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Old and New Testament.
"I shall not want"
THE SHEPHERD WHO
BECAME THE LAMB
Jehovah Roi - Part 1
Jehovah Roi - Part 1 Continued
Who is the Shepherd
in Psalm 23? What was David's profession? Why?
Psalm 23:1 (Spurgeon's
note) A psalm of David.
The LORD is my
himself as a sheep who is totally dependent upon His personal ("my")
Shepherd's provision, is saying that he has no lack, no need, no want, for
everything he genuinely needs has been provided for by His Shepherd, Who
is Jehovah, the self-existent, self-sufficient God Who Himself needs
nothing and thus is able to provide everything and anything His sheep need
to life and godliness" (see note
2 Peter 1:3).
What do we learn about
the "Lamb" in Genesis 22?
In Genesis 22:2 God instructs Abraham
"Take now your son, your only son, whom you love, Isaac, and go to
the land of Moriah, and offer him there as a burnt offering" As Abraham
and Isaac were walking toward the mount, (Ge 22:7) "Isaac spoke to Abraham his
father and said, "My father!" And he said, "Here I am, my son." And he
said, "Behold, the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for the burnt
offering ?" "Abraham said, "God will provide (literally "see") for Himself
the lamb for the burnt offering, my son." So the two of them walked on
together. (Ge 22:8) Later as Abraham is ready to complete the sacrifice of his
son, he (Ge 22:13) "raised his eyes and looked, and behold, behind him a ram
caught in the thicket by his horns; and Abraham went and took the ram and
offered him up for a burnt offering in the place of his son." And in
recognition of God's miraculous provision (Ge 22:14) "Abraham called the name of
that place the LORD Will Provide, (Jehovah Jireh) as it is said to
this day, "In the mount of the LORD it will be provided."
So we see that the
question here and in essence in the whole OT was "Where is the Lamb?"
Answering prophetically Abraham says "Jehovah" will provide or
"Jehovah will see". The idea is that Jehovah "sees" the "need" before it
arises and provides for the need. The English word "provide"
is derived from the Latin "pro"
= "before" + "videre" = "to see"
and thus conveys the same idea of God seeing beforehand. In sum, then, not
only did Jehovah
foresee Abraham's need for a lamb but even more
significantly He also foresaw mankind's need for the
IN THE OLD TESTAMENT THE QUESTION WAS:
WHERE IS THE LAMB?
How does John 10:11
help us understand Who the Shepherd is?
(Jesus addressing Pharisees)
I am the Good Shepherd; the Good
Shepherd lays down His life for the sheep.
Why is Jesus called the
"Good Shepherd"? In context, clearly because He is willing to lay down His
life for the sheep. The Greek word "for" is "huper" which
means "in place of", thus speaking of the substitutionary sacrifice of
What role does the
lamb play in Exodus 12?
Exodus 12:5, 6, 7,11:
lamb shall be an
take it from the
sheep or from the
goats. 'You shall
day of the
month, then the
assembly of the congregation of
Israel is to kill it at twilight. 'Moreover, they shall take some of the
blood and put it on the two doorposts and on the lintel of the houses in
which they eat it....(11) 'Now you shall eat it in this manner: with your
loins girded, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and
you shall eat it in haste --it is the
How does Zechariah
prophetically describe the Good "Shepherd"?
(Note Who is speaking) "Awake, O sword, against My
Shepherd, and against the man, My
Associate (Friend, Companion ~
implying co-equality)" Declares the
Jehovah Sabaoth (LORD of hosts - of
that the sheep may be scattered; And I
will turn My hand against the little ones."
concerning the "Shepherd" was quoted by the "Good
Shepherd" Himself just after He had celebrated the Passover feast ("the
Last Supper") with His disciples and was walking to the Mt of Olives (Mt
and was fulfilled when all the disciples fled at His arrest (Mt
What does Paul teach
about the "symbolism" of the lamb?
Clean out the old leaven so that you may be a new lump, just
as you are in fact unleavened. For
also has been
The Jewish NT version
paraphrases 1Co 5:7
"for our Pesach Lamb, the Messiah, has been
It is clear that Paul is teaching
that the OT feast of Passover (and the Passover Lamb) foreshadowed the
death of the NT Passover Lamb, Jesus, the Lamb of God of which Isaiah
also spoke in:
oppressed and He was
afflicted, Yet He did not open His
and like a
sheep that is silent before its
shearers, so He did not open His mouth.
This verse from
Isaiah was directly applied to Christ by Philip in (Acts 8:32)
What does the writer
of Hebrews teach about the Shepherd?
Now the God of peace, who brought up from the dead the Great
Shepherd of the sheep through the blood of the eternal covenant, even
Jesus our Lord equip you in every good thing to do His will, working in us
that which is pleasing in His sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom be the
glory forever and ever. Amen.
Notice how this truth
parallels "I shall not want (or lack)"
for the Greek word "equip" describes placing something in its
appropriate condition, making it suitable for "every good work".
The smiting of our Good Shepherd was followed by the resurrection of our
THE GREAT SHEPHERD
How did John the
Baptist announce Jesus' arrival?
John 1:29 (Jn 1:36) The next day he saw Jesus coming to him
and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!
IN THE NEW TESTAMENT THE ANSWER IS:
How does Peter refer to
the "Shepherd"? When does this occur?
And when the
appears, you will receive the unfading crown of glory.
In context this
description refers to a future event, when Christ returns to set up His
earthly kingdom at the end of the "great tribulation". (cf
notes Revelation 22:12-note)
THE CHIEF SHEPHERD
How does John
describe the Lamb in heaven?
And I saw between the throne
(with the four living creatures ) and the elders a
standing, as if slain...5:11
(note) Then I looked,
and I heard the voice of many angels around the throne and the
living creatures and the elders and the number of them was myriads
of myriads, and thousands of thousands
5:12 (note) saying
with a loud voice, "Worthy is the
that was slain to receive power and riches and wisdom and might and
honor and glory and blessing."
is in heaven today bearing on His body for all eternity the marks of the
Covenant (note)" (Luke
a truth that ensures without a doubt that all who are in the "New
with Him "by
grace...through faith (see note
are eternally secure,
"knowing that you were not
redeemed with perishable things like silver or gold
from your futile way of life inherited from your forefathers, but with
must read Spurgeon's note)
as of a lamb unblemished (amomos) and
spotless (aspilos) , the
blood of Christ.
1 Peter 1:18;
and thus the the redemption price has been "paid in full" (see
which is another way to translate Jesus' words on the cross - "It
is finished!" (John 19:30)
. Let us
behold the LAMB for He alone is worthy of our praise!.
IN HEAVEN ALL CREATION DECLARES:
WORTHY IS THE LAMB!
Revelation 7:17 (note)
the LAMB in the center of the throne will be their SHEPHERD, and will
guide them to springs of the water of life and God will wipe every tear
from their eyes.
THE LAMB WILL BE
THROUGHOUT ETERNITY. HALLELUJAH!
LORD of hosts my Shepherd is--
O sweet these words to me;
And Thou, dear Lamb, will be my Guide
Throughout eternity. --Kendrie
The LAMB Who died to save us is
the SHEPHERD Who lives to lead us.
See Related Study: The Lamb of God
of the Blood of the Lamb
- 1 Peter 1:19
Standing at the foot of the cross, we see hands, and feet, and side, all
distilling crimson streams of precious blood.
It is "precious"
because of its redeeming and atoning efficacy.
By it the sins of Christ's people are atoned for; they are redeemed from
under the law; they are reconciled to God, made one with him.
is also "precious"
in its cleansing power;
it "cleanseth from all sin." "Though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be
as white as snow." Through Jesus' blood there is not a spot left upon any
believer, no wrinkle nor any such thing remains. O precious blood,
which makes us clean, removing the stains of abundant iniquity, and
permitting us to stand accepted in the Beloved, notwithstanding the many
ways in which we have rebelled against our God.
The blood of Christ is
likewise "precious" in
its preserving power.
We are safe from the destroying angel under the sprinkled blood. Remember it
is God's seeing the blood which is the true reason for our being spared.
Here is comfort for us when the eye of faith is dim, for God's eye is still
The blood of Christ is "precious"
also in its sanctifying influence.
The same blood which justifies by taking away sin, does in its after-action,
quicken the new nature and lead it onward to subdue sin and to follow out
the commands of God. There is no motive for holiness so great as that which
streams from the veins of Jesus.
is this blood, because it has an overcoming power.
It is written, "They overcame through the blood of the Lamb." How could they
do otherwise? He who fights with the
precious blood of Jesus,
fights with a weapon which cannot know defeat. The blood of Jesus!
sin dies at its presence, death ceases to be death: heaven's gates are
blood of Jesus!
we shall march on, conquering and to conquer, so long as we can trust its
IT IS FINISHED
("paid in full"):
(3rd Person Singular Perfect
Passive Indicative): Note that Jesus did NOT say "I am finished" but that
His work of redemption had been completed. Jesus had fulfilled the task
for which He came to earth as the God Man. In Jesus' day when someone had
a debt and it was paid off, they would write the Greek word TETELESTAI on that
certificate signifying 'PAID IN FULL', which is the exact
word Jesus uttered as His last exclamation before dying. (cp Mark 10:45
This Greek word tetelestai is unfamiliar to our modern culture, but
it was a common word used in everyday life in Jesus' time. For example, a
servant would use it when reporting to his or her master, “I have
completed the work assigned to me” (cf Jesus' words in John 4:34 and in
John 17:4) where the related Greek verb
is used with the
same idea as in Jn 19:30. Jesus had brought to completion all the Father
had desired for Him to accomplish as the sinless God Man.
When a PRIEST examined an animal sacrifice and
found it faultless, this word would apply. Jesus, of course, is the
perfect Lamb of God, without spot or blemish.
When an ARTIST completed a picture, or a
WRITER a manuscript, he or she might say, “It is finished!” The death
of Jesus on the cross “completes the picture” that God had been painting,
the story that He had been writing, for centuries, yea even before the
foundation of the world and from all eternity! Because of the cross, we
can now understand the ceremonies and prophecies in the OT.
As mentioned above, perhaps the most meaningful and picturesque use of
tetelestai was that of the MERCHANTS or BANKERS of
Jesus' day who would say “The debt is paid in full!”
Papyri receipts for taxes have been recovered with the word
tetelestai written across them, meaning “paid in full.” That
person can never be held liable for that debt again. Not only does it
indicate that the payer had enough to cover the debt, it also assures us
that the payee is finally satisfied. He can't demand more later. He
received exactly what was due. Jesus completely paid the debt we owed, and
it will be remembered against us no more
forever. Hallelujah, what a Savior! When Jesus gave Himself up for us on the
cross, Jesus fully met the righteous demands of the Holy God and His Holy
Law. Jesus' death as a "sacrificial Lamb" paid our sin debt in
full, for "the wages of sin is death" (see Romans 6:23-note). None
of the Old Testament sacrifices could take away sins. The blood of animals
only temporarily "covered" sin. But the Lamb of God shed His blood, "for
the redemption of the transgressions that were committed under the first
covenant" (see He 9:15-note)
and that precious blood takes away the sins of the world (John 1:29;
He 9:24; 25; 26; 27; 28-see notes
When a Roman citizen was convicted of a crime, the law
of that day threw him in prison. They prepared a "Certificate of Debt"
that listed all the crimes he was convicted of on it, and nailed it to his
cell door for all to see. It remained nailed there so all would be assured
that he served his full sentence, and "paid in full" the
penalty for his crimes. When Jesus shouted Tetelestai from the cross, it
was the same word that was stamped across the Certificate of Debt after a
criminal completed his prison term. It would literally mean "Paid in Full"
for all your crimes (cf notes Colossians 2:14-note).
Then the criminal was given the certificate. He would be able to produce
it to show that his crimes were "paid in full." He could never become a
victim of "double jeopardy." Or paying for the same crime twice.
We owed a debt we could never repay. He paid a debt He
did not owe!
"But drops of grief can ne'er repay
The debt of love I owe:
Here, Lord, I give myself away,
'Tis all that I can do! "--Watts
There was once a rather eccentric evangelist named
Alexander Wooten, who was approached by a flippant young man who asked,
“What must I do to be saved?” “It’s too late!” Wooten replied, and went
about his work. The young man became alarmed. “Do you mean that it’s too
late for me to be saved?” he asked. “Is there nothing I can do?” “Too
late!” said Wooten. “It’s already been done! The only thing you can do is
So that when you stand before God on Judgment Day, where your sins once
appeared in God’s book, it will simply say, "Paid in full!" Which means
the only thing that could keep you out of heaven is gone!
"'Tis finished!" on the Cross He said,
In agonies and blood;
'Tis finished! now He lives to plead
Before the face of God.
'Tis finished! here our souls can rest,
His work can never fail;
By Him, our Sacrifice and Priest,
We enter through the veil.
Within the holiest of all,
Cleansed by His precious blood,
Before Thy throne Thy children fall,
And worship Thee, our God.
Boldly our heart and voice we raise,
His Name, His blood, our plea;
Assured our prayers and songs of praise
Ascend by Him to Thee.
by James G. Deck
THE DANGER OF
SHEEP STRAYING: AN ILLUSTRATION (from a Sermon
Korean Air, flight #007 (you may
remember this from October, 1983) departed Anchorage, Alaska for a direct
flight to Seoul, Korea. Unknown to the pilot and the crew, the computer
engaging the flight navigation system contained a 1-1/2 degree routing
error. At the point of departure, the mistake was unnoticeable. 100 miles
out, the deviation was still so small as to be undetectable. But as the
giant 747 continued on its journey through the Aleutians and out over the
Pacific, the error was picked up by Soviet radar. Jets were scrambled for
the intercept, and over Mainland Russia, hundreds of miles off course,
#007 was shot out of the sky, and all aboard were lost. A small error made
at the departure point resulted in a tragic trajectory and a destructive
finish. May the Lord help us to keep comparing where we are going with the
navigation charts so we stay on course and not wander into the enemy's
Ps 119:176 I have gone astray like a lost
sheep; seek Your servant, For I do not forget Your commandments.
This is the finale, the conclusion of the whole matter: I have gone
astray like a lost sheep — often, wilfully, wantonly, and even
hopelessly, but for thine interposing grace. In times gone by, before I was
afflicted, and before thou hadst fully taught me thy statutes, I went
astray. "I went astray" from the practical precepts, from the instructive
doctrines, and from the heavenly experiences which thou hadst set before me.
I lost my road, and I lost myself. Even now I am apt to wander, and, in
fact, have roamed already; therefore, Lord, restore me.
Seek thy servant.
He was not like a dog, that somehow or other can find its way back; but he
was like a lost sheep, which goes further and further away from home; yet
still he was a sheep, and the Lord's sheep, his property, and precious in
his sight, and therefore he hoped to be sought in order to be restored.
However far he might have wandered he was still not only a sheep, but God's
"servant, "and therefore he desired to be in his Master's house again, and
once more honored with commissions for his Lord. Had he been only a lost
sheep he would not have prayed to be sought; but being also a "servant" he
had the power to pray. He cries, "See thy servant, "and he hopes to be not
only sought, but forgiven, accepted, and taken into work again by his
gracious Master. Notice
this confession; many times in the psalm David has defended his own
innocence against foul mouthed accusers, but when he comes into the presence
of the Lord his God he is ready enough to confess his transgressions. He
here sums up, not only his past, but even his present life, under the image
of a sheep which has broken from its pasture, forsaken the flock, left the
shepherd, and brought itself into the wild wilderness, where it has become
as a lost thing. The sheep bleats, and David prays, "Seek thy servant."
His argument is a
forcible one, — for l do not forget thy commandments. I know
the right, I approve and admire the right, what is more, I love the light,
and long for it. I cannot be satisfied to continue in sin, I must be
restored to the ways Of righteousness. I have a home sickness after my God,
I pine after the ways of peace; I do not and I cannot forget thy
commandments, nor cease to know that I am always happiest and safest when I
scrupulously obey them, and find all my joy in doing so. Now, if the grace
of God enables us to maintain in our hearts the loving memory of God's
commandments it will surely yet restore us to practical holiness. That man
cannot be utterly lost whose heart is still with God. If he be gone astray
in many respects, yet still, if he be true in his soul's inmost desires, he
will be found again, and fully restored. Yet let the reader remember the
first verse of the psalm while he reads the last: the major blessedness lies
not in being restored from wandering, but in being upheld in a blameless way
even to the end. Be it ours to keep the crown of the causeway, never leaving
the King's highway for By path Meadow, or any other flowery path of sin. May
the Lord uphold us even to the end. Yet even then we shall not be able to
boast with the Pharisee, but shall still pray with the publican, "God be
merciful to me a sinner; "and with the Psalmist, "Seek thy servant."
EXPLANATORY NOTES AND QUAINT SAYINGS.
Psalm 119:176 I have gone astray like a lost sheep.
Though a sheep go astray, yet it is soon called back by the voice of the
shepherd: "My sheep hear my voice." Thus David when he went against Nabal
was called back by the Lord's voice in a woman; and when he had slain Uriah
he was brought again by Nathan. And therefore if we will be sheep, then
though we sometimes go astray, yet we must be easily reclaimed. — Richard
I have gone astray like a lost sheep, driven out by storm, or dark day, or by
the hunting of the dogs chased out from the rest of the flock. — David
Psalm 119:176 I
have gone astray like a lost sheep,
etc. And this is all the conclusion— "a lost sheep!" This long psalm of
ascriptions, praises, avowals, resolves, high hopes, ends in this, that he
is a perishing sheep. But, stay, there is hope— "Seek thy servant." "I have
gone astray like a lost sheep." The original is of the most extensive range,
comprehending all time past, and also the habitual tendencies of the man.
The believer feels that he had gone astray when the grace of God found him;
that he had gone astray many times, had not the grace of God prevented it.
He feels that he went astray on such and such unhappy occasions. He also
feels that he hath gone astray in all that he hath done; and indeed that he
is astray now. But the word expresses the habitual tendency likewise — I go
astray like a lost sheep, and this rendering is in keeping with the prayer,
"Seek thy servant." The third member is also properly rendered in keeping
with it: "I go astray like a lost sheep; seek thy servant; for I do not
forget thy commandments." All this is descriptive of the remaining
corruption that is in the believer. He is not unmindful of the Lord; he has
the root of the matter in him, the seed of divine life; yet he does go
astray; whence the necessity of the prayer: "Seek thy servant." Isaiah's
description of men, although conveyed in the same terms, is evidently more
sweeping, as the context words show: "All we like sheep have gone astray; we
have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on him the
iniquity of us all." This would seem to apply to the race of man. Rather is
the experience of the Psalmist similar to that described by the apostle
Paul: "I find a law, that when I would do good, evil is present with me. For
I delight in the law of God, after the inward man: But I see another law in
my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into
captivity to the law of sin which is in my members." And the Psalmist had
the same remedy at the early period, as had the apostle in the later times;
for God's salvation is one. The Psalmist's remedy was, "Seek thy servant;
"the apostle's, :"O wretched man that I am! Who shall deliver me from the
body of this death? I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord." — John
Psalm 119:176 I
have gone astray. The original word
signifies either the turning of the foot, or the turning of the heart, or
both, out of the way. "I have gone astray like a lost sheep; "that is, I
have been deceived, and so have gone out of the way of thy holy
commandments. Satan is an ill guide, and our hearts are no better: he that
follows either, quickly loseth himself; and until God seeketh us (as David
prays in the next words), we cannot find our way when we are once out of it.
— Joseph Caryl.
Psalm 119:176 I
have gone astray. Gotthold one day
saw a farmer carefully counting his sheep as they came from the field.
Happening at the time to be in an anxious and sorrowful mood, he gave vent
to his feelings and said: Why art thou cast down, my soul? and why
disquieted with vexing thoughts? Surely thou must be dear to the Most High
as his lambs are to this farmer. Art thou not better than many sheep? Is not
Jesus Christ thy shepherd? Has not he risked his blood and life for thee?
Hast thou no interest in his words: "I give unto my sheep eternal life, and
they shall never perish, neither shall any pluck them out of my hand"? Joh
10:28. This man is numbering his flock; and thinkest thou that God does not
also count and care for his believing children and elect, especially as his
beloved Son has averred, that the very hairs of our head are all numbered?
Mt 10:30. During the day, I may perhaps have gone out of the way, and
heedlessly followed my own devices; still, at the approach of evening, when
the faithful Shepherd counts his lambs, he will mark my absence, and
graciously seek and bring me back. Lord Jesus, "I have gone astray like a
lost sheep; seek thy servant; for I do not forget thy commandments." —
Christian Striver (1629-1693), in Gotthold's Emblems.
Psalm 119:176 I
have gone astray, etc. Who is
called "the man after God's own heart"? David, the Hebrew king, had fallen
into sins enough — blackest crimes— there was no want of sin. And,
therefore, unbelievers sneer, and ask, "Is this your man after God's own
heart?" The sneer, it seems to me, is but a shallow one. What are faults,
what are the outward details of a life, if the inner secret of it, the
remorse, temptations, the often baffled, never ended struggle of it, be
forgotten?...David's life and history, as written for us in those psalms of
his, I consider to be the truest emblem ever given us of a man's moral
progress and warfare here below. All earnest souls will ever discover in it
the faithful struggle of an earnest human soul towards what is good and
best. Struggle often baffled— sore baffled — driven as into entire wreck;
yet a struggle never ended, ever with tears, repentance, true unconquerable
purpose begun anew. — Thomas Carlyle, (1795-1881), in "Heroes
and Hero Worship."
For I do not forget thy commandments.
In all my wandering; with my consciousness of error; with my sense of guilt;
I still do feel that I love thy law, thy service, thy commandments. They are
the joy of my heart, and I desire to be recalled from all my wanderings,
that I may find perfect happiness in thee and in thy service evermore. Such
is the earnest wish of every regenerated heart. For as such a one may have
wandered flora God, yet he is conscious of true attachment to him and his
service; he desires and earnestly prays that he may be "sought out, "brought
back, and kept from wandering any more. — Albert Barnes.
For I do not forget thy commandments.
The godly never so fall but there remains in them some grace, which reserves
a hope of medicine to cure them: so David here. Albeit he transgressed some
of God's commandments, yet he fell not into any full oblivion of them. —
I do not think that there could possibly be a more appropriate conclusion
of such a Psalm as this, so full of the varied experience and the ever
changing frames and feelings even of a child of God, in the sunshine and the
cloud, in the calm and in the storm, than this ever clinging sense of his
propensity to wander, and the expression of his utter inability to find his
way back without the Lord's guiding hand to restore him; and at the same
time with it all, his fixed and abiding determination never to forget the
Lord's commandments. What an insight into our poor wayward hearts does this
verse give us— not merely liable to wander, but ever wandering, ever losing
our way, ever stumbling on the dark mountains, even while cleaving to God's
commandments! But at the same time what a prayer does it put into our
mouths, "Seek thy servant, "— "I am thine, save me." Yes, blessed be God!
there is One mighty to save. "Kept by the power of God through faith unto
salvation." — Barton Bouchier.
As far as I have been
able, as far as I have been aided by the Lord, I have treated throughout,
and expounded, this great Psalm. A task which more able and learned
expositors have performed, or will perform better; nevertheless, my services
were not to be withheld from it on that account, when my brethren earnestly
required it of me. — Augustine.
1. My confession: "I have
2. My profession: "thy
3. My petition: "seek thy
4. My plea: "for I do not
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