death for the
from eggús = near) means to move nearer to a
reference point, to be at hand or nigh. 2288)
(thanatos from thnesko = to die) refers to physical death, of
separation of the soul from the body.
ergo = to work) refers to toil as an effort or occupation.
See related topic -
click for discussion of what
constitutes a "good deed" in the sight of God.
2:17,27; 1:19,20; Mt 25:36, 37, 38, 39, 40; Acts 20:24; Ro 16:4; 2Cor
12:15; Rev 12:11) (Phil 4:10,18; 1Cor 16:17; Philemon 1:13)
“having gambled with his
Risking his life
from parabolos = venturesome, reckless) literally
means to throw aside (para = aside + ballo = to throw), hence to
expose to danger.
In the present
willing to die. In those days when you visited prisoners held by the
Romans, the visitor was often prejudged as a criminal also. Therefore
the visitor exposed himself to danger just by being near those who
were considered dangerous. This word came to also be used in the sense
of playing the gambler or playing dice because high sums were often at
stake. In a sense Epaphroditus was gambling with his life for the sake
of God's kingdom. The word was used in the papyri of one who in the
interest of friendship had exposed himself to dangers as an advocate
in legal strife by taking his clients' cause even up to emperors.
Paraboleuomai was later used of merchants who for the sake
of gain exposed themselves to death. The word was used of a fighter in
the arena who exposed himself to the dangers of the arena. In the
post-apostolic church there were societies of men and women who called
themselves "the paraboloni" or "the riskers or
gamblers". The risked their lives by ministering the sick and
imprisoned and they saw to it if possible that martyrs and sometimes
even their enemies would receive an honorable burial. In Carthage
during the great plague of 252AD, Cyprian, the bishop, showed
remarkable courage, taking on himself the care of the sick and
urging of his flock to nurse them and bury those who died from the
pestilence. Cyprian's conduct like a light in the darkness contrasted
to the practice of the pagans who threw the corpses out of the
plague-infested city and actually ran from them in terror! Such is the
transforming effect of the gospel.
adds that paraboleuomai was
"a gambler’s word and means to stake everything on a turn of the dice.
Paul is saying that for the sake of Jesus Christ Epaphroditus gambled
his life." (Philippians 2 Commentary)
from psucho = to breathe, blow) refers to whole
person particularly inner, immortal person who lives in the mortal
body. It describes the breath of life as the vital force which
animates the body and shows itself in breathing.
Dichotomists view man as
consisting of two parts material and immaterial, with spirit and soul
denoting the immaterial and bearing only a functional and not a
metaphysical difference. Trichotomists also view man as consisting of
two parts, but with spirit and soul representing in some contexts a
real subdivision of the immaterial. In the latter view psuche
contrasts with soma = body, and pneúma = spirit
(see 1Th 5:23).
from aná = up or as an emphatic +
= to fill) means to fill up or supply a deficiency.
= to lack, fall behind) means a
deficit as that which is behind or that which is lacking)
= to be a public servant, to
perform religious or charitable function, to minister) generally used
of a servant of a superior and suggests a function to be discharged or
a necessary service to be rendered.
Leitourgia is the word Paul
used to describe himself as "being poured out as a drink
offering upon the sacrifice and service of your faith." (see