John 9 Resources

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Charts from Jensen's Survey of the NT - used by permission
See another Chart from Swindoll

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BY GOSPEL OF JOHN (shaded area)

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Explanation - The following list includes not only commentaries but other Christian works by well known evangelical writers. Most of the resources below are newer works (written after 1970) which previously were available only for purchase in book form or in a Bible computer program. The resources are made freely available by but have several caveats - (1) they do not allow copy and paste, (2) they can only be checked out for one hour (but can be checked out immediately when your hour expires giving you time to read or take notes on a lengthy section) and (3) they require creating an account which allows you to check out the books free of charge. To set up an account click and then click the picture of the person in right upper corner and enter email and a password. That's all you have to do. Then you can read these more modern resources free of charge! I have read or used many of these resources but not all of them so ultimately you will need to be a Berean (Acts 17:11+) as you use them. I have also selected works that are conservative and Biblically sound. If you find one that you think does not meet those criteria please send an email at The resources are listed in alphabetical order by the author's last name and some include reviews of the particular resource. For hundreds of other commentaries and books that can be borrowed see Christian Commentaries Online

God, are you there? (Do You Care? Do You Know About Me?) by Arthur, Kay (1994) 246 pages.  61 ratings 

This is not a commentary but a guide to study of the Gospel of John, and one of the best guides available. If you want to meet Jesus or introduce him to someone who is willing to study the Gospel of John with you, this book is for you. You will be guided through the Gospel using inductive Bible study methods by one of the premier inductive teachers of our generation. This would also be an excellent book for small group Bible study of John. You will not be disappointed and hopefully you can use it to see another soul brought into the Kingdom by the Spirit and the Word in John's Gospel (Jn 20:31)!

John - Life Application Commentary - Bruce Barton, et al. (1993) 468 pages  33 ratings Comments are not long but conservative often with excellent application points.

John: Life Application Bible Studies - 125 pages - study notes - not the same as the resource above.

Life Application Study Bible : New Living Translation. Has some very helpful notes. 

John the Gospel of Belief: An Analytic Study of the Text - Merrill Tenney (1953)

The Gospel according to John Pillar Commentary Series - Carson, D. A. (Donald Arthur), 1946-

The Interpretation of St. John's Gospel - R C H Lenski

Jehovah's Witnesses, Jesus Christ, and the Gospel of John by Bowman, Robert M

James Rosscup - He puts his focus on John 1:1, answering Jehovah’s Witnesses who have changed their line of argument from a few years ago. Bowman also deals with 8:58 and 20:28. For years Bowman has shown skill in refuting cultic error as associate editor of Christian Research Journal and in other capacities.

The Gospel of John - Volume 1 - John 1:1-4:54 - James M Boice

The Gospel of John - Volume 3 - John 9:1-12:50 - James M Boice

The Gospel of John: by Bruce, F. F. (1994) 444 pages Grace Theological Journal - "A gold mine for the reader who desires to pursue the argument of the Gospel from the standpoint of the best of present-day scholarship." Rosscup ranks this the #4 (out of 8) best exegetical commentary. 

Rosscup - Bruce gives a fresh translation of the Greek, much good commentary, a copious use of current literature, and application. Clarity prevails as he offers help for pastors, seminarians and lay people. At times, however, his vocabulary will mystify those not trained in languages, e. g. “sotto voce,” p. 174; “ingressive sense of the aorist,” p. 246, etc. Overall it is a very fine commentary by one of the leading evangelicals of recent decades.

The Gospel according to St. John : an introduction and commentary - R V G Tasker - The Gospel According to St. John, The Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (1975)

John : the gospel of light and life by Hillis, Don W  15 ratings - highly rated by users.

Note this is not a commentary but a guided study with questions on many verses followed by a "test" (True/False) - Might be useful if you have never studied John. Also might be helpful to someone teaching (even preaching) John as it gives suggested questions. 

John - The NIV Application Commentary by Burge, Gary M., 1952- (2000) 638 pages 131 ratings or another source 16 ratings

Rosscup - A Wheaton College professor seeks to interpret John in its Jewish flavor, i.e. with sensitivity to the OT rooting and Palestinian Judaism of Jesus’ day. He uses such materials to see the Messianic aspects. Burge offers different views on some of the problems, such as “water and Spirit” in 3:6, and Peter’s responses in 21:15–17. He gives background custom as for the events of the festival when Jesus invited drinking from Him (7:37–39), and footwashing in chap. 13. This does not mean that in all verses comments are adequate (cf. 15:2, 6, for example) to nail details down distinctly, or look at views. Since this series often just sums up passages, remarks on some verses can be difficult and slow to be located, or at times not be there due to the generalities. Some key verses are handled too quickly, or only partially (cf. 10:28, 29). The comments are sufficient at times, but not consistently enough to put the work among the more dependable.

John: the Gospel of Life by Burge, Gary M., (2008) 148 pages - This is a study guide not a commentary. 

Interpreting the fourth Gospel by Burge, Gary (1996) 196 pages - A Guide to New Testament Exegesis. Not a commentary, but an interesting resource. For example on page 125 there is lengthy discussion on Word Studies in John including a section entitled "Fundamental Rules of Word Study." and another entitled "Common Johannine Word Study Errors."

Interpreting the Gospel of John : a practical guide by Burge, Gary M., (2013) 244 pages - Apparently the revised edition of the resource directly above. 

Evangelical Commentary on the Bible - editor Walter Elwell (1989) 1239 pages. User reviews.  Burge, Gary. “John,” in Evangelical Commentary 

James Rosscup - Although brief, Burge shows awareness of issues and often uses his space well to provide help.

The theology of John by Cook, W. Robert

Cyril Barber - A detailed examination of Johannine literature covering all the major areas of thought. A worthy contribution to this area of biblical theology. Recommended.

Anatomy of the Fourth Gospel : a study in literary design by Culpepper, R. Alan

Cyril Barber - Competent interdisciplinary studies in English are rare. This one explores John and makes ample use of modern redactional works to highlight the poetics, narrative structure, and other aspects of the gospel. The result is a stimulating, scholarly work

The Beloved Disciple ... his name, his story, his thought : two studies from the Gospel of John by Eller, Vernard

Cyril Barber - An informative and unorthodox approach to the authorship and theology of the fourth gospel. With tongue-in-cheek Eller uses the techniques of Sherlock Holmes to unravel the mystery of authorship. His conclusion will surprise some and irritate others. A lively discussion.

The Gospel of John; an exposition by Erdman, Charles R.

Rosscup - Concise treatments are given to each of the N. T. books. The main value of the set lies in its clear synthesis which helps the student grasp the flow of thought as he moves through a book. Erdman possessed a lucid writing style. He was amillennial.

A guide to John's Gospel by Guthrie, Donald 

Cyril Barber - In order to promote more expositional study of the biblical text--especially among lay persons--Guthrie has prepared this collection of outlines on the Gospel of John. While his aim is to lay bare what the text actually says, his guiding purpose is to assist Christians understand how Scripture may be applied to their lives. To achieve this goal, Guthrie has divided John's gospel into sections. His knowledge of the NT is incisive, and his skill as a Bible teacher places all readers in his debt. This is an extremely helpful little volume and is as concise as it is relevant. Recommended.

John, the gospel of faith by Harrison, Everett Falconer, 1902- from Everyman's Bible Commentary series. Conservative, but not much depth.


Exposition of the Gospel according to John - chapters 1-6; Exposition of the Gospel according to John - chapters 7-21  by Hendriksen, William, 1900-1982 (1953) 19 ratings

Rosscup - Trained in the Christian Reformed tradition, Hendriksen is thoroughly conservative and believes in plenary verbal inspiration. He served for ten years as Professor of New Testament Literature in Calvin Seminary. His introductions are quite extended and carefully written. In his commentary, which is very usable, he first presents a brief synthetic outline of a section, follows up with a detailed discussion verse-by-verse, then gives a survey of the argument in that section. His footnote discussions show a wide breadth of reading. He is usually quite helpful on problems, Greek word meanings, and matters of history, culture or geography. There are many stimulating sermon hints and devotional thoughts. He is good in presenting several different views to a question and documenting them thoroughly. He is amillennial in matters pertaining to the kingdom (cf. his comment on 10:16 as well as his book More Than Conquerors, pp. 222ff.). Though the author is very helpful in the Greek, the manner of discussion can be extremely valuable to the layman.

Behold the Man (Expository Studies in the Gospel of John 11-21) by R. Kent Hughes (1984) 184 pages Rosscup ranks Hughes work on John's Gospel #3 (out of 6) in the devotional category. 

John: That You May Believe (536 pages) by R. Kent Hughes (Preach the Word series)

Cyril Barber on Hughes' "John: That you May Believe" - An expositional commentary of rare excellence. Covers the theme of John’s gospel in the best evangelical tradition. Designed for lay people.

Light in the darkness : studies in the Gospel of John by Kent, Homer Austin (1974) 244 pages  2 ratings Rosscup ranks this is the #2 most useful expositional commentary on John. 

Rosscup - Kent’s paragraph-by-paragraph survey of John’s Gospel deals with some of the main problem areas in exposition. It is geared to be a guide for personal or group study. Kent utilizes photographs, maps, and diagrams. It is a good expositional survey by an evangelical (former President, Grace Theological Seminary, Winona Lake, IN).

Encountering John : the Gospel in historical, literary, and theological perspective by Köstenberger, Andreas J.,

Cyril Barber (on Kostenberger's "Exegetical Commentary on the NT") This commentary follows several other works on John’s Gospel written by Kostenberger. The writer treats this canonical book as historically reliable, the product of careful composition, that sets forth Christ as the Son of God in a way that would lead readers to faith in Him. A scholarly production.

The Gospel of John by Michaels, J. Ramsey - New International Commentary New Testament - Mathison writes "preachers may want to consult the commentaries by" and then mentions this author. 

The Gospel According to John : An Introduction and Commentary by Kruse, Colin G  (2008) 404 pages = Note this is not his more detailed work in the Pillar Commentary Series but his shorter work in the Tyndale NT Commentary Series. See reviews although I think these are primarily on the newer edition (2017). They should still give you a good idea of the value of his original edition. 

John by Fredrikson, Roger (The Communicator's Commentary) - now published as the Preacher's Commentary. 4.9/5 stars. These are generally helpful for preaching as they often have illustrations, etc. Read some of the glowing reviews = 10 ratings or reviews.

Or here = The Communicator's Commentary. John - identical to above

The Gospel according to John : the English text with introduction, exposition and notes - New International Commentary New Testament by Morris, Leon 

Cyril Barber - A work of superlative scholarship that not only replaces the majestic work by Westcott but surpasses Barrett as well. 

Rosscup ranks this is the #5 most useful exegetical commentary on John.

Reflections on the Gospel of John by Morris, Leon - 776 pages (2000)

Studies in the fourth Gospel by Morris, Leon - 382 pages (1969) This is not his commentary in the NICNT listed above, but his writing are always generally excellent. One user writes "This volume concerns controversies over authorship, date, and theological questions that Leon Morris deliberately didn't address in his full commentary."

Secrets of the Spirit by Stedman, Ray C (1977) 164 pages = Also online at this link. - PDF's of the 12 sermons in this series given in 1973 at Peninsula Bible Church. Entire series, one html file or one Adobe Acrobat .pdf file

Cyril Barber - As an exposition of Christ's "last will and testament," these studies of John 14-16 ably treat the events that took place on the eve of the crucifixion

Preaching the Gospel of John : proclaiming the living Word by Williamson, Lamar. 347 pages. See Ratings - Interesting format - not a classic commentary. A quick review suggests it might have some helpful hints on preaching the texts. 

Christ the liberator by Stott, John R. W

James Rosscup - This book has other messages at Urbana, 1970, but Stott’s expositions on John 13–17 fill the first 89 pages. In the opinion of the reviewer, they are some of the best ever published with respect to coming right to grips with the message for Christians in a concise focus. Stott is well-organized in elucidating the passage, and he brings key issues out clearly in their application to spiritual living and representing Christ in the world.

Insights on John by Swindoll, Charles R (2010) 376 pages  214 ratings - Insights on John, volume two in the landmark Swindoll's New Testament Insights series, provides a wealth of colorful, detailed, and easy-to-understand insights into the gospel of John. Drawing on his vast experience as a communicator of God's Word, Chuck Swindoll presents his legacy to all who read and love the Bible.

Following Christ ... the man of God : a study of John 6-14 by Swindoll, Charles (2000) 132 pages

The Gospel of John: Believe and Live: Believe and Live  (21st Century Biblical Commentary Series) by Towns, Elmer L (2002) 264 pages  47 ratings

Cyril Barber - This book is the fruit of the author's "lifelong love affair with the gospel of John." Through word studies from the Greek text, Towns presents the immense riches to be found in John's unique message. He explains that "John's ultimate purpose is that his readers will believe the record of the life and death of the Son of God and receive eternal life."

The Gospel according to St. John : an introduction and commentary by Tasker, R. V. G. 1 ratings 

The Complete Biblical library / Vol. 5 : Part 1, New Testament : Study Bible, John - interesting resource. Includes interlinear and commentary notes. 

Believe in Miracles but Trust in Jesus by Rogers, Adrian - This is not a commentary on John but does have chapters dealing with some of Jesus' miracles in John - The Possibility of MiraclesThe Problem with Miracles. Water to Wine (John 2), Nobleman's Son Healed (John 4), Healing the Impotent Man (John 5), Feeding the 5000 (John 6), Calming the Storm (John 6), Opening Blind Eyes (John 9), Raising Lazarus (John 11), The Maximum Miracle (John 20:30-31). I will guarantee you that if you are preaching or teaching on any of the preceding chapters in John, you will glean many "pearls" from Dr Rogers' discussion. I give it "6 out of 5 stars!"  42 ratings

Commentary on John by Whitelaw, Thomas

Cyril Barber - Formerly published as the Gospel of St. John. A verse-by-verse exposition with homiletic hints. Seminal. Evangelical.

Be alive  (John 1-12): Get to Know the Living Savior by Wiersbe, Warren (1986) 160 pages.  277 ratings - As he studied and wrote this book, Dr. Warren Wiersbe "felt like a man standing on holy ground." For he realized all the more the truth of the statement of the great Greek scholar Dr. A. T. Robertson: The Gospel of John is "the profoundest book in the world." In Be Alive, Dr. Wiersbe presents the basic teachings of the first twelve chapters of John's Gospel and urges readers to approach its truths with the hearts and minds of worshipers. Come to better know the living Savior and... BE ALIVE!

Be Transformed (John 13-21): Christ's Triumph Means Your Transformation by Wiersbe, Warren (1986) 160 pages. 377 ratings - Yes, they became transformed men, those original disciples. In the opening chapters of John's Gospel, you see a group of men who were struggling with their faith and occasionally stumbling. But after Christ's death and resurrection, things changed--because they became transformed by His power and His Word. In completing his study of John's Gospel (see Be Alive for John 1-12). Dr. Warren Wiersbe explains how you can become a transformed person. He answers such important questions as:

  • How does the Holy Spirit work in my life?
  • What are the secrets of answered prayer?
  • Why is Christian fellowship so important?
  • How can I overcome the pressures of the world?

"But as many as received Him, to them gave the power to become..." (John 1:12). This is your invitation to personal transformation and triumph!

Wiersbe's Expository Outlines on the New Testament by Wiersbe, Warren W

Cyril Barber - This is a book of exceptional merit. Pastors, missionaries, and Christian workers will profit from its use. Wiersbe introduces each book of the NT, provides an outline, and then furnishes his readers with a chapter-by-chapter discussion of the contents. The homiletic style is a “plus.” Recommended.

With the Word - Devotional Commentary - Warren Wiersbe - Comments on individual chapters. 

The Bible Exposition Commentary by Wiersbe, Warren W - All NT books in one source. Excellent. Or here

Rosscup - One of America’s most appreciated staunchly evangelical Bible conference teachers gives diligent, refreshing expositions. These are all of his 23 separate, earlier books in the “Be” series on the New Testament. He strikes a particular appeal with lay people as he crystallizes sections, deals with some of the verses, handles certain problems and backgrounds and applies principles. He is premillennial.

Windows on the parables by Wiersbe, Warren

Interpreting the parables by Blomberg, Craig

The Gospel of John - William Barclay - Be aware of some questions about his orthodoxy!   (critique) While William Barclay often has very insightful Greek word studies, the Berean-like reader (Acts 17:11) needs to be aware that he does hold some very unorthodox beliefs. See on site comments and also see article on The Enigmatic William Barclay"

John by Beasley-Murray, George Raymond, - Word Biblical Commentary - gets about 4/5 stars. 

One readers review - Given the comprehensiveness of most volumes in the Word series, one would expect more from this volume. It isn't bad by any stretch, but far less detailed and thorough than I had wanted. I don't see much in this which isn't available from other commentaries on John.

The Gospel of John by Witherington, Ben, III,  13 ratings - Read some of the ratings to get an idea of the nature of this book. 

Chronological and Background Charts of the NEW TESTAMENT - Pdf - D Wayne House - outstanding compilation of charts - check this one out!. This book can also be borrowed = Chronological and background charts of the New Testament


Note: The first 4 resources have no time restriction and allow copy and paste function: 

(1) KJV Bible Commentary - Hindson, Edward E; Kroll, Woodrow Michael. Over 3000 pages of the entire OT/NT. Well done conservative commentary that interprets Scripture from a literal perspective. Pre-millennial.  User reviews - it generally gets 4/5 stars from users. - 372 ratings

Very well done conservative commentary that interprets Scripture from a literal perspective   user reviews 

The King James Version Bible Commentary is a complete verse-by-verse commentary. It is comprehensive in scope, reliable in scholarship, and easy to use. Its authors are leading evangelical theologians who provide practical truths and biblical principles. Any Bible student will gain new insights through this one-volume commentary based on the timeless King James Version of the Bible.

(2) The King James Study Bible Second Edition 2240 pages (2013) (Thomas Nelson) General Editor - Edward Hindson with multiple contributing editors. . 3,194 ratings. Pre-millennial. See introduction on How to Use this Study Bible.

(3) NKJV Study Bible: New King James Version Study Bible (formerly "The Nelson Study Bible - NKJV") by Earl D Radmacher; Ronald Barclay Allen; Wayne H House. 2345 pages. (1997, 2007). Very helpful notes. Conservative. Pre-millennial.  917 ratings

(4) The Wycliffe Bible Commentary - only the New Testament (for OT see below to borrow) - 1126 pages. (1971) Everett F Harrison - Editor of New Testament. Uses the KJV.  Strictly speaking not a study Bible, but short notes are similar. KJV text in left column, commentary notes in right column. The comments are generally verse by verse, short, conservative and to the point. Pre-millennial.

Dictionary of Biblical Imagery - free for use online with no restrictions (i.e., you do not need to borrow this book). Editors Leland Ryken, J C Wilhoit, Tremper Longman III - This is a potential treasure chest to aid your preaching and teaching as it analyzes the meaning of a host of Biblical figures of speech. Clue - use the "One-page view" which then allows you to copy and paste text. One downside is there is no index, so you need to search 3291 pages for entries which are alphabetical. 

Zondervan NIV Study Bible - (2011) 2570 pages  - Use this one if available as it has more notes than edition below. One hour limit

NIV Study Bible by Barker, Kenneth L; Burdick, Donald W (1995) 2250 pages. This is the first edition. This resource has been fully revised in 2020. One hour limit 

Believer's Bible Commentary - OT and NT - MacDonald, William (1995) 2480 pages. Conservative. Literal. Often has very insightful comments. John MacArthur, says "Concise yet comprehensive - the most complete single-volume commentary I have seen." Warren Wiersbe adds "For the student who is serious about seeing Christ in the Word." One hour limit.

Rosscup - This work, originally issued in 1983, is conservative and premillennial, written to help teachers, preachers and people in every walk of life with different views, explanation and application. The 2-column format runs verse by verse for the most part, usually in a helpfully knowledgeable manner, and there are several special sections such as “Prayer” in Acts and “Legalism” in Galatians. The premillennial view is evident on Acts 1:63:20Romans 11:26Galatians 6:16, Revelation 20, etc.

HCSB Study Bible : Holman Christian Standard Bible - General Editor Jeremy Royal Howard (2010) 2360 pages. Conservative. Good notes. Include Holmans excellent maps. One hour limit

Life Application Study Bible: Old Testament and New Testament: New Living Translation. Has some very helpful notes especially with application of texts. 4,445 ratings One hour limit

The MacArthur Study Bible - John MacArthur. Brief but well done notes for conservative, literal perspective. 1,275 ratings

ESV Study Bible - Excellent resource but not always literal in eschatology and the nation of Israel 6,004 ratings

The David Jeremiah Study Bible - (2013) 2208 pages. 2,272 ratings - "Drawing on more than 40 years of study, Dr. David Jeremiah has compiled a legacy resource that will make an eternal impact on generations to come. 8,000 study notes. Hundreds of enriching word studies"50+ Essentials of the Christian Faith" articles."

Wycliffe Bible Commentary - Charles Pfeiffer - 1560 pages (1962). 214 ratings Less detailed than the KJV Bible Commentary. Conservative. Notes are generally verse by verse but brief. 

Rosscup - Conservative and premillennial scholars here have been experts in their fields. The work contains brief introductions and attempts to give a verse-by-verse exposition, though it does skip over some verses. The treatments vary with the authors, but as a whole it is a fine one-volume commentary for pastors and students to use or give to a layman. Outstanding sections include, for example: Whitcomb on Ezra-Nehemiah-Esther; Culver on Daniel; Ladd on Acts; Harrison on Galatians; Johnson on I Corinthians; and Ryrie on the Johannine Epistles.

The Defender's Study Bible : King James Version by Morris, Henry M. Excellent notes by well known creationist. 45 ratings 

New Bible Commentary - (1994) See user reviews

Compact Bible commentary by Radmacher, Earl D; Allen, Ronald Barclay; House, H Wayne, et al - 954 pages.  424 ratings Multiple contributors to the comments which are often verse by verse. The comments are brief but meaty and can really help your study through a given book. A sleeper in my opinion. 

The Experiencing God Study Bible: the Bible for knowing and doing the will of God - Blackaby, Henry (1996) 1968 pages - CHECK THIS ONE! Each chapter begins with several questions under the title "PREPARE TO MEET GOD." Then you will interesting symbols before many of the passages. The chapter ends with a "DID YOU NOTICE?" question. This might make a "dry chapter" jump off the page! Read some of the 48 ratings

NLT Study Bible (Illustration Version) 

Disciple's Study Bible: New international version 54 ratings Not that helpful for verse by verse study. Focuses on application of Christian doctrines. 10,000 annotations; doctrinal summaries, "Life Helps" section relate doctrine to everyday discipleship. 

The Living Insights Study Bible : New International Version - Charles Swindoll. Notes are good but somewhat sparse and not verse by verse.

The Apologetics Study Bible Understand Why You Believe by Norman Geisler

NIV Archaeological Study Bible (2005) 2360 pages 950 ratings (See also Archaeology and the Bible - OT and NT)

"Readers who desire a more intimate knowledge of the historical context of the Bible will appreciate the NIV Archaeological Study Bible. Full of informative articles and full-color photographs of places and objects from biblical times, this Bible examines the archaeological record surrounding God’s Word and brings the biblical world to life. Readers’ personal studies will be enriched as they become more informed about the empires, places, and peoples of the ancient world. Features include: • Four-color interior throughout • Bottom-of-page study notes exploring passages that speak on archaeological and cultural facts • Articles (520) covering five main categories: Archaeological Sites, Cultural and Historical Notes, Ancient Peoples and Lands, the Reliability of the Bible, and Ancient Texts and Artifacts • Approximately 500 4-color photographs interspersed throughout • Detailed book introductions that provide basic, at-a-glance information • Detailed charts on pertinent topics • In-text color maps that assist the reader in placing the action "

NIV Cultural Backgrounds Study Bible. Bringing to Life the Ancient World of Scripture Keener, Craig and Walton, John. Editors (2017)

The Holman Illustrated Study Bible 120 ratings Includes the excellent Holman maps but otherwise of little help in serious study.

Zondervan King James Version Commentary - New Testament

NIV Celebrate Recovery Study Bible

Daily Study Bible for Women : New Living Translation

The Woman's Study Bible : the New King James Version

The Study Bible for Women : Holman Christian Standard Bible

Daily Study Bible for Men : New Living Translation

NIV Topical Study Bible : New International Version

Ryrie Study Bible - Charles Ryrie (1978) 2142 pages. Conservative.  216 ratings 

Ryrie Study Bible Expanded Edition (1994) 2232 pages

The Hebrew-Greek Key Study Bible : New American standard study by Strong, James, 1822-1894; Zodhiates, Spiros 

The New Inductive Study Bible : updated New American Standard Bible - Introductions of each book give suggestions how to perform an inductive study on that specific book. Not strictly speaking a "study Bible" with notes but a Bible to help you study inductively. Has wide margins for making notes. This is one that works best in "paper," not digitally. 

Evangelical Commentary on the Bible - Judges by Andrew Boling (20 pages); editor Walter Elwell (1989) 1239 pages. User reviews. (See also Boling's 380 page commentary on Judges the Anchor Bible Series)

Halley's Bible Handbook Henry H. Halley - (2000) 2720 pages (much larger than original edition in 1965 and no time limit on use). (Halley's Bible handbook : an abbreviated Bible commentary - one hour limit 1965 872 pages)

Rosscup - A much-used older evangelical handbook bringing together a brief commentary on Bible books, some key archaeological findings, historical background, maps, quotes, etc. It is helpful to a lay Bible teacher, Sunday School leader, or pastor looking for quick, pertinent information on a Bible book. This is the 72nd printing somewhat revised. Halley packed in much information. Unger’s is better overall, but that is not to say that Halley’s will not provide much help on basic information.

The Shaw Pocket Bible Handbook - Editor - Walter Elwell (1984) 408 pages.

"This hardback is small in size but packed full of content: Brief summaries of every book of the bible, cultural, archaeological and historical info, word definitions, pictures, maps and charts." Worth checking! 


NOTE - All of these resources can be borrowed from This list also includes resources to help study the Bible. 

See also the list of Word Study Resources 

The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament by Zodhiates, Spiros - This is my "go to" resource for Greek word studies. One on the best lexicons for laymen. Highly Recommended for Greek Word Studies to aid your interpretation of a passage. 

Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament by Friberg, Timothy. Shorter definitions than Zodhiates but does an excellent job in summarizing the various nuances of a specific Greek word. One of my favorites.

Shorter Lexicon of the Greek New Testament by Gingrich, F. Wilbur. Similar to Friberg but shorter definitions. Gingrich however gives more Scriptures for each nuance, whereas Friberg generally gives only one representative Scripture. 

The New Linguistic and Exegetical Key to the Greek New Testament by Rogers, Cleon - This book is a gold mine of little gems on individual Greek words in any NT passage you are studying. If you have time it is always worth checking out! I use it in my Greek word studies all the time. 

Word meanings in the New Testament - Matthew-Revelation by Ralph Earle. Strictly speaking this is not a lexicon, but it offers insights on select words in a verse by verse format (but not every verse is included in the analysis). This resource is worth checking if you have time as it can occasionally give some wonderful insights on a specific Greek word. 

New Testament Words - William Barclay - 59 ratings very interesting resource - covers about 70 NT Greek words in Barclay's unique style. On page 289 there is a helpful index of English words with the corresponding Greek word, in turn followed by the places Barclay described them in New Testament Words and in his Daily Study Bible series (see list of DSB commentaries here). E.g., take the Greek word for "Covetousness" which is pleonexia and is found in New Testament Words on page 61 and pp 233-235 and is also described in the Daily Study Bible entries for : Mark 7:14-23Ro 1:28-32Eph. 4:17-24Col. 3:5. So you can click the DSB commentary on Mark 7 and scroll down to Mark 7:14 to see Barclay's entry for pleonexia which concludes "Pleonexia ( G4124) is that lust for having which is in the heart of the man who sees happiness in things instead of in God." Interesting!

Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament : based on semantic domains - Louw Nida. Brief but nice definitions. Not easy to use - you need to know some Greek. Classifies Greek words into 93 "semantic domains" (see list on page XXV) and if you can categorize the word you are looking for in one of the domains, it can help find the specific word you are interested in. 

Kittel's Theological Dictionary of the New Testament : abridged in one volume (TDNT) - Classic ("Little Kittel") work summarizing the 10 volume set by Kittel. For most of us the abridged definition is "more than enough!" 

A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament, and other early Christian literature (BDAG); by Bauer, Walter, More detailed definitions but need to know Greek. Zodhiates and Friberg are much easier to use. 

Liddell and Scott's Greek-English lexicon, abridged : the little Liddell by Liddell, Henry George. The abridged version. You need to know Greek to use.

Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament (Volume 1 - A thru E);  Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament (Volume 3- P thru ...) Volume 2 not available. I do not find this adds much to the easier to use resources like Zodhiates and Friberg

A Pocket Lexicon to the Greek New Testament by Souter, Alexander. Brief definitions. Need to know some Greek. Not that helpful. 

Vine's Expository Dictionary of Old Testament and New Testament Words - pdf. The old standby. You can also borrow Vine's complete expository dictionary of Old and New Testament words

New Testament Words in Today's Language by Detzler, Wayne A - Wonderful resource to supplement word studies.  3 ratings THIS IS A SLEEPER! 

So That's What it Means - This is another book formerly titled "Theological Wordbookedited by Charles Swindoll. It is now under this new title So That's What it Means and can be borrowed - it is more like a dictionary than a lexicon but the comments are superb! The contributors include DKC—Donald K. Campbell, WGJ—Wendell G. Johnston, JAW—John A. Witmer, JFW—John F. Walvoord 

Christian Words  By: Turner, Nigel, Published: 1980 - >500 pages. An interesting, unique resource on Greek words (no Hebrew) with extensive bibliography. For an example see "Abba" and "Alleluia" - "In Christian vocabulary Alleluia is a heavenly song, a chant of saints in the bliss of Paradise, echoed on earth as joyful seasons." One caution is he uses the Apocryphal writings extensively - I am not sure of his theological persuasion.

Zondervan NASB exhaustive concordance - 1589 pages

Pocket dictionary for the study of New Testament Greek by DeMoss, Matthew S. If you want to dig a little deeper into Greek. 66 ratings

Synonyms of the New Testament by Trench, Richard Chenevix - or click here for list of 108 entries

Expository Dictionary of Bible Words by Richards, Larry,  33 ratings It is does not go into great depth on the Greek or Hebrew words but does have some excellent insights. 

Expository dictionary of Bible words : word studies for key English Bible words based on - Stephen Renn



HENRY ALFORD - Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

Spurgeon - Alford's Greek Testament “for the use of Theological Students and Ministers,” is an invaluable aid to the critical study of the text of the New Testament. 

HENRY ALFORD - New Testament for English Readers

James Rosscup writes that Alford's series on the New Testament "contains much that is valuable in the Greek New Testament...though all of the Greek New Testament words have been changed to English throughout." (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors)


WILLIAM BARCLAY Daily Study Bible Commentary

D Edmond Hiebert comments - (Barclay) Prints the author's own translation. A series of popular studies well adapted to the lay reader. Barclay is strongest in his study of word meanings. Contains good illustrative material. (An Introduction to the NT)

See caveats regarding Barclay's theology.




CHRIS BENFIELD - Studies in Gospel of John Each about 5 pages. Well done. 

JOHANN BENGEL - Gnomon of the New Testament (1877)










CAMBRIDGE BIBLE  - Alfred Plummer


D Edmond Hiebert review - Greek text. Valuable introduction espouses the conservative view regarding introductory problems. The notes on the Greek text set forth its meaning concisely. (An Introduction to the NT)

Cyril Barber - Plummer, Alfred. The Gospel According to St. John. Published a century ago, this study of the Greek text of John's gospel first appeared in the Cambridge Greek Testament.








NOTE: This is potentially a useful resource but be aware it is from the perspective of Church of Christ. Be a Berean - Acts 17:11+.







J LIGON DUNCAN  - sermon transcripts - also Derek Thomas, David Strain








EXPOSITOR'S BIBLE COMMENTARY - Gospel of John by Merrill Tenney



DON FORTNER - sermon transcripts on the Gospel of John




Rosscup - A good scholar is at his best here. He is exhaustive and excellent, though this work is old.  (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors)

D Edmond Hiebert - An older commentary by a noted conservative French scholar of the past century. Still outstanding as an evangelical interpretation of the fourth gospel, even if unaware of recent critical trends. (An Introduction to the NT)

BRUCE GOETTSCHE - sermon transcripts on the Gospel of John

GOTQUESTIONS - Related to the Gospel of John


JAMES GUNN - 61 expositions - click below for section under which are multiple individual expositions



SCOTT HARRIS - Grace Bible Church - sermon transcripts on Gospel of John







Rosscup - This work, recently reprinted, has much judicious material tying the thought to Old Testament background theology. At times it is very provocative (cf. on Jn. 1:15, 30, “He is preferred before me,” italics mine). Hengstenberg is one of the towering older names, well-known for Christology of the Old Testament, for example.  (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors)

Cyril Barber - Rich in grammatical and syntactical insights, this reverent and devout work ably treats the life and labors of Christ as recorded in John's gospel. A rewarding work that will handsomely repay the time spent reading it.






D Edmond Hiebert review - Greek text.  A full verse-by-verse exposition of John by an accomplished conservative Baptist scholar of the past century. Still valuable for its unfolding of the meaning of the text.(An Introduction to the NT)


Cyril Barber - An expositional commentary of rare excellence. Covers the theme of John’s gospel in the best evangelical tradition. Designed for lay people.


D Edmond Hiebert review - Greek text. A 180-page introduction, in which the author rejects the traditional view of authorship, deals fully with the critical problems. The commentary is based on the author's rearrangement of the text of the gospel. Valuable for the discerning advanced student. (An Introduction to the NT)

Rosscup -   Bernard, J. A. Gospel According to St. John (International Critical Commentary). Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1928. A liberal work, now outdated as to literature but long held in high esteem on critical and exegetical matters.


IVP COMMENTARY - Rodney A Whitacre

Jesus Forms a Community Around Himself Over Against Official Judaism (9:1-10:42)


Jesus, the Light of the World, Opens the Eyes of a Man Born Blind (9:1-41)




LOWELL JOHNSON - sermons on Johnclick here for sermons below on one page                              

  •    I Once Was Blind, But Now I See  John 9:1-12                                                           
  •    Salvation: An Eye-Opening Experience John 9:8-25        



D Edmond Hiebert review - The material in this volume of 650 two-column pages is divided into four parts under each section of the gospel: textual and grammatical; exegetical and critical; doctrinal and ethical; homiletical and practical. While much of the material is dated, it contains an abundance of riches for those willing to dig into its contents. (An Introduction to the NT)

PAUL KRETZMANN - Lutheran commentator


DAVID LEGGE - sermons on the Gospel of John






ALEXANDER MACLAREN - click links for sermons on the chapter

HENRY MAHAN - Sermon transcripts on John - distinct from commentary in next section

HENRY MAHAN - commentary

MASTER'S BIBLE CHURCH -  In depth (eg, 20 pages on Jn 7:37-39!) -

J VERNON MCGEE - Thru the Bible - Mp3's

F B MEYER - commentary on Gospel of John

James Rosscup - A well-organized, suggestively rich lighter, devotional commentary by the famous preacher and writer of a well-known series on Bible characters (Abraham, Moses, Elijah, etc.) and several other insightful devotional books. Here is a commentary by a bright light that can refresh personally, stimulate messages and help illustrate them.

F B MEYER - devotionals - Our Daily Homily (ODH) Our Daily Walk - unmarked

F B MEYER - brief comments (distinct from his commentary listed above)

H A W MEYER - Commentary

JOHN R MILLER - Devotional Hours with the Bible


ROBERT MORGAN - often uses illustrations

HENRY MORRIS - Defender's Study Bible Notes - Notes are in links on the right side of the page




JAMES NISBET - Church Pulpit Commentary

OUR DAILY BREAD - Devotional Illustrations

PASTOR LIFE - sermons







POPULAR COMMENTARY ON THE NEW TESTAMENT Gospel of John authored by William Milligan and William Moulton








GRANT RICHISON - commentary with practical application on each verse 

NOTE: The link below is just to the first verse of the chapter (e.g., ). In the top right corner of the page you will find a link to go to the next verse by verse comment. There are literally hundreds of comments - e.g., there are 4 separate studies on John 1:1 -    , then you can go to , etc, etc. Read Introduction to John

A. T. ROBERTSON - Word Pictures of the New Testament


Click here to access the titles listed below - the Pdf has 1387 pages of sermons. Rogers is conservative, pithy and practical! He is one of the stellar expositors of the twentieth century. Highly recommended to aid your sermon and teaching preparation. 

  •   Jesus Is God’s Answer to Man’s Darkness—John 9:1–41
  •   Midnight at High Noon—John 9

J C RYLE - Commentary - always has a few very pithy comments

ROB SALVATO - sermons

JOHNNY SANDERS - commentary notes



NOTE: There are literally 1000's of sermons but the quality varies so please exercise a Berean mindset (Acts 17:11+). Here is an example of a Pdf on John 4. The Pdfs often give some useful teaching and preaching ideas/insights. 


CHARLES SIMEON - link includes all of Simeon's sermon on the chapter

CHUCK SMITH - Calvary Chapel founder



The following topics are discussed on Handfuls of Purpose (click)


RUSSELL SMITH - sermons​​​

C H SPURGEON - sermons




CLAUDE STAUFFER - Verse by verse studies


JOHN STEVENSON - sermon notes







RON TEED - sermon notes

TIM TEMPLE - sermon notes




JOHN TRAPP - commentary

BOB UTLEY - commentary

VALLEY BIBLE CHURCH - sermon transcripts on the Gospel of John

INSTRUCTIONS - There are 182 sermons on John. The church changed their links so now the best way to retrieve the Transcript in Pdf is by clicking on the INDEX PAGE FOR SERMONS ON JOHN. Then hunt for the chapter and verse you desire. When you find the text in which you are interested, select "DOWNLOADS" and then select TRANSCRIPT (average about 5 pages - Here is an example from sermon #169 "The Word Incarnate - Part 3" John 1:14)


D Edmond Hiebert review - One of the classical commentaries on John. Still richly rewarding in spite of its age. An admirable presentation of the conservative position. (An Introduction to the NT)



MARVIN VINCENT - Greek Word Studies

SERMONS BY VERSE - Older expositions and sermons

Manifesting the Works of God D. Young John 9:1-3
The Blind Man and the Sight-Giving Savior B. Thomas John 9:1-7
Characteristics of Blindness M. G. Pearse. John 9:1-25
Characteristics of the Miracle Bp. Ryle. John 9:1-25
Christ and the Blind Man De Witt S. Clark. John 9:1-25
Christ and the Blind Man Boston Homilies John 9:1-25
Christ's Sight of Sinners C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:1-25
Congenital Blindness L. W. Bacon, D. D. John 9:1-25
General Remarks on the Miracle W. H. Van Doren, D. D. John 9:1-25
Instances of Blindness   John 9:1-25
Jesus and the Blind Man S. S. Times John 9:1-25
Jesus and the Blind Man Sermons by the Monday Club John 9:1-25
Miracle Authenticated J. J. Van Oosterzee, D. D. John 9:1-25
Opening the Eyes of One Blind from His Birth   John 9:1-25
Spiritual Blindness   John 9:1-25
The Compassion of Christ J. Trapp. John 9:1-25
The Healing of the Man Born Blind W. Kirkman. John 9:1-25
The History of the Man Who was Born Blind J. P. Lange, D. D. John 9:1-25
The Light of the World Christian Age John 9:1-25
The Opening of the Eyes of a Man Born Blind W. M. Taylor. John 9:1-25
The Saviour and the Sufferer J. L. Hurlbut. John 9:1-25
Types of Character in Relation to Christ D. Thomas D. D. John 9:1-25
The Passage of a Soul from Darkness into Light J.R. Thomson John 9:1-41
Blindness a Talent to be Used for God's Glory   John 9:2-8
Blindness Leading to Spiritual Sight   John 9:2-8
Blindness not Judgment J. F. B. Tinling, B. A. John 9:2-8
Christ and the Blind Man History, Prophecy, and Gospel John 9:2-8
Christ's Explanation of Suffering C. Vince. John 9:2-8
Explanations of the Disciples' Question Bishop Ryle. John 9:2-8
Origin of Evil R. Cecil, M. A. John 9:2-8
Our Proper Attitude Towards Mysteries T. Arnold, D. D. John 9:2-8
Suffering: its Causes and Privileges J. W. Diggle, M. A. John 9:2-8
The Blind Man's Eyes Opened; Or, Practical Christianity C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:2-8
The Purpose of Chronic Suffering C. S. Robinson, D. D. John 9:2-8
What the Master and What the Disciples Saw M. G. Pearse. John 9:2-8
The Final Cause of Human Suffering J.R. Thomson John 9:3
A Motive for Diligence C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:4
All Must Work C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:4
Christians Feel that They Must Work C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:4
Day and Night D. Fraser, D. D. John 9:4
Definite Workers C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:4
Diligence in the Work of Religion R. South, D. D. John 9:4
Earnest Views of Life A. Phelps, D. D. John 9:4
Life a Sphere of Work H. W. Beecher. John 9:4
Lost Opportunities   John 9:4
One Metaphor and Two Meanings Alexander Maclaren John 9:4
Responsibility to God H. O. Mackey. John 9:4
Signs of Night Knox Little. John 9:4
Soul Winning is Our Work C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:4
The Benefit of Work Family Churchman John 9:4
The Brevity of Life John Percival John 9:4
The Day and its Toil W. A. Gray. John 9:4
The Day is for Labor J.R. Thomson John 9:4
The Divine Dignity of Work T. Guthrie, D. D. John 9:4
The Folly of Delay H. O. Mackey. John 9:4
The Inevitableness of Death A. Maclaren, D. D. John 9:4
The Limits of Opportunity D. Young John 9:4
The Need of Preparation for Death Ponder and Pray. John 9:4
The Night Cometh A. K. H. Boyd, D. D. John 9:4
The Night Cometh S. S. Times John 9:4
The Spur C. H. Spurgeon., H. W. Beecher. John 9:4
The Supreme Worker and His Opportunity George Brown John 9:4
The Work of Life J. Bowers. John 9:4
The Work of Life A. Jessop, D. D. John 9:4
The Works of God F. B. Meyer, B. A. John 9:4
Time Cannot be Lengthened Out by Man J. Abbott. John 9:4
To Every Man His Work Knox Little. John 9:4
Two Ways of Lengthening Life Whitecross. John 9:4
We Must Do God's Work Knox Little. John 9:4
We Must Do Our Work Promptly   John 9:4
We Must not Trifle S. J. Moore. John 9:4
We Must Work with Our Whole Heart C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:4
Work C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:4
Work is Healthful   John 9:4
Work While it is Day H. O. Mackey. John 9:4
Work While it is Day H. O. Mackey. John 9:4
Work, and Work Rightly J. McConnell Hussey, D. D. John 9:4
Christ, the Light Abp. Leighton. John 9:5
Light in Death Sunday at Home. John 9:5
The Light of the World S. S. Times John 9:5
The Blind Made to See, and the Seeing Made Blind A. Maclaren, D. D. John 9:6
The Meaning of Christ's Action E. H. Higgins. John 9:6
The Use of Common Agencies F. D. Maurice, M. A. John 9:6
The Use of Means Bp. Ryle. John 9:6
The Way of Faith Criticised by the World C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:6
The Way of Faith Glorifies Christ C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:6
Faith and Obedience J. Tramp. John 9:7
The Way of Faith is Simple F. Godet, D. D., C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:7
Converts Must Testify of Christ C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:8-13
How Christian Lost His Burden J. Bunyan. John 9:8-13
I am the Man Myself Stevens, History of Methodism. John 9:8-13
Jesus All in All to New Converts C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:8-13
The Change Effected in the Man Bishop Hall. John 9:8-13
Types of Character in Relation to Christ's Work D. Thomas, D. D. John 9:8-13
We Ought Boldly to Confess Ghost C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:8-13
Power of Prejudice R. Besser, D. D., Anthony Horneck. John 9:13-18
The First Examination of the Man T. Whitelaw, D. D. John 9:13-18
True Conversion Evident to All C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:13-18
Types of Character in Relation to Christ's Work D. Thomas, D. D. John 9:13-18
Uncharitable Judgments Bp. Hall., Lord Capel. John 9:16
Accountability The Study John 9:19-23
Agnosticism J. Parker, D. D. John 9:19-23
Cowardly Testimony is Despicable J. Trapp. John 9:19-23
Speak for Christ E. Foster. John 9:19-23
Speak for Yourself. a Challenge C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:19-23
The Testimony of the Man's Parents T. Whitelaw, D. D. John 9:19-23
Types of Character in Relation to Christ's Work D. Thomas, D. D. John 9:19-23
Confession of Christ C. Hodge, D. D. John 9:22
Excommunication Archdeacon Watkins. John 9:22
Excommunication D. Young John 9:22
Carping Criticism C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:24-34
The Second Examination of the Man T. Whitelaw, D. D. John 9:24-34
Types of Character in Relation to Christ's Work D. Thomas, D. D. John 9:24-34
Agnosticism and Christian Experience T. De Witt Talmage. John 9:25
An Undoubted Cure S. Smiles. John 9:25
Conversion a Real Experience C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:25
Experience the Condition of Church Membership J. F. B. Tinling, B. A. John 9:25
Experimental Evidence E. Mellor, D. D. John 9:25
Living Christians an Argument for Christianity H. P. Hughes, M. A. John 9:25
Personas Knowledge Valuable   John 9:25
Spiritual Sight Contrasted with Spiritual Blindness J.R. Thomson John 9:25
The Blind Man's Creed C. H. Parkhurst, D. D. John 9:25
The Experimental Evidence of Christianity T. Starr King. John 9:25
The Power of a Fact Fred Brooks. John 9:25
The Quibbles of Infidelity Bp. Horne., J. Seed., Archdeacon Farrar., Congregational Remembrancer. John 9:25
The Testimony of Individual Blessing D. Young John 9:25
The Value of Experience N. Caussin. John 9:25
Value of a Personal Knowledge of Salvation C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:25
We Know A. Maclaren, D. D. John 9:25
An Appeal for Disciples J.R. Thomson John 9:27
A Noble Defense B. Thomas John 9:29-34
The Return of Prayers Jeremy Taylor. John 9:31
True and not True   John 9:31
The Attestation of Christ's Works to His Divinity J.R. Thomson John 9:33
A Pressed Man Yielding to Christ Charles Haddon Spurgeon John 9:35
A Happy Meeting B. Thomas John 9:35-38
A Heart Made Ready for Faith J.R. Thomson John 9:35-38
A Vital Question T. B. Baker, M. A. John 9:35-38
An Important Question T. B. Baker, M. A. John 9:35-38
Believing on the Son of God J. H. Higgins. John 9:35-38
Faith in Christ J. H. Higgins. John 9:35-38
Faith Must Lay Hold on Christ A. B. Grosart. John 9:35-38
Faith Reasonable Bp. Alexander. John 9:35-38
Faithfulness not Unnoticed by God   John 9:35-38
Relationship with Christ and its Obligations S. Martin. John 9:35-38
The Excommunicated Man F. Kidd. John 9:35-38
The Importance of Believing J. Spencer. John 9:35-38
The Importance of Self-Examination C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:35-38
The Important Question B. Beddome, M. A. John 9:35-38
The Supreme Inquiry Homiletic Monthly John 9:35-38
The Test Question Weekly Pulpit John 9:35-38
The Unknown Christ J. R. S. Harrington. John 9:35-38
The Verdict of Christ on the Whole Case T. Whitelaw, D. D. John 9:35-38
True Christians Will Learn of Any One J. Trapp. John 9:35-38
What Think Ye of Christ? George Whitefield John 9:38
Enlightening and Blinding Power J.R. Thomson John 9:39
Spontaneous Judgment and Self-Enacting Verdict George Brown John 9:39
Blind Yet Seeing J. Trapp. John 9:39-41
Christ's Mission to the World D. Thomas, D. D. John 9:39-41
Help for the Needy C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:39-41
Misery of Unconscious Blindness C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:39-41
Sight for Those Who See Not C. H. Spurgeon., Epictetus., Dr. Hammond., Bp. Hall. John 9:39-41
The Emptiness of Self-Righteous Boasting C. H. Spurgeon. John 9:39-41
The Opening of the Eyes Phillips Brooks, D. D. John 9:39-41
The Sense of Sin Leads to Holiness and the Conceit of Holiness to Sin Prof. Shedd. John 9:39-41