Joel 1 Resources

Click chart to enlarge
Chart from recommended resource Jensen's Survey of the OT - used by permission
Joel Chart from Charles Swindoll
Another Joel Chart

AUTHOR: Joel = YHWH is God

DATE: 835 B.C. 

This makes Joel a pre-exilic prophet, who ministered before the fall of the northern kingdom of Israel (721 B.C.) or the southern kingdom of Judah (586 B.C.). Other pre-exilic prophets include Obadiah, Jonah, Hosea, Amos, Isaiah, and Micah. Joel is one of the earliest prophets—only Obadiah prophesied before his time (845 B.C.). 835 B.C. was a time of turmoil and transition in Judah, at the end of the reign of the Queen Mother Athaliah and the beginning of the reign of King Joash. Athaliah seized power at the sudden death in battle of her son Ahaziah, who only reigned one year (2 Kings 8:26, 2 Kings 11:1). Athaliah killed all her son’s heirs, except for one who was hidden in the temple and escaped—one-year-old Josiah (2 Kings 11:3). Her six-year reign of terror ended in 835 B.C. when the High Priest Jehoiada overthrew Athaliah and set the seven-year-old Josiah on the throne (2 Kings 11:4–21).. During her six years as queen over Judah, Athaliah reigned wickedly. She was the granddaughter of the wicked King Omri of Israel—making her daughter or niece to Ahab, one of Israel’s worst kings (2 Kings 8:26). Athaliah raised her son Ahaziah to reign in the wicked pattern of Ahab, and even brought in Ahab’s counselors to advise him (2 Chronicles 22:2–4). When Ahaziah was killed in battle and she seized power, she set her other sons to evil, even desecrating the temple and its sacred things (2 Chronicles 24:7).. If we are accurate in thinking that Joel prophesied in 835 B.C. then the judgment he described came toward the end of the six-year reign of ungodliness under Queen Athaliah. No wonder God brought a heavy hand on Judah! (Note from David Guzik)

The Prophet and His Times Joel, whose name means "Yahweh is God," apparently wrote during the days of young King Jehoash (835-796), who was under the regency of priests when he ascended the throne of Judah at the age of seven (2 Kings 11:21). Though some date the book after the Exile, the enemies of Judah are not identified in the prophecy as Arameans, Assyrians, or Babylonians, as would be the case if the book were written after the captivity (see 3:4, 19). 
   The prophecy was occasioned by a severe drought and an invasion of locusts, which Joel saw as a punishment for the sins of the people. He also depicted this invasion of locusts as an army, a harbinger of a future military campaign in the Day of the Lord. 

Charles Feinberg - Joel was probably one of the earliest of the minor prophets. Compare the quotation of Joel 3:16 in Amos 1:2 and that of Joel 3:18 in Amos 9:13. The sins denounced by Amos and Hosea are not mentioned here, nor is the sin of idolatry touched upon at all. (The Minor Prophets)

The Day of the Lord The Day of the Lord, the major theme of this prophecy, involves God's special intervention in the affairs of human history. Three facets of the Day of the Lord, are discernable: (1) the historical, that is, God's intervention in the affairs of Israel (Zeph. 1:14-18; Joel 1:15) and heathen nations (Isa. 13:6; Jer. 46:10; Ezek. 30:3); (2) the illustrative, whereby an historical incident represents a partial fulfillment of the eschatological Day of the Lord (Joel 2:1-11; Isa. 13:6-13); (3) the eschatological. This eschatological "day" includes the time of the Great Tribulation (Isa. 2:12-19; 4:1), the second coming of Christ (Joel 2:30-32), and the Millennium (Isa. 4:2; 12; 19:23-25; Jer. 30:7-9). 

Lloyd J. Ogilvie - Seven words. We have heard them said with a sigh of hopeless resignation or with a cry of anguished grief. We hear them in hospital rooms, in deep conversations with friends, in times of calamity and adversity. The seven words expressing the loneliness of suffering are: “I just don’t know where to turn!” We have all said these words. We get to the end of our endurance and do not know what to do. We face seemingly impossible problems that stretch us beyond our understanding and our ability to find solutions. All of the alternatives seem equally unacceptable and unworkable. Sometimes physical suffering brings us to the place where we do not know where to turn. Emotional pain can be just as excruciating. Failures, broken relationships, anxiety, and fear can paint us into a lonely corner. Then there are times when these seven words take on a third person intensity or shared dilemmas. In a marriage in tension, a family facing a crisis, or a church that needs renewal, we cry out, “We just don’t know where to turn!” Also, these words are drenched with dismay when we confront the monumental problems of our society or allow ourselves to empathize with the suffering of the disadvantaged, the poor, and the hungry. And we wring our hands over the lack of morality and integrity around us. Added to all this are the natural disasters that hit us or someone we know. The emergency makes us wonder where to turn. For many people, times when we do not know where to turn expose that we have been living life on two separate tracks that seldom meet. One track is our relationship with God that often lacks vitality and power because of either benign neglect, willful independence, or unconfessed sin. On the other track is the reality of daily life with its mixture of routines, pressures, and busyness pursued with little thought of God. Sometimes this track gets littered with disappointments, frustrations, and conflicts. It is in times of great distress that these two tracks have an opportunity to come together in a profound way. In those times, the vital connection is made between what is happening to or around us and our supreme need for God. Then we can discover the prescription for perplexity: “When you don’t know where to turn, return to the Lord.”

This is the central theme of the prophet Joel. He is the prophet of the vital connection. At a time of a national catastrophe in Judah, Joel called the people to return to God. Their only hope was in Him. He helped them connect what was happening and what God wanted to have happen in His people. Preaching and teaching from Joel gives us an opportunity of being communicators of the vital connection. There is a tendency in our day to think that being a Christian should put us on a route bypassing the distresses of life. But shallow triumphalism does not help in the depths of difficulties. If God is only for the up, successful, hurrah times of life, He is excluded from three-fourths of our lives. Joel helps us stand at the intersection of the two tracks of life when painful, heartbreaking things happen. It is then that people exclaim, “What can I say?” and we enable them to ask a much more crucial question, “What is God saying in this?” There is a place to turn. Tough times are the times to return to God. He has something to say to us. (The Preacher's Commentary Series)

 I.  Title Verse: the Author, Joel 1:1 
II.  Desolation, Joel 1:2-Joel 2:17 
   A.  The Character of the Desolation, Joel 1:2-12 
   B.  The Reactions to the Desolation, Joel 1:13-14 
   C.  The Picture of the Desolation, Joel 1:15-20 
   D.  The Prophecy of Future Desolation, Joel 2:1-11 
   E.  The Exhortation in View of Desolation, Joel 2:12-17 
III.  Deliverance, Joel 2:18-Joel 3:21 
   A.  The Promise of Immediate Deliverance, Joel 2:18-27 
   B.  The Promise of Future Deliverance, Joel 2:28-Joel 3:21 
      1.  Its initiation, Joel 2:28-32 
      2.  Its judgments, Joel 3:1-17 
      3.  Its consummation, Joel 3:18-21 
      (Ryrie Study Bible)

Joel Judgment precedes Israel’s future spiritual revival. 

John Phillips Outline Joel: Prophet Of The Plague

  1. Day of the Locust (Joel 1:1-14)
    1. Divine Displeasure Expressed (Joel 1:1-5)
      1. A Word for the Prophet (Joel 1:1)
      2. A Word for the People (Joel 1:2-5)
        1. Descendants (Joel 1:2-4)
        2. Drunkards (Joel 1:5)
  2. Divine Displeasure Expanded (Joel 1:6-14)
    1. Desecration (Joel 1:6-7)
    2. Desolation (Joel 1:8-12)
    3. Desperation (Joel 1:13-14)
  3. The Day of the Lord (Joel 1:15-3:21)
    1. Day of Assyria (Joel 1:15-2:32)
      1. A Day of Destruction (Joel 1:15-20)
      2. A Day of Darkness (Joel 2:1-10)
      3. A Day of Deliverance (Joel 2:11-32)
        1. A Call for Repentance (Joel 2:11-19)
        2. A Call for Rejoicing (Joel 2:20-27)
        3. A Call for Revival (Joel 2:28-32)
    2. Day of Antichrist (Joel 3:1-16)
      1. The Gathering of the Hebrew People (Joel 3:1)
      2. The Gathering of the Heathen Peoples (Joel 3:2-16)
        1. A Gathering of the Wicked (Joel 3:2-8)
        2. A Gathering of the Warmongers (Joel 3:9-13)
        3. A Gathering of the World (Joel 3:14-16)
    3. Day of Anticipation (Joel 3:17-21)
      (Exploring the Minor Prophets: An Expository Commentary)

Sidlow Baxter (Explore the Book)

Outline of Joel
   I.  Title Verse: the Author,  Joel 1:1
   II.  Desolation,  Joel 1:2-2:17
    A.  The Character of the Desolation,  Joel 1:2-12
    B.  The Reactions to the Desolation,  Joel 1:13-14
    C.  The Picture of the Desolation,  Joel 1:15-20
    D.  The Prophecy of Future Desolation,  Joel 2:1-11
    E.  The Exhortation in View of Desolation,  Joel 2:12-17
   III.  Deliverance,  Joel 2:18-3:21
    A.  The Promise of Immediate Deliverance,  Joel 2:18-27
    B.  The Promise of Future Deliverance,  Joel 2:28-3:21
       1.  Its initiation,  Joel 2:28-32
       2.  Its judgments,  Joel 3:1-17
       3.  Its consummation, Joel 3:18-21

The following timeline is an estimate as the exact date is not known with absolute certainty (Source: Ryrie Study Bible).


ALBERT BARNES Commentary on Joel

Beware: Does Not Always Interpret Literally!

BRIAN BELL Sermons on Joel

BIBLE.ORG RESOURCES Resources that Reference Joel

BIBLICAL ART Related to the Joel


THOMAS CONSTABLE Expository Notes Literal, futuristic interpretation

RON DANIEL Sermon Notes on Joel

J N DARBY Synopsis of Joel

S R DRIVER Cambridge Bible Commentary

Be a Berean: Interpretation not always conservative and literal See Caveat

JOHN DUMMELOW  Notes on Joel


Simple Translation and Comments on Joel


Beware: Does Not Always Interpret Literally!

ARNOLD FRUCHTENBAUM Israelology - Commentary on Israel

Note: This resource is listed because it has numerous commentary notes that relate to the OT Prophetic Books

A C GAEBELEIN The Annotated Bible

Conservative, Literal Interpretation Highly Recommended

A C GAEBELEIN Commentary on Joel

This is different from Gaebelein's works above - this is more in depth

GENE GETZ - short video discussions of principles in Joel

  • Joel 1:1-14; Preparation for Eternity: Parents should use natural disasters as opportunities to teach their children to be ready to meet God at any moment.Video
  • Joel 1:15-2:11;The Day of the Lord: We should live our lives as if the Day of the Lord could begin at any moment. Video
  • Joel 2:12-27;God's Love and Compassion: We should pray for a peaceful environment in which to communicate the good news of salvation. Video
  • Joel 2:28-32; The Holy Spirit: When each of us receives the Lord Jesus Christ as personal Savior, we are to claim the promise that we are all baptized by the Holy Spirit into Christ's spiritual body, the church. Video
  • Joel 3:1-21;God's Chosen People: Both believers and unbelievers should respect God?s chosen people, regardless of their spiritual status at this moment in history.Video



JOE GUGLIELMO Sermon Notes on Joel Literal, futuristic interpretation

DAVID GUZIK Commentary on Joel -Literal, futuristic interpretation



James Rosscup writes "This 1858 work supplies much help on matters of the text, word meaning, resolving some problems, etc. Some have found it one of the most contributive sources in getting at what a text means." (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)


HAROLD HOSCH - Journal Article


H A IRONSIDE Literal, futuristic interpretation

JAMIESON, FAUSSET, BROWN Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

One of the best "older" commentaries for it tends toward a more literal interpretation.


S LEWIS JOHNSON Sermons - Literal, futuristic interpretation


KEIL & DELITZSCH Commentary on the Old Testament

Caveat emptor: Does Not always interpret literally



J VERNON MCGEE Thru the Bible Commentary on Joel  Mp3 Audio, Literal, futuristic interpretation

F B MEYER Our Daily Homily


Conservative notes from Dr Morris who approaches the text seeking it's literal meaning in the context. Millennial. Click the words or phrases after the Scripture for the Study Notes and note that they are from the KJV translation.

NET BIBLE NOTES Joel Notes More Technical

OUR DAILY BREAD Devotionals & Sermon Illustrations


Be cautious (Acts 17:11-note): Does not always interpret the Scripture literally and sometimes replaces Israel with the Church (note)

EDWARD B PUSEY Commentary on Joel

James Rosscup writes "This work originally appeared in 1860. The present publication is set up in two columns to the page with the text of the Authorized Version reproduced at the top. Scripture references, Hebrew words, and other citations are relegated to the bottom of the page. The work is detailed and analytical in nature. Introduction, background and explanation of the Hebrew are quite helpful. Pusey holds to the grammatical-historical type of interpretation until he gets into sections dealing with the future of Israel, and here Israel becomes the church in the amillennial vein." (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)

RANDALL RADIC Commentary on Joel

Conservative, Literal Interpretation



JOEL ROSENBERG - 2011 Epicenter Conference A CALL TO ACTION: Understanding the Book of Joel 

The following is a separate video teaching from Joel Rosenberg and Anne Graham Lotz - BLOWING THE TRUMPET

CHUCK SMITH Sermon Notes on Joel Literal, futuristic interpretation