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night, and when
if he will
good; let him
redeem you. But
if he does not
then I will
redeem you, as
Amplified: Remain tonight, and in the morning if he will
perform for you the part of a kinsman, good; let him do it. But if he
will not do the part of a kinsman for you, then, as the Lord lives, I
will do the part of a kinsman for you. Lie down until the morning.
Bible - Lockman)
BBE: Take your rest here tonight; and in
the morning, if he will do for you what it is right for a relation to
do, very well, let him do so: but if he will not, then by the living
Lord I myself will do so.
CEV: Stay here until
morning, then I will find out if he is willing to look after you. If
he isn't, I promise by the living God to do it myself. Now go back to
sleep until morning. (CEV)
GWT: Stay here tonight. In the morning
if he will agree to take care of you, that is good. He can take care
of you. But if he does not wish to take care of you, then, I solemnly
swear, as the LORD lives, I will take care of you myself. Lie down
until morning." (GWT)
this night, and it shall be in the morning, that if he will perform
unto thee the part of a kinsman, well; let him do the kinsman's part:
but if he will not do the part of a kinsman to thee, then will I do
the part of a kinsman to thee, as the LORD liveth: lie down until the
NET: Remain here tonight. Then in the morning, if he agrees to
marry you, fine, let him do so. But if he does not want to do so, I
promise, as surely as the LORD lives, to marry you. Sleep
here until morning."
Stay here for tonight and, in the morning, if he wishes to exercise
his right over you, very well, let him redeem you. But if he does not
wish to do so, then as Yahweh lives, I shall redeem you. Lie here till
TEV: Stay here the rest of
the night, and in the morning we will find out whether or not he will
take responsibility for you. If so, well and good; if not, then I
swear by the living Lord that I will take the responsibility. Now lie
down and stay here till morning.”
Lodge to night, and it hath been in the morning, if he doth redeem
thee, well: he redeemeth; and if he delight not to redeem thee, then I
have redeemed thee -- I; Jehovah liveth! lie down till the morning.'
(3SPAS) athchisteusai (AAN)
Click here for explanation of verb
abbreviations in parentheses after each verb
here for the night, and it shall be in the morning, if he will
do the part of a kinsman to thee, well - let him do it: but if
he will not do the part of a kinsman to thee, I will do the
kinsman's part to thee, as the Lord lives; lie down till the
THIS NIGHT AND WHEN
MORNING COMES IF HE WILL REDEEM YOU GOOD LET HIM REDEEM YOU, GOOD: (Ru
2:20; 4:5; Dt 25:5, 6, 7, 8, 9; Mt 22:24, 25, 26, 27)
If he will marry thee by
right of relationship, let him marry thee, but if he will not, I will
marry thee. (William Gesenius, Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon)
if he will do for you what it is right for a relation to do, very
well, let him do so (BBE)
in the morning I’ll talk to him, and if he will marry you, fine; let
him do his duty (TLB)
Then in the morning, if he agrees to marry
you, fine, let him do so (NET)
means to lodge and in modern Hebrew the word for "hotel" derives from
this verb. Boaz uses the Hebrew imperative, commanding her to remain.
This Hebrew verb was used by Ruth in chapter 1 (Ru 1:16)
Arnold Fruchtenbaum makes
the distinction regarding the verb remain that...
The word in Hebrew is lun
and not shachav, and that is significant because shachav
does carry sexual connotations, but lun does not. So, by the use of
this verb, all ambiguity is removed concerning the sexual implication
between the two. When
they were in the very crucible of temptation, they proved themselves
righteous by choosing integrity over passion. (Fruchtenbaum, A. G.
Ariel's Bible Commentary: The books of Judges and Ruth. Page 331. San
Antonio, Tex.: Ariel Ministries)
When the morning comes -
Here is another promise from Boaz, specifically declaring that he will
resolve the issue the next day!
(boqer) means daybreak, the point of time at which night is changing to day, just before the rising of the sun. In the ancient Near East
the night was divided into three watches. The last period of the night
was called the morning watch (Ex 14:24) and lasted from 2:00 A.M.-
sunrise. When we read about the period of the Judges, we learn that
people did not travel the main highways because they were not safe.
Instead they would take off across the fields.
Boaz as Ruth's Protector
- This truth about the danger of
night travel helps us understand Boaz's charge for Ruth to
rest of the night, for in this way she would be
protected from any potential physical harm. In the next verse (Ru
3:14) Boaz undertakes to protect her reputation.
Redeem you - Notice that
this phrase occurs 4 times in this verse in the NAS emphasizing
specifically that the redemption is of Ruth. This association is
obscured by the NIV (Ru 3:13NIV, cp the literal rendering Ru 3:13YLT).
(ga'al) means to redeem as a kinsman-redeemer. Boaz repeatedly emphasizes the fulfilling of the kinsman redeemer's
responsibilities as a guardian of the family interests, specifically
in this case marrying Ruth.
Ga'al is translated in
the Greek verb agchisteuo which means to be the next of kin, to
do what a kinsman was supposed to do (marry a woman) thus exercising
the rights and responsibilities of the kinsman.
Agchisteuo= 32x in 21
verses in the
Septuagint (LXX) - Lev. 25:25, 26; Nu 5:8; 35:12, 19, 21, 24f, 27;
36:8; Dt. 19:6, 12; Jos. 20:3, 9; Ru 2:20; Ru 3:13 = 4x; Ru 4:4 =
5x, Ru 4:6 = 3x, Ru 4:7; Ezra 2:62; Neh. 7:64
What does the fact that he told
Ruth there was another nearer kinsman-redeemer show about Boaz's
Christ-like unselfishness (cp
Php 2:3, 4, 5-see
notes v5), as well as honesty and
The humble person is not one who thinks meanly of himself; he simply
does not think of himself at all! (Andrew Murray) Humility is that
grace that, when you know you have it, you have lost it! The truly
humble person knows himself and accepts himself (Ro 12:3-note). He yields
himself to Christ to be a servant, to use what he is and has for the
glory of God and the good of others.
both Ruth (giving up what other young women would choose...rich or
even poor young men) and Boaz (laying aside his own personal interests
in Ruth) manifest this Christ-like attitude.
To summarize, Boaz demonstrated his integrity in two ways:
(1) He did not send Ruth home in the middle of the night for that
would have been potentially dangerous. And even though she lay at his
feet the remainder of the night, his intentions remained steadfastly
honorable. Boaz would
protect her and would not touch her inappropriately. These actions
speak volumes about this godly man's character in the dark days of the
judges (Jdg 21:25).
Boaz also protected the rights of the Goel who was an even closer
relative than he. This man understood denial of self, long before the
"Greater Boaz" uttered those words (Mk 8:34).
BUT IF HE DOES NOT WISH
TO REDEEM YOU THEN I WILL REDEEM YOU
AS THE LORD LIVES:
(Jdg 8:19; Jer 4:2; 2Co 1:23; Heb 6:16)
but if he will not, then
by the living Lord I myself will do so (BBE)
but if he won’t,
then I will, I swear by Jehovah (TLB)
if not, then I swear
by the living Lord that I will take the responsibility. Now lie down
and stay here till morning
But if he does not want to
do so, I promise, as surely as the Lord lives, to marry you (NET)
But if he does not wish to
take care of you, then, I solemnly swear, as the Lord lives, I will
take care of you myself
means to delight in, to have pleasure, to have favor, to be pleased,
to feel great favor towards something and to desire and/or be willing
to do something not by force implying voluntary choice.
Chaphets - 70v in the OT
- Gen. 34:19; Num. 14:8; Deut. 21:14; 25:7f; Jdg. 13:23; Ruth 3:13; 1
Sam. 2:25; 18:22; 19:1; 2 Sam. 15:26; 20:11; 22:20; 24:3; 1 Ki. 9:1;
10:9; 2 Chr. 9:8; Est. 2:14; 6:6f, 9, 11; Job 9:3; 13:3; 21:14; 33:32;
Ps. 18:19; 22:8; 37:23; 40:6, 8; 41:11; 51:6, 16, 19; 68:30; 73:25;
109:17; 112:1; 115:3; 119:35; 135:6; 147:10; Prov. 18:2; 21:1; Eccl.
8:3; Cant. 2:7; 3:5; 8:4; Isa. 1:11; 13:17; 42:21; 53:10; 55:11; 56:4;
58:2; 62:4; 65:12; 66:3f; Jer. 6:10; 9:24; 42:22; Ezek. 18:23, 32;
33:11; Hos. 6:6; Jon. 1:14; Mic. 7:18; Mal. 2:17 rendered in the NAS
as delight(15), delighted(7), delights(8), desire(9), desired(3),
desired*(1), desires(5), favors(1), have any pleasure(1), have
delight(2), have pleasure(1), pleased(6), pleases(7), take
pleasure(3), wish(2), wished(1), wishes(1).
Moses uses chaphets
in describing Shechem feelings toward Dinah...
And the young man (Shechem) did not
delay to do the thing, because he was delighted with Jacob's
daughter. Now he was
more respected than all the household of his father. (Ge 34:19)
In the OT the idea of desire means much
more than merely ‘to long for’ but in Hebrew psychology the
whole personality was involved in desire. The idea includes a longing
for something that promises enjoyment or satisfaction. Boaz definitely
had the desire to marry Ruth, but he was uncertain whether the nearest
kinsman would also have this desire.
I will redeem you - As alluded to above, this phrase is
repeated for emphasis. In fact the Hebrew text
adds the emphatic pronoun "you" to the verb as translated in the New
American Bible -- "I will claim you
As the LORD lives - This
was the most solemn, binding oath a Jew
could vow. Thus Boaz bound himself, by an oath to fulfill his promise
to redeem Ruth if
the first in line Goel should refuse. For Boaz to not carry out his commitment after invoking the Lord's name
would have been to violate the third commandment (Ex 20:7).
The usual formula of an oath was either: "God
is witness betwixt me and thee" (Ge 31:5) or more commonly: "As
Yahweh (or God) lives" (Jdg 8:19-note;
Ru 3:13-note; 2Sa 2:27; Jer 38:16) or
"Yahweh be a true and faithful witness amongst us" Jer 42:5.
the penalty invoked by the oath was only suggested: "Yahweh do so to me"
as in the first chapter (Ru 1:17-note)
In some cases of giving such an oath, the punishment was expressly
mentioned (Jer 29:22).
Three Hebrew words are used
to describe various aspects of redemption in the Old
The following discussion
represents a synopsis of these words of inestimable value to all
mankind, especially to believers
(01350) is the active participle of the Hebrew verb ga'al
which has the primary meaning of “restored to an original
state”. A goel therefore was one who not only delivered but who effected
restoration to an
original, sometimes ideal, state. The Goel is to do the part of a kinsman and thus to redeem
one's kin from difficulty or danger by the payment of a price.
In most of the OT uses of
Goel we encounter persons or objects which are in
the power of another and are unable to win their release. A
third party appears (the goel) and this person is able to
Those who share the
salvation (rescue, redemption) of God are "the redeemed" Isa
Vine writes that the
main use of Ga'al refers to
the deliverance of persons or
property that had been sold for debt, as in Lv 25:25...If he
prospers, the man himself may “redeem” it (Lv 25:26). A poor man
may sell himself to a fellow Israelite (Lv 25:39) or to an alien
living in Israel (Lv 25:47). The responsibility “to redeem”
belonged to the nearest relative—brother, uncle, uncle’s son, or
a blood relative from his family (Lv 25:25, 48, 49). The person
(kinsman) who “redeemed” the one in financial difficulties was
known as a
Goel, the participial form of the Qal stem of the verb has
practically become a noun in its own right though it may
properly be considered as merely a form of the verb. Thus
although technically Goel is a verb it is generally translated
as one of 3 nouns (redeemer, kinsman or avenger) in most English
Bibles, the specific noun depending on the context.
confused if you are looking up the Strong's numbers because
Strong did not assign a separate number to the root verb
ga'al (Strong's 01350) or the active participle form
goel (Strong's 01350), although for reasons unclear to me,
he did assign a separate number (Strong's 01353) for the
passive participle form, geullah.
A Goel therefore was one who effected restoration to an
original, sometimes ideal, state. Goel means "redeemer" an
English word derived from a Latin root meaning “to buy back,”
thus meaning the liberation of any possession, object, or
person, usually by payment of a ransom. In Greek the root word
means “to loose” and so to free. The term is used of freeing
from chains, slavery, or prison. The reader should be aware that
in the OT, there are 3 separate Hebrew words used for redeem or
(01350) is the root verb form. The active
participle = Go'el, (translated kinsman, redeemer or
avenger) The passive participle = Geullah, (see below)
One difference between
Ga'al and padah (below) is that Ga'al
places emphasis on the redemption being the privilege
or duty of the near relative.
in Dt 19:6, which describes the individual who had the duty to
execute the murderer of his relative. Ga'al is used with this
same sense in Nu 35:19, 21, 24, 27 35:12. Apparently the
idea is that the next of kin must effect the payment of life for
life. As a house is repurchased or a slave redeemed by payment,
so the lost life of the relative must be paid for by the
equivalent life of the murderer. The kinsman is the avenger of
blood. This system of execution must be distinguished from blood
feuds for the go'el was a guiltless executioner and not to be
murdered in turn.
The participial form of the Qal stem
(go'el) of the verb (ga'al) has practically become a noun in its own
right though it may properly be considered as merely a form of the verb.
R. L., Harris, R. L., Archer, G. L., & Waltke, B. K. Theological
Wordbook of the Old Testament Moody Press)
Ga'al - 99x in 84v in NAS - Note majority of uses in
Psalms and Isaiah. Where are most of the uses in Isaiah? What's
Ge 48:16; Ex 6:6; 15:13;
Lev 25:25, 26, 30,
33, 48, 49, 54; 27:13, 15, 19, 20, 27, 28, 31, 33;
Nu 5:8; 35:12, 19, 21,
24, 25, 27; Dt 19:6, 12; Jos 20:3, 5, 9;
Ruth 2:20; 3:9, 12, 13;
4:1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 14;
2Sa 14:11; 1 Ki. 16:11; Job 3:5; 19:25;
19:14; 69:18; 72:14; 74:2; 77:15 78:35 103:4 106:10 107:2
119:154 Pr 23:11
Is 35:9; 41:14; 43:1, 14; 44:6, 22, 23, 24;
47:4; 48:17, 20; 49:7, 26; 51:10; 52:3, 9; 54:5, 8; 59:20;
60:16; 62:12; 63:4, 9, 16;
Jer 31:11; 50:34; Lam 3:58; Ho
13:14; Mic 4:10.
NAS = Redeemer, 18; avenger, 13; bought back, 1; buy
back, 1; claim, 1; close relative, 3; closest relative, 3;
closest relatives, 1; ever wish to redeem, 2; kinsman, 2;
redeem, 22; redeemed, 25; redeemer, 1; redeems, 1; relative, 2;
relatives, 1; rescue, 1; wishes to redeem, 1.
Genesis 48:16 The Angel (Not
a created angel but
Angel of the LORD)
Who has redeemed (ga'al; Lxx =
rhuomai) = deliver, rescue,
save) me from all evil (cp Ge 31:11, 12, 13), bless the lads;
and may my name live on in them, and the names of my fathers
Abraham and Isaac; and may they grow into a multitude in the
midst of the earth.”
Exodus 6:6 “Say, therefore,
to the sons of Israel, ‘I am the Lord, and I will bring you out
from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver
(ga'al; Lxx =
rhuomai) you from their
bondage. I will also redeem (ga'al; Lxx =
lutroo) you with an
outstretched arm and with great judgments. (See also Ps 77:15-note,
cp similar use of Ga'al in Is 51:10)
Exodus 15:13 “In Your
lovingkindness You have led the people whom You have redeemed;
In Your strength You have guided them to Your holy habitation.
Leviticus 25:25 If a fellow
countryman of yours becomes so poor he has to sell part of his
property, then his nearest kinsman (ga'al/goel) is to
come and buy back (ga'al) what his relative has sold. (Note:
This passage is a "prototype" for the OT concept of
Kinsman-Redeemer - Study the other uses in Leviticus for
amplification of this concept).
Psalm 19:14 Let the words of
my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable in Your
sight, O Lord, my Rock and my Redeemer. (cp Ps 78:35-note)
Spurgeon comments: We
must in prayer view Jehovah as our strength enabling, and our
Redeemer saving, or we shall not pray aright, and it is well to
feel our personal interest so as to use the word my,
or our prayers will be hindered. Our near Kinsman's name,
our Goel or Redeemer, makes a blessed ending to
the Psalm; it began with the heavens, but it ends with him whose
glory fills heaven and earth. Blessed Kinsman, give us
now to meditate acceptably upon thy most sweet love and
Psalm 103:4 Who redeems (ga'al; Lxx =
lutroo) your life from the pit,
Who crowns you with lovingkindness and compassion;
Psalm 106:10 So He saved
(Hebrew = yasha = to deliver; Lxx =
sozo) them from the hand of the
one who hated them, And redeemed (ga'al; Lxx =
lutroo) them from the
hand of the enemy.
Psalm 107:2 Let the
redeemed (ga'al; Lxx =
lutroo) of the LORD say so,
Whom He has redeemed from the hand of the adversary
Proverbs 23:11 For their
Redeemer (ga'al; Lxx =
lutroo) is strong; He will
plead their case against you.
Jeremiah 31:11 For the LORD
has ransomed (padah) Jacob and redeemed (ga'al; Lxx =
lutroo) him from the hand of
him who was stronger than he.
Jeremiah 50:34 "Their
Redeemer is strong, the LORD of hosts is His name; He will
vigorously plead their case so that He may bring rest to the
earth, but turmoil to the inhabitants of Babylon.
Hosea 13:14 Shall I ransom
(padah) them from the power of Sheol? Shall I redeem (ga'al; Lxx =
lutroo) them from death? O
Death, where are your thorns? O Sheol, where is your sting?
Compassion will be hidden from My sight. (Quoted in part by Paul
in 1Cor 15:55)
The Book of Ruth (Ru 2:20 3:9 12
4:1 3 4 6 8 14 - Note "close relative" in NAS =
kinsman redeemer) presents the beautiful account of a human
on his character) who beautifully pictures Christ the consummate
TO BE MET
IN THE MESSIAH
Blood Relative =
Gal 4:4, 4:5 Heb
2:14,15, 16, 17
cp Jn 1:1, 14, Php 2:5-11
1Cor 6:20 Gal 3:13
1Pet 1:18, 19
He 7:25, He 10:10-14
Willing to pay
the purchase price
Jn 10:15, 16, 17,
18 1Jn 3:16
Jn 18:37, Ro 5:8 Is 53:4, 5, 6, 7
Willing to take
as one's bride
Ro 7:4 2Co 11:2
Ep 5:25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32
Refers to God - He is
specifically designated as Israel's Redeemer in Is 41:14,
43:14,44:6, 44:24, 47:4, 48:17, 49:7, 49:26, 54:5 (Note God is
not only the "Maker" [~Creator] of Israel but the "Re-maker",
the Redeemer [What else could this speak of but His
unconditional love and amazing grace!] - note also reference to
God as "Husband" of Israel - cp Jer 31:32, Hos 2:19), Is 54:8,
Israel's Redeemer is
also designated by other great names including - "the Holy One
of Israel" Isa 41:14 "the creator of Israel, your King" Isa
43:14, 15 "the
LORD of hosts (of armies)"
Isa 44:6 "the Mighty One of Jacob" Isa 49:26, 59:20,
And a Redeemer (ga'al;
rhuomai = Deliverer, Rescuer)
will come to Zion, And to those who turn from transgression in
Jacob," declares the LORD.
Comment: Quoted by
Paul in Romans 11:26,27-note
in the day that "all Israel will be saved."
This is clearly the Messiah, Israel's Kinsman-Redeemer Who has
already paid the price of deliverance on Calvary and now returns
not just as their Deliverer but as their Blood-Avenger, who
utterly destroys all those who have hated and sought to destroy
Isaiah 62:12 And they
will call them, "The holy people (See the verse above for their
deliverance), the redeemed (ga'al; Lxx =
lutroo in the
which speaks of the eternal security of their redemption - they
are not going to be unredeemed!) of the LORD"; And you
when God's City would be the capitol of the world)
will be called, "Sought out, a city not forsaken."
Isaiah 63:9 In all their
affliction He was afflicted, and the angel of His presence
(Not a created angel but
Angel of the LORD)
saved them (Only God can save - so this is almost certainly
Jesus); In His love and in His mercy He redeemed them,
And He lifted them and carried them all the days of old.
Redemption from bondage in
Egypt in Is 51:10.
Refers to the Lord's act of
redeeming Israel (~Jacob) - Is 43:1, 44:22, 44:23, 48:20,
52:3, 52:9 ( = prophecy of the
when Jerusalem would once and for all time be set
free from captivity to foreign nations as prophesied in Mic
4:1,2,3 and Is 2:1,2,3-note),
Vine makes the
interesting observation that
The Book of Psalms often
places spiritual redemption in parallel with physical
redemption. For example: Oh draw near to my soul and redeem
it; Ransom me because of my enemies! (Ps. 69:18).
Goel - Our Kinsman Redeemer -
In Shadow (Type) & Substance
ISBE Article on
REDEEMER; REDEMPTION - re-dem'-er,
re-demp'-shun (paraq, "to tear loose," "to rescue," padhah,
ga'al; agorazo, referring to purchase, lutroumai, from lutron,
1. Gradual Moralizing of Idea
2. Redemption as Life in Individual
3. Redemption as Social
4. Redemption as Process
5. Moral Implications in Scriptural Idea of Redeemer
6. Uniqueness of Son of God as Redeemer
The idea of redemption in the Old Testament takes its start from
the thought of property (Lev 25:26; Ru 4:4ff). Money is paid
according to law to buy back something which must be delivered
or rescued (Nu 3:51; Neh 5:8). From this start the word
"redemption" throughout the Old Testament is used in the general
sense of deliverance. God is the Redeemer of Israel in the sense
that He is the Deliverer of Israel (Dt 9:26; 2Sa 7:23; 1Ch
17:21; Isa 52:3). The idea of deliverance includes deliverance
from all forms of evil lot, from national misfortune (Isa 52:9;
63:9; cp Lk 2:38), or from plague (Ps 78:35,52), or from
calamity of any sort (Ge 48:16; Nu 25:4,9). Of course, the
general thought of the relation of Israel to God was that God
had both a claim upon Israel (Dt 15:15) and an obligation toward
Israel (1Ch 17:21; Ps 25:22). Israel belonged to Him, and it was
by His own right that He could move into the life of Israel so
as to redeem Israel. On the other hand, obligation was upon Him
to redeem Israel.
In the New Testament the idea of redemption has more a
suggestion of ransom. Men are held under the curse of the law
(Gal 3:13), or of sin itself (Ro 7:23f). The Redeemer purchases
their deliverance by offering Himself as payment for their
redemption (Ep 1:7; 1Pe 1:18).
1. Gradual Moralizing of Idea of Redemption:
Throughout both the Old Testament and the New Testament there is
to be observed a gradual moralizing of the meaning of
redemption. The same process of moralizing has continued
throughout all the Christian ages. Starting with the idea of
redemption price, conceived almost in material terms, religious
thought has advanced to conceptions entirely moral and
spiritual. Through the Scriptures, too, the idea of redemption
becomes more specific with the progress of Christian revelation.
In the beginning God is the Redeemer from distresses of all
kinds. He redeems from calamity and from sorrows. This general
idea, of course, persists throughout the revelation and enters
largely into our thinking of today, but the growing moral
discernment of the Biblical writers comes to attach more and
more importance to sin as the chief disturber of man's welfare.
We would not minimize the force of the Scriptural idea that God
is the Deliverer from all misfortune to which man falls heir,
but the Scriptural emphasis moves more and more to deliverance
from sin. Paul states this deliverance as a deliverance from the
law which brings sin out into expression, but we must not
conceive his idea in any artificial fashion. He would have men
delivered not only from the law, but also from the consequences
of evil doing and from the spirit of evil itself (Ro 8:2).
2. Redemption as Life in the Individual:
In trying to discern the meaning of redemption from sin, toward
which the entire progress of Biblical and Christian thought
points, we may well keep in mind the Master's words that He came
that men might have life and might have it more abundantly (Jn
10:10). The word "life" seems to be the final New Testament word
as a statement of the purpose of Christ. God sent His Son to
bring men to life. The word "life,"' however, is indefinite.
Life means more at one period of the world's history than at
another. It has the advantage, nevertheless, of always being
entirely intelligible in its essential significance. Our aim
must be to keep this essential significance in mind and at the
same time to provide for an increasing fullness and enlargement
of human capacity and endeavor. The aim of redemption can only
be to bring men to the fullest use and enjoyment of their
powers. This is really the conception implicit even in the
earliest statements of redemption. The man redeemed by money
payment comes out of the prison to the light of day, or he comes
out of slavery into freedom, or he is restored to his home and
friends. The man under the law is redeemed from the burden and
curse of the law. Paul speaks of his experience under the law as
the experience of one chained to a dead body (Rom 7:24). Of
course, relief from such bondage would mean life. In the more
spiritual passages of the New Testament, the evil in men's
hearts is like a blight which paralyzes their higher activities
In all redemption, as conceived of in Christian terms, there is
a double element. There is first the deliverance as from a
curse. Something binds a man or weights him down: redemption
relieves him from this load. On the other hand, there is the
positive movement of the soul thus relieved toward larger and
fuller life. We have said that the Biblical emphasis is always
upon deliverance from sin as the essential in redemption, but
this deliverance is so essential that the life cannot progress
in any of its normal activities until it is redeemed from evil.
Accordingly in the Scriptural thought all manner of blessings
follow deliverance. The man who seeks first the Kingdom of God
and His righteousness finds all other things added unto him (Mt
6:33). Material, intellectual and social blessings follow as
matters of course from the redemption of the inner spirit from
evil. The aim of redemption, to beget in men's hearts the will
to do right, once fulfilled, leads men to seek successfully
along all possible avenues for life. This, of course, does not
mean that the redeemed life gives itself up to the cultivation
of itself toward higher excellencies. It means that the redeemed
life is delivered from every form of selfishness. In the
unselfish seeking of life for others the redeemed life finds its
own greatest achievement and happiness (Mt 16:25).
3. Redemption as Social:
Just as the idea of redemption concerned itself chiefly with the
inner spirit; so also it concerns itself with the individual as
the object of redemption. But as the redemption of the inner
spirit leads to freedom in all realms of life, so also the
redemption of the individual leads to large social
transformations. It is impossible to strike out of the
Scriptures the idea of a redeemed humanity. But humanity is not
conceived of in general or class terms. The object of redemption
is not humanity, or mankind, or the masses. The object of
redemption is rather men set in relation to each other as
members of a family. But it would do violence to the Scriptural
conception to conceive of the individual's relations in any
narrow or restricted fashion (1Co 12:12-27).
An important enlargement of the idea of redemption in our own
time has come as men have conceived of the redemption of
individuals in their social relationships. Very often men have
thought of redemption as a snatching of individuals from the
perils of a world in itself absolutely wicked. Even the material
environment of men has at times been regarded as containing
something inherently evil. The thought of redemption which seems
most in line with Scriptural interpretation would seem to be
that which brings the material and social forces within reach of
individual wills. Paul speaks of the whole creation groaning and
travailing in pain waiting for the revelation of the sons of God
(Rom 8:22). This graphic figure sets before us the essentially
Christian conception of the redemption of the forces in the
midst of which men are placed. Those redeemed for the largest
life, by the very force of their life, will seize all powers of
this world to make them the servants of divine purposes. The
seer saw a great multitude which no man could number, of every
kindred and nation and tongue, shouting the joys of salvation
(Rev 7:9), yet the implication nowhere appears that these were
redeemed in any other fashion than by surrendering themselves to
the forces of righteousness.
4. Redemption as Process:
We have said that the aim of redemption is to bring men to the
largest and fullest life. We have also said that "life" is a
general term. To keep close to the Scriptural conceptions we
would best say that the aim of redemption is to make men like
Christ (Ro 8:9). Otherwise, it might be possible to use the
word "life" so as to imply that the riotous exercise of the
faculties is what we mean by redemption. The idea of redemption,
as a matter of fact, has been thus interpreted in various times
in the history of Christian thinking. Life has been looked upon
as sheer quantitative exuberance--the lower pleasures of sense
being reckoned as about on the same plane with the higher. We
can see the moral and spiritual anarchy which would thus be
brought about. In Christ's words to His disciples He once used
the expression, "Ye are clean because of the word which I have
spoken unto you" (Jn 15:3). In this particular context the idea
does not seem to be that of an external washing. Christ seems
rather to mean that His disciples are cleansed as a vineyard is
cleansed by pruning away some of the branches that others may
bear fruit. In other words, the redemption of life is to be
interpreted so that stress is laid upon the qualitative rather
than the quantitative. Christ indeed found place in His
instructions and in His own life for the normal and healthy
activities of human existence. He was not an ascetic; He went to
feasts and to weddings, but His emphasis was always upon life
conceived of in the highest terms. We can say then that the aim
of redemption is to beget in men life like that in Christ.
5. Moral Implications in the Scriptural Idea of Redeemer:
Moreover, redemption must not be conceived of in such fashion as
to do away with the need of response upon the part of the
individual will. The literal suggestion of ransom has to do with
paying a price for a man's deliverance, whether the man is
willing to be delivered or not. Of course, the assumption in the
mind of the Biblical writers was that any man in prison or in
slavery or in sickness would be overjoyed at being redeemed; but
in dealing with men whose lives are set toward sin we cannot
always make this assumption. The dreadfulness of sin is largely
in the love of sinning which sinning begets. Some thinkers have
interpreted redemption to mean almost a seizing of men without
regard to their own will. It is very easy to see how this
conception arises. A man who himself hates sin may not stop to
realize that some other men love sin. Redemption, to mean
anything, must touch this inner attitude of will. We cannot then
hold to any idea of redemption which brings men under a
cleansing process without the assent of their own wills. If we
keep ourselves alive to the growing moral discernment which
moves through the Scriptures, we must lay stress always upon
redemption as a moral process. Not only must we say that the aim
of redemption is to make men like Christ, but we must say also
that the method of redemption must be the method of Christ, the
method of appealing to the moral will. There is no Scriptural
warrant for the idea that men are redeemed by fiat. The most we
can get from the words of Christ is a statement of the
persistence of God in His search for the lost: `(He goeth) after
that which is lost, until he finds it' (Lk 15:4). Some would
interpret these words to mean that the process of redemption
continues until every man is brought into the kingdom. We
cannot, in the light of the New Testament, limit the redeeming
love of God; but we cannot, on the other hand, take passages
from figurative expressions in such sense as to limit the
freedom of men. The redemption must be conceived of as
respecting the moral choices of men. In our thought of the
divine search for the control of inner human motive we must not
stop short of the idea of men redeemed to the love of
righteousness on its own account. This would do away with the
plan of redeeming men by merely relieving them of the
consequences of their sins. Out of a changed life, of course,
there must come changed consequences. But the Scriptural
teaching is that the emphasis in redemption is always moral, the
turning to life because of what life is.
Having thus attempted to determine, at least in outline, the
content of the Christian idea of redemption, it remains for us
to point out some implications as to the work of the Redeemer.
Throughout the entire teaching on redemption in the Scriptures,
redemption is set before us primarily as God's own affair (Jn
3:16). God redeems His people; He redeems them out of love for
them. But the love of God is not to be conceived of as mere
indulgence, partiality, or good-humored affection. The love of
God rests down upon moral foundations. Throughout the
Scriptures, therefore, we find implied often, if not always
clearly stated, the idea that God is under obligations to redeem
His people. The progress of later thinking has expanded this
implication with sureness of moral discernment. We have come to
see the obligations of power. The more powerful the man the
heavier his obligations in the discharge of this power. This is
a genuinely Christian conception, and this Christian conception
we apply to the character of God, feeling confident that we are
in line with Scriptural teaching. Hence, we may put the
obligations of God somewhat as follows: God is the most
obligated being in the universe. If a man is under heavy
obligations to use aright the power of controlling the forces
already at work in the world, how much heavier must be the
obligations on the Creator who started these forces! The
obligation becomes appalling to our human thought when we think
that creation includes the calling of human beings into
existence and endowing them with the unsolicited boon of
freedom. Men are not in the world of their own choice. Vast
masses of them seem to be here as the outworking of impulses
almost blind. The surroundings of men make it very easy for them
to sin. The tendencies which at least seem to be innate are too
often tragically inclined toward evil. Men seem, of themselves,
utterly inadequate for their own redemption. If there is to be
redemption it must come from God, and the Christian thought of a
moral God would seem to include the obligation on the part of
God to redeem those whom He has sent into the world. Christ has
made clear forever the absolutely binding nature of moral
considerations. If the obligation to redeem men meant everything
to Christ, it must also mean everything to the God of Christ. So
we feel in line with true Christian thinking in the doctrine
that redemption comes first as a discharge of the obligations on
the part of God Himself.
If we look for the common thought in all the Christian
statements of God's part in redemption we find it in this: that
in all these statements God is conceived of as doing all that He
can do for the redemption of man. If in earlier times men
conceived of the human race as under the dominion of Satan, and
of Satan as robbed of his due by the deliverance of man and
therefore entitled to some compensation, they also conceived of
God Himself as paying the ransom to Satan. If they thought of
God as a feudal lord whose dignity had been offended by sin,
they thought of God as Himself paying the cost due to offended
dignity. If their idea was that a substitute for sinners must be
furnished, the idea included the thought of God as Himself
providing a substitute. If they conceived of the universe as a
vast system of moral laws--broken by sin--whose dignity must be
upheld, they thought of God Himself as providing the means for
maintaining the dignity of the laws. If they conceived of men as
saved by a vast moral influence set at work, they thought of
this influence as proceeding, not from man, but from God. The
common thought in theories of redemption then, so far as
concerns God's part, is that God Himself takes the initiative
and does all He can in the discharge of the obligation upon
Himself. Each phrasing of the doctrine of redemption is the
attempt of an age of Christian thinking to say in its own way
that God has done all that He can do for men.
6. Uniqueness of the Son of God as Redeemer:
It is from this standpoint that we must approach the part played
by Christ in redemption. This is not the place for an attempt at
formal statement, but some elements of Christian teaching are,
at least in outline, at once clear. The question is, first, to
provide some relation between God and Christ which will make the
redemptive work of Christ really effective. Some have thought to
find such a statement in the conception that Christ is a
prophet. They would empty the expression, "Son of God," of any
unique meaning; they would make Christ the Son of God in the
same sense that any great prophet could be conceived of as a son
of God. Of course, we would not minimize the teaching of the
Scripture as to the full humanity of Christ, and yet we may be
permitted to voice our belief that the representation of Christ
as the Redeemer merely in the same sense in which a prophet is a
redeemer does not do justice to the Scripture teaching; and we
feel, too, that such a solution of the problem of Christ would
be inadequate for the practical task of redemption. If Christ is
just a prophet giving us His teaching we rejoice in the
teaching, but we are confronted with the problem as to how to
make the teaching effective. If it be urged that Christ is a
prophet who in Himself realized the moral ideal, we feel
constrained to reply that this really puts Christ at a vast
distance from us. Such a doctrine of Christ's person would make
Him the supreme religious genius, but the human genius stands
apart from the ordinary mass of men. He may gather up into
Himself and realize the ideals of men; He may voice the
aspirations of men and realize those aspirations; but He may not
be able to make men like unto Himself. Shakespeare is a
consummate literary genius. He has said once and for all many
things which the common man thinks or half thinks. When the
common man comes upon a phrase of Shakespeare he feels that
Shakespeare has said for all time the things which he would
himself have said if he had been able. But the appreciation of
Shakespeare does not make the ordinary man like Shakespeare; the
appreciation of Christ has not proved successful in itself in
making men like unto Christ.
If, on the contrary, without attempting formal theological
construction, we put some real meaning into the idea of Christ
as the Son of God and hold fast to a unique relationship between
Christ and God which makes Christ the greatest gift that God can
give us, we find indeed that Christ is lifted up to essentially
divine existence; but we find also that this divinity does not
estrange Him from us. Redemption becomes feasible, not merely
when we have a revelation of how far up man can go, but when we
have also a revelation of how far down God can come. If we can
think of God as having in some real way come into the world
through His Son Jesus Christ, that revelation makes Christ the
Lord who can lead us to redemption.
Such a conception furnishes the dynamic which we must have in
any real process of redemption. We need not only the ideal, but
we need power by which to reach the ideal. If we can feel that
the universe is under the sway of a moral God, a God who is
under obligations to bear the burdens of men, and who willingly
assumes these obligations, we really feel that moral life at its
fullest and best is the greatest fact in the universe. Moreover,
we must be true to the Scriptures and lift the entire conception
of redemption beyond the realm of conscience to the realm of the
heart. What the conscience of God calls for, the love of God
willingly discharges. The Cross of Christ becomes at once the
revelation of the righteousness of God and the love of God.
Power is thus put back of human conscience and human love to
move forward toward redemption (Ro 8:35, 36, 37, 38, 39).
The aim of the redemption in Christ then is to lift men out of
death toward life. The mind is to be quickened by the revelation
of the true ideals of human life. The conscience is to be
reenforced by the revelation of the moral God who carries on all
things in the interests of righteousness. The heart is to be
stirred and won by the revelation of the love which sends an
only begotten Son to the cross for our redemption. And we must
take the work of Christ, not as a solitary incident or a mere
historic event, but as a manifestation of the spirit which has
been at work from the beginning and works forever. The Lamb was
slain from the foundation of the world (Rev 13:8); the spirit of
God revealed in the cross of Christ is the same yesterday, today
and forever. We have in the cross a revelation of holy love
which, in a sense, overpowers and at the same time encourages.
The cross is the revelation of the length to which God is
willing to go in redemption rather than set aside one jot or
tittle of His moral law. He will not redeem men except on terms
which leave them men. He will not overwhelm them in any such
manner as to do away with their power of free choice. He will
show men His own feeling of holiness and love. In the name of a
holy love which they can forever aspire after, but which they
can never fully reach, men call to Him for forgiveness and that
forgiveness men find forever available.
It remains to add one further item of Scriptural teaching,
namely that redemption is a continuous process. If we may again
use the word "life," which has been the key to this discussion,
we may say that the aim of redemption is to make men
progressively alive. There are not limits to the development of
human powers touched by the redemptive processes of God. The
cross is a revelation of divine willingness to bear with men who
are forever being redeemed. Of course, we speak of the redeemed
man as redeemed once and for all. By this we mean that he is
redeemed once and for all in being faced about and started in a
right direction, but the progress toward full life may be faster
or slower according to the man and the circumstances in the
midst of which he is placed. Still the chief fact is the
direction in which the man is moving. The revelation of God who
aids in redemption is of the God who takes the direction as the
chief fact rather than the length of the stride or the rate of
the movement. Every man is expected to do his best. If he
stumbles he is supposed to find his way to his feet; if he is
moving slowly, he must attempt to move faster; if he is moving
at a slower rate than he can attain, he must strive after the
higher rate, but always the dynamic force is the revelation of
the holy love of God.
The Scriptures honor the prophets in whatever land or time they
appear. The Scriptures welcome goodness under any and all
circumstances. They have a place for a "light that lighteneth
every man that cometh into the world," but they still make it
clear that the chief force in the redemption of men is the
revelation of holy love in Jesus Christ. The redemption, we
repeat, is never conceived of in artificial or mechanical terms.
If any man hath not the spirit of Christ he does not belong to
Christ (Ro 8:9). The aim of redemption is to beget this spirit,
and this spirit is life.
LITERATURE. H. C. Sheldon, Systematic Theology; Clarke,
Outline of Christian Theology; Brown, Christian Theology in
Outline; Mackintosh, Doctrine of Person of Christ; Bowne,
Studies in Christianity; Tymms, The Christian Atonement.
Francis J. McConnell
Defined. 1Cor 6:20; 1Co 7:23
Is of God. Isa 44:21, 22, 23; 43:1; Lk 1:68
Is by Christ. Mt 20:28; Gal 3:13
Is by the blood of Christ. Acts 20:28; Heb 9:12; 1Pe 1:19; Re
Christ sent to effect. Gal 4:4,5
Christ is made, to us. 1Co 1:30
REDEMPTION: Is from
The bondage of the law. Gal
The curse of the law. Gal 3:13
The power of sin. Ro 6:18,22
The power of the grave. Ps 49:15
All troubles. Ps 25:22
All iniquity. Ps 130:8; Titus 2:14
All evil. Gen 48:16
The present evil world. Gal 1:4
Vain conversation. 1Pe 1:18
Enemies. Ps 106:10,11; Jer 15:21
Death. Ho 13:14
Destruction. Ps 103:4
Man cannot effect. Ps 49:7
Corruptible things cannot purchase. 1 Pet 1:18
REDEMPTION: Procures for us
Justification. Ro 3:24
Forgiveness of sin. Ep 1:7; Col 1:14
Adoption. Gal 4:4,5
Purification. Titus 2:14
The present life, the only season for. Job 36:18,19
REDEMPTION: Described as
Precious. Ps 49:8
Plenteous. Ps 130:7
Eternal. He 9:12
REDEMPTION: Subjects of
The soul. Ps 49:8
The body. Ro 8:23
The life. Ps 103:4; Lam 3:58
The inheritance. Ep 1:14
REDEMPTION: Manifests the
Power of God. Is 50:2
Grace of God. Is 52:3
Love and pity of God. Isa 63:9; Jn 3:16; Ro 6:8; 1Jn 4:10
A subject for praise. Isa
OT saints partakers of. He
REDEMPTION: They who partake of
Are the property of God. Is
43:1; 1Co 6:20.
Are first-fruits to God. Rev 14:4.
Are a peculiar people. 2Sa 7:23; Titus 2:14; 1Pe 2:9.
Are assured of. Job 19:25; Ps 31:5.
Are sealed to the day of. Ep 4:30.
Are Zealous of good works. Eph 2:10; Titus 2:14; 1Pe 2:9.
Walk safely in holiness. Isa 35:8,9.
Shall return to Zion with joy. Isa 35:10.
Alone can learn the songs of heaven. Rev 14:3,4.
Commit themselves to God. Ps 31:5.
Have an earnest of the completion of. Ep 1:14; 2Cor 1:22.
Wait for the completion of. Rom 8:23; Phil 3:20,21; Titus 2:11,
Pray for the completion of. Ps 26:11; 44:26.
Praise God for. Ps 71:23; 103:4; Rev 5:9.
Should glorify God for. 1Cor 6:20.
Should be without fear. Is 43:1.
Israel. Ex 6:6.
Firstborn. Ex 13:11-15; Num 18:15.
Atonement-money. Ex 30:12-15.
Bond-servant. Lev 25:47-54.
is a feminine singular noun (Passive
of Ga'al) means redemption, the right of buying back, the
right of redemption, price of redemption, kindred.
Redemption was a means by which property remained in families or
clans. The best picture of this custom in the Bible is Ruth 4:6,
Geullah - 12v in the
OT - Lev 25:24, 26, 29, 31, 32, 48, 51, 52; Ruth 4:6, 4:7; Jer
32:7, 8. NAS = redemption(7), redemption right(2),
redemption rights(1), right of redemption(3).
Leviticus 25:24 'Thus for
every piece of your property, you are to provide for the
redemption of the land.
Leviticus 25:26 'Or in case a man has no kinsman, but so
recovers his means as to find sufficient for its redemption,
Leviticus 25:29 'Likewise, if a man sells a dwelling house in a
walled city, then his redemption right remains valid until a
full year from its sale; his right of redemption lasts a
Leviticus 25:31 'The houses of the villages, however, which have
no surrounding wall shall be considered as open fields; they
have redemption rights and revert in the jubilee.
Leviticus 25:32 'As for cities of the Levites, the Levites have
a permanent right of redemption for the houses of the
cities which are their possession.
Leviticus 25:48 then he shall have redemption right after
he has been sold. One of his brothers may redeem him,
Leviticus 25:51 'If there are still many years, he shall refund
part of his purchase price in proportion to them for his own
Leviticus 25:52 and if few years remain until the year of
jubilee, he shall so calculate with him. In proportion to his
years he is to refund the amount for his redemption.
Ruth 4:6 The closest relative said, "I cannot redeem it for
myself, because I would jeopardize my own inheritance. Redeem it
for yourself; you may have my right of redemption, for I
cannot redeem it."
Ruth 4:7 Now this was the custom in former times in Israel
concerning the redemption and the exchange of land to
confirm any matter: a man removed his sandal and gave it to
another; and this was the manner of attestation in Israel.
Jeremiah 32:7 'Behold, Hanamel the son of Shallum your uncle is
coming to you, saying, "Buy for yourself my field which is at
Anathoth, for you have the right of redemption to buy
Jeremiah 32:8 "Then Hanamel my uncle's son came to me in the
court of the guard according to the word of the LORD and said to
me, 'Buy my field, please, that is at Anathoth, which is in the
land of Benjamin; for you have the right of possession and the
redemption is yours; buy it for yourself.' Then I knew
that this was the word of the LORD.
TWOT says that the right of
is used in regard to deliverance of persons or property
that had been sold for debt. The law required that the "right of
redemption" of land and of persons be protected (Lv 25:24,
48). The redemption price was determined by the number of years
remaining until the release of debts in the year of jubilee
(Lv 25:27, 28). (Harris,
R L, Archer, G L & Waltke, B K Theological Wordbook of the Old
Testament. Moody Press or
means to redeem, ransom, buy and so to cause the freedom
or release of a person from bondage or ownership, often implying
a delivering or rescue of a person in distress. Padah is
not used in Ruth.
Padah is a distinct word
unrelated etymologically to Ga'al/geullah.
Padah is also used figuratively with the meaning of delivering,
whether in the cases of individuals (Ps 34:22-note)
or of the deliverance granted to Israel as a nation (Dt 9:26;
2Sa 7:23; 1Chr 17:21; Isa 29:22). It is especially associated
with the deliverance from Egypt (Dt 7:8; 13:5; 24:18; Mic 6:4).
In one instance it is used of redemption from sin: “redeem
Israel from all his iniquities” (Ps 130:8-note)."
One difference between
ga'al/goel and the similar root padah is that there is
usually an emphasis in ga'al/goel on the redemption being
the privilege or duty of a near relative.
Vine adds that
Originally, the usage of this word overlapped with that of
kapar; both meant "to ransom." In theological usage,
however, each root tended to develop in different directions, so
that they can often be considered synonymous only in a very
Padah indicates that some intervening or substitutionary
action effects a release from an undesirable undesirable
condition. In more secular contexts, it implies a payment of
some sort. But 1Sa 14:45 indicates that money is not intrinsic
in the word; Saul is determined to execute Jonathan for his
involuntary transgression, but "the people rescued
Jonathan, that he died not."
Slavery appears as a condition from which one may be "ransomed"
(Ex 21:8; Lev 19:20).
The word is connected with the laws of the firstborn. As a
reminder of slaying all the Egyptian firstborn but sparing the
Israelites, God retained an eternal claim on the life of all
Israelite firstborn males, both of men and of cattle. The latter
were often sacrificed, "but all the firstborn of my children I
redeem" (Ex 13:15). God accepted the separation of the
tribe of Levi for liturgical service in lieu of all Israelite
firstborn (Nu 3:40ff.). However, the Israelite males still had
to be "redeemed" (padah) from this service by payment of
specified "redemption" money" (Nu 3:44-51).
When God is the subject of padah, the word emphasizes His
complete, sovereign freedom to liberate human beings. Sometimes
God is said to "redeem" individuals (Abraham, Is 29:22;
David, 1Ki 1:29; and often in the Psalter, e.g., Ps 26:11; Ps
44:26; Ps 69:18); but usually Israel, the elect people, is the
beneficiary. Sometimes the redemption or deliverance is
proclaimed absolutely (2Sa 7:23; Ps 44:26; Ho 7:13); but the
subject is said to be "ransomed" from a specific
oppression. At other times, the reference is less explicit,
e.g., from "troubles" (Ps 25:22) and from "wicked" men (Je
15:21). Only once is padah used to describe liberation
from sin or iniquity (Ps 130:8).
Padah - 51v in the
OT - Ex 13:13, 15; 21:8; 34:20; Lev 19:20; 27:27, 29; Num 3:46,
49, 51; 18:15ff; Deut 7:8; 9:26; 13:5; 15:15; 21:8; 24:18; 1 Sam
14:45; 2 Sam 4:9; 7:23; 1 Kgs 1:29; 1 Chr 17:21; Neh 1:10; Job
5:20; 6:23; 33:28; Ps 25:22; 26:11; 31:5; 34:22; 44:26; 49:7,
15; 55:18; 69:18; 71:23; 78:42; 119:134; 130:8; Isa 1:27; 29:22;
35:10; 51:11; Jer 15:21; 31:11; Hos 7:13; 13:14; Mic 6:4; Zech
The NAS renders
padah as any means redeem(1), in a way redeemed(1),
ransom(4), ransomed(7), redeem(26), redeemed(16), redeems(1),
redemption price(1), rescued(m)(1), surely redeem(1).
Exodus 13:13 "But every first offspring of a donkey you shall
redeem with a lamb, but if you do not redeem it, then
you shall break its neck; and every firstborn of man among your
sons you shall redeem.
Exodus 13:15 'It came about, when Pharaoh was stubborn about
letting us go, that the LORD killed every firstborn in the land
of Egypt, both the firstborn of man and the firstborn of beast.
Therefore, I sacrifice to the LORD the males, the first
offspring of every womb, but every firstborn of my sons I
Exodus 21:8 "If she is displeasing in the eyes of her master who
designated her for himself, then he shall let her be redeemed.
He does not have authority to sell her to a foreign people
because of his unfairness to her.
Exodus 34:20 "You shall redeem with a lamb the first
offspring from a donkey; and if you do not redeem it,
then you shall break its neck. You shall redeem all the
firstborn of your sons. None shall appear before Me
Leviticus 19:20 'Now if a man lies carnally with a woman who is
a slave acquired for another man, but who has in no way been
redeemed nor given her freedom, there shall be punishment;
they shall not, however, be put to death, because she was not
Leviticus 27:27 'But if it is among the unclean animals, then he
shall redeem it according to your valuation and add to it
one-fifth of it; and if it is not redeemed, then it shall be
sold according to your valuation....29 'No one who may have been
set apart among men shall be ransomed; he shall surely be
put to death.
Numbers 3:46 "For the ransom of the 273 of the firstborn
of the sons of Israel who are in excess beyond the Levites...49
So Moses took the ransom money from those who were in
excess, beyond those ransomed by the Levites;
Numbers 3:51 Then Moses gave the ransom money to Aaron
and to his sons, at the command of the LORD, just as the LORD
had commanded Moses.
Numbers 18:15 "Every first issue of the womb of all flesh,
whether man or animal, which they offer to the LORD, shall be
yours; nevertheless the firstborn of man you shall surely
redeem, and the firstborn of unclean animals you shall
redeem. 16 "As to their redemption price, from
a month old you shall redeem them, by your valuation,
five shekels in silver, according to the shekel of the
sanctuary, which is twenty gerahs. 17 "But the firstborn of an
ox or the firstborn of a sheep or the firstborn of a goat, you
shall not redeem; they are holy. You shall sprinkle their
blood on the altar and shall offer up their fat in smoke as an
offering by fire, for a soothing aroma to the LORD.
Deuteronomy 7:8 but because the LORD loved you and kept the oath
which He swore to your forefathers, the LORD brought you out by
a mighty hand and redeemed you from the house of slavery,
from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt.
Deuteronomy 9:26 "I prayed to the LORD and said, 'O Lord GOD, do
not destroy Your people, even Your inheritance, whom You have
redeemed through Your greatness, whom You have brought out
of Egypt with a mighty hand.
Deuteronomy 13:5 "But that prophet or that dreamer of dreams
shall be put to death, because he has counseled rebellion
against the LORD your God who brought you from the land of Egypt
and redeemed you from the house of slavery, to seduce you
from the way in which the LORD your God commanded you to walk.
So you shall purge the evil from among you.
Deuteronomy 15:15 "You shall remember that you were a slave in
the land of Egypt, and the LORD your God redeemed you;
therefore I command you this today.
Deuteronomy 21:8 'Forgive Your people Israel whom You have
redeemed, O LORD, and do not place the guilt of innocent
blood in the midst of Your people Israel.' And the
bloodguiltiness shall be forgiven them.
Deuteronomy 24:18 "But you shall remember that you were a slave
in Egypt, and that the LORD your God redeemed you from
there; therefore I am commanding you to do this thing.
1 Samuel 14:45 But the people said to Saul, "Must Jonathan die,
who has brought about this great deliverance in Israel? Far from
it! As the LORD lives, not one hair of his head shall fall to
the ground, for he has worked with God this day." So the people
rescued Jonathan and he did not die.
2 Samuel 4:9 David answered Rechab and Baanah his brother, sons
of Rimmon the Beerothite, and said to them, "As the LORD lives,
who has redeemed my life from all distress,
2 Samuel 7:23 "And what one nation on the earth is like Your
people Israel, whom God went to redeem for Himself as a people
and to make a name for Himself, and to do a great thing for You
and awesome things for Your land, before Your people whom You
have redeemed for Yourself from Egypt, from nations and
1 Kings 1:29 The king vowed and said, "As the LORD lives, who
has redeemed my life from all distress,
1 Chronicles 17:21 "And what one nation in the earth is like
Your people Israel, whom God went to redeem for Himself
as a people, to make You a name by great and terrible things, in
driving out nations from before Your people, whom You redeemed
out of Egypt?
Nehemiah 1:10 "They are Your servants and Your people whom You
redeemed by Your great power and by Your strong hand.
Job 5:20 "In famine He will redeem you from death, And in
war from the power of the sword.
Job 6:23 Or, 'Deliver me from the hand of the adversary,' Or, 'Redeem
me from the hand of the tyrants '?
Job 33:28 'He has redeemed my soul from going to the pit,
And my life shall see the light.'
Psalm 25:22 Redeem Israel, O God, Out of all his
Psalm 26:11 But as for me, I shall walk in my integrity;
Redeem me, and be gracious to me.
Psalm 31:5 Into Your hand I commit my spirit; You have
ransomed me, O LORD, God of truth.
Psalm 34:22 The LORD redeems the soul of His servants,
And none of those who take refuge in Him will be condemned.
Psalm 44:26 Rise up, be our help, And redeem us for the
sake of Your lovingkindness.
Psalm 49:7 No man can by any means redeem his brother Or
give to God a ransom for him--
15 But God will redeem my soul from the power of Sheol,
For He will receive me. Selah.
Psalm 55:18 He will redeem my soul in peace from the
battle which is against me, For they are many who strive with
Psalm 69:18 Oh draw near to my soul and redeem it; Ransom
me because of my enemies!
Psalm 71:23 My lips will shout for joy when I sing praises to
You; And my soul, which You have redeemed.
Psalm 78:42 They did not remember His power, The day when He
redeemed them from the adversary,
Psalm 119:134 Redeem me from the oppression of man, That
I may keep Your precepts.
Psalm 130:8 And He will redeem Israel From all his
Isaiah 1:27 Zion will be redeemed with justice And her
repentant ones with righteousness.
Isaiah 29:22 Therefore thus says the LORD, who redeemed
Abraham, concerning the house of Jacob: "Jacob shall not now be
ashamed, nor shall his face now turn pale;
Isaiah 35:10 And the ransomed of the LORD will return And
come with joyful shouting to Zion, With everlasting joy upon
their heads. They will find gladness and joy, And sorrow and
sighing will flee away.
Isaiah 51:11 So the ransomed of the LORD will return And
come with joyful shouting to Zion, And everlasting joy will be
on their heads. They will obtain gladness and joy, And sorrow
and sighing will flee away.
Jeremiah 15:21 "So I will deliver you from the hand of the
wicked, And I will redeem you from the grasp of the
Jeremiah 31:11 For the LORD has ransomed Jacob And
redeemed (ga'al) him from the hand of him who was stronger than
Hosea 7:13 Woe to them, for they have strayed from Me!
Destruction is theirs, for they have rebelled against Me! I
would redeem them, but they speak lies against Me.
Hosea 13:14 Shall I ransom them from the power of Sheol?
Shall I redeem (ga'al) them from death? O Death, where are your
thorns? O Sheol, where is your sting? Compassion will be hidden
from My sight.
Micah 6:4 "Indeed, I brought you up from the land of Egypt And
ransomed you from the house of slavery, And I sent before
you Moses, Aaron and Miriam.
Zechariah 10:8 "I will whistle for them to gather them together,
For I have redeemed them; And they will be as numerous as
they were before.
(1) If a Jew because of
poverty had been obliged to sell himself to a wealthy "stranger
or sojourner," it became the duty of his relatives to redeem
him. Compare Lev 25:47 and the article
(2) The same duty
fell upon the nearest kinsman, if his brother, being poor, had
been forced to sell some of his property. Compare Lev 25:23;
and the article
Kinsman-Redeemer, Part 1
Kinsman-Redeemer, Part 2 for discussion
on Jesus as our Kinsman-Redeemer and Blood Avenger and
year of Jubilee by K Arthur)
(3) It also devolved
upon the nearest relative to marry the childless widow of his
brother (Ru 2:13-note).
(4) In Nu 5:5 a law is
stated which demands that restitution be made to the nearest
relative, and after him to the priest, if the injured party has
died (Lev 6:1).
(5) The law of
blood-revenge (Blut-Rache) made it the sacred duty of the
nearest relative to avenge the blood of his kinsman. He was
called the go'el ha-dam, "the avenger of blood."
This law was based upon the command given in Ge 9:5f:
= the person who inflicts punishment upon the evil-doer for a
wrong experienced by himself (from naqam, "to avenge";
Ps 8:2-note) or by someone
else from ga'al, "to redeem"; (Nu 35:12 et al.). In the New Testament avenger occurs
only once; "the Lord is an avenger in all things"
(1Th 4:6-note). It was the duty of the nearest relative to
execute vengeance upon the murderer of his kin: he became the
go'el. With reference to the protective legislation and custom)
man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed," and was carried
out even if an animal had killed a man; in this case, however,
the payment of a ransom was permitted (Ex 21:28). A clear
distinction was made between an accidental and a deliberate
murder. In both cases the murderer could find refuge at the
altar of the sanctuary; if, however, the investigation revealed
presumptuous manslaughter, he was taken from the altar to be put
to death (Ex 21:12; 1Ki 1:50; 2:28). In Nu 35:9 definite
regulations as to the duties of the Goel are given. Six cities
were to be appointed as "cities of refuge," three on each side
of the Jordan. The congregation has judgment over the murderer.
There must be more than one witness to convict a man. If he is
found guilty, he is delivered to the Goel; if murder was
committed by accident he is permitted to live within the border
of the city of refuge; in case the manslayer leaves this city
before the death of the high priest, the avenger of blood has a
right to slay him. After the death of the high priest the
murderer may return to his own city. Ransom cannot be given for
the life of a murderer; no expiation can be made for a murder
but by the blood of the murderer (Dt 19:4; Josh 20; 2Sa 14:6).
According to the law the children of a murderer could not be
held responsible for the crime of their father (Dt 24:16; 2Ki
14:6), but see 2Sa 21:1. The order in which the nearest relative
was considered the Goel is given in Lev 25:48, 49f: first a brother, then an uncle or an uncle's son, and after
them any other near relative. This order was observed in
connection with (1) above, but probably also in the other cases
For the figurative
use of Goel ("redeemer") see Ps 119:154-note;
Pr 23:11; Job 19:25;
It is rendered in the
Authorized Version "kinsman," Nu 5:8; Ru 3:12; 4:1,6,8; "redeemer,"
Job 19:25; "avenger," Nu 35:12; Dt 19:6, etc.) (David calls God
His Redeemer Ps 19:14-note,
Ps 78:35-note, etc.)
Heb. goel; i.e., one
charged with the duty of restoring the rights of another and
avenging his wrongs (Lev 25:48,49; Nu 5:8; Ru 4:1-note;
Job 19:25). This title is
peculiarly applied to Christ. He redeems us from all evil by the
payment of a ransom (q.v.).
Modified from Int'l Std Bible Encyclopedia, Theological Wordbook
of the OT, Tyndale Bible Dictionary, Vine's OT Lexicon
G Campbell Morgan comments
on "Then will I do the part of a kinsman to thee" writing that...
In these words the nobility and
faithfulness of Boaz are manifested. It is hardly possible to read the
story without seeing that he loved Ruth, and that therefore he was
perfectly ready to take the responsibility of the next-of-kin. There
was, how-ever another who had a prior right, and in loyalty to the law
of his people, he gave that one his opportunity. The action of Naomi
in this matter can hardly be characterized as other than doubtful, and
on the basis of faith alone, it is difficult to justify it.
Nevertheless, the expedient to which she resorted must be judged in
the light of her own age. We must recognize that at the lowest it was
an error of judgment, rather than a willful disobedience; and the
overruling love of God carried it to a beneficent issue. One element,
and perhaps the strongest, in her action, was that of her confidence
in Boaz. Her appeal should have been made to the next-of-kin, but the
whole attitude of Boaz toward Ruth had made it natural for her to look
to him. He, however, fulfilled his first obligation to the law, as he
gave the first opportunity to the true kinsman. This next-of-kin had a
perfect right lawfully to abandon his claim, seeing that another was
ready to assume it. Thus again the Divine, overruling to highest ends
is seen in the case of those who walk by faith, and in strict
obedience to the known law of God (Morgan, G. C. Life Applications
from Every Chapter of the Bible).
LIE DOWN UNTIL MORNING:
(sakab) means to lie down, to sleep -- to put oneself in a
reclining position when sleeping or resting.
translates the Hebrew verb
for "lie down" with the Greek verb "koimao"
(2837) which in the New Testament is
always used to refer to lying down to sleep.
would have been both unsafe and difficult at night without light (which
if one used would attract attention) to find her way back home to
Naomi. In the Song of Solomon we find a verse that seems to support
that Ruth might entail some risks returning home at night --
The watchmen who make the rounds in the city found me, They struck me
and wounded me; The guardsmen of the walls took away my shawl from me.
alluded to , some "scholars" interpret the events in this section as indicative of
an improper (sexual) relationship but they fail to appreciate the
element of Ruth’s trust that Boaz would not dishonor her whom he
wanted for his wife. They fail to appreciate the cultural taboos of
Ruth’s time that would have prevented a man of Boaz’s position from
taking advantage of Ruth, thereby destroying her reputation and
perhaps endangering his own. Biblical writers were not squeamish about
describing sexual encounters, but the writer of Ruth has deliberately
refrained from even hinting at such an encounter between Ruth and Boaz. If
reads carefully and with sensitivity, it becomes quite clear that the
saying just the opposite. Chastity was not
an unknown virtue in the ancient world, even in the time of the
What does lie down mean?
Go to sleep. There is no sexual connotation suggested by the
Why does Boaz ask her to spend the night?
This is intended to protect her from possible physical harm (night travel in time of Judges was not safe!
Read especially Judges 17:1ff, 18:1ff, 19:1ff) and also to
protect her reputation (Ru 3:14).
As an aside note what Boaz's
(1) Prays for her
audibly (benediction) Ru 3:10 - these were his first words
(other than "Who are you?" Ru 3:9) after she made the "risky"
maneuver of uncovering his feet and seeking his protection as
her goel. She had no guarantee that he would answer
(2) Praises her - Ru
(3) Protects her
emotions - Ru 3:11 "Do not fear" which is more than just a
command but is then substantiated by his promise to do whatever
she asks. Our "greater Boaz" repeatedly said "Do not be afraid".
The antidote for fear is faith, and faith comes from hearing the
Word of promise (in Ruth's case Boaz's promise), believing this
Word, obeying this Word and finding our faith grow. In this way,
the feelings of fear are countered by faith in our "Boaz" Christ
Jesus. Even when we cannot see His face, we can hear His voice
and we can trust His voice (in His Word)! Don't trust your
feelings. Trust the truth revealed in God's Word.
(4) Protects her
physically ("Remain this night...lie down until morning...rose
before one could recognize another" - Ru 3:13, 14).
(5) Protects her reputation (Ru 3:14).
(6) Provides for her
What does the "revelation" that there is a closer "goel" teach about
How does it parallel Phil 2:3-5?
The humble person is not one who thinks meanly of himself; he simply
does not think of himself at all! (Andrew Murray) Humility is that
grace that, when you know you have it, you have lost it! The truly
humble person knows himself and accepts himself (Ro 12:3-note). He yields
himself to Christ to be a servant, to use what he is and has for the
glory of God and the good of others.
So both Ruth (giving up what other young women would choose...rich or
even poor young men) and Boaz (laying aside his own personal interests
in Ruth) manifest this Christ-like attitude.
How does Boaz cement his promise?
He gives Ruth
an oath...he is a man of commitment. The
most solemn, binding oath a Jew could vow. (cp He 6:13, 17 God's
promise and oath)
lay at his
another; and he
said, "Let it
known that the
came to the
Amplified: And she lay at his feet until the morning,
but arose before one could recognize another; for he said, Let it not
be known that the woman came to the threshing floor.
Bible - Lockman)
And she took her rest at his feet till the morning: and she got up
before it was light enough for one to see another. And he said, Let it
not come to anyone's knowledge that the woman came to the grain-floor.
CEV: Ruth lay down
again, but she got up before daylight, because Boaz did not want
anyone to know she had been there. (CEV)
GWT: So Ruth lay at his feet until
morning. Then she got up early before anyone could be recognized. At
that moment Boaz thought to himself, "I hope that no one will ever
know that this woman came to the threshing floor." (GWT)
she lay at his feet until the morning: and she rose up before one
could know another. And he said, Let it not be known that a woman came
into the floor.
NJB: So she lay at his feet till morning, but got up before the hour
when one man can recognise another; and he thought, 'It must not be
known that this woman came to the threshing-floor.' (NJB)
Young's Literal: And
she lieth down at his feet till the morning, and riseth before one
doth discern another; and he saith, 'Let it not be known that the
woman hath come into the floor.'
Septuagint: And she lay at his
feet until the morning; and she rose up before a man could know
his neighbour; and Booz said, Let it not be known that a woman
came into the floor
SO SHE LAY AT HIS FEET
AT HIS SIDE!
So she lay at his feet -
In perfect obedience and subbmission (attributes of a woman of
excellence) to Boaz's command (imperative
mood) to remain
The NET Bible is somewhat
misleading in my opinion...
Ruth 3:14 So she slept beside
him until morning. She woke up while it was still dark. Boaz thought,
"No one must know that a woman visited the threshing floor."
This translation contradicts the
next word! It also gives the wrong impression!
At his feet
(04772) (margelah) not by his side!.
This Hebrew word is a masculine plural noun referring to feet or a
place for the feet and describes the place where one’s feet rest or
stand, the area immediately around them
This is the fourth time in
chapter 3 the pedal position is emphasized! (Ru 3:4, 7, 8, 14
plus one use in Da 10:6).
Don't miss this detail for it is critical to a correct interpretation
of the events of this blessed night, which was a righteous rendezvous. Boaz
is beginning to take Ruth "under
his wings (cover)", his provision in this passage being for the protection of Ruth’s reputation.
God would later intervene to protect Ruth's descendant Mary from
scurrilous gossip thus ensuring that Joseph would not put her away as
unchaste (Mt 1:19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25).
Once again the
uses the Greek verb
study) which conveys the picture of ''sleeping" at his feet until morning.
There is absolutely no hint of
improper behavior between these two persons of excellence and virtue
(Ru 2:1, 3:11)!
Peter writing to Gentile
believers but applicable to the events of this night wrote...
Keep your behavior excellent among
the Gentiles, so that in the thing in which they slander you as
evildoers, they may on account of your good deeds, as they observe
them, glorify God in the day of visitation. (1Pe 2:12-note)
AND ROSE BEFORE ONE COULD RECOGNIZE ANOTHER:
The Hebrew literally reads...
before a man could recognize his companion (or neighbor)
(qum) means to arise, to stand, to stand up and pictures the
physical action of rising up.
(nakar) means to consider carefully, to investigate, to
acknowledge and to recognize. The idea is to identify and
correlate information and is usually based on seeing and perception.
Before one could recognize
another - An idiom meaning before dawn.
AND HE SAID
LET IT NOT BE KNOWN
THAT THE WOMAN CAME TO THE THRESHING FLOOR: (Ro 12:17;
14:16; 1Co 10:32; 2Co 8:21; 1Pe 2:12)
And he said - Notice this is
subsequent to Ruth arising. The text does not specifically state but
does imply that she had already departed before Boaz's order suggests that some of
his reapers were aware of Ruth's presence, but Boaz told them to keep
Ruth’s presence there a secret as explained below.
Why would Boaz
not want it to be known Ruth was present that night? He desired to
protect her excellent name, Solomon explaining that
A good name is better than a good ointment... (Eccl 7:1)
As Paul wrote centuries later God's people are to
from every form (morphe
- word study) of
evil (1Th 5:22-note)
Boaz did not even want there to be a suggestion of impropriety that
might lead to inaccurate, judgmental gossip. Boaz knew the old World
War II saying is just as true in relationships as in wars...
Clearly Boaz sought to protect Ruth
from the town gossips. Nothing had happened that was improper but when
were gossipers ever careful about the facts?
The point is that Boaz once again shows his great concern for
integrity (Ru 2:9-note I have commanded the servants not to touch you.) Thus,
given this contextual information,
the reader can rest quite assured that Boaz took no advantage of Ruth. In fact
Boaz insisted on not even the appearance of evil, reminding one of
Paul's word to the Ephesians to
not let immorality or any impurity or greed even be named among you,
as is proper among saints. (Ep 5:3-note).
Boaz knew that if it became known, town gossips would put the worst
construction on the incident, just as some modern commentators do (!),
thereby destroying Ruth's virtuous reputation and perhaps even his own.
"Give me the
cloak that is
on you and
hold it." So
held it, and he
laid it on her.
went into the
Amplified: Also he said, Bring the mantle you are
wearing and hold it. So [Ruth] held it, and he measured out six
measures of barley and laid it on her. And she went into the town.
Bible - Lockman)
BBE: And he said, Take your robe,
stretching it out in your hands: and she did so, and he took six
measures of grain and put them into it, and gave it her to take: and
she went back to the town.
CEV: Then he told her
to spread out her cape. And he filled it with a lot of grain and
placed it on her shoulder. When Ruth got back to town, (CEV)
GWT: Then Boaz told Ruth, "Stretch out
the cape you're wearing and hold it tight." So she held it tight while
he measured out six measures of barley. Then he placed it on her back
and went into the town. (GWT)
he said, Bring the veil that thou hast upon thee, and hold it. And
when she held it, he measured six measures of barley, and laid it on
her: and she went into the city.
NJB: He then said, 'Let me have the cloak you are wearing, hold it
out!' She held it out while he put six measures of barley into it and
then loaded it on to her; and off she went to the town.
TEV: Boaz said to her,
"Take off your cloak and spread it out here." She did, and he poured
out almost fifty pounds of barley and helped her lift it to her
shoulder. Then she returned to town with it.
Young's Literal: And
he saith, 'Give the covering which is on thee, and keep hold on it;'
and she keepeth hold on it, and he measureth six measures of barley,
and layeth it on her; and he goeth into the city.
Septuagint: And he said to her,
"Bring the apron that is upon thee": and she held it, and he
measured six measures of barley, and put them upon her, and she
went into the city
AGAIN HE SAID GIVE ME THE CLOAK
THAT IS ON YOU
AND HOLD IT :
Boaz told Ruth, "Stretch out the cape you're wearing and hold it tight"
- These are both commands in Hebrew. In light of this truth, observe
Ruth's response "So she held...", reflecting her humble, submissive,
obedient spirit. A woman of excellence indeed! Delayed "obedience" is
(mitpahat) was used for wrapping the head and shoulders and is
used only here and Isa 3:22-note.
translates the Hebrew word mitpahat with the Greek noun
perizoma which refers literally to a girdle around (as around the
loins) and was used to describe an apron as a cook might wear.
SO SHE HELD IT AND HE MEASURED
OF BARLEY AND LAID IT ON HER THEN SHE WENT INTO THE CITY:
(Isa 32:8; Gal 6:10)
and he poured out almost fifty pounds of barley and helped her lift it
to her shoulder. Then she returned to town with it (TEV)
So she held it tight while he measured out six measures of barley.
Then he placed it on her back and went into the town (GWT)
The NASB adds the word "measures" to the literal
adds the word "ephahs" which is a very an unlikely
translation as 1 ephah is anywhere from 3/8's of a bushel to a full
bushel. It is virtually inconceivable that Boaz measured out such a
huge quantity (over 200 pounds - she was a woman of strength yes, but
strength of character not of her ability to carry a physical load)!
The unit of measure is not
indicated in the Hebrew text, although it would probably have been
clear to the original hearers of the account. Six ephahs, the
equivalent of 180–300 pounds, is clearly too heavy, especially if
carried in a garment. Six omers (an omer being a tenth of an ephah)
seems too little, since this would have amounted to six-tenths of an
ephah, less than Ruth had gleaned in a single day (Ru 2:!7). Thus a
seah (one third of an ephah) may be in view here; six seahs would
amount to two ephahs, about 60 pounds (27 kg).
Laid it on
her - This statement supports that this was probably a fairly
heavy load of barley. This picture emphasizes Boaz's concern for the
needs of Ruth and Naomi. Boaz was wealthy and it would have been easy
to overlook the needs of others, but he did not. When we are without
pain, sadly we often forget those who are in pain. In addition the
grain would and been an additional sign to undergird his verbal
commitment to carry out what he had promised. Finally the grain gift
shows Boaz's gracious, giving heart, which expressed his agape love of
Porten quipped that...
The seed to fill the stomach was
promise of the seed to fill the womb.
There are some very interesting Rabbinic comments (Midrash Rabbah,
Ruth V, 6) on this section of Ruth:
"…The fifth interpretation makes it refer to the Messiah.
COME HITHER; approach to royal state … AND EAT OF THY BREAD refers to
the bread of royalty; AND DIP THY MORSEL IN THE VINEGAR refers to his
sufferings, as it is said But he was wounded because of our
transgressions (Isa 53:5). AND SHE SAT BESIDE THE REAPERS, for he will
be deprived of his sovereignty for a time, as it is said, For I will
gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle; and the city shall be
taken (Zech. 14:2). AND THEY REACHED HER PARCHED CORN, means that he
will be restored to his throne, as it is said, And he shall smite the
land with the rod of his mouth (Isa 11:2). R. Berekiah said in the name
of R. Levi "The future Redeemer will be like the former Redeemer. Just
as the former Redeemer revealed himself and later was hidden from them
… , so the future Redeemer will be revealed to them, and then hidden
Unlike the common Jewish belief made popular by Raashi in the 9th
century that Isaiah 53 is referring to the nation Israel, this
ancient rabbinic ancient
commentary shows that
Isaiah 53 was earlier believed
by at least some to be a
text. The former "redeemer" in this Midrash is Moses and the future
"Redeemer" is the Messiah
having a striking
parallel in the New Testament that Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah.
According to Scripture He like Moses came and was rejected by
Israel as their Redeemer at his first appearance and like Moses is
hidden from them now.
Rabbi Judah b. Simon said: The meaning is that as a reward for, AND HE
MEASURED SIX BARLEYS AND LAID [THEM] ON HER, he was vouchsafed that
there should arise from her six righteous men, each one of them
possessing six outstanding virtues, viz. David, Hezekiah, Josiah, Hananiah, Mishael
and Azariah, Daniel, and the Messiah … The Messiah, as it is said, And
the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and
understanding, etc. (Isa 11:2). (From the Targum to the Hagiographa)
What does Boaz's action teach about his character?
He is modeling the role of the man as "provider", addressing her
emotional and physical needs (cp 1Pe 3:7-note). Boaz not only calmed Ruth’s fears and
gave her assurance for the future, but he also met her present needs
in a gracious and generous way. She had not asked him for anything,
but he gave the grain to her because he loved her. A perfect
illustration of what New Testament agape (selfless) love looks like -
giving without expectation of receiving.
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