FREEDOM: eleutherian autois epaggellomenoi (PAPMPN): (Gal
(epaggello) pictures these deceivers as announcing proclamations
with a sense of certainty that the promise will be fulfilled. The false
teachers never cease proclaiming (present
tense indicates continuous action
-- lie, lie, lie - that was their modus operandi!) their deceitful promise of "freedom"
but as shown below their walk does not match their talk. Peter uses a
bit of sarcasm here
emphasizing the ridiculousness of the possibility that people who are
slaves of sin themselves could ever set anybody else free!
Be careful when someone promises you
freedom with "no strings attached" (e.g., freedom to live as you
please), because true spiritual freedom in Christ is not the right to do as
you please, but is the liberty (and the power) to do as you should. No
man is right to do as he pleases unless he pleases to do right! In other
words, true Christian liberty is the liberty from sin and not
The glory of the Gospel brings spiritual freedom, while the disgrace of
this "brand" of false teaching brings bondage to sin, self and Satan.
In his first letter Peter
wrote that believers are to...
Act as free men, and do not use your
freedom as a covering for evil, but use it as bondslaves of God. (See
note 1Pe 2:16)
Jonathan Edwards said it this
True liberty consists only in the
power of doing what we ought to will, and in not being constrained to do
what we ought not to will.
Oswald Chambers phrased it
Liberty means ability not to violate
the law of God. License means personal insistence on doing what I like.
A W Tozer put it in pithy
terms writing that...
The important thing about a man is
not where he goes when he is compelled to go, but where he goes when he
is free to go where he will...Where we go when we are free to go where
we will is a near-infallible index of character.
from eleutheros - that which is capable of movement, freedom to
go wherever one likes, unfettered; see word study on verb
describes the state of being free and stands in opposition to slavery or
Vine writes that it
is rendered “freedom” in Gal. 5:1, “with freedom did Christ set us
free.” The combination of the noun with the verb stresses the
completeness of the act, the aorist (or point) tense indicating both its
momentary and comprehensive character; it was done once for all. The RV
margin “for freedom” gives perhaps the preferable meaning, i.e., “not to
bring us into another form of bondage did Christ liberate us from that
in which we were born, but in order to make us free from bondage.”
The word is twice rendered “freedom” in the RV of Gal. 5:13 (KJV,
“liberty”). The phraseology is that of manumission from slavery, which
among the Greeks was effected by a legal fiction, according to which the
manumitted slave was purchased by a god; as the slave could not provide
the money, the master paid it into the temple treasury in the presence
of the slave, a document being drawn up containing the words “for
freedom.” No one could enslave him again, as he was the property of the
god. Hence the word apeleutheros, No. 2. The word is also translated
“freedom” in 1 Pet. 2:16, rv. In 2 Cor. 3:17 the word denotes “freedom”
of access to the presence of God. See liberty.
W E: Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament
Words. 1996. Nelson)
Eleutheria refers to
personal liberty but not license. The deceiving (and deceived - see 2Ti
false teacher promise their listeners the freedom to live as they
please. To the contrary, true liberty is living as we should not as we
please. Eleutheria was used especially in NT times of the freeing
has an excellent illustration of the
meaning of the verb eleutheria....
the nineteenth century our sixteenth president realized something
radical must be done about slavery in our country. Unwilling to look the
other way any longer, on September 22, 1862, he presented what
came to be known as the Emancipation Proclamation, an official document
condemning human slavery. Abraham Lincoln, realizing that slavery is
completely against human dignity, officially abolished it from the
United States on that day. Tragically, little changed in the daily life
of our nation, even though the slaves were officially declared free. You
know why; you’ve read the stories. The Civil War was still going on. The
plantation owners never informed their slaves. The vast majority of the
former slaves couldn’t read, so they had no idea what the news was
carrying. There was no mass media then to announce those kinds of
presidential pronouncements. And so for the longest time, slavery
continued even though it had been officially brought to an end. The war
ended in April 1865.
Do you know when Lincoln’s
declaration was officially enacted? When the people finally began to
leave their enslaved lives and make their way toward freedom?
December 18, 1865—more than three years after he first released his
proclamation. Lincoln had been dead for months. The word traveled
out of the streets of Washington and down into the Shenandoah Valley of
Virginia, across the back roads of the Carolinas and into Georgia, then
Alabama, then Mississippi, then Louisiana, then Texas, then Arkansas,
announcing what had been true for more than a thousand days. Even then
the word somehow either wasn’t believed or wasn’t acted upon. Those
officially emancipated people, thinking slavery was the way they were
condemned to exist, continued to live in bondage though they had been
declared free men and women since the fall of 1862. (Embraced
by the Spirit The Untold Blessings of Intimacy with God)
NIDNTT writes that in
eleutheria is derived from the adjective eleutheros. O.
Schrader derives it from the Indo-Germanic *leudh-, belonging to the
people, and thus not subject. It is connected with Lat. liber (free),
and Schrader links it with Old High German liut, Modern German Leute,
people (Reallexikon der indogermanischen Altertumskunde, II 19292, 454
f.; but cf. Liddell-Scott, 532). In so far as a man belongs to the
people, he is a free citizen as contrasted with a slave or foreigner.
Eleutheria thus means freedom, independence, in the sense of being
independent of others, being able to dispose. This way of speaking arose
originally in contrast to the bondage of slaves. Similarly, the
adjective eleutheros means free, not bound, of free birth. It
also indicates someone who is his own master. Later the noun and the
adj. could occasionally be used to denote the mental attitude which
makes use of freedom. It could be used (as it mostly was) in the good
sense of noble, being in control of oneself, magnanimous, generous. But
it could also be used in the less frequent and bad sense of being
reckless, or unrestrained.
In secular Gk. eleutheros has primarily a political sense. The
eleutheros is the full citizen who belongs to the polis, the city state,
in contrast to the slave who did not enjoy full rights as a citizen.
Freedom consists in his right to participate fully in public debates
over civic matters. It is the right of free speech, parrhesia openness,
boldness, frankness. He can decide about his own affairs within the
polis. On numerous occasions, Aristotle spoke of the Gk. polis as the
community of the free. He considered freedom to be the essential good of
the polis. But in order to preserve this freedom, the law (nomos) is
required as the principle of order. Freedom and law are thus not
contradictory opposites. They belong together and qualify each other.
The constant danger is rejection of the law in the name of a
misconceived freedom which is purely arbitrary, because it is willing to
grant itself more freedom than it is willing to grant to others. This
idea of freedom was naturally applied to relations between states which
gave rise to the idea of sovereignty. (See further H. Schlier, TDNT II
religions had their own answer to the question of freedom. Through the
cultic rites, the initiate was freed from this hopeless world and
obtained a part in the destiny of the deity
Colin, Editor. New International Dictionary of NT Theology. 1986.
In the most basic form, this word
group related to a "free man" in contrast with a slave. Such persons
were usually born free, but some of them had purchased their freedom.
There are 17 uses of eleutheria in the NT...
that the creation itself also will be set free from its slavery to
corruption into the freedom of the glory of the children of God.
Freedom in this context refers to the time when all believers will be
liberated finally and completely from the effects and temptation of
fallen flesh nature and set free even from the pleasure of sin, to share
eternally in God’s glory, with which He will clothe all His liberated
sons and daughters.
1 Corinthians 10:29 I mean not your own conscience, but the other
man's; for why is my freedom judged by another's conscience?
Freedom is presented as the supreme blessing of the new covenant of
grace, which, in contrast with the Old covenant of law, is represented
as including independence from religious regulations and legal
restrictions (1Co 10:29; 2Co 3:17; Ga 2:4; 2Pe 2:19).
MacArthur writes: Our own
freedom should not be judged by another’s conscience. That is, we should
not cause our freedom to be slandered by expressing it in ways that
offend a weaker brother. We should give thanks for the food and for our
liberty and then express our liberty by choosing not to eat the food
that offends the brother. How can we be thankful to the Lord for
something a Christian brother or sister is going to stumble over?
Robertson comments that: Paul deftly
puts himself in the place of the strong brother at such a banquet who is
expected to conform his conscience to that of the weak brother who makes
the point about a particular piece of meat. It is an abridgment of one’s
personal liberty in the interest of the weak brother. Two
individualities clash. The only reason is love which builds up (1Co 8:2
and all of 1Cor 13:1ff). There is this eternal collision between the
forces of progress and reaction. If they work together, they must
consider the welfare of each other.
2 Corinthians 3:17 Now the Lord is the Spirit; and where the
Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.
In context believers now have freedom of access to God without fear in
opposition to the fear in Ex. 34:30. We need no veil and we have free
access to God. The end of the dominance of the Law means liberty.
Galatians 2:4 But it was because of the false brethren who had
sneaked in to spy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus,
in order to bring us into bondage (to the law, legalism).
Here eleutheria describes the unfettered condition of the
Christian soul in contrast with the Jewish condition of bondage to law.
Spiritual liberty or spiritual bondage? Note the Source of the freedom
is "in Christ Jesus", made effective by the Spirit of Christ who
indwells believers - see 2Co 3:17. Christian freedom is not license.
When we become free in Christ we lose our freedom to sin, of which we
were once a slave.
5:1 It was for freedom that Christ set us free; therefore
keep standing firm and do not be subject again to a yoke of slavery.
Human freedom that in which man was originally created, is not liberty
to do wrong or to indulge oneself, but in fact is liberty to obey God.
As Vine says "Man is so constituted that only as he pleases God can he
be happy in the higher, the spiritual, part of his nature, and efficient
for the great ends for which he was created. The essence of the Fall lay
in this, that man used his endowment of freedom against the Giver of it.
Instead of enhancing and extending his freedom by his disobedience,
however, man’s first exercise of his will apart from God brought him
into bondage to a new master, sin (Ro 6:17, 18; 7:14), working through a
threefold agency, the world, the flesh, and the devil (1Jn 2:16, 17;
3:8). Thus sin is not the true master of men, but a usurper, ruling with
rigor, albeit the rule is disguised so that not even the wisest seems
capable of recognizing it apart from the teaching of the Spirit of God."
Long my imprisoned spirit lay
Fast bound in sin and nature's night;
Thine eye diffused a quickening ray,
I woke, the dungeon flamed with light;
My chains fell off, my heart was
I rose, went forth, and followed
5:13 For you were called to freedom, brethren; only do not
turn your freedom into an opportunity for the flesh, but through love
serve one another.
Paul says our liberty in Christ has limits imposed by our consideration
James 1:25 (note)
But one who looks intently at the perfect law, the law of liberty,
and abides by it, not having become a forgetful hearer but an effectual
doer, this man shall be blessed in what he does.
James 2:12 So speak and so act, as those who are to be judged by
the law of liberty.
1 Peter 2:16 (note)
Act as free men, and do not use your freedom as a covering for
evil, but use it as bondslaves of God.
Real "freedom" is a marvelous paradox for it entails enslavement to God!
2 Peter 2:19 (note)
promising them freedom while they themselves are slaves of
corruption; for by what a man is overcome, by this he is enslaved.
Christian liberty is far removed from the fleshy license which these
false teachers promise their foolish followers. John Bunyan (1628-88),
author of Pilgrim's Progress, suffered in Bedford jail for his faith so
was especially qualified to write on the subject of freedom
though the Christian, as a Christian, is the only man at liberty, as
called thereunto of God; yet his liberty is limited to things that are
good: he is not licensed thereby to indulge the flesh.
There is one use of eleutheria
in the Septuagint...
Leviticus 19:20 'Now if a man lies
carnally with a woman who is a slave acquired for another man, but who
has in no way been redeemed, nor given her freedom, there shall be
punishment; they shall not, however, be put to death, because she was
is presented as a signal blessing of the economy of grace, and these
false teachers are turning the grace of God into licentiousness,
those “trying to escape” the struggles of life, the very freedom
they themselves do not possess. For example they may teach false
doctrines such as "Freedom
in Christ means “doing your own thing” or “having it your way”, a
devilish doctrine that is the very essence of sin and rebellion
against the will of God and His holiness.
In stark contrast the freedom Jesus
Christ offers is enjoying fulfillment IN the will of God. It is freedom
and inherent Spirit given ability to live as one SHOULD, not as one
PLEASES! Our victory in Christ is over death and the power of sin (1Cor
15:55, 56, 57) and frees the redeemed to achieve their greatest human
potential to the glory of God.
The Quaker Rufus Jones,
paraphrasing Aristotle, said,
“The true nature of a thing is the
highest that it can become.”
Jesus Christ frees us to become
our very best for God in this fleeting life, and then to be like Him in the next. These false teachers brought their followers into bondage by
means of the LIE, whereas our Lord Jesus Christ brings men into freedom
by means of the TRUTH. teaching the basic spiritual
principles that "you will
truth, and the
free." (Jn 8:31, cp Jn
17:17) and the opposite principle that "everyone who commits (present
habitually, as their lifestyle) sin is the slave of sin." (Jn 8:34)
The false teachers promise freedom,
but their promotion of licentiousness only brings bondage for freedom
can never be found in the flesh, but only in God’s Spirit (contrast
those in Jude 1:19). Unqualified freedom in any area of human life is
deceptive and deadly.
As A W Tozer said...
liberty within bounds: liberty to obey holy laws, liberty to keep the
commandments of Christ, to serve mankind, to develop to the full all the
latent possibilities within our redeemed natures. True Christian liberty
never sets us free to indulge our lusts or to follow our fallen
impulses. (God Tells the Man Who Cares. 1992, page 185)
isn’t found in what Jesus can give us, but only in Jesus Himself. Those
who live by God’s truth enter into more and more
but those who live by lies experience more and more bondage,
the latter end is worse with them than the beginning
2 Peter 2:20)
To reiterate, the freedom
offered by these teachers is a false freedom, a freedom
that tragically (ironically) only leads to bondage. It is based on false
promises, empty words that sound exciting but that have no divine
authority behind them. It is offered by false Christians (wolves in
sheep's clothing) who were involved in a false experience. From start to
finish, this brand of freedom
is clearly the work of our adversary, the devil
The writer of Hebrews warns us to
beware of the deceitfulness of sin (Heb 3:13-note).
The Deceitfulness of Sin)
Sin always promises freedom
but in the end brings bondage. It promises life but
instead brings death. Sin has a way of gradually binding a person until
there is no way of escape, apart from the gracious intervention of the
Lord. Even the bondage that sin creates
is deceitful, for the people who are bound actually think they are free!
Too late they discover that they are prisoners of their own appetites
has this note...
spoken of in Gal 5:1 is liberty from the Mosaic law, not liberty to do
as one pleases. The one set at liberty from the law is under a stronger
and more effective compulsion, namely, divine love as ministered to the
yielded saint by the Holy Spirit (Gal 5:13). These false teachers, not
being saved and therefore not knowing grace, misrepresented the latter
as license to sin.
John Piper has a reasoned discussion of
this section noting that
false teachers were right to promise people
freedom. The call to freedom is at the heart of New
Testament faith. But this was not a call to give free reign to
your passions. For then you are really a slave of corruption as
verse 19 says. The apostolic call to freedom recognizes 1)
that Christ had died to free us from the guilt and power of
sin; 2) that we are free from the law in the sense that we
need no longer strive to keep it in our own strength; and 3) we
are given new hearts by the Holy Spirit so that freely we
delight in holiness. But everywhere this gospel of freedom
was preached false teachers distorted it. And 2Pe 3:16
[note] shows that the writings of the
apostle Paul were a sitting duck for this distortion. It says, "There
are some things in them hard to understand, which the ignorant and
unstable twist to their own destruction." The false teachers
take the unstable souls (cf 2Pe 2:14-note) and teach how to use the letters
of Paul to justify their view of sexual freedom. Paul
already knew that his teaching about freedom was open to
this abuse and he warned against it. For example, in Gal 5:13 he
says: "You were called to freedom, brethren; only do not use your
freedom as an opportunity for the flesh, but through love be servants of
one another." But the false teachers were doing just that, using their
freedom as an opportunity to indulge their love for money and their love
for praise and the love for sexual pleasure. They probably quoted Gal
5:1 with great power among the new and unstable converts: "For freedom Christ has set us free;
stand fast therefore and do not submit again to a yoke of
slavery!" "Away with the enslaving rules that govern the life
of the body! You are not under law; you are under grace!"
But they probably neglected entirely those other teachings of
Paul, "If you live according to the flesh you will die, but if by
the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body you will live" (Ro
8:13-note). So Peter blasts the trumpet of warning: they are
twisting the Scriptures to their own destruction and their
promised freedom is a bondage to corruption. (Better
Never to Have Known the Way)
Illustration - Everybody
longs for freedom. But for many people its pursuit leads to bondage.
Beloved Bible teacher Henrietta Mears knew the secret of true freedom,
and she wanted her students to know it too. With young people in mind,
she said, "A bird is free in the air. Place a bird in the water and he
has lost his liberty. A fish is free in the water, but leave him on the
sand and he perishes. He is out of his realm. So, young people, the
Christian is free when he does the will of God and is obedient to God's
command. This is as natural a realm for God's child as the water is for
the fish, or the air for the bird."
Wise King Solomon urged his son to understand that true freedom is
possible only within the sphere of God-centered living, for which He
created us. By contrast, bondage predictably and inescapably comes to
anyone who ignores God's truth. Proverbs 16 describes the liberty and
satisfaction that come from practicing humility, trust, careful
conversation, and self-control. But it also warns about the inevitable
bondage that comes into the lives of people governed by willful
rebellion, pride, arrogance, strife, and malicious trouble-making.
The New Testament introduces us to Jesus—the ultimate source of our
freedom. He, our Creator and Redeemer, said, "If you abide in My word,
you are My disciples indeed. And you shall know the truth, and the truth
shall make you free" (John 8:31, 32). —M. R. De Haan II
Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand
Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved)
True freedom is
not having our own way,
but yielding to God's way.
-Isaiah 42:7; 61:1
By God -Colossians 1:13
By Christ -Galatians 4:3-5; 5:1
By the Holy Spirit -Romans 8:15; 2Co 3:17
Through the gospel -John 8:32
Confirmed by Christ -John 8:36
Proclaimed by Christ -Isaiah 61:1; Luke 4:18
The service of Christ is -1 Corinthians 7:22
IS FREEDOM FROM
The law -Romans 7:6; 8:2
The curse of the law -Galatians 3:13
The fear of death -Hebrews 2:15
Sin -Romans 6:7,18
Corruption -Romans 8:21
Bondage of man -1 Corinthians 9:19
Jewish ordinances -Galatians 4:3; Colossians 2:20
Called the glorious liberty of the children of God -Romans 8:21
Saints are called to -Galatians 5:13
Praise God for -Ps 116:16,17
Assert -1Co 10:29
Walk in -Psalms 119:45
Stand fast in -Ga 2:5; 5:1
Not abuse -Galatians 5:13; 1 Peter 2:16
Not offend others by -1Corinthians 8:9; 10:29,32
The gospel is the law of -James 1:25; 2:12
Promise, to others -2 Peter 2:19
Abuse -Jude 1:4
Try to destroy -Ga 2:4
The wicked, devoid of -Jn 8:34; Ro 6:20
Typified -Lv 25:10-17; Ga 4:22, 23, 24, 25, 26,31
THEMSELVES ARE SLAVES OF CORRUPTION: autoi douloi huparchontes (PAPMPN) tes phthoras: (Jn 8:34; Ro 6:12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19,
20, 21, 22; Titus 3:3)
being bondservants of the corruption."
These false teachers first come as
a trusted guest, linger to become an appealing host, and remain to
enslave their unwitting victims!
Since these false teachers have
denied Jesus Christ Who purchased with His own blood enslaved sinners
from the power of sin (2Pe 2:1), they have in effect denied the only
Source of spiritual freedom (Jn 8:31, 32, 36, Ro 8:2-note,
Ga 5:1). Writing to Titus Paul reiterates every man's condition who
refuses God's offer of forgiveness in Christ...
For we also once were foolish
ourselves, disobedient, deceived, enslaved to various lusts and
pleasures, spending our life in malice and envy, hateful, hating one
another. (see note
A good rule of thumb by which to
judge whether a teacher is true or false is to listen to what they say
about the Cross. When any teacher does not put the Cross at the center
of his or her teaching, beware! Turn from that teacher. Our redemption
is in the blood. Jesus bought us with His blood.
(the false teachers) are unable to deliver the freedom they promise,
because they themselves
are (continuously enslaved to the very corruption which their followers are also
trying to escape. You cannot set someone free if you are in bondage
yourself, and these false teachers were in bondage to sin. They
professed to be born again but had never really been redeemed (set free)
themselves as proven by their permanent condition of enslavement! A profound irony of
sin is evident here: the quest for freedom from God leads only to
slavery to sin and self. True freedom from sin involves joyful “slavery”
to God (cf. Ro 6:18-note). The apostate ministers
talk a lot about freedom, but they mean freedom from divine authority
and freedom to sin. Actually, this is not liberty but the worst form of
bondage. They themselves are slaves of corruption. Bound by the chains
of evil lusts and habits, they are powerless to break free.
Are - Notice this verb is
in the present
indicates their continual enslavement to sin, their master, a cruel
from deo = to bind so doulos
= one bound to another) is one who is in bondage or bound to another and
thus describes the horrible state of being completely controlled by
Doulos is the most abject, servile form
of slavery. The "doulos" is the possession of
his master (the master in context being personified by whatever specific
sin it is that conquers him) and is obligated to do "sin's" will,
They should have been bond servants of Jesus Christ (1Pe 2:!6-note, etc)
but instead chose to to have "corruption" as their master.
As Matthew Henry comments...
Their own lusts have gotten a complete victory over them, and they
are actually in bondage to them (Ro 6:16-note),
making provision for the flesh (Ro 13:!4-note)
to satisfy its cravings, comply with its directions, and obey its
commands. Their minds and hearts are so far corrupted and depraved that
they have neither power nor will to refuse the task that is imposed on
them. They are conquered and captivated by their spiritual enemies, and
yield their members servants of unrighteousness (Ro 6:13-note).
= to destroy by means of dissolution
which in turn is brought about by internal not
external decay) (3/8 NT uses in 2Peter 1:4, 2:12, 19) describes a state of
ruin or destruction with the implication of disintegration, decay or
rotting (like fruit or vegetables that you leave in the refrigerator
crisper for months! What a picture of the hearts of these men.). In
context Peter is using it to describe the "rotting" of the morals
and loss of integrity that results from a slow, inexorable internal
decay or as Bishop Moule phrases it men "on the way to final ruin".
The resultant state represents a departure from the original or from
what is pure or correct.
points out that
corruption denotes not merely
the decay which sin produces in this life; it also involves that
spiritual corruption which leads to perdition.
In his opening comments Peter
reminded the believers that...
by these (His own glory and
excellence) He has granted (perfect tense
= permanence of these divine gifts) to us His precious and magnificent
promises, in order that by them you might become
of the divine nature,
the corruption (phthora)
that is in the world by
2 Peter 1:4)
As Matthew Henry so
Grace does not run in the blood, but
corruption does. A sinner begets a sinner, but a saint does not
beget a saint.
FOR BY WHAT A
MAN IS OVERCOME: o gar tis hettetai (3SRPI):(2Pe 2:20; Isa 28:1;
Je 23:9; 2Ti 2:26)
For (gar) introduces an explanation. Whenever you
term of explanation,
always consider performing the 4P's (pause to ponder and practice
the passage), which is facilitated by
interrogating the text with the 5W/H'S,
asking questions like "What is being explained?". As you perform
the 4P's, you will find that you are in essence engaging in the
Biblical Meditation which
God promises to richly reward (See Ps 1:2-note,
Thomas Merton said that...
Every man becomes the image of the
man he adores. He whose worship is directed to a dead thing becomes a
dead thing. He who loves corruption rots. He who loves a shadow becomes,
himself, a shadow.
Peter restates the same principle
Paul taught in Romans --
not know that when you present yourselves to someone as slaves for
obedience, you are slaves of the one whom you obey, either of sin
resulting in death, or of obedience resulting in righteousness? (see
You are a slave to whatever masters you.
Are you mastered by anything?
by any possession? by any person?
Many believe that freedom means doing anything they want. But no one is
ever completely free in that sense. The freedom Christ brings is freedom
from sin, not freedom to do whatever we want. Too often freedom from
rules, structure, or obedience leads to an addiction or preoccupation
with the new pleasures freedom offers. But these actions can quickly
enslave a person. If people refuse
to follow God, their only option is to follow Satan and their own sinful
desires and become enslaved to what their bodies want. Only Christ
promises and delivers true freedom, for only those who surrender their
lives to Christ as Savior and Lord are set free from slavery to sin.
True freedom from the bondage to sin is found in our enslavement to
Christ, the Lord of all.
Overcome (2274) (hettao
hetton = less, inferior) first means to be less or inferior. The
idea is to be put to the worse and hence to be defeated or conquered. To
succumb. To be vanquished, subdued and enslaved or
overcome as in a conflict or a lawsuit. To be
forced to yield. The idea
is of suffering a defeat that so that what conquers now has mastery over
the defeated party.
Hettao means to be vanquished
as in a military battle alluding to the ancient law of war in which
those who were defeated were taken captive by the conquerors and became
Hettao is used in the NT only
in this verse and 2Pe 2:20 (note).
in Nestle-Aland, but in KJV is also used in 2Co 12:13 where hettao
means to be treated as inferior to or worse than. To be made to feel
less important, be treated worse.
Hettao is used 13 times in the
- Isa. 8:9; 13:15;
19:1; 20:5; 30:31; 31:4, 9; 33:1; 51:7; 54:17; Jer. 48:1; Da 6:5, 8.
Webster has a parallel thought stating that "overcome"
means get the better of by force or strategy and implies gaining mastery
over the one conquered. Now don't you have a better picture of what is
going on in the hearts and lives of these false teachers? They are may
look very successful but they are not to be envied because they are
is in the
which signifies that they had been overcome
at some point of time in the past and were still still overcome.
perfect tense speaks of the permanence of their condition..
Josephus provides us with a helpful illustration of the verb
hettao describing Jacob as being overcome
by his love for Rebekah...
not so much by their kindred, nor by that affection which might arise
thence, as by his love to the damsel, and his surprise at her beauty,
which was so flourishing, as few of the women of that age could vie
with. He said then, "There is a relation between thee and me, elder than
either thy or my birth, if thou be the daughter of Laban (The works of Josephus Ant I, xix 5)
Adam Clarke comments that the
idea of overcome...
is an allusion to the ancient custom
of selling for slaves those whom they had conquered and captivated in
war. The ancient law was, that a man might either kill him whom he
overcame in battle, or keep him for a slave. These were called servi,
slaves, from the verb servare, to keep or preserve. And they were
also called mancipia, from manu capiuntur, they are taken
captive by the hand of their enemy. Thus the person who is overcome
by his lusts is represented as being the slave of those lusts (see Ro
William Barclay records
Seneca said, "To be enslaved to
oneself is the heaviest of all servitudes." Persius spoke to the lustful
debauchees of his day of "the masters that grow up within that sickly
breast of yours." These teachers were offering liberty when they
themselves were slaves, and the liberty they were offering was the
liberty to become slaves of lust.
W: The Daily Study Bible Series. The Westminster Press
BY THIS HE IS
ENSLAVED: touto dedoulotai (3SRPI):
By this - By his sin.
Several thousand years earlier
Solomon (in context speaking of those trapped in the sin of sexual
immorality) warned that sin enslaves explaining that...
His own iniquities will capture the
wicked, and he will be held with the cords of his sin. (Pr 5:22-notes)
described sinners as those who...
lie in wait for their own blood.
They ambush ("booby trap" NLT) their own lives. (Pr 1:18) (Beloved, sin
no matter how alluring and pleasurable
is always a deadly, deceptive trap - cp Heb 3:13-
Jesus answering the Jews who
had supposedly "believed" in Him (compare Jn 8:30, 31, 32 and Jn
8:40, 43, 44, 45, 46, 59 - notice His audience never changes!) ...
Truly, truly, I say to you, everyone
who commits (present
habitually) sin is (present
tense) the slave of
sin. (Jn 8:34)
Paul writing to the the
saints at Rome...
Do you not know that when you present
yourselves to someone as slaves for obedience, you are slaves of the one
whom you obey, either of sin resulting in death, or of obedience
resulting in righteousness? (Ro 6:16-note)
I see a different law in the members
of my body, waging war against the law of my mind, and making me a
prisoner of the law of sin which is in my members. (Ro 7:23-note)
Comment: The motif of bondage
and freedom is central to the teaching of Paul, and it takes two forms:
bondage to law and bondage to sin and death.
In Paul's last known
written communication, explaining how the Lord's bondservant should
conduct himself writes that he should do so...
with gentleness correcting those who
are in opposition (eg, as surely the "disciples" of such false teachers
would be), if perhaps God may grant them repentance leading to the
knowledge of the truth, and they may come to their senses and escape
from the snare of the devil (compare the snare these false teachers had
laid for their foolish audience), having been held captive by him to do
his will. (see notes
So what defeats
these men brings them into a permanent state of bondage as indicated by
Peter's use of the
- see study of
doulos) means to bring someone into a
state of absolute obedience and thus to bring into bondage, to enslave,
to make someone a slave. The idea is to be held and controlled against
one’s will. Figuratively (all NT uses except Acts 7:6) douloo
means to gain control over someone. To become servant, to make someone a
slave or to become a slave, to serve. The imagery derives directly from the ancient
practice of enslaving an enemy defeated in battle as a prisoner! And so
douloo describes not so much a relation of service as primarily one of
dependence upon, or bondage to, something.
Vine writes that douloo...
fulfill the duties of a slave, for whom there was no choice either as to
the kind or length of his service.
The TDNT has an interesting
comment on the background of this Greek word group noting that...
Greeks have a
strong sense of freedom. Personal dignity consists of freedom. There is
thus a violent aversion to bondage. Service may be rendered to the
state, but by free choice. Slavery is scorned and rejected. This
explains the fierceness with which the Greeks fought for political
independence. The only slavery Plato will allow is to the laws. The
laws, however, represent the goal of humanity, so that slavery to law is
in no way derogatory. Aristotle shows a similar scorn for slavery; for
him slaves have no part in the state or true service to it. The Stoics
have a broader view of service. Zeus himself summons us to it, so that,
while free in relation to all people, we are unconditionally bound to
all. Yet the Stoic would never call himself the doúlos theoú; he moves
through the world as basileús and despótēs, the very opposite of the
doúlos. This is the characteristic of the wise. Those who are not wise
are slaves, no matter what the form of their bondage (cf. Epictetus,
Plutarch, and Philo). This survey shows that the group has no religious
significance for the Greeks. It acquires this as Near Eastern religions
win new adherents and in so doing change the Greek view of God and our
relationship to him.
G., Friedrich, G., & Bromiley, G. W. Theological Dictionary of the New
There are 8 uses of douloo in the NT
and 2 in the
- Ge 15:13; Pr 27:8.
15:13 And God said to Abram, "Know for certain that your descendants
will be strangers in a land that is not theirs, where they will be
enslaved (Hebrew = abad = to serve; Lxx = douloo) and oppressed four
(quoting Ge 15:13 above) "But
God spoke to this effect, that his offspring would be aliens in a
foreign land, and that they would be enslaved and mistreated for
four hundred years.
Romans 6:18 (note)
and having been freed from sin, you became slaves (to be
subdued by or subjugated to) of
Paul calls upon his readers to be freed from the slavery of sin that
they might find the glorious freedom of a higher slavery. They are to be
slaves to God (verse below).
Romans 6:22 (note)
But now having been freed from sin and enslaved to God, you
derive your benefit, resulting in sanctification, and the outcome,
1Corinthians 7:15 (context refers to marriage) Yet if the unbelieving one leaves, let him leave; the
brother or the sister is not under bondage in such cases,
but God has called us to peace.
1 Corinthians 9:19 For though I am free from all men, I have
made myself a slave to all, that I might win the more.
The idea is that Paul voluntarily gave up personal rights for the sake
of his work for others.
Galatians 4:3 So also we, while we were children, were held in
bondage (to be dependent) under the elemental things of the world.
Titus 2:3 (note)
Older women likewise are to be reverent in their behavior, not malicious
gossips, nor enslaved to much wine, teaching what is good,
Expositor's Greek Testament has a pithy comment writing that "It is
proved by experience that the reclamation of a woman drunkard is almost
2 Peter 2:19 (note)
promising them freedom while they themselves are slaves of corruption;
for by what a man is overcome, by this he is enslaved.
Wiersbe rightly warns us
The cords of sin get
stronger the more we sin, yet sin deceives (Heb 3:13-
us into thinking we're free and can quit sinning whenever we please.
As the invisible chains of habit are forged, we discover to our horror
that we don't have the strength to break them. Millions of people in
our world today are in one kind of bondage or another and are seeking
for deliverance, but the only One who can set them free is Jesus
Christ. "Therefore if the Son makes you free, you shall be free
indeed" (John 8:36, NKJV).
These deceived lying false teachers promise freedom, perhaps freedom from laws or
other restraints (even conscience) of the
sinful tendencies found in our flesh nature inherited from Adam. For
example there is a teaching making the rounds in evangelical circles
that if we are once saved we are always saved (this part of the teaching
is sound) and now that we are under grace and saved forever, we can
continue sinning habitually.
John would counter this "soft gospel"
(really a "no gospel") warning us that
tense = habitually,
as a lifestyle)
tense = habitually,
as a lifestyle) lawlessness;
lawlessness...8 the one who
tense = habitually,
as a lifestyle)
sin is of the
devil; for the
sinned from the
this purpose, to
works of the
devil. 9 No
one who is
tense = habitually,
as a lifestyle)
abides in him; and he
tense = habitually,
as a lifestyle),
because he is
God. 10 By
God and the
children of the
anyone who does not
tense = habitually,
as a lifestyle)
righteousness is not of
nor the one who does not
the entire chapter 1John 3)
Paul implies that he encountered a similar error in Corinth (read
Jesus warned that
Not everyone who says to Me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter the kingdom of
heaven, but he who does the will of My Father who is in heaven will
enter. Many will say to Me on that day, 'Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy
in Your name, and in Your name cast out demons, and in Your name perform
many miracles?' And then I will declare to them, 'I never knew you;
DEPART FROM ME, YOU WHO PRACTICE (present
tense) LAWLESSNESS (see
Matthew 7:21, See
also Torrey's interesting topical listing of Scriptures on "Self
Peter says the very ones who speak of freedom are slaves. These false
teachers talk of religion and freedom but they do not truly know the Son
of God and are not known by Him (as
the passage in Matthew 7 teaches).
Jesus taught that
continue in My
word, then you are
Mine; 32 and you will
truth, and the
= verb form of word Peter used for the "freedom"
the false teachers promised)" ...34..."Truly,
say to you,
as their lifestyle)
sin is the
slave (doulos) of
Strachan, commenting on the words,
"while they promise them liberty," says: "Doubtless that Antinomianism
(against law, thus lawlessness, not responsible to law) is indicated to
which the doctrine of grace has ever been open. Compare Galatians 5:13.
It arises from the ever-recurring confusion of liberty and license. The
training of conscience is contemporaneous with the growth of Christian
character. The Pauline teaching, which abrogated external legality, was
open to abuse, and might easily be dangerous to recent converts from
heathenism." The liberty spoken of in Galatians 5:1 is liberty from the
Mosaic law, not liberty to do as one pleases. The one set at liberty
from the law is under a stronger and more effective compulsion, namely,
divine love as ministered to the yielded saint by the Holy Spirit (Gal.
5:13). These false teachers, not being saved and therefore not knowing
grace, misrepresented the latter as license to sin. "Servants" is
Doulos, "slaves." The word is a designation of the most abject, servile
form of slavery.
K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans
Bible Knowledge Commentary
techniques of false teachers are only workable with the naive, for the
heretics are like a 300-pound man selling diet books— they promise . . . freedom
but are themselves hopelessly enslaved by depravity (Jn 8:34, 35,
36). Their empty and boastful promises of liberty are reminiscent of Satan’s
words to Eve (Ge 3:5). Slavery is not merely chattel ownership but is the mastery of one’s will by any person, idea, or substance (Ro
1Cor 6:12b). (bolding & colors
A characteristic of the wicked
Prosperity frequently leads to -Psalms 30:6; Hosea 12:8; Luke 12:17-19
Obstinate sinners often given up to -Psalms 81:11,12; Hosea 4:17; 2
EXHIBITED IN THINKING THAT
Our own ways are right -Proverbs 14:12
We should adhere to established wicked practices -Jeremiah 44:17
We are pure -Proverbs 30:12
We are better than others -Luke 18:11
We are rich in spiritual things -Revelation 3:17
We may have peace while in sin -Deuteronomy 29:19
We are above adversity -Psalms 10:6
Gifts entitle us to heaven -Matthew 7:21,22
Privileges entitle us to heaven -Matthew 3:9; Luke 13:25,26
God will not punish our sins
Psalms 10:11; Jeremiah 5:12
Christ shall not come to judge
2 Peter 3:4
Our lives shall be prolonged
Isaiah 56:12; Luke 12:19; James 4:13
Frequently preserved in, to the last
Matthew 7:22; 25:11,12; Luke 13:24,25
Fatal consequences of
Matthew 7:23; 24:48-51; Luke 12:20; 1 Thessalonians 5:3
1 Kings 20:27,34
Church of Laodicea
Is to the devil -1 Timothy 3:7; 2
Is to the fear of death -Hebrews 2:14,15
Is to sin -John 8:34; Acts 8:23; Romans 6:16; 7:23; Galatians 4:3; 2
Deliverance from, promised -Isaiah 42:6,7
Christ delivers from -Luke 4:18,21; John 8:36; Romans 7:24,24; Ephesians
The gospel, the instrument of deliverance from -John 8:32; Romans 8:2
Saints are delivered from -Romans 6:18,22
Deliverance from, illustrated -Deuteronomy 4:20
Israel in Egypt -Exodus 1:13,14