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Old and New Testament.
gave him a
son has been
Naomi !" So
Obed. He is the
BBE: And the women who were her neighbours gave it a name, saying,
Naomi has a child; and they gave him the name of Obed: he is the
father of Jesse, the father of David.
CEV: The neighborhood women named him Obed, but they called him
"Naomi's Boy." When Obed grew up he had a son named Jesse, who later
became the father of King David.
GWT: The women in the neighborhood said, "Naomi has a son." So they gave
him the name Obed. He became the father of Jesse, who was the father
KJV: And the women her neighbours gave it a name, saying, There is a son
born to Naomi; and they called his name Obed: he is the father of
Jesse, the father of David.
NJB: And the women of the neighbourhood gave him a
name. 'A son', they said, 'has been born to Naomi,' and they called
him Obed. This was the father of Jesse, the father of David. (NJB)
Young's Literal: and the neighbouring women give to him a name, saying, 'There hath
been a son born to Naomi,' and they call his name Obed; he is father
of Jesse, father of David.
Septuagint: And the neighbours
gave it a name, saying, A son has been born to Noemin; and they
called his name Obed; this is the father of Jessae the father of
J Vernon McGee -- Ruth 4:1.mp3
J Vernon McGee -- Ruth 4:2-5.mp3
J Vernon McGee -- Ruth 4:6-7.mp3
J Vernon McGee -- Ruth 4:8-22.mp3
John Piper -- Ruth 4 - The Best is Yet to Come.mp3
AND THE NEIGHBOR WOMEN GAVE
HIM A NAME SAYING A SON HAS BEEN BORN TO NAOMI: (Lk 1:58,
59, 60, 61, 62, 63)
Neighbor women gave him a name - Literally "the neighbors
called for him a name".
Here is the only place in the OT where a child was named by someone
other than the immediate family. In a sense Ruth vicariously bore
the son who would restore the family name of Naomi’s deceased son Mahlon (cf.
A son has been born to Naomi
- This is an unusual phrase and suggests that Obed was Naomi’s son in
more than just an abstract sense, but that she may have raised the
child as if he were her own.
SO THEY NAMED HIM OBED
HE IS THE FATHER OF JESSE
THE FATHER OF DAVID:
So they named him - the
text is redundant for this is the second mention that the neighbors
“named” the boy.
Named him Obed - This is
unusual for unlike other naming events, the name Obed is left
is transliterated from the Hebrew Oved which according to some
sources means serving (from 'abad = to serve; cp "Obadiah" =
servant of Yahweh) or a servant who worships;
In any case, it is worth noting that names in the OT conveyed much
more information about the individual than do most modern names.
The father of Jesse, the
father of David - Since the Books of Samuel never provide a
genealogy for David, this book provides the genealogical link between
the Books of Joshua and Samuel concerning the lineage of David.
Daniel Block writes
The story of Ruth ends on a
surprising but climactic interpretive note. In the mind of the
narrator, the historical significance of the birth of Obed does not
lie in the resolution he brings to the personal crises of the
characters in this book. Nor does he derive his significance from
valorous deeds either of mercy or power. Neither the present narrator
nor any other Old Testament author writes any stories about him. On
the contrary, the birth of Obed has historical significance because he
lives on and achieves his significance through the lives of his son
Jesse and particularly his grandson David. Through David the blessing
of the male witnesses to the court proceedings (Ru 4:11) is fulfilled;
Boaz's name is “called out” (NAS = become famous) in Bethlehem. And
through David the prayer of the female witnesses to the birth of Obed
is fulfilled; Obed's name is “called out” in Israel. Indeed, to this
day their names and the names of Naomi and Ruth are “called out” all
over the world as their story is read. In the providence of God the
genuine piety of all the major characters is rewarded, and the divine
plan for Israel and her kings is fulfilled. (New American Commentary -
Volume 6: Judges, Ruth)
This complete genealogy appears identically in
four other biblical texts (Ru 4:21, 22; 1Chr 2:12, 13, 14, 15; Mt 1:5, 6; Lk
3:31, 32). Boaz and Ruth were the great grandparents of
story of Ruth has shown how a Moabite woman obtained an exalted place
in Hebrew history. There is later evidence that David did not forget
his Moabite roots. During the period of flight from Saul's wrath,
David asked the king of Moab to let his parents stay there for refuge
(1Sa 22:3, 4).
Ruth 4:17b should be viewed as the
bridge connecting Ruth 1:2, which labels the sojourners as
Ephrathites, with 1Sa 17:12, which states that David was the son of an
Ephrathite named Jesse.
The following genealogical
schematic is taken from
The New Bible Dictionary (IVP,
G Campbell Morgan in Life
Applications from Every Chapter of the Bible sums up
the book writing that...
The story ends with poetic
simplicity and beauty. "Boaz took Ruth, and she became his wife."
Naomi at last was comforted indeed. The women of her own people spoke
words of cheer to her which unquestionably were full of comfort, as
they set forth the praises of the one who had chosen to share her
affliction, and had become the medium of her succor. There is a
stately simplicity in this story of the issue. It constitutes a record
of the Divine movement in the history of the chosen people, for thus
the kingly line is ordained, in the midst of infidelity (Jdg 21:25), through
faithful souls (Ps 40:4).
All the period of the Judges was characterized by the
failure of the people to realize the great ideal of the Theocracy.
They had no king because they were disobedient to the One King.
Presently we shall hear them clamoring for a king "like the nations,"
(1Sa 8:5, 19, 20)
and one will be appointed by whose reign of forty years they will
learn the difference between earthly rule and the direct government of
God. Then the man after God's own heart will succeed him (Acts 13:22);
and that man will be David, descended from these souls who, in dark
and difficult days, realized in their own lives the Divine ideal, as
they walked humbly with God.
But this Book flings its light much
further on. After centuries had run their course, there sprang from
this union of Boaz and Ruth in faith and love the Man of Nazareth,
Jesus, the One and only King of men, because He was not only a Child
born to Mary, descended from these, but also the Son of God in all the
fulness of that title.
God, in love and might,
ever moves on through human failure
in cooperation with human faith.
these are the
BBE: Now these are the generations of Perez: Perez became the
father of Hezron;
CEV: Here is a list of the ancestors of David: Jesse, Obed, Boaz,
Salmon, Nahshon, Amminadab, Ram, Hezron, and Perez. (CEV)
GWT: This is the account of Perez and his family. Perez was the father
of Hezron. (GWT)
KJV: Now these are the generations of Pharez: Pharez begat Hezron,
NJB: These are the descendants of Perez. Perez fathered Hezron,
Young's Literal: And these are genealogies of Pharez: Pharez begat Hezron,
Septuagint: And these are the
generations of Phares: Phares begot Esrom
NOW THESE ARE
THE GENERATIONS OF PEREZ TO PEREZ WAS BORN HEZRON: (1Chr
2:4, 5, 6, 7, 8; 4:1; Mt 1:3; Lk 3:33)
(towledah; toledah) occurs only in the plural in the
Hebrew (cf "generations") and describes one's descendants, generations
or genealogies. This key Hebrew word carries with it the notion of
everything entailed in a person’s life and that of his or her progeny.
It is not surprising that Genesis records numerous uses of this word
to introduce the idea of a "family tree".
For example, Moses records that
"This is the book of the generations
of Adam. In the day when God created man, He made him in the likeness
of God." (Ge 5:1).
In the present case towledah/toledah
genealogical list of the descendants of Ruth and Boaz. This recalls the prayer recorded in
"May the LORD make the woman (Ruth the Moabitess) who is
coming into your home like Rachel and Leah, both of whom built the
house of Israel; and may you achieve wealth in Ephrathah and become
famous in Bethlehem".
Clearly Jehovah answered the people's prayers
and the lineage did indeed become famous in Bethlehem when to the
virgin Mary (from the line of David, from the line of Boaz) "was born Jesus,...(the) Christ." (Mt
Notice that this "representative" genealogy spans
almost 850 years from Perez (1885BC) to David
is a son of Judah who "went into" Tamar, a woman who was a prostitute (Ge
38:18, 29). Perez's father
Judah was the fourth of
Jacob’s 12 sons (Genesis 35:23) and the fourth son born to Jacob by Leah, who,
overjoyed with the thought of bearing Jacob another son, named him
Judah, meaning “praise” (Genesis 29:35). So if we go backward in this genealogical record to Jacob,
it would take
us back probably sometime before 2000BC.
In light of the known ancestry
of Perez, we can trace David’s lineage to extend back through Judah
(Ge 49:8, 9, 10, 11, 12),
Jacob (Ge 28:10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17), and
Isaac (Ge 26:24)
to Abraham (Ge 12:1, 2, 3),
to whom Jehovah had promised "2 And I will make you a great nation,
and I will bless you, and make your name great; and so you shall be a
blessing and I will bless those who bless you, and the one who
curses you I will curse. And in you all the families of the earth
shall be blessed." (Ge 12:2, 3). This promise was repeated (almost
25 years later)
"As for Me, behold, My covenant is with you, and you
shall be" (Ge 17:4)
The book of Ruth then in a sense represents a partial
fulfillment of Jehovah's promises to Abraham, promises that would
ultimately be fulfilled in the Messiah!
Beloved, read God's love
letter to you and by faith grasp the promises He makes to you. You may
not see the immediate fulfillment of those promises, but rest assured
God will keep His Word and one day you will see the fulfillment!
Even if there are some omissions in the
genealogy, its authenticity is attested by the fact that it would be
very unlikely for a Jewish scribe recording the ancestry of David to
have included a Moabitess
unless the evidence was sure!
The first five names cover the period from the
time of the entry into Egypt (Perez, Ge 46:12) to the time of Moses (Nahshon,
Ex 6:23; Nu 1:7), while the remaining five belong to the period of the
early settlement in Canaan to the closing years of the judges.
AND TO HEZRON WAS BORN RAM
AND TO RAM, AMMINADAB: (1Chr 2:9,10; Mt 1:4; Lk 3:33)
Remember that these names are not
to be read as "dull lists" of ancestors but in fact are recorded to
underscore the truth that Yahweh providentially preserved the
righteous line of the Messiah even in times of great apostasy.
AND TO AMMINADAB
WAS BORN NAHSHON, AND TO NAHSHON
The father-in-law of Aaron (Ex 6:23), who does not
appear in 1Ch 2:10, but is cited in Mt. 1:4 and Luke 3:33. Some
Hebrew manuscripts also include Admin between Ram and Amminadab in
According to Mt1:5, Salmon married Rahab the converted harlot,
sometime after the fall of Jericho, and therefore Boaz was their son.
parallels the genealogy found in Ruth 4 and records that...
"The book of the
genealogy of Jesus Christ (Messiah), the son of David, the son of Abraham.
2 To Abraham was born Isaac; and to Isaac, Jacob; and to Jacob, Judah
and his brothers; 3 and to Judah were born Perez and Zerah by Tamar;
and to Perez was born Hezron; and to Hezron, Ram; 4 and to Ram was
born Amminadab; and to Amminadab, Nahshon; and to Nahshon,
and to Salmon was born Boaz by Rahab (the harlot); and to Boaz was born
Ruth; and to Obed, Jesse 6 and to Jesse was born David the king... (Matthew
1:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)
AND TO SALMON WAS BORN BOAZ, AND TO BOAZ, OBED:
2:11, 2:12, Mt 1:5; Lk 3:32)
The fact that
the genealogy connects Boaz and Ruth’s son Obed with Boaz rather than
Mahlon does not mean he failed to perpetuate Mahlon’s reputation. The
son would have been eligible to inherit from both Mahlon and Boaz. The
Israelites regarded him as the son of both men. Naturally he was
Boaz’s son, but legally he was Boaz and Mahlon’s son as well as
Matthew includes the names of the Gentile mothers, Rahab and
Ruth, writing that...
to Salmon was born Boaz by Rahab
(the harlot); and to Boaz was born Obed by
Ruth; and to Obed, Jesse 6 and to Jesse was born David the king... (Mt
G Campbell Morgan has the
Finally the book teaches the
value to God of that life, which makes the great surrender, and
follows Him in faith.
The value of such a life can never be known until we pass within the
Remember again the sequence with
which this book closes; Obed, Jesse, David. Boaz and Ruth had passed
into the light ere David came, the king for whom the nation was
waiting, yet the sequence did not end with David.
A little later a prophet from some
height of vision broke into a great song. "But thou, Bethlehem
Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out
of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel."
Far down the centuries there shone
a light at midnight, and songs were heard, and in the direct line of
the man of Judah and of privilege, and the woman of Moab and of
limitation, to Bethlehem came the King.
They did not see the issues.
They did not live to reap the ultimate harvest of their fidelity, but
GOD found foothold in the man and woman of faith, and in their united
lives. That is the principle of which I think we need to be reminded,
in order to encourage our hearts in the midst of work.
We talk about results. If all the
results of my ministry can be statistically stated, it is a dire
failure. Paul was a saint, cribbed, cabined and confined in prison. It
is impossible to read his letters without being conscious of a certain
amount of restlessness as he made appeal to his loved ones, "remember
my bonds." A man whose motto was, The Regions Beyond, whose piercing
eye saw the far distances, and who was profoundly conscious of the
value of the evangel, who knew and wrote "I am debtor . . . I am
ready;" was yet imprisoned, and had to content himself with writing
letters. Today those letters are of greater value than all his work.
He did not know that presently they would be gathered together, and
would constitute the great exposition of the evangelical faith for all
Robert Morrison wrote in his diary,
"This day I entered with Mr. Laidler to learn Latin. I paid ten
shillings and sixpence, and am to pay one guinea per quarter. I know
not what may be the end. GOD only knows."
That ten shillings and sixpence was
the beginning of that linguistic education which made Morrison the
translator of the Bible, and opened the way for all the work which has
been done in China during the past century.
These are but instances, yet take
the comfort of them. May this be my last word.
Remember that of the work you do
today you cannot see the issue, if it is work wrought by faith in GOD.
It may be in the great city of London, or in some hidden hamlet among
the hills that your life will be lived, small, unknown, never
published, never noticed either in the religious or irreligious press,
and yet you may be God's foothold for things of which you cannot
dream, which if told you now you would not possibly believe. The one
cry of my heart and of thy heart, comrade of faith, according to this
book, should be a cry for out-and-out abandonment to Him, in order
that by our loyalty He may win the victories of His royalty.
AND TO OBED WAS BORN JESSE, AND TO JESSE DAVID:
(1Sa 16:1; Is 11:1) (1Chr 2:15; Mt 1:6; Lk 3:31)
The lineage of the greater Kinsman Redeemer, Jesus Christ’s is
traced through Mary, through the line of David (Mt 1:1-16; cf. Ro 1:3-note; 2Ti 2:8-note; Rev
The Moabites were not to enter the congregation of the Lord “even to
the tenth generation” (Dt 23:3). How interesting that the book of Ruth closes
with a ten-generation genealogy that climaxes with the name of David!
God’s hand is all over history. God works out His purpose, generation
after generation. Limited as we are to one lifetime, each of us sees
so little of what happens. A genealogy is a striking way of bringing
before us the continuity of God’s purpose through the ages. The
process of history is not haphazard. There is a purpose in it all. And
the purpose is the purpose of God.
Naomi’s return to Bethlehem and the covenant of marriage between
Ruth and Boaz,
explains why when
it came about... that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus, that a
census be taken of all the inhabited earth" that Joseph had to go up
"to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of
the house and family of David (who was in turn of the house and
family of Boaz and Ruth) in order to register, along with Mary, who
was engaged to him, and was with child." (Lk 2:1, 2, 3, 4, 5).
From a human perspective, Ruth and Boaz are the reason the Messiah was
born in Bethlehem but from a divine perspective this even occurred
when and where it occurred because God had providentially ordained the
historical events to perfectly fulfill prophecy. History is truly His
story, as Jehovah alludes to in Isaiah declaring
I am God, and there is no other; I
am God, and there is no one like Me, declaring the end from the
beginning and from ancient times things which have not been done,
saying, 'My purpose will be established, and I will accomplish all My
good pleasure. (Isaiah 46:9, 10)
The story of Ruth is one of
selfless love at a time when such love was not always in evidence.
As alluded to throughout these
notes on Ruth, Jesus has been pictured through the book,
by Boaz the kinsman-redeemer as summarized in the table
TWO KINSMAN REDEEMERS
Had to be a family member
God became man in the flesh
so He could be our Kinsman and redeem us
Had the duty of buying family
members out of slavery
He redeemed us from slavery
to sin and death.
Had the duty of buying back
land that had been forfeited
In the future He will redeem
the earth that Adam forfeited control of to Satan.
Not motivated by
self-interest but by a sincere love for Ruth the Moabitess
Jesus’ was motivated by the
love of God
Boaz as Ruth's
kinsman-redeemer took her as his bride
Jesus has redeemed us to be
Boaz as kinsman-redeemer
provided a glorious destiny for Ruth
Jesus, as our Kinsman
Redeemer, provides a glorious destiny for us
Before the foundation of the world,
in eternity past, God had planned to bring Ruth and Boaz together in
the little town of Bethlehem which would be the "entrance point" for
Jesus, our Greater Boaz, the ultimate Kinsman-Redeemer. How mysterious and sweet the sounds of
the precious hymn...
O Little Town of Bethlehem
play hymn at cyberhymnal)
|O little town of Bethlehem, how still we see thee lie!
Above thy deep and dreamless sleep the silent stars go by;
Yet in thy dark streets shineth the everlasting Light:
The hopes and fears of all the years are met in thee tonight.
How silently, how silently, the wondrous gift is given!
So God imparts to human hearts the blessings of His heaven.
No ear may hear His coming, but in the world of sin,
Where meek souls will receive Him still, the dear Christ enters in.
O holy Child of Bethlehem! Descend to us, we pray;
Cast out our sin and enter in, be born in us today.
We hear the Christmas angels, the great glad tidings tell;
O come to us, abide with us, our Lord Emmanuel!
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