocent pet. We think we can handle the snake without any real risk. Although we hear
stories about the destruction of other people, we rationalize that they were
simply weak. We can handle it! We think we know how far we can go. Thus we
deal with sin flippantly and lightly. (from Hemphill, K:
The Names of God) (cf the similar
Tiny Evils, Big Fall)
Then Amalek came and fought against
Israel at Rephidim.
Who is Amalek?
apparently means “dweller in a valley”. For more detail see the
the first mention of Amalek (and it is assumed for purposes of the
present discussion that this same Amalek is
the father of the "Amalekites" although some dispute this interpretation)...
"Timna was a concubine of Esau's son
Eliphaz and she bore Amalek to Eliphaz. These are the sons of Esau's wife Adah." (Genesis
Thus the Amalekites
were direct descendants of Isaac. Yet they became the persistent and
hereditary enemies of Israel (Jacob), a thorn in their flesh, and a constant
menace to their spiritual and national life.
Balaam says that...
“Amalek was the first of the nations, but his end shall be destruction."
As the first nation to attack the newly redeemed Israel (and thus
typical of all who later hated God’s people), the Amalekites received the full
impact of God’s curse upon
you I will
curse.” (Genesis 12:3)
of Abrahamic Covenant)
The Amalekites were a numerous
and powerful people. It might have been expected that, as closely related to
Israel as they were, they would have afforded help instead of opposition.
Yet they opposed Israel in a most mean and cowardly way
Expositor's Bible adds this explanatory note...
"The Amalekites lived in the desert, south
of Canaan around Kadesh (Genesis
14:7), otherwise known as the northern part of the Negev (Numbers
13:29, 14:25, 43). Amalek was the son of Eliphaz (Esau's eldest boy) by a
concubine named Timna (Genesis 36:12) and became a "clan" or "chief" in the
tribe of Esau (Genesis 36:15). Thus the Amalekites were distant cousins to
There is every
possibility that they had known about the promise of the land of Canaan that
had been given to Esau's twin brother, Jacob; therefore, they should not
have felt any threat to their interests in the Negev had this promise been
remembered and taken seriously. After all, the promise was to be a means of
blessing Amalek along with all the other nations (Genesis
12:3) if only they,
like Abraham, would have believed. Instead they "came" ( wayyabo' ) and
attacked Israel at Rephidim--some distance south of the north-central
district of the Sinai where they lived. Amalek's assault on Israel drew the
anger of God on two counts: (1) they failed to recognize the hand and plan
of God in Israel's life and destiny (even the farther-removed Canaanites of
Jericho had been given plenty to think about when they heard about the
Exodus-- Joshua 2:10); and (2) the first targets of their warfare were the
sick, aged, and tired of Israel who lagged behind the line of march (Deut
25:17-19). Thus Amalek became the "first among the nations" (Numbers
24:20)--in this case, to attack Israel. They are placed in juxtaposition
with another group of Gentiles in the next chapter (Jethro's Midianites) who
believed in Israel's God. These two chapters illustrate two kingdoms and two
responses to the grace of God from the Gentile world." (Gaebelein,
F, Editor: Expositor's Bible Commentary OT 7 Volume Set: Books: Zondervan
During the period of
the judges, the Amalekites joined forces with the Ammonites and the Moabites
to capture Jericho (Jdg 3:12,13-note ).
Later the Amalekites joined the Midianites and the people of the East in harassing the
Israelites, and this evil coalition comprised a force
"in the valley as
numerous as locusts". (Jdg 7:12-note)
Certainly too many Amalekites for Gideon’s army
of 300 but not too many for Jehovah Who cannot lie and Who promised
deliver you with the 300 men"
"lest Israel become boastful, saying, 'My own power has delivered me.'" (Jdg
And so Gideon and his band of 300 defeated the Amalekites in the Valley of
("God sows" or "God scatters")
once again graphically illustrating the importance of
schematic) in achieving victory over the "Amalekites".
Despite the defeat, Amalek still had not faced the
crushing judgment that the Lord had foretold to Moses (Ex
17:14-16). That task was assigned to Saul to "utterly destroy"
Jehovah Sabaoth, LORD of hosts (of
armies), 'I will punish
Amalek for what he did to Israel, how he set himself against him on the way
while he was coming up from Egypt. Now go and strike Amalek and utterly
destroy all that he has, and do not spare him; but put to death both man and
woman, child and infant, ox and sheep, camel and donkey. (1Sa 15:2-3).
Saul attacked and chased the enemy from the land, but he
failed in his mission by sparing the Amalekite king Agag (see discussion of one
of Agag's apparent descendants below) and by holding on to some of the spoils of
battle (1Sa 15:6, 7, 8, 9).
As a result of Saul's partial obedience which was in reality complete disobedience (in contrast
to the unquestioning, complete obedience
of Joshua in Exodus 17), Saul was told that the Lord would tear the kingdom from him and give
it to "his neighbor who is better than you". (1Sa 15:10-33,28). Saul killed himself when he fell on his sword
(1 Sa 31:4) but in a bitter and ironic twist an Amalekite reported to David
that he had killed Saul (2Sa 1:8,13). It appears that the Amalekite’s story is a fabrication for the first Samuel
passage makes it clear that "Saul took his sword and fell on it". Perhaps
the Amalekite sought
recognition or reward from David by claiming to have slain Saul.
Later in Israel's history, the Amalekites who escaped from Saul (1Sa 15:7)
were smitten by David...
And David slaughtered them from the
twilight until the evening of the next day; and not a man of them escaped,
except four hundred young men who rode on camels and fled.
The Amalekites who escaped from David were destroyed by the descendants of Simeon
in the days of King Hezekiah (circa 715-686AD) when 500 men from the tribe of
Simeon defeated the Amalekites and dispossessed them from their land...
they destroyed the remnant of the
Amalekites who escaped, and have lived there to this day. (1Chr 4:43).
For additional thoughts on the Amalekites see Spurgeon's
sermon entitled (War with Amalek).
For an excellent Scriptural summary of the
Descent of - Genesis 36:12,16
Wicked - 1 Samuel 15:18
Oppressive - Judges 10:12
Warlike and Cruel - 1 Samuel 15:33
Governed by Kings - 1 Samuel 15:20,32
A powerful and influential nation - Numbers 24:7
Possessed cities - 1 Samuel 15:5
In the south of Canaan - Nu 13:29; 1Sa 27:8
Extended from Havilah to Shur - 1Sa 15:7
Was the scene of ancient warfare - Ge 14:7
Part of the Kenites dwelt amongst - 1Sa 15:6
Were the first to oppose Israel - Ex 17:8
Discomfited at Rephidim through the intercession of Moses - Ex 17:9, 10, 11,
Doomed to utter destruction for opposing Israel - Ex 17:14,16; Dt 25:19
Their utter destruction foretold - Nu 24:20
Presumption of Israel punished by - Nu 14:45
United with Eglon against Israel - Jdg 3:13
Part of their possessions taken by Ephraim - Jdg 5:14; 12:15
With Midian, oppressed Israel - Jdg 6:3, 4, 5
Overcome by Gideon - Jdg 6:33,34; 7:21,22
Overcame, and delivered Israel - 1Sa 14:48
Commissioned to destroy - 1Sa 15:1, 2, 3
Massacred - 1Sa 15:4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Condemned for not utterly destroying - 1Sa 15:9-26; 28:18
Agag, king of, slain by Samuel - 1Sa 15:32,33
Invaded by David - 1Sa 27:8,9
Pillaged and burned Ziklag - 1Sa 30:1,2
Pursued and slain by David - 1Sa 30:10-20
Spoil taken from, consecrated - 2Sa 8:11,12
Confederated against Israel - Ps 83:7
Remnant of, completely destroyed during the reign of Hezekiah - 1Chr 4:41,
the potential consequences of failing to blot out the Amalekites?
possible consequence of Saul's failure to blot out the Amalekites occurred some
600 years later As an aside someone in describing the deceitful nature of sin
has said that...
Sin will take
you farther then you ever meant to stray
...will keep you longer than you ever thought you'd stay
...and will cost you more than you ever dreamed you have to pay!
book of Esther
(written about 465BC, Saul having begun his
reign about 1050BC over 500 years earlier)
Haman is described as an offspring
3:1,10, Esther 8:3,5, Esther 9:24) (remember Saul originally
spared Agag, king of the Amalekites)
and many authorities feel that Haman therefore possibly represents a descendant
of the Amalekites. He certainly manifested an "Amalekite-like" hatred for
the Jews, conspiring to have them totally obliterated as a race (for proper
context read the entire wonderful story of God's faithfulness to His
covenant promises in the
book of Esther). As you can read in Esther Haman's
plot was foiled (ultimately by God) and he was hanged on the very gallows he
sought to hang his arch rival, the Jew Mordecai. (Esther 9:25). Thus the Jews
were preserved and the line of Messiah was kept intact.
In celebration of
this victory over Haman, the Jews
"...called these days Purim after the name
Esther 3:7) And because of the instructions in this letter, both what they
had seen in this regard and what had happened to them, the Jews established
and made a custom for themselves, and for their descendants, and for all
those who allied themselves with them, so that they should not fail to
celebrate these two days according to their regulation, and according to
their appointed time annually. So these days were to be remembered and
celebrated throughout every generation, every family, every province, and
every city; and these days of Purim were not to fail from among the Jews, or
their memory fade from their descendants." (Esther
commentators see this conflict with Haman and the Jews (cf the bitter
rivalry of Esau and Jacob) as the historic struggle of the Jewish people
with Gentile enemies whose unreasoning hatred persists for thousands of
years. The Jews begin the celebration of PURIM with a fast on the 13th day
of the month (Esther 9:31), commemorating the date on which Haman’s evil
decree was issued (Esther 3:12). The Jews attend the synagogue for the
public reading of the Book of Esther. Whenever "Haman"
is mentioned, the entire congregation cries out, “May he be accursed!” or
“May his name perish!” (sounds like "blotted out" doesn't it?)
Children bring a special Purim rattle called a “gregar” and use it to
make noise every time they hear Haman’s name read. On the morning of the 14th
day of the month, the Jews again go to the synagogue, where the Esther story
is read again and the congregation engages in prayer. The story about Moses
and the Amalekites (Ex 17:8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16) is also read.
Then the celebrants go home to a festive holiday meal with gifts and special
foods, and the celebrating continues on the next day. They also send gifts
and food to the poor and needy so that everybody can rejoice together. The
name “Purim” is the plural of the Babylonian word
which means “lot”, thus the festival's name originates from
Haman’s casting of lots to determine the day when the Jews would be destroyed
(Esther 3:7). Note the emphasis among modern day Jews on teaching the
children the meaning of Purim so that the message of the feast would not be
lost in future generations.
As Warren Wiersbe notes:
"It’s sad when a nation (or a church) forgets its
heroes and the providential events that have kept it alive. How easy it is for a
new generation to come along and take for granted the blessings that previous
generations struggled and sacrificed to attain! The Jews didn’t make that
mistake but established the Feast of Purim to remind their children year after
year that God had saved Israel from destruction. There’s nothing wrong with
The church is always one generation short of extinction; and if we don’t
pass on to our children and grandchildren what God has done for us and our
fathers, the church will die of apathy and ignorance. “Come, you children,
listen to me; I will teach you the fear of Jehovah” (Ps 34:11). It’s
when tradition gradually becomes traditionalism that we get into trouble.
Theologian Jaroslav Pelikan said, “Tradition is the living faith of the dead;
traditionalism is the dead faith of the living.”
Note this principle is commanded by
God Himself in
Ray Stedman has some thought provoking comments on Queen Esther and Haman in a
sermon entitled "The
Price of Survival" (Click
for 9 instructive, practical sermons on Esther by Ray Stedman).
said to Joshua, "Choose men for us, and go out, fight against Amalek.
Tomorrow I will station myself on the top of the hill with the staff of God
in my hand."
Back again to Exodus
17 we find that Moses faced with a mortal enemy, responded quickly, giving
commands and instructions to his trusted servant Joshua.
When we are
confronted by sudden, unexpected attack from our mortal enemies, the world,
the flesh and the devil, do we respond by quickly seeking our "Joshua", our
trials and tests Israel had experienced in the first 3 months in the desert
(Ex 15:22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 16:1-36, 17:1-7, etc), the people were
learning how God was their Provider of the necessities for life, but now
Israel had to learn through the testing of war that the battle was the
LORD's and that He alone could defeat Israel's enemies. Their part was to
trust and obey, for there is no other way to be "happy" in Jesus but to
"Trust and Obey".
JOSHUA means "Jehovah is salvation" or "Jehovah is Help"
the Hebrew with the Greek word "Iesous"
the NT word for "Jesus".
Joshua was from the tribe of Ephraim. Exodus 17:9 marks the first mention of
Joshua in Scripture. He would have been about 45 years of age and had served
as Moses’ aide-de-camp (Ex 24:13, Ex 33:11; Ex 32:17; Josh 1:1). To be most
accurate, it should be noted that at this time Joshua's name was still
defined as "to give deliverance or help" or as "salvation") which later was changed
to Joshua at
(Kadesh-Barnea) just before the
12 spies were sent on a reconnaissance mission into the promised land of Canaan ("Moses
called Hoshea the son of Nun, Joshua" in
13:16). We know that Joshua was a
man of faith, for he and Caleb were the only two of the twelve spies who
brought back an encouraging report of the promised land they were sent to
This field training
against the Amalekites was undoubtedly preparation for Joshua as he led the
Israelites against the pagan enemies in Canaan. Even as God had trained Moses for his work, He was now training Joshua
to succeed him.
What is God
training you for right now?
Do the trials seem to never end, to be without
an obvious purpose?
Could it be that God is training you in and through the
(cf Jas1:2, 3,
God does not waste the
obstacles in our lives but desires that we might see them as opportunities
to grow in grace and the knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.
"Therefore, my beloved brethren, be steadfast, immovable, always abounding
in the work of the Lord, knowing that your toil is not in vain in the Lord."
This is a command to
take a keen look and make a careful, well-thought out choice. Why would such
discernment be necessary? At this stage, Israel could hardly be described as
a seasoned fighting force. It is interesting to note that the
(LXX) adds the adjective "dunatos"
(mighty, powerful, strong, possessing
inherent ability to perform some task, able to bear calamities and trials
with fortitude and patience) as a qualification for the men Joshua is to
choose..."choose mighty men for us".
Joshua's assignment was to muster a
task force and this was part of Joshua's being groomed for military
leadership in Israel. This implies that to be a leader one must have the
ability to discern those qualities in others that will be of value in
completing the task at hand (in this case war).
Both of these Hebrew
verbs are in the imperative or in other words they are commands.
Given Amalek's lineage
from Esau, in a sense this battle was a renewal of the age old rivalry
between Jacob and Esau (Ge 25:27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34,Ge 27:41).
Joshua was called to fight in the valley and Moses would be on the hill. Notice
that this unusual strategy met with no grumbling or disputing from
Joshua (See discussion of doing all things
without grumbling in Php 2:14
Would I have been so trusting and so obedient,
especially given the unorthodox nature of the "strategy"?
In these seemingly small details
we begin to learn much about the heart of this one name Joshau, who is living up to his
great name which means "Jehovah is salvation".
TOMORROW I WILL STATION MYSELF ON THE TOP OF THE HILL WITH THE STAFF OF GOD
("staff of Elohim")
IN MY HAND:
Joshua in the valley and Moses on the
hill - Once again we see the principle that weaves throughout testaments,
both old and new, the principle that...
Divine sovereignty and human
are inextricably, mysteriously linked in carrying out the will of God.
"The staff of God" (click
other references to Moses' staff)
represents the second time this phrase is used (Ex 4:20) and the last
mention of the ROD/STAFF in Exodus (cf Nu 20:8, 9). The staff
was not a "magic wand" but was clearly a symbol or sign of the presence of
God's power over evil, over nature, and over every circumstance however
not all) commentators have said that Moses on the hill was a
intercession, which certainly
could have been the case but if one restricts themselves to "Sola
Scriptura", the text does not definitely specify that Moses was interceding.
Nevertheless, in view of his past experiences of crying out to God in times
of crisis (cf Exodus 8:12, 17:4, 32:11, 12, 13,30, Nu 11:2, 12:3, 14:13,17,
21:7, Dt 9:26), it would seem quite unlikely that he was on the hilltop
simply observing the battle and not interceding. Someone has well said that
on the mountain as well as
intervention in the valley for God’s
people to win the victory.
The army of
the Lord is most often victorious
when it marches forward "on its knees".
missionary martyr Jim Elliot added...
"That saint who advance on his knees never retreats".
summary, Israel had stood still and watched God defeat Pharaoh's forces,
representing the most powerful army in the world, but in this battle Israel was
called upon to
enter the battle themselves and trust Jehovah for the victory (cf
John MacArthur comments:
(the rod) became, therefore, the symbol of God’s personal and powerful
involvement, with Moses’ outstretched arms perhaps signifying an appeal to God.
The ebb and flow of battle in correlation with Moses’ uplifted or drooping arms
imparted more than psychological encouragement as the soldiers looked up to
their leader on the hilltop, and more than Moses’ interceding for them. It
demonstrated and acknowledged their having to depend upon God for victory in
battle and not upon their own strength and zeal. It also confirmed the position
of Moses both in relation to God and the nation’s well-being and safety. They
had angrily chided him for their problems, but God confirmed his appointment as
Net Bible Notes add:
"In Exodus so far the rod of God is the token of the power of God. When Moses
used it, God demonstrated His power. To use the rod of God was to say that God
did it. To fight without the rod was to face defeat. Using the rod of God was a
way of submitting to and depending on the power of God in all areas of life."
raising the staff in his hand was clearly showing that he looked for victory to
God alone and that he did not trust in his (or Joshua and his soldiers) “arm of
flesh.” Through Moses' rod, the "staff of God", Jehovah showed Himself to be Israel's strength
sufficiency before the evil Pharaoh and at the Red Sea (with the enemy in "hot
pursuit" and by all visible evidence, no way of escape for Israel) and now Elohim
again worked to show His power and
the absolute necessity of total dependence
on Him. Because of his obedience
and dependence upon Elohim, Joshua prevailed
and in so doing he learned valuable truth about God and about the
requirements for he who will be a
vessel for honor, sanctified, useful to
the Master, prepared for every good work. (See note
If we like Joshua will
maintain a teachable, obedient, dependent spirit in our battles with the
"Amalekites", we too will learn much about the ways of God and about
Ken Hemphill comments on the "staff of
"It was not simply Moses' dramatic and
visible posture on the hilltop that inspired confidence in his troops; it
was THE ROD OF GOD HELD ALOFT THAT BROUGHT THEM VICTORY. Though the rod was
likely nothing more than a SHEPHERD'S STAFF, God had used it as an object
lesson to show Moses His power to accomplish His work. Back in Exodus 4,
when God called Moses to lead Israel out of captivity, and Moses objected
that no one would believe him or listen to what he had to say, God asked
what he had in his hand. It was his shepherd's staff. God then instructed
him to throw the staff on the ground, whereupon it became a serpent. The
Lord then instructed Moses to take the serpent by the tall and once he did,
it again became a staff. This staff was to be used as a sign that the God of
Israel had appeared to Moses (Ex 4:5).When Moses obeyed God and departed for
Egypt, he took the staff of God with him (Ex 4:20). From this point forward,
this simple staff became the rod of God, which Moses used to effect various
plagues in Egypt and the striking of the rock that provided water for the
thirsting Israelites in the wilderness (Ex 17:5, 6). It is this same rod
that is now called "THE LORD IS MY BANNER." This visible symbol was intended
to illustrate graphically to all of Israel's warriors that the VICTORY OVER
AMALEK BELONGED TO GOD. Israel could do nothing in themselves to defeat the
Amalekites, but UNDER THE BANNER OF THE LORD, VICTORY WAS ASSURED." (from
The Names of God)
DID AS MOSES TOLD HIM:
Don't go by this
phrase too quickly. Meditate on the cross references (Joshua 1:7, 8-note,
Josh 1:11:12, 15) and ponder the significance of what Moses is recording
about Joshua's character.
Obedience is the "secret" for success
blessing in the spiritual life and in (spiritual) warfare. Are you being defeated
by your "spiritual enemies" (whether the world, the flesh ~ indwelling SIN
NATURE inherited from Adam or the devil)?
If so, then consider praying the
prayer of David, the man after God's own heart (Ps 139:23, 24, Ps 51:10, 11,
unconfessed sin in a believer's life gives Satan (really his minions) an
opportunity (a toe hold or foot hold in our lives). (Eph 4:26, 47 -See notes
and renewal begins with reflection and repentance.
The writer of Hebrews
warns us of the passing pleasures (Heb 11:25)
and subtle deceit of our indwelling SIN nature (Heb 3:12, 13 -see notes
cf Song 2:15) so let us be quick to repent
seek the times of refreshing (Acts 3:19, 20) and be diligent to enter His rest (He
4:11, 12, 13 -see
Victory for the Christian today is not found in individual ingenuity but an
INDIVIDUAL, our "obedient Joshua" (our Jesus, compare He 5:8, 9
1John 5:4, 5) and our victory in Christ is contingent upon walking in the
light (1Jn 1:6, 7, 8 cf Col 1:12,13-note,
1Jn 2:28, 3:2, 3, 2Pe 3:11-note;
being surrendered to the Commander-in-chief's will (Ro 12:1-note,
cf 1Cor 6:19, 20, Lk 22:42, John 4:34, 5:30).
To be sure "the battle is the LORD's"
(1Sa 17:47, 14:6, 2Chr 20:15, 16, 17, Ps 46:11, Zech 4:6, Pr 21:31 Ro
as has been mentioned several times in these notes
saints are responsible to "fight the good fight of faith" (1Ti
6:12). (2Ti 2:3,4 - See discussion of "Good Soldier"
2 Timothy 2:3-4)
The armies of Israel would fight with normal combat
techniques, but the victory was assured because of God’s power on His people’s
behalf. Therefore in the final analysis "victory belongs to the LORD."
J. Vernon McGee writes:
was a picture of the
flesh. As Israel could not overcome Amalek
by their own efforts, neither can you nor I overcome the flesh by our own
efforts. The flesh wars against the spirit and the spirit against the flesh.
Paul explains it in
Galatians 5:17 (notes),
“For the flesh sets its desire against the Spirit, and the Spirit against
the flesh; for these are in opposition to one another, so that you may not
do the things that you please”
This is the picture we have in the wilderness as Israel and Amalek war
against each other." (McGee,
J V: Thru the Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson)
came about when Moses held his hand up, that
Israel prevailed, and when he let his hand down, Amalek prevailed.
SO IT CAME
ABOUT WHEN MOSES HELD HIS HAND UP THAT ISRAEL PREVAILED:
In Exodus so far
of God is the token of the
power of God. When Moses used it, God
demonstrated His power. To use the rod of
God was to say that God did it. To
fight without the rod was to face defeat. Using the rod of God was a way of
submitting to and depending on the power of God in all areas of life. Israel’s
strength lay only in a continuous appeal to (and dependence on) the Lord’s power
as they fought. Moses upheld hands represent a symbol of appeal to God for help
Nathan Stone explains that...
"It was the rod of God's mighty hand
and outstretched arm, the rod of the Elohim. How significant is this use of
the name denoting His creative glory, might, and sovereignty, the general
name of God, the name especially used in relationship to the nations
(represented here by Amalek) as distinguished from Jehovah in relationship
especially to Israel! Then it is the Elohim here, with the definite article,
the only Elohim, denoting that whether Amalek acknowledged it or not, He was
God. It is this rod, as the banner of God, which brought the victory.
HE LET HIS HAND DOWN AMALEK PREVAILED:
As discussed above commentators, ancient and modern,
almost unanimously consider this act of Moses an act of prayer (although to
reiterate it is
not specifically stated and so we must be Bereans). In any event, these changes in Moses' posture express an
attitude of dependence upon God that determined the outcome of the battle and
served to demonstrate the reality of this dependence to all of Israel's
warriors. God had provided manna from heaven and water from the rock; now He
provides deliverance from enemies.
Nathan Stone asks...
"What was the meaning then of
Amalek's success when it was lowered and Israel's success when it was
raised? It was to sharply emphasize and deeply impress upon Israel's warring
soldiers and her watching, anxious host that upon God alone depended and to Him
belonged the victory; that under His raised banner victory was always assured.
No matter what the odds, then, for in Moses' own words five should chase a
hundred and a hundred should chase ten thousand (Lv 26:8).
That rod was the symbol and pledge of His presence and power and working."
Alfred Edersheim comments that...
"This holding up of Moses’ hands has been generally
regarded as symbolical of prayer. But if that were all, it would be difficult to
understand why it was absolutely needful to success that his hands should be
always upheld, so that when they drooped, merely from bodily weariness, Amalek
should have immediately prevailed. Moreover, it leaves unexplained the holding
up of the rod towards heaven. In view of this difficulty it has been suggested
by a recent commentator, that the object of holding up the hands was not prayer,
but the uplifting of the God-given, wonder-working rod, as the banner of God, to
which, while it waved above them, and only so long, Israel owed their victory.
With this agrees the name of the memorial-altar, which Moses reared to
perpetuate the event—Jehovah-nissi, “the Lord my banner.” But neither does this
explanation quite meet the statements of Scripture. Rather would we combine both
the views mentioned. The rod which Moses held up was the banner of God—the
symbol and the pledge of His presence and working; and he held it up, not over
Israel, nor yet over their enemies, but towards heaven in prayer, to bring down
that promised help in their actual contest. And so it ever is: Amalek opposes
the advance of Israel; Israel must fight, but the victory is God’s; Israel holds
the rod of almighty power in the hand of faith; but that rod must ever be
uplifted toward heaven in present application for the blessing secured by
hands were heavy. Then they took
a stone and put it under him, and he sat on it; and Aaron and Hur supported
his hands, one on one side and one on the other. Thus his hands were steady
until the sun set.
AND AARON AND
(literally "grasped securely") HIS HANDS, ONE ON ONE SIDE AND ONE ON THE OTHER (Isa
35:3 2Co 1:11 Php 1:19 1Th 5:25 Heb 12:12 Pr 27:17 Eccl 4:9, 10, 11, 12, Ro
15:30, 31, 32):
God’s leaders have always depended on others to support them in their work.
Today the church is a living dynamic body (Ep 1:22, 23, 4:4, 4:12 -See notes
(not a dead static building, an organism not an organization) and
and the "Hur's" in the body are poor
stewards (1Pe 4:10-note) and fail to utilize their spiritual gifts (1Co
12:4,7,11,18, Ro 12:3ff-notes), both the "common good"
(1Co 12:7-note) of the body of Christ
and the "glory of God" (1Pe 4:10, 11-see notes
11) will be adversely affected (and this may account for why the
"Amalekites [have] prevailed" in so many churches).
mentioned for the first time and is mentioned again with Aaron in Exodus
24:14, where Moses placed both of
them in charge of the camp while he and Joshua went up into the mountain of
you are a leader or potential leader (and the truth is that we all are "leaders"
to someone in our life) these truths in Exodus teach us that God's leaders
depend on others to support them in their work. Moses like Paul centuries later (see
Ro 16 and comments on all those who "helped hold up" Paul's hands in ministry)
recognized that he could not carry out his ministry alone. Leaders are made more
effective by those who help them.
Proverbs 27:17 Solomon reminds us that
Iron sharpens iron, so one man sharpens
Ecclesiastes 4:9, 10, 11, 12
Solomon declares that...
Two are better than one because they
have a good return for their labor. For if either of them falls, the one
will lift up his companion. But woe to the one who falls when there is not
another to lift him up. Furthermore, if two lie down together they keep
warm, but how can one be warm alone? And if one can overpower him who is
alone, two can resist him. A cord of three strands is not quickly torn
The great apostle Paul never ministered alone. He
shared his first leadership opportunity in the church at Antioch with four other
men, and throughout the following years of his missionary travels, he always had
companions. The only time we find him alone in Acts is for a brief period in
HANDS WERE STEADY UNTIL THE SUN SET:
This is first use of "steady" in
Bible, which is interesting because not infrequently the first use of a word in
Scripture lays the groundwork for subsequent uses.
"Steady" is the
Hebrew word 'emuwnah which is used 48x in NASB and is most often translated "faithfulness"
as for example in the description of God our Rock in
(Deut 32:4 --
Click here for Scripture chain & chart -
would make a great Sunday School series). So here in
the description of Moses' "steady hands" and his "steady
supporters" we have a great word picture of
faithfulness -- that which is firm, steady,
As the Net Bible
"There may be a double
entendre here; on the one hand it simply says that his hands were stayed so that
Israel might win, but on the other hand it is portraying Moses as steady, firm,
reliable, faithful. The point is that whatever God commissioned as the means of
the agency of power--- to Moses a rod, to the Christians the Spirit --- the people of God
had to know that the victory came from God alone"
perseverance of this tired but true triad represent a clear
illustration of the truth stated in (He 6:11, 12-see notes
12) by which the saints of all ages are to lay hold of God's
promises and ultimately His victory over "the Amalekites".
Joshua learned this lesson and at the command of Jehovah performed almost an
identical role for his army taking Ai as Moses had done for Joshua (Joshua
Jehovah said to Joshua, “Stretch out the
that is in your
hand toward Ai, for I will give it into your hand.” So Joshua
stretched out (same Hebrew verb
used repeatedly of Moses' outstretched staff in Exodus) the javelin that was in his hand
toward the city....26 For Joshua did not withdraw his hand with which he
stretched out the javelin UNTIL he had utterly destroyed all the inhabitants of
So as long as Joshua's javelin was stretched out Israel was victorious,
eventually blotting out Ai. Let us learn the basic spiritual warfare principle
that Joshua had learned so well -- that is, that strength and success in battle
against God's foes lay not in the "arm of flesh" (2 Chr 32:8)
but in a constant and complete dependence upon Jehovah’s power.
Commentary notes that the staff raised in Moses' hand...
"was not merely for psychological effect
to inspire the troops every time they glanced up the hill (S.R. Hirsch, The
Pentateuch: Exodus 2d ed. [Gateshead, Eng.: Judaica, 1973], 2:233). Nor does
the text specifically claim that Moses prayed while his hands were raised
(the more traditional explanation). Rather, Moses' outstretched arms
primarily symbolized his appeal to God. He had commanded Moses on previous
occasions, "Stretch out your hand" ( neteh 'eth -yadeka ) with the staff
(Ex 9:22, 23; 10:12, 13; 14:16). Yet in Ex 10:21, 22 only the hand was
stretched out. This staff was no magic wand. Like all OT institutions, the
external and visible symbol meant nothing unless (1) it was divinely
appointed and (2) the obedient use of the external form was accompanied by
the internal and invisible motions of the heart and spirit of a man. Thus
the prophetic-symbolic action of the constantly upraised hands did signal
the fervent prayers of the heart of Moses as he witnessed the battle. As
Bush aptly remarks,
"The whole narrative ... conclusively shows that God designed to teach
Israel that the hand of Moses, with whom [Israel] had just been chiding,
contributed more to their safety than their own hands; his rod more than
their weapons." Finally the lengthy battle came to an end, with Joshua as
F, Editor: Expositor's Bible Commentary OT 7 Volume Set: Books: Zondervan
It is also interesting that
even as Moses built an altar after the victory, Joshua likewise built an altar (Josh
there on the stones a copy of the law of Moses, which he had written, in the
presence of the sons of Israel" (Josh
OVERWHELMED (Mowed down (RSV) disabled, weakened, prostrated,
= "put to flight, routed")
HIS PEOPLE WITH THE EDGE OF THE SWORD:
The verb "overwhelmed"
is used elsewhere to describe how man dies and is powerless (Job 14:10; Isa
Did you notice the
"So Joshua overwhelmed..."
It is not stated that he gained the victory because of his striving,
ingenuity or courage (all of which doubtless were present). Joshua gained the
victory because Jehovah-nissi granted him the victory
and this truth we
must all likewise remember. Even though we are beneficiaries of victories over
the "Amalekites" (flesh, the world and the devil) and even often are
credited with those victories, the victory ultimately belongs to the Lord...we would not
have "overwhelmed" them unless the Lord had been on our side.
Paul expresses a similar
thought in these verses:
"Not that we are adequate in ourselves
to consider anything as coming from ourselves, but
our adequacy is from God" (2Cor
3:5) and "in all these things
Who loved us." (Ro 8:37-see note
The Jewish NT paraphrases
in all these things we are
superconquerors, through the one who has loved
Vine's says literally this phrase in (Romans
"we are hyper-conquerors," i.e., we are pre-eminently victorious" IN
Francis Schaeffer echoes this truth noting that...
was teaching these people a serious lesson in their first warfare, and no one
was to learn it better than Joshua the general. In the midst of battle, is one
to fight? Yes. To be a good general? Yes. But when everything is done, the power
is to be understood as God’s, not man’s." And all God's people said "Amen!"
Another aspect of God's training of
Joshua was was that he was able to serve under Moses and observe that humble
man's commitment to Jehovah and Jehovah's unwavering commitment to Moses.
God reaffirmed this same unwavering commitment to Joshua some 40 years later
telling him that:
"No man will be able to stand before you
all the days of your life. Just as I have been with Moses, I will be with
you; I will not fail you or forsake you. "
Each of us needs a relationship with
a "Moses" (or a "Paul") who can serve as our
model. We each need to see in others both faithfulness to God and God's
faithfulness to them.
Who is your Moses or Paul beloved?
Future leaders need to learn how to wait on (trust) the Lord (Isa 40:31).
Often their followers don’t always see as far as they see or have the faith that
they have. The vision of future victory is what motivates a true leader (cf Heb
11:1, 2, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16)
but, as we saw in Exodus 16, Israel, too often was looking back to the
appeal of the world and not forward toward the promises of God.
An interesting observation is that the first victory by Israel in battle was
over the Amalekites but their first defeat in battle was also at the hands of
the Amalekites (Nu 14:39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45). For insight into how to gain
the victory over "the Amalekites" in our life you might want to do a simple
inductive Bible study comparing these two accounts.
Why was their overwhelming victory in one setting and utter defeat in
another setting against the same enemy?
Dear saint, may the Spirit of God open the eyes of your heart, so that you may
know what is the hope of His calling, what are the riches of the glory of His
inheritance in the saints, and what is the surpassing greatness of His power
toward us who believe.
the LORD said to Moses, "Write this in a book as a memorial, and recite
it to Joshua, that I will utterly blot out the memory of Amalek from under
THEN THE LORD SAID TO MOSES WRITE
THIS IN A BOOK AS A MEMORIAL
(reminder) (1Sa 12:24):
See article on
is the first reference to writing an official record in a scroll or book. This
particular "entry" was to be especially for the purpose of remembering the
victory in the very first battle in which they nationally engaged (cf the memorial
in Ex 12:14
"Now this day [LORD's Passover] will be a memorial to you,
and you shall celebrate it as a feast to the LORD; throughout your
generations you are to celebrate it as a permanent ordinance.").
The truth that God alone grants
victory over one's enemies was as important for Israel to know as the fact
that God alone was to be their source of food or water in the desert.
And so too the church corporate and individual believers need to recall
these foundational truths to mind.
The battle against the Amalekites was not
won by Israel's cunning or might but by the Lord's strength. The written
word was to be a continual reminder of this fact even as the Bible today is
to be to us a "memorial" of God's strength, sufficiency and ultimate triumph
over all evil (be it flesh, world or devil). How important therefore to
saturate our minds with the truth about Jehovah Nissi.
you write down "memorials" commemorating those things God has done in your life
so that in years to come you might look back and be reminded of His faithfulness?
AND RECITE IT TO JOSHUA (cf
the famous verse in
Literally in Hebrew "recite" means "to put in
the ear". The KJV is translates it as to "rehearse
it in the ears of Joshua". Young's Literal is the most literal translating
it "set it in the ears
The defeat of the Amalekites was something God wanted Joshua to
remember. Why? John Calvin reflects on the value of memorials
he should faint under the many difficulties which awaited him. For nothing could
better support him with invincible firmness than the recollection of this
history, from whence he might be assured that the people would ever be
victorious under the auspices of God." And the same holds true in your
life, child of the Living God.
As Moses’ “assistant”
for many years (Joshua 24:13), Joshua stayed with his master and served him
faithfully. God’s pattern for leadership is summarized in (Mt 25:21
"His master said to him, 'Well done, good and faithful slave; you were
faithful with a few things, I will put you in charge of many things, enter
into the joy of your master.'"),
and that pattern remains the same -- when we prove ourselves faithful as
servants over a few things, then God can make us "rulers" over many things. Joshua
was able to give orders because he had learned how to take orders. Have you?
WILL UTTERLY BLOT OUT THE MEMORY OF AMALEK FROM UNDER HEAVEN
(Deut 25:19, Nu 24:20, 1Sa15:2, 3):
God in a somber "I Will" declaration predicts
Amalek's final, complete and utter demise.
Amalek, a descendant of Esau, as discussed
above is a picture of the flesh, the evil, corrupt, Adamic nature of man
interminably bent on rebellion against God and His people. As Israel could not
overcome Amalek by their own efforts, neither can you nor I overcome the flesh
by our own efforts in this battle which is from "generation to generation" (Gal
strong and graphic Hebrew word
blot out" (machah)
(4229) is used 35
the NASB, the first time in
in God's famous decree upon the sinful world...
"Jehovah said, "I will
man whom I have created from the face of the land."
There are 2 other uses
of "machah" in Exodus, where we find Moses speaking after Israel has
sinned against God by forming an idolatrous golden calf...
"But now, if
Thou wilt, forgive their sin and if not, please
from Thy book which Thou hast written!" and Jehovah said to Moses, "Whoever has
sinned against Me, I will
out of My book."
Referring again to the Amalekites God
instructs His people...
"you shall blot out (machah) the memory of Amalek from under heaven;
you must not forget". (Dt 25:19)
David uses "machah" twice
in one of his most famous Psalms in which he appeals to God...
"According to the greatness of Thy compassion
out my transgressions...Hide
Thy face from my sins and
all my iniquities." (Psalms 51:1,9)
And finally to help you get a sense for
the meaning of this strong Hebrew verb machah, observe three picturesque uses
in one verse in which God is prophesying certain judgment upon faithless Jerusalem...
"And I will
stretch over Jerusalem the line of Samaria and the plummet of the house of Ahab,
and I will
wipe Jerusalem as one
wipes a dish,
wiping it and turning it upside down."
Note that the
(LXX) translates "machah"
with the Greek verb
(derived from ek =out + aleipho = wipe) which literally means to wash
or wipe out completely.
The picture is to cause something to cease by obliterating all evidence.
As you have observed the uses of
machah, you now have a good sense for what God will do to Amalek and what He
commands Israel to do to them in (Deut 25:19). As mentioned earlier, again we see God's sovereignty over Amalek
juxtaposed with man's responsibility to blot out Amalek.
Now apply this truth to the "Amalekites" in
In this life we will never be able to
completely wipe out "the world, the flesh or the devil" but we are called to
continually "fight the good fight of faith" (1Ti 1:18,6:18, 2Ti 4:7-note)
knowing that in eternity future God will completely blot out all of
the "Amalekites" forever. Hallelujah!
BUILT AN ALTAR (cf Noah, Abram, Isaac in
Ge 8:20; 12:7; 26:25; 33:20; 35:1):
See article on
similar action by Jacob building an altar and naming it
“mighty God of Israel”.
became an anthropomorphism (an interpretation of what is not human or
personal in terms of human or personal characteristics) for God. Note that
when Israel murmured and failed God, the name commemorated the incident or
the outcome of their failure (Ex 17:7 [Ex 17:1-7]). When they were blessed with success, the naming praised
As Sammy Tippit an evangelist
from San Antonio, Texas writes
Our banner must not be our ministries,
our denominations, our programs or our methods. Our banner must be Jehovah -
Nissi. Moses built an altar and called it Jehovah - Nissi. Perhaps you need
to build an altar in your heart and call it Jehovah - Nissi. Allow Him to be
your rallying point. He alone gives victory. If you find yourself
discouraged in the midst of spiritual battles, then you will always be able
to return to that altar and find the source of victory." (If you would like
to catalyze the reigniting of the "fire" on the altar of your
Fire in Your Heart by Sammy Tippit)
Calvin echoes this thought that Moses
gave God the glory (not himself, not Joshua, not Israel's valiant warriors), so
that Israel who might have been
"inflated by their good success, should not
boast of their own strength, but glory only in God."
Designed for sacrifice -Exodus 20:24
To be made of earth, or unhewn stone -Exodus 20:24,25; Deuteronomy 27:5,6
Of brick, hateful to God -Isa 65:3
Natural rocks sometimes used as -Judges 6:19, 20, 21; 13:19,20
Were not to have steps up to them -Exodus 20:26
For idolatrous worship, often erected on roofs of houses -2 Kings 23:12;
Jeremiah 19:13; 32:29
Idolaters planted groves near -Judges 6:30; 1 Kings 16:32,33; 2 Kings 21:3
The Jews not to plant groves near -Deuteronomy 16:21
For idolatrous worship, to be destroyed -Exodus 34:13; Deuteronomy 7:5
Probable origin of inscriptions on -Deuteronomy 27:8
MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE
Of Noah -Genesis 8:20
Of Abraham -Genesis 12:7,8; 13:18; 22:9
Of Isaac -Genesis 26:25
Of Jacob -Genesis 33:20; 35:1,3,7
Of Moses -Exodus 17:15; 24:4
Of Balaam -Numbers 23:1,14,29
Of Joshua -Joshua 8:30,31
Of the temple of Solomon -2 Chronicles 4:1,19
Of the second temple -Ezra 3:2,3
Of Reubenites, etc, east of Jordan -Joshua 22:10
Of Gideon -Judges 6:26,27
Of the people of Israel -Judges 21:4
Of Samuel -1 Samuel 7:17
Of David -2 Samuel 24:21,25
Of Jeroboam at Bethel -1 Kings 12:33
Of Ahaz -2 Kings 16:10-12
Of the Athenians -Acts 17:23
For burnt-offering -Exodus 27:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
For incense -Exodus 30:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Protection afforded by -1 Kings 1:50,51
Afforded no protection to murderers -Exodus 21:14; 1 Kings 2:18-34
IT THE LORD IS MY BANNER (ensign, standard, flag) (Jehovah-Nissi) (cp
Isa 11:10,12 where signal =
This is the only use of this specific name
Jehovah Nissi in Scripture.
Note also that Moses names the altar rather than God (cf
Ge 22:14 where Abraham names Mt Moriah "Jehovah jireh").
The idea expressed seems to be that
Jehovah Himself is the rallying point for His people. We have our victory
not through our own efforts but through Christ alone (Jn 16:33; 1Jn 2:13,
14; 5:4, 5). When the Israelites fought the Amalekites at Rephidim, Moses
held up his hand, thus becoming a living banner symbolizing God’s presence
to help His people win the victory. The Hebrew word translated “Banner” is related to the word translated “standard”
in (Nu 21:8, 9) and is used for the “pole”
on which the bronze serpent was placed, this banner providing a picture of
Jesus lifted up on the Cross to heal from the "bite of the serpent" (Jn
3:14,15) having being made sin for us (2Cor 5:21). Tragically what was meant
to be a symbol to point to the God Who alone heals in the Messiah's fully
satisfactory (propitiatory) death on Calvary, soon became an idolatrous
image that the people ironically named
Nehushtan ("a mere piece of brass" or a
"worthless piece of bronze")
even sinking to such a level of depravity as to offer incense to the "worthless
piece of brass"! This pagan practice of idolatrous "standard" worship lasted for
760 years until Hezekiah broke into pieces by Hezekiah:
He removed the high places and broke down
the sacred pillars and cut down the Asherah. He also broke in pieces the
bronze serpent that Moses had made, for until those days the sons of Israel
burned incense to it; and it was called
Nehushtan. (2Kings 18:4)
Since the word
today suggests cloth, the connection with the Hebrew understanding may be
missed. For example, in ancient times, a spear could
serve as a standard in battle, with or without bits of cloth tied to it. Later,
a staff might have a device on it to mark the rallying point for troops. In the
ancient world, these were sometimes images or signs of the gods.
Moses’ staff is
the ensign to which Joshua’s army could look and that symbolized God’s saving
power. Moses declares that God Himself is the Standard, the Ensign of His
(LXX) has an interesting Greek phrase kurios mou kataphuge
to translate the name Jehovah
nissi. This Greek phrase is
literally the Lord my Refuge
(my safe retreat, my sure refuge). This same Greek word,
is not found in NT) is
used 19 times in the
translation of the OT and most of
these uses refer to God Himself. And so we see kataphuge used to translate
the following descriptions of God...
fortress (Ps 18:2, Ps 31:3, Ps 71:3, Ps 91:2, Ps 144:2)
hiding place (Ps
refuge (2Sa 22:3, Ps 46:1, Ps 59:16, Jer 16:19)
stronghold (Ps 9:9)
dwelling place (Ps 90:1)
Here is a
devotional note on "Jehovah Nissi" from "God is Enough":
is more abundantly proved in the Bible than that the Lord will fight for us if
we will let Him. All He asks of us is to be still and let Him fight for us. This
is the only sort of spiritual conflict that is ever successful. But we are very
slow to learn this. When temptations come, instead of handing the battle over to
the Lord we summon all our forces to fight them ourselves. We believe, perhaps,
that the Lord is somewhere near, and if the worst comes to worst, He will step
in to help us. But for the most part we feel that we ourselves and we only must
do all the fighting. Our method of fighting consists generally in a series of repentings,
resolutions and promises, weary struggles for victory, and then failing
again—over and over. Each time we tell ourselves that now at last we will
have the victory, and each time we fail even worse than before. This may go
on for weeks, months, or even years, and no real or permanent deliverance
ever comes. God has told us to cease from our own efforts and hand our
battles over to Him.
Israel's first battle with the Amalekites war was waged as instructed by Moses
(Joshua on ground/Moses on hill) and God granted victory. In Israel's second
recorded battle the enemy was again the Amalekites but this time their efforts
brought a disastrous defeat. What was the difference? As alluded to in the
devotional when we attempt the battle in our own strength as Israel did the
passage below we
too will be defeated.
14, we read
that in an expression of their unbelief, Israel refused to go into the
promised land. Then we read of their response upon hearing God's decree
('Surely you shall not come into the land in which I swore to settle you,
except Caleb the son of Jephunneh and Joshua the son of Nun" Numbers
the morning, however, they rose up early and went up to the ridge of the hill
country, saying, "Here we are; we have indeed sinned, but we will go up to the
place which the LORD has promised." But Moses said, "Why then are you
transgressing the commandment of the LORD, when it will not succeed? "Do not
go up, lest you be struck down before your enemies, for the LORD is not among
you. "For the Amalekites and the Canaanites will be there in front of you,
and you will fall by the sword, inasmuch as you have turned back from following
the LORD. And the LORD will not be with you." But they went up heedlessly to
the ridge of the hill country; neither the ark of the covenant of the LORD nor
Moses left the camp. Then the Amalekites and the Canaanites who lived in that
hill country came down, and struck them and beat them down as far as Hormah.
The Theological Wordbook of the OT
adds the following note on the meaning
of the 20 OT uses of the Hebrew word for "BANNER" = "NES" ("nicci") (signal pole, standard, ensign, banner,
sign, sail, warning):
the OT, nēs generally means a rallying point or standard which drew
people together for some common action or for the communication of important
information. This usually happened on a. high or conspicuous place within the
camp or community. There, a signal pole, sometimes with an ensign
attached, could be raised as a point of focus or object of hope....People
would rally together around a nēs for various purposes, one of the most
important being the gathering of troops for war. The prophetic materials
particularly emphasize this use of the standard. Isa 5:26 pictures God raising
a standard among the nations, signaling Assyrian warriors for muster against
sinful Israel. The trumpet was often used as a war
alarm to summon soldiers around the nēs."
R. L., Harris, R. L., Archer, G. L., & Waltke, B. K. Theological Wordbook of the
Old Testament Moody Press)
“Set up a
standard on the earth, blow the trumpet among the nations for war against
51:27; see also
Jer 4:21; Isa 18:3).
usually raised on a mountain or other high place (Isa 13:2; 18:3;
30:17). There, public proclamations could be made (Jer 50:2). Soldiers
standard in panic
(Isa 31:9) signaled defeat. When a
standard was raised toward a city, it was a sign for its residents to
“flee for safety” before the attack (cf.
Jer 4:6)....The word nēs is also
used in the prophets in connection with the return to Zion.
ensign is to be
raised over the nations (Isa 62:10) and they
will bring the sons and daughters of Zion back to her (Isa 49:22). It is not
surprising that Isaiah, the Christological prophet par excellence,
He says “in that day the root of Jesse shall stand as an
to the peoples; him shall the nations seek”
(Isa 11:10; 11:12). So
Israel’s Messianic king will be lifted up
(cf. Jn 3:14; Phil 2:9-note)
that all men might rally around him.
The Pentateuch employs nēs
four times. When the Amalekites were defeated (Ex 17:15), Moses built an altar
to commemorate the victory. Realizing that the Lord was the Banner around which
Israel had rallied, he called the altar “Jehovah nissi” (the lord is my
banner). Later on in the wilderness, Moses lifted up among the people a bronze
serpent set upon a pole (nēs) (Nu 21:8, 9). This rallying point of
healing and life became a fitting object-lesson of something greater to come
(cf. Jn 3:14, 15). nēs is also employed in Numbers in the sense of “sign” or “warning”
BANNER - in the International Standard
BANNER - ban'-er (ENSIGN, STANDARDS): The
English word "banner" is from banderia, Low Latin, meaning a banner (compare
bandum, Latin, which meant first a "band," an organized military troop, and
then a "flag"). It has come to mean a flag, or standard, carried at the head
of a military band or body, to indicate the line of march, or the rallying
point, and it is now applied, in its more extended significance, to royal,
national, or ecclesiastical "banners" also. We find it applied sometimes to
a streamer on the end of a lance, such as is used by the Arab sheik today.
"Banner" occurs in the following significant Old Testament passages:
(1) in the singular, "Lift ye up a banner
upon the high mountain" (Isa 13:2 the King James Version); "a banner to them
that fear thee" (Ps 60:4); and
(2) in the plur., "In the name of our God
we will set up our banner" (Ps 20:5); "terrible as an army with banner"
1. Military Ensigns among the Hebrews:
The Hebrews, it would seem, like the Assyrians, the Egyptians, and other
ancient nations, had military ensigns. As bearing upon this question, a very
significant passage is that found in Nu 2:2: "The children of Israel shall
encamp every man by his own standard, with the ensigns of their fathers'
houses." "Standard-bearer" in Isa 10:18 the King James Version, "They shall
be as when a standard-bearer fainteth," is not a case in point, but is to be
rendered as in the Revised Version, margin, "as when a si ck man pineth
In this noted passage a distinction seems intentionally made (another view
is held by some) between "the ensigns of their fathers' houses" (literally,
"signs"; compare Ps 74:4, where the reference is thought by some today to be
to the standards of Antiochus' army), and "the standards" of the four great
divisions of the Hebrew tribes in the wilderness (compare the "banner" of
Song 2:4 and 6:4,10).
2. A Distinction with a Difference:
The relation of these to the "standard" of Nu 21:8 f (Hebrew nec, the King
James Version and the Revised Version (British and American) "standard") is
by no means clear. The word nec, here translated "standard," seems to have
meant at first a pole set up on an eminence as a signal for mustering troops
(compare "mast" Isa 30:17 the English Revised Version, margin). But it
occurs frequently in the prophets both in this literal and original sense,
and in the figurative or derived sense of a rallying point for God's people
(see Isa 5:26; 11:10; Jer 4:21 and elsewhere). Here the rendering in English
Versions of the Bible alternates between "ensign" and "banner".-George B.
The difficulty of the Hebrew text permits an alternative translation:
“a hand is upon/toward/against the throne/banner of Yahweh,”
This gives the sense
of supplication, or of taking an oath.
Contextually, the significance
is clear, whatever the translation adopted: The ongoing problem with Amalek was
not merely one nation hostile toward another, it was a war between God and
Amalek, and thus between God's people and Amalek. The Lord here declares perpetual war
against Amalek and the Book of Esther (see
above) relates the last recorded battle in that war (see also
1Sa 15:32; 30:1–10; 1Chr 4:43). It is interesting that "Israel My Glory"
(published by the Friends of Israel Ministry) lists this altercation with
the Amalekites as the one of the first examples of "anti-Semitism" in
has this interesting insight on the fact that it was Jehovah Who
would have war against Amalek explaining that this...
indicates that the Amalekites understood
something of the fact that they were fighting not only against the Israelites,
but also against the God who stood behind the Israelites. One can question how
much knowledge they had, but their actions remind me of 20th-century men who
understand that what they are really fighting against is at least the concept of
the Judeo-Christian religion and the culture which was based upon it.
In summary, as alluded
to several times in this study of Jehovah Nissi, the phrase "war against
Amalek from generation to generation" is a picture of the ongoing warfare
every redeemed sinner experiences with his or her "Amalekite", especially
the flesh nature, part of the process referred to as
for an explanation of the relationship between salvation, sanctification and
Paul alludes to
flesh (like an Amalekite continually) sets its desire against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the
flesh for these are (continually) in opposition to one another, so that you may
not do the things that you please. (see note
us to prepare for a lifelong war writing...
"Beloved, I urge you as aliens and strangers
(adopt the mindset of an alien) to
(continually) abstain from fleshly lusts, which (continually) wage war (Greek word here gives us our English "strategize" -- does this give you
a picture of the assaults waged by your indwelling sin nature?) against the
soul." (see note
1 Peter 2:11)
BE KILLING SIN
IT BE KILLING YOU
The great Puritan theologian
John Owen covered the topic of our life long war against sin in his
Mortification of Sin in Believers
abates [sin’s] force, but doth not change its nature. Grace changeth the
nature of man, but nothing can change the nature of sin….Destroyed it may
be, it shall be, but cured it cannot be….If it be not overcome and
destroyed, it will overcome and destroy the soul. And herein lies no small
part of its power….It is never quiet, [whether it is] conquering [or]
conquered. Do you mortify; do
you make it your daily work?
be always at it whilst you live; cease not a day from this work; be killing
sin or it will be killing you.
Every honest Christian will testify that becoming a believer does not erase
the tendency to sin and that there is a constant need to blot out the
Amalekites. The new (and old)
believer still derives pleasure from sin (Heb 11:25-note).
We all continue to struggle with sinful desires. Those evil predispositions
and habits are so deeply ingrained in the flesh nature that we continue
spiritual warfare against them
even into old age! Only glorification sets us totally, gloriously free from
the presence and pleasure of sin! But in the meantime, all genuine believers are capable of
temporarily (but not habitually) falling into appalling, shameful sins. The truth is, we each
commit sins daily. Our thoughts are not what they ought to be. Our
time is often wasted on frivolous and worldly pursuits as the Amalekites maraud
our poorly protected "stragglers in the rear". And our hearts may even grow
cold to the things of God.
Why does all this happen if sin’s dominion is broken?
We do not have time or
space to deal with this critical topic in this discussion of Jehovah-nissi,
but for those who have the time we would refer you to the more extensive
treatment of this critical subject in a multipart paper entitled, The
Actual Practice of Mortification
by Greg Herrick based on the original work (which is somewhat more
difficult to read because of the archaic English) by John Owens, Of
the Mortification of Sin in Believers
(aka "blotting out the Amalekites")
THE ROARING LION
Exposition of 1Peter 5:8
Exposition of 1Peter 5:9
EPHESIANS 6:10-18 BY WAYNE BARBER
Ephesians 6:10: SPIRITUAL WARFARE, PT 1
Ephesians 6:11: SPIRITUAL WARFARE,
Ephesians 6:14: SPIRITUAL WARFARE,
Ephesians 6:15-16 SPIRITUAL WARFARE, PT
Ephesians 6:17: SPIRITUAL WARFARE,
Ephesians 6:12-13 SPIRITUAL WARFARE, PT
Ephesians 6:18: SPIRITUAL WARFARE, PT 7
THE METAPHOR OF THE CHRISTIAN SOLDIER
Exposition of 2 Timothy 2:3-4
Three Kinds of Soldiers - Ten Principles of Warfare
Roman Soldier by Edward Gibbon (Decline &
Fall of Roman Empire)
The Roman Soldier - Description from
Jewish Historian Josephus
A Few Soldier Stories and Sermons
- excellent material on general subject of mortification of sin, etc
The Chief Design of My Life: Mortification and
When the "Want To" and the "Ought To" Don't Match
Hope-Giving Promises for Triumph over Sin
A Passion for Purity Vs Passive Prayers
How to Kill Sin, Part 1
How to Kill Sin, Part 2
How to Kill Sin, Part 3
How Dead People do Battle with Sin
The War Within: Flesh Vs. Spirit
Why and How We Walk According to the Spirit
How the Spirit Does What the Law Could Not Do
Owen - His Classic Treatise
Mortification of Sin in Believers
the Mortification of Sin in Believers
John Walvoord's Exposition on Sin
Thirty-Three Words for Sin in the NT - Pt 1
Thirty-Three Words for Sin in the NT - Pt 2
Thirty-Three Words for Sin in the NT - Pt 3
Tiny Evils, Big Fall
Dead flies putrefy the perfumer's ointment...
so does a little folly to
one respected for wisdom and honor. --Eccl 10:1
It started as a seedling on the slopes of the Colorado Rockies some 500
years ago. For centuries it had stood tall, enduring violent winds,
lightning strikes, blizzards, even avalanches. Now, however, the
once-towering tree is just a mound of decaying wood.
What caused its demise? A horde of beetles had attacked it, gnawing away
until that skyscraper of nature surrendered to those tiny pests and toppled
That's also the tragic story of many Christians. For long years they stood
tall for God. They resisted temptations, weathered crises, and were bold in
the strength divinely provided. But little sins began to eat away at their
lives--little lies, little compromises with greed or lust, sins that
gradually eroded their character. And suddenly they fell.
Song 2:15 states, "Catch us the foxes, the little foxes that
spoil the vines." This colorful Old Testament verse should sound a loud
alarm in our consciences. We must not tolerate the little evils that eat
away at the roots of our lives. Otherwise, our once-strong witness for
Christ will become a silenced casualty of sin. Let's confess those "tiny"
evils to God now, before they lead to a big fall. --Vernon C Grounds
like worldly pleasure,
Habits of life, though harmless they seem,
Must not my heart from Him ever sever--
He is my all! There's nothing between. --Tindley
A big fall begins with a little stumble.
Similar Illustration - It was
reported recently that an enormous pine tree in the mountains of Colorado
had fallen victim to a pine beetle and died. According to locals, up to that
point the tree was thought to be indestructible. It had survived fourteen
lightning strikes and many years of Colorado winters, including avalanches
and fires. But it was eventually brought down from within by a tiny insect
that did its work silently. Compare the effect of "secret sin" in our heart.
If you have one (or several), confess them to the Lord and seek His gift of
repentance, that you might not be brought down by years of this sin
"gnawing" at your soul.