Titus 1:3-4 Commentary

 

 

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Titus 1:3-4 Commentary

Titus 1:3: but at the proper time manifested (3SAAI), even His word, in the proclamation with which I was entrusted (1SAPI) according to the commandment of God our Savior (NASB: Lockman)

Greek: ephanerosen (3SAAI) de kairois idiois ton logon autou en kerugmati o episteuthen (1SAPI) ego kat' epitagen tou soteros hemon theou, 
ICB: At the right time God let the world know about that life through preaching. He trusted me with that work, and I preached because God our Savior commanded me to.
Barclay: In his own good time God set forth his message plain for all to see in the proclamation with which I have been entrusted by the royal command of God our Saviour.  (
Westminster Press)
KJV: But hath in due times manifested his word through preaching, which is committed unto me according to the commandment of God our Saviour;
NET: But now in his own time he has made his message evident through the preaching I was entrusted with according to the command of God our Savior
 (NET Bible)
Phillips: (at the right moment he made his Word known in the declaration which has been entrusted to me by his command) to Titus, my true son in our common faith, be grace, mercy and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our saviour.  (
Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: but in His own private, strategic seasons He made known His Word in a proclamation with which I was entrusted in accordance with the commandment of God, our Saviour  (
Eerdmans
Young's Literal: (and He manifested in proper times His word,) in preaching, which I was entrusted with, according to a charge of God our Saviour,

REFERENCES ON TITUS

Don Anderson
Paul Apple
Albert Barnes
Brian Bell
Brian Bell
Brian Bell
Brian Bell
John Henry Bernard
Brian Bill
John Calvin
Steven Cole
Steven Cole
Steven Cole
Steven Cole
Steven Cole
Thomas Constable
Ron Daniel
Ron Daniel
Ron Daniel
Ron Daniel
Ron Daniel
Ron Daniel
Ron Daniel
Ron Daniel
Ron Daniel
Ron Daniel
Ron Daniel
Ron Daniel
Ron Daniel
Ron Daniel
Ron Daniel
Charles Ellicott
Explore the Bible
A C Gaebelein
L M Grant
Dave Guzik
Grace Notes
Matthew Henry
Alfred Humphreys
IVP Commentary
Jamieson, F, B
S Lewis Johnson
S Lewis Johnson
S Lewis Johnson
Hampton Keathley
Hampton Keathley
Hampton Keathley
Hampton Keathley
William Kelly
Lange's Com
John MacArthur
John MacArthur
John MacArthur
John MacArthur
John MacArthur

John MacArthur

John MacArthur
John MacArthur
John MacArthur
John MacArthur
John MacArthur
J Vernon McGee
J Vernon McGee
Net Bible Notes
Phil Newton
Phil Newton
Phil Newton
Phil Newton
Ron Ritchie
Ron Ritchie
Robert Reyburn
Robert Reyburn
Robert Reyburn
A T Robertson
Gil Rugh
Gil Rugh
Gil Rugh

Gil Rugh

Gil Rugh
C H Spurgeon
C H Spurgeon
C H Spurgeon
C H Spurgeon
Ray Stedman
Marvin Vincent
Precept Ministries

Titus Study - Q & A Format
Titus Commentary Pdf
Titus 1 Commentary
Titus 1 Notes
Titus 1:1-4 Standing for the Truth
Titus 1:5-7 Appointing Godly Leaders
Titus 1:8-9 Leading By Example
Titus 1 Commentary
Titus 1:10-16 Dealing With the Disgruntled
Titus 1:1-4 Titus 1:5-6 Titus 1:7-9 Titus 1:10-12
Titus 1:1-4 God's People in a Pagan World
Titus 1:5 Who Runs This Church?
Titus 1:6-8 Qualified Elders
Titus 1:9 Elders: Men of the Word
Titus 1:10-16 Guarding the Flock

Titus Notes
Titus 1:1 Paul, Bondservant, Apostle
Titus 1:1b The Chosen, Knowledge Of The Truth
Titus 1:2-3 Eternal Life Was Promised In Eternity Past
Titus 1:4 Five Attributes Of Titus The Minister
Titus 1:5 Appointing Elders
Titus 1:6 Above Reproach
Titus 1:6b Husband Of One Wife
Titus 1:6c Children Who Believe
Titus 1:7a Stewardship

Titus 1:7b Not Quick-tempered
Titus 1:7c Not Addicted To Wine
Titus 1:7d Not Pugnacious
Titus 1:7e No Sordid Gain; Hospitable; Loving What Is Good

Titus 1:8a Sensible
Titus 1:8b Just, Devout, Self-Controlled

Titus 1 Commentary

Titus 1 Excellent Leadership
The Epistle to Titus
Comments on Paul's Epistle to Titus
Titus 1 Commentary
Titus 1:10-13
Titus 1 Commentary
Titus 1 Commentary

Titus 1 Commentary
Titus 1 Commentary
Titus 1:1-4 The Common Faith

Titus 1:5-9 Paul and the Elders

Titus 1:10-16 The Shepherds and the Sheep Stealers

Introduction to The Letter to Titus

Titus 1:1-4 Introductory Greetings to Titus

Titus 1:5-9 Instruction Concerning Elders in the Church

Titus 1:10-16 Instruction Concerning False Teachers in the Church
Exposition of the Epistle of Paul to Titus
Titus 1 Commentary
Titus 1:1 Commitments of a Powerful Leader,. 1

Titus 1:1-3 Commitments of a Powerful Leader, Pt. 2

Titus 1:3 Commitments of a Powerful Leader, 3

Titus 1:4 Commitments of a Powerful Leader, 4
Titus 1:5-6 The Moral Character of a Pastor

Titus 1:6: Required Character for a Pastor: Family Leadership

Titus 1:7 The Qualifications for a Pastor, 1: Noble Character

Titus 1:7-8 The Qualifications for a Pastor, 2: Noble Character

Titus 1:9 The Qualifications for a Pastor, 3: Teaching Skill

Titus 1:10-11 Men Who Must Be Silenced, Pt. 1

Titus 1:12-16 Men Who Must Be Silenced, Pt. 2
Titus Intro Titus Intro Titus 1:1   Titus 1:2-4.mp3  
Titus 1:5 Titus 1:6-9 Titus 1:10-12 Titus 1:13-16.mp3

Titus 1 Commentary

Titus 1:1-2, 4 A Foundation for Faith and Hope
Titus 1:3 Proclaiming the Word
Titus 1:5-9 Elders in the Church
Titus 1:10-16 Empty Professions, or How to Wreck a Church

Titus 1:1-9 Need For Godly Elders
Titus 1:10-16 Need For Teaching Elders

Titus 1:1-4 A Pastoral Letter

Titus 1:5-9 Elders

Titus 1:10-16 Controversy

Titus 1 Word Studies
Titus 1:1-4 Paul's Greeting
Titus 1:5 Elder Biblical Basis
Titus 1:6 Elder Marital Status
Titus 1:7-9 Elder's Character
Titus 1:10-16 False Teachers
Titus 1 Exposition
Titus 1:2 What God Cannot Do
Titus 1:4 Five Links in a Golden Chain
Titus 1:15 A Searching Test

Titus: Truth and Proof
Titus 1 Word Studies

Titus - Download Lesson 1

AT THE PROPER TIME: de kairois idiois: (Da 8:23; 9:24, 25, 26 27; 10:1; 11:27; Hab 2:3; Acts 17:26; Ro 5:6; Gal 4:4; Eph 1:10; 1Ti 2:6; 2Ti 1:10)

"in His own seasons" (Vine, Vincent)

"at his appointed season" (NIV)

"In his own good time" (Barclay)

"now at the right time" (NLT)

"in its own due season" (Darby)

"now in his own good time" (TLB)

"And [now] in His own appointed time" (Amp) 

This phrase (see below also) refers to the seasons or periods appointed by God as appropriate for the manifestation. Crucial events in God’s program occur at His designated times in history as determined by God in His perfect wisdom and omniscience. This was the time God intended and His time is always the best time. All preceding ages had pointed to this "time". God had not previously fully revealed the plan of salvation in the Old Testament time or "seasons". Believers then had a "hazy" idea of life after death. But the vagueness disappeared with the coming of Jesus Who

 “brought life and immortality to light through the gospel” (2Ti 1:10-note)

God caused the Gospel to be published in that time in which it would have the greatest effect. The thought of the incarnation taking place at the right moment in the history of the world is a favorite thought with Paul (Acts 17:26; Ro 5:6; Gal 4:4; Ep 1:10). In Paul's first letter to Timothy he used the identical phrase to describe Christ's first coming to give

"Himself as a ransom for all, the testimony borne at the proper time" (1Ti 2:6)

Later in the same book Paul writing about Christ's second coming describes it as the

 "appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ, which He will bring about at the proper time-- He Who is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords" (1Ti 6:14, 15)

Proper (2398) (idios) which refers to that which is one’s own peculiar, private, unique possession.

Time (2540) (kairos [word study]) refers to those strategic times in the calendar of God during which events come to a culmination and ripen to usher in a new age. Kairos which refers to a season, a decisive epoch or a fixed, definitive period of time when events are brought to a crisis.

Paul uses "kairos" to describe our condition before Christ came as "still helpless" but then "at the right time Christ died for the ungodly."

Trench defines kairos as

“a critical, epoch-making period foreordained of God when all that has been slowly, and often without observation, ripening through long ages, is mature and comes to the birth in grand decisive events, which constitute at once the close of one period and the commencement of another.”

Since there is no good English equivalent to kairos, the essence of it's meaning can be somewhat difficult to grasp. Study the following verses and see if you can discern the window of opportunity aspect in each verse to help give you a "feel" for the meaning of kairos (Mt 13:30, 21:34, Mk11:13,13:33, Lk 4:13,19:44, Lk 21:24, Ac 1:7, 17:26, 2Co 6:2, Gal 6:9, Eph 2:12, 2Th 2:6, Rev 1:3).

The following quote from Napoleon illustrates the idea inherent in kairos:

“There is in the midst of every great battle a ten to fifteen minute period that is the crucial point. Take that period and you win the battle; lose it and you will be defeated.”

The word in the proclamation came into the world at "the proper time" for 5 elements existed which facilitated the spread of the Gospel

(1) Greek was spoken by nearly everyone for it was the language of trade, commerce and literature. Thus most of the civilized pagan world was bilingual and the missionaries had no major language barrier.

(2) There were no frontiers meaning that wherever the missionary went, he was within the Roman Empire and did not need a passport, nor was he held up at borders waiting for a visa to enter the country. Thus the missionary could move about from one end of the known world to the other without major hindrances.

(3) Travel albeit slow was easy (compared to prior ages) for the Romans had built great roads from country to country and had, for the most part, cleared the land of bandits and the sea of pirates.

(4) The first century world was largely at peace, for the pax Romana (the Roman peace) held sway and thus the missionary could move about within the Roman Empire in relative safety.

(5) Finally as William Barclay notes the first century was a

"world which was conscious of its needs. The old faiths had broken down and the new philosophies were beyond the mind of simple people. Men were looking, as Seneca said, ad salutem, towards salvation. They were increasingly conscious of “their weakness in necessary things.” They were searching for “a hand let down to lift them up.” They were looking for “a peace, not of Caesar’s proclamation, but of God’s.” There never was a time when the hearts of men were more open to receive the message of salvation which the Christian missionaries brought." (Barclay, W: The Daily Study Bible Series, Rev. ed. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press)

Barclay rightly concludes

"It was no accident that Christianity came when it did. It came in God’s own time; all history had been a preparation for it; and the circumstances were such that the way was open for the tide to spread." (Ibid)

MANIFESTED EVEN HIS WORD IN THE PROCLAMATION WITH WHICH I WAS ENTRUSTED: ephanerosen (3SAAI) ...ton logon autou en kerugmati ho episteuthen (API): (Mk 13:10; 16:15; Acts 10:36; Ro 10:14 15; 15:19; 16:26; Eph 2:17; Eph 3:5; 3:6 3:7 3:8 Php 1:13; Col 1:6; 1:23 1Ti 2:5; Rev 14:16) (1Cor 9:17; 1Th 2:4; 1Ti 1:11; 2:7; 2Ti 1:11)

"he has made his message evident through the preaching I was entrusted with" (NET)

"he has revealed this Good News and permits me to tell it to everyone" (TLB)

"He has made manifest (made known) His Word and revealed it as His message through the preaching entrusted to me" (Amp)

"he brought his word to light through the preaching entrusted to me" (NIV)

"He clearly made known His Message in the preaching with which I was entrusted" (Weymouth)

"God let the world know about that life through preaching. He trusted me with that work" (ICB)

"God set forth his message plain for all to see in the proclamation with which I have been entrusted" (Barclay)

Manifested (5319) (phaneroo [word study]) means to make visible that which has been hidden. God’s secret purposes in salvation have in the preaching of the apostle been brought to light.

Phaneroo describes an external manifestation to the senses hence open to all and means more than "to appear". A person may appear in a false guise or without a disclosure of what he truly is but when he is "phaneroo" he is revealed in his true character. By "His Word" Paul is not referring to the incarnate Word, the Lord Jesus Christ as some commentators suggest but is referring to the Gospel in which the promise was embodied.

Word (3056) (logos for in depth word study click here)

Proclamation (2782) (kerugma  where –ma means the result of <> from kerusso = to proclaim or announce in public) means not so much the act but the content or the result of preaching, that which is cried by the herald (an officer sent by a king or other high official to proclaim a message or announce good news) or public crier.  It can have such senses as “news,” “declaration,” “decree,” “announcement,” etc.  In Classical Greek the kerux (noun from kerusso) was a public servant of supreme power both in peace and in war, one who summoned the ekklesia (1577) (later used for the Church), the town gathering. The kerux  was the public crier and reader of state messages such as the conveyor of a declaration of war or as well as the “publication” of honors or victories.

TDNT adds that kerugma

"has a twofold sense like the word proclamation, signifying both the result of proclamation (what is proclaimed) and the actual proclaiming. In other words, it denotes both the act and the content. In many cases it is hard to say where the emphasis falls." (Kittel, G., Friedrich, G., & Bromiley, G. W.  Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Eerdmans)

Kerugma is used 8 times in the NT in the NASB (Mt; Lk; Ro; 1Co 3x; 2Ti; Titus) and is translated: message preached, 1; preaching, 5; proclamation, 2.

Kerugma is the official message a herald would give on behalf of the ruler or town council under whom he served. In the NT kerugma is always used of the public proclamation of God’s Word, which, as the apostle has just pointed out, brings men to saving faith, builds them up in divine truth, and strengthens them for godly living.

The most famous OT use of kerugma (in the Septuagint - LXX) is found in Jonah where Jehovah addresses his reluctant "herald" and commands him to

"Arise, go to Nineveh the great city and proclaim (kerusso - aorist imperative - do this now! conveys urgency) to it the proclamation (kerugma) which I am going to tell you. 3 So Jonah arose and went to Nineveh according to the word of the Lord. Now Nineveh was an exceedingly great city, a three days’ walk.4 Then Jonah began to go through the city one day’s walk; and he cried out and said, “Yet forty days and Nineveh will be overthrown. 5 Then the people of Nineveh believed in God; and they called a fast and put on sackcloth from the greatest to the least of them." (Jonah 3:2-5)

Although the full gospel truth had not yet been revealed in Jonah’s day, Jesus said that it was through

“the preaching” (kerugma) of that ancient prophet that “the men of Nineveh … repented” (Mt 12:41).

God made known His eternal purpose through the preaching of the gospel,

"for since in the wisdom of God the world through its wisdom did not come to know God, God was well-pleased through the foolishness of the message preached  [kerugma] to save those who believe." (1Cor 1:21).

It is for that reason that expository preaching — preaching that systematically and thoroughly explains the meaning of Scripture—is the only legitimate way to preach. The preacher’s responsibility is not to create messages from his own wisdom or cleverness or to manipulate or sway his listeners by means of his own persuasiveness or charisma but to interpret, explain, and apply God’s Word as clearly and completely as possible.

As Paul wrote to the Romans

"How then will they call on Him in whom they have not believed? How will they believe in Him whom they have not heard? And how will they hear without a preacher? How will they preach unless they are sent? Just as it is written, "HOW BEAUTIFUL ARE THE FEET OF THOSE WHO BRING GOOD NEWS OF GOOD THINGS!" (see notes Romans 10:14; 15)

Throughout Paul's first imprisonment and trial in Rome he affirmed that...

“The Lord stood with me (His Presence), and strengthened me (His Power),” Paul testified, “in order that through me the proclamation [kerugma] might be fully accomplished, and that all the Gentiles might hear” (note 2Ti 4:17).

Paul reminded the Corinthians that his

“message and [his] preaching [kerugma] were not in persuasive (Persuasive, winning) words of wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of (intrinsic) power” (1Cor 2:4).

John MacArthur commenting on Paul's preaching methodology writes that

"Human words of wisdom, no matter how impressive and persuasive, would have robbed the gospel of its power. He saw no place for calculated theatrics and techniques to manipulate response. Many have responded to an emotional appeal, without a true knowledge and conviction of God. Paul did not do that kind of preaching. He surely would have gotten a wider and more receptive heating, but his hearers would have been left in their sins and without a Savior. Some have said that the great preacher Jonathan Edwards read his sermons so that he would not be guilty of using human persuasive techniques to gain a response. He wanted only the message to bring the results." (MacArthur, J: 1Corinthians. Chicago: Moody Press)

At the beginning of Jesus' public ministry His message was an exact echo of what John the Baptist preached, Matthew recording that

"from that time Jesus began to preach [kerugma] and say, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.” (Mt 4:17).

The Lord called His earliest followers to

“proclaim everywhere the kingdom of God” (Lk 9:60).

After Pentecost, the apostles “kept right on teaching and preaching (euaggelizo) Jesus as the Christ” (Acts 5:42), just as the Lord had instructed (Acts 10:42).

Paul told Timothy to “preach (kerusso) the Word” (2Ti 4:2, cf 4:3, 4:4).

ACCORDING TO THE COMMANDMENT OF GOD OUR SAVIOR: kat epitagen tou soteros hemon theou:  (Titus 2:10; 2:13  Titus 3:4, 3:5, 3:6 Isa 12:2; 45:15;45:21 1Ti 1:1; 2:3; 4:10)

"by the order of God our Saviour" (BBE)

"by the royal command of God our Saviour" (Barclay)

Paul stresses the authoritativeness of the command. Paul's ministry of the gospel was not a matter of his own choice, but was divinely committed to him. No one has a right to regard what is termed “the ministry” as a sort of profession which a person has to choose as an alternative to another profession or occupation. Proclamation of the gospel was a trust divinely committed to him and which he was compelled to complete writing for example to the Corinthians

"woe is me if I do not preach the gospel." (1Cor 9:16).

How all of us as God's servants need to be constrained by this sense of inescapable responsibility. Spiritual ministry is barren if it is not committed by God to him who engages in it. In the final analysis ministry is not so much what we do for God but what He does through those who are willing, sanctified vessels.

Savior (4990) (soter [word study]) which describes God as our Deliverer, Preserver, Protector, Healer and the One Who rescues us from danger or destruction bringing us into state of prosperity. So Paul received a special order from God Who conveyed the trust of the Gospel message.

Soter - 24x in 24v - Luke 1:47; 2:11; John 4:42; Acts 5:31; 13:23; Eph 5:23; Phil 3:20; 1 Tim 1:1; 2:3; 4:10; 2 Tim 1:10; Titus 1:3f; 2:10, 13; 3:4, 6; 2 Pet 1:1, 11; 2:20; 3:2, 18; 1 John 4:14; Jude 1:25

In his excellent book Toward an Exegetical Theology, Walter C. Kaiser writes:

"It is no secret that Christ’s Church is not at all in good health in many places of the world. She has been languishing because she has been fed, as the current line has it, “junk food”; all kinds of artificial preservatives and all sorts of unnatural substitutes have been served up to her. As a result, theological and Biblical malnutrition has afflicted the very generation that has taken such giant steps to make sure its physical health is not damaged by using foods or products that are carcinogenic or otherwise harmful to their physical bodies. Simultaneously, a worldwide spiritual famine resulting from the absence of any genuine publication of the Word of God (Amos 8:11) continues to run wild and almost unabated in most quarters of the Church. (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1981, page 7)

 

Titus 1:4 To Titus, my true child in a common faith: Grace and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Savior. (NASB: Lockman)

Greek Tito gnesio tekno kata koinen pistin; charis kai eirene apo theou patros kai Christou Iesou tou soteros hemon 
KJV: To Titus, mine own son after the common faith: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour.
Phillips: to Titus, my true son in our common faith, be grace, mercy and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our saviour.
 (Phillips: Touchstone)
Men who are appointed to the ministry must be of the highest character
Wuest:
 to Titus, a genuine child in accordance with the Faith held in common [by us]. [Sanctifying] grace and [tranquilizing] peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Saviour.  (Eerdmans
Young's Literal: to Titus -- true child according to a common faith: Grace, kindness, peace, from God the Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour!

TO TITUS MY TRUE CHILD IN A COMMON FAITH: tito gnesio tekno kata koinen pistin: (2Cor 2:13; 7:6; 7:13 7:14 8:6; 8:16 8:23 12:18; Gal 2:3) (Mentioned by name in 12 verses click here, Nice summary in Naves)

"a genuine child" (GWT)

"my loyal child" (NRSV)

"my own child" (Darby)

"Titus" is not mentioned in the book of Acts and the majority of the occurrences of his name are found in 2 Corinthians (Click for all NT uses, ISBE article).

True (1103) (gnesios) means legitimately born or being lawfully begotten.

Child (1Ti 1:1,2; 2Ti 1:2) (5043) (teknon) refers to one who is an offspring of human parents by natural birth but in this context clearly alludes to Titus' "new birth" in which Paul had been instrumental. This combination of similar words accentuates Paul's feeling for his spiritual son and emphasizes that Titus was a legitimate spiritual son, a true convert who was truly born again and thus was a sincere believer. Paul appeals to Philemon for "my child Onesimus, whom I have begotten in my imprisonment" (Philemon 1:10) not in a natural, but in a spiritual sense, Paul being the instrument of his conversion.

Titus then was a young convert of Paul's but was a full-blooded Greek, unlike Timothy, who was half Jewish (Gal 2:3; Acts16:1). Titus had apparently accompanied Paul on his first missionary journey, or at least part of it (Gal 2:1). In addition, Titus had succeeded in Corinth where Timothy had failed. Paul had left him in Crete as superintendent of the work there. Now he writes him from Nicopolis (Titus 3:12).

Hiebert adds that

"the employment of the term "child" indicates dearness, while the adjective "true" or "genuine" is an acknowledgment that Titus is running true to his spiritual parentage" and that Paul's relationship with Titus "is in the realm of their common faith...their mutually held faith that places them into accord with one another and with all the elect who share this faith."

"Common faith" (Ro 1:12; 2Cor 4:13; 2Pet 1:1; Jude 1:3) in the sense of belonging to several, thus “held in common”, open to all. Koinos means that which belongs to several, and thus is said of things had in common. Peter helps us understand this quality of faith, writing

"to those who have received a faith of the same kind as ours". (2Pe 1:1-note)  

This faith is the possession of all of God’s people and not just a selected few.  

A T Robertson explains this faith as

"common to a Gentile (a Greek) like Titus as well as to a Jew like Paul and so common to all races and classes".

It is a faith of the same nature, kind, object, operation, and effect.  All who share in this common saving faith also share in a "common (koinos) salvation..." (Jude 1:3)

GRACE: charis: (Ro 1:7; Eph 1:2; Col 1:2; 1 Ti 1:2; 2Ti 1:2)

Spurgeon well says that...

Blessed men scatter blessings. When the benediction of God rests upon us, we pour out benedictions upon others. (The Second Coming)

Grace (5485) (charis [word study]) is the fountain of all blessings from which peace springs.

Hiebert defines grace as

"the divine love manifesting itself towards guilty sinners in free forgiveness and unmerited blessing. It speaks of our own unworthiness and the spontaneous redeeming act of God in Christ when there was nothing in us to merit it. Peace is the resultant reconciliation (Ed note: peace with God) experienced by those who respond to the grace of God. It is the outcome of the restoration of harmony between our soul and God on the basis of the atonement. Our hearts are kept in peace (Ed note: peace of God) as we realize that the unmerited favor of God has been bestowed upon us in Christ."

Grace is the divine strength Titus will need to rely on for effective service in a difficult mission field like the isle of Crete.

Grace is the merciful kindness by which God, exerting His holy influence upon souls, turning them to Christ, and then keeping, strengthening and increasing them in Christian faith, knowledge, affection, and finally kindling them to live a life of godliness in the midst of

"a crooked and perverse generation" (Php 2:15-note)

Grace is commonly defined as favor done without expectation of return. It is the free expression of the lovingkindness of God to mankind and is motivated by His benevolence.  

Grace is the unmerited favor of God. Grace is not license to do as we please, but power to do as we should. God’s grace insures that those who have been truly regenerated will persevere until the end of life.

Wuest characterizes "grace" as follows:

"In its use among the pagan Greeks it referred to a favor done by one Greek to another out of the pure generosity of his heart, and with no hope of reward. When it is used in the New Testament, it refers to that favor which God did at Calvary when He stepped down from His judgment throne to take upon Himself the guilt and penalty of human sin. In the case of the Greek, the favor was done to a friend, never an enemy. In the case of God it was an enemy, the sinner, bitter in his hatred of God, for whom the favor was done. God has no strings tied to the salvation He procured for man at the Cross. Salvation is given the believing sinner out of the pure generosity of God’s heart. The Greek word referred to an action that was beyond the ordinary course of what might be expected, and was therefore commendable. What a description of that which took place at the Cross! The grace spoken of here is sanctifying grace [Ed note: Grace is the Spirit of Christ indwelling me & enabling me to overcome sin. I cannot overcome it...it will overcome me if I try. All attempts to defeat the flesh in my own power will fail] that part of salvation given the saint in which God causes him to grow in Christ-likeness through the ministry of the Holy Spirit.  (Wuest, K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Studies in the Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament: Grand Rapids: Eerdmans)

AND PEACE: eirene:

And peace - No peace without grace.

Peace (1515) (eirene from verb eiro = to join or bind together that which has been separated) literally pictures the binding or joining together again of that which had been separated or divided and thus setting at one again, a meaning convey by the common expression of one “having it all together”. It follows that peace is the opposite of division or dissension.  Peace as a state of concord and harmony is the opposite of war. Peace was used as a greeting or farewell corresponding to the Hebrew word shalom - "peace to you".  

Note that although the King James adds "mercy", this word is not found in the critical Greek manuscripts from which most modern versions (NASB, NIV, et. al.) are translated.

Peace means freedom from anxiety, panic, and distraction despite adverse circumstances and is the Greek word eirene which is the root of our English words "serene" (clear and free of storms or unpleasant change, stresses an unclouded and lofty tranquility) and "serenity".

Peace implies health, well-being, and prosperity. In secular Greek eirene referred to cessation or absence of war. In Adam all men before salvation were ''at war'' with the Almighty and our peace with Him was ''disturbed''. Justification by faith resulted in reconciliation and restoration of peace with God (like before the Fall of man in Eden).

Eirene includes both the concept of an agreement, pact, treaty or bond and an attitude of rest or security. Objectively saints in Christ Jesus are at peace with God (Ro 5:1-note). The war between the believer and God is over, and the treaty was paid for by the blood of Christ. Because of that, believers are at rest, and secure.

 Peace is the harmony that exists between God and those who "receive the reconciliation" (Ro 5:11-note).

Webster defines peace as a state of tranquility or quiet, freedom from disquieting or oppressive thoughts or emotions, harmony in personal relations, a pact or agreement to end hostilities between those who have been at war or in a state of enmity, state of repose in contrast with or following strife or turmoil.

Jim Walton was translating the NT for the Muinane people of La Sabana in the jungles of Colombia. But he was having trouble with the word peace. During this time, Fernando, the village chief, was promised a 20-minute plane ride to a location that would have taken him 3 days to travel by walking. The plane was delayed in arriving at La Sabana, so Fernando departed on foot. When the plane finally came, a runner took off to bring Fernando back. But by the time he had returned, the plane had left. Fernando was livid because of the mix-up. He went to Jim and launched into an angry tirade. Fortunately, Walton had taped the chief's diatribe. When he later translated it, he discovered that the chief kept repeating the phrase, "I don't have one heart." Jim asked other villagers what having "one heart" meant, and he found that it was like saying, "There is nothing between you and the other person." That, Walton realized, was just what he needed to translate the word peace. To have peace with God means that there is nothing--no sin, no guilt, no condemnation--that separates us. And that peace with God is possible only through Christ (Ro 5:1-note). Do you have "one heart" with God?  (Ibid)

Wuest says

"The word "peace" in classical Greek means "to bind together," in the New Testament, "the operation of God’s grace in binding the believing sinner to God and His life again, this operation continued in bringing that believer in his experience more and more into harmony with God in his life and service," the latter being the particular phase to which Paul refers here."  (Ibid)

Barclay writes

Peace in contemporary colloquial Greek this word eirene had two interesting usages. It was used of the serenity which a county enjoyed under the just and beneficent government of a good emperor; and it was used of the good order of a town or village. Villages had an official who was called the superintendent of the village’s eirene, the keeper of the public peace. Usually in the New Testament eirene stands for the Hebrew shalom and means not just freedom from trouble but everything that makes for a man’s highest good. It is interesting to note that Chara and Eirene both became very common Christian names in the Church.

FROM GOD THE FATHER AND CHRIST JESUS OUR SAVIOR: apo theou patros kai kuriou iesou christou tou soteros hemon: (Titus 1:3; Lk 2:11; Jn 4:42; 2Pe 1:11; 2:20; 3:2; 3:18 1Jn 5:14) (All of Paul's 12 uses of Savior = Eph 5:23; Phil 3:20; 1Ti 1:1; 2:3; 4:10; 2Ti 1:10; Titus 1:3, 4; 2:10, 13; 3:4, 6)

From modifies both Father and Son and thus every blessing, every comfort, comes to us both from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Savior. In linking the Father and the Son as the source of grace and peace the Spirit of God implies Their complete equality.

Hiebert adds that

"The ultimate source is God the Father Who devised our salvation in sending of His Son, while the immediate source is "Christ Jesus our Savior" through Whose atoning work grace and peace become freely available to all through faith...Both Father and Son are our Saviour, for the salvation which they bestow is the same. This double use of the term Saviour is clear proof of Paul's conviction of the true deity of Christ Jesus."

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Last Updated July, 2013

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