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Israel's Election by God
Israel's Rejection of God
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God Not Rejecting Israel
Romans 11:12-15 Commentary
|Greek: humin de lego (1SPAI) tois ethnesin. eph' hoson men oun eimi (1SPAI) ego ethnon apostolos, thn diakonian mou doxazo (1SPAI)
Amplified: But now I am speaking to you who are Gentiles. Inasmuch then as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I lay great stress on my ministry and magnify my office,
ESV: Now I am speaking to you Gentiles. Inasmuch then as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify my ministry
ICB: Now I am speaking to you who are not Jews. I am an apostle to the non-Jews. So while I have that work, I will do the best I can.
NIV: I am talking to you Gentiles. Inasmuch as I am the apostle to the Gentiles, I make much of my ministry
NKJV: For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify my ministry,
NLT: I am saying all of this especially for you Gentiles. God has appointed me as the apostle to the Gentiles. I lay great stress on this,
Phillips: Now a word to you who are Gentiles. I should like you to know that I make as much as I can of my ministry as "God's messenger to the Gentiles"
Wuest: But to you I am speaking, the Gentiles. Inasmuch then, as for myself, as I am an apostle of Gentiles, I do my ministry honor
Young's Literal: For to you I speak -- to the nations -- inasmuch as I am indeed an apostle of nations, my ministration I do glorify;
|BUT I AM SPEAKING TO YOU WHO ARE GENTILES: humin de lego (1SPAI) tois ethnesin:
To you who are Gentiles - While Paul was directly addressing the Gentile believers in Rome, the truths in this section are applicable to Gentile believers in our day.
Gentiles (nation, nations) (1484)(ethnos gives us our word "ethnic") in general refers to a multitude (especially persons) associated with one another, living together, united in kinship, culture or traditions and summed up by the words nation, Gentiles (especially when ethnos is plural), people (much like "people groups" in our modern missionary vernacular). In somewhat of a negative sense ethnos conveys the meaning of godless (generally idol worshipping) pagans (heathens, cp Eph 4:17, Mt 6:32), foreign nations not worshipping the true God (Mt 4:15). Often ethnos stands in clear contradistinction to Jew (Ioudaios) (Gal 2:14). Ethnos sometimes refers to Gentile Christians (Ro 11:13, Ro 15:27, 16:4, Gal 2:12). Ethnos is used in the singular of the Jewish Nation (Lk 7:5; 23:2; Jn 11:48, 50-53; Jn 18:35; Acts 10:22; 24:2, 10; Acts 26:4; 28:19). Plato used ethnos of a special class of men, a caste, tribe. In the Septuagint ethnos was used for nation, people Ge 10:5; non-Jews, Gentiles Ps 2:1.
INASMUCH THEN AS I AM AN APOSTLE OF GENTILES I MAGNIFY MY MINISTRY: eph hoson men oun eimi (1SPAI) ego ethnon apostolos eph hoson men oun eimi (1SPAI) ego ethnon apostolos, ten diakonian mou doxazo (1SPAI): (Romans 15:16-19; Acts 13:2; Galatians 1:16; 2Timothy 1:11,12)
Apostle (652) apostolos from apo = from + stello = send forth) (Click discussion of apostle) means one sent forth from by another, often with a special commission to represent another and to accomplish his work. It can be a delegate, commissioner, ambassador sent out on a mission or orders or commission and with the authority of the one who sent him. Apostolos referred to someone who was officially commissioned to a position or task, such as an envoy. Cargo ships were sometimes called apostolic, because they were dispatched with a specific shipment for a specific destination. In secular Greek apostolos was used of an admiral of a fleet sent out by the king on special assignment. In the ancient world a apostle was the personal representatives of the king, functioning as an ambassador with the king’s authority and provided with credentials to prove he was the king's envoy.
Apostle of Gentiles - Jesus explained to the somewhat fearful Ananias so that he would be encouraged to go to Saul (Paul) and help him…
Paul a Jew repeatedly emphasized his ministry to the Gentiles…
Paul understood the sovereignty of God in salvation. He understood that whom God foreknew He predestined and called (Ro 8:28-30) and yet here we see he approaches this issue of salvation with a sense of his responsibility of delivering the gospel to all men for he does not know who the elect are.
We see a similar thought in his last known letter, 2 Timothy, in which he explained that it was because of the gospel that …
Note that when Paul first came to a city, he invariably would go first to the synagogue or search out individual Jews if they were too few to have a synagogue. Some of those hearers would believe, but, for the most part, they resisted and rejected the gospel that was “spoken against everywhere” (Acts 28:22). At that point, Paul would turn his focus to the Gentiles.
Magnify (1392)(doxazo (see word study) from doxa = glory) has a secular meaning of to think, suppose, be of opinion, (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Xenophon, Plato, Thucydides). The simple definition of glorify is to give a correct opinion, a correct estimate of Who God is. How? By the way you behave (your "fruit" Jn 15:8, cp Mt 5:16-note) and in the present context, by what you do (or better yet "don't do") with your physical body.
Ministry (1248)(diakonia (see word study) is probably derived from dioko = to pursue, "to be a follower of a person, to attach one's self to him:" - note on origin is from Vincent.) means the rendering or assistance or help by performing certain duties, often of a humble or menial nature serve, including such mundane activities as waiting on tables or caring for household needs—activities without apparent dignity. Diakonia is related to diakonos, a servant, not in his relation (like doulos) but more in regard to his activity. The term covers both slaves and hired servants. MacArthur "The basic idea in both words always had to do with humble, submissive, personal service, not simply with an office or a particular function."
In this way Paul would "magnify" his "ministry" or as Phillips paraphrases it…
Amplified: In the hope of making my fellow Jews jealous [in order to stir them up to imitate, copy, and appropriate], and thus managing to save some of them.
ESV: in order somehow to make my fellow Jews jealous, and thus save some of them.
ICB: I hope I can make my own people jealous. That way, maybe I can help some of them to be saved.
NIV: in the hope that I may somehow arouse my own people to envy and save some of them.
NKJV: if by any means I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them.
NLT: for I want to find a way to make the Jews want what you Gentiles have, and in that way I might save some of them.
Phillips: so as to make my kinsfolk jealous and thus save some of them.
Wuest: if by any means, possibly, I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh, and save some of them.
Young's Literal: if by any means I shall arouse to jealousy mine own flesh, and shall save some of them,
|IF SOMEHOW I MIGHT MOVE TO JEALOUSY MY FELLOW COUNTRYMEN: ei pos parazeloso (1SFAI) mou ten sarka: (1Corinthians 7:16; ; 2Timothy 2:10) (Ro 9:3; Philemon 1:12)
If somehow. Elsewhere Paul stated it this was…
Jealous (3863) (parazeloo from pará = to the point of, unto, implying movement toward a certain point + zeloo = to desire, be zealous) means to stimulate alongside and thus to excite to rivalry or to provoke to emulation and so to make jealous. The idea is that then the Jews would be jealous and want it for themselves. Parazeloo is a Greek infinitive with a preposition (eis = unto, toward) and carries the idea of purpose.
AND SAVE SOME OF THEM: kai soso (1SFAI) tinas ex auton: (1Corinthians 7:16; 1Timothy 4:16; James 5:20)
Save (4982) (sozo) means basically to rescue from peril, to protect, to keep alive - the word involves preservation of life, physical or spiritual, in this context clearly referring to spiritual life associated with regeneration or the new birth brought about by the power of the Holy Spirit (John 3:3-5) and the Gospel (Ro 1:16-note).
See discussion of physical and spiritual renewal of Israel beginning in Ezekiel 37:14-see notes)
|Greek: ei gar e apobole auton katallage kosmou, tis e proslempsis ei me zoe ek nekron?
Amplified: For if their rejection and exclusion from the benefits of salvation were [overruled] for the reconciliation of a world to God, what will their acceptance and admission mean? [It will be nothing short of] life from the dead!
ESV: For if their rejection means the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance mean but life from the dead?
ICB: God turned away from the Jews. When that happened, God became friends with the other people in the world. So when God accepts the Jews, then surely that will bring to them life after death.
NIV: For if their rejection is the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead?
NKJV: For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead?
NLT: For since the Jews' rejection meant that God offered salvation to the rest of the world, how much more wonderful their acceptance will be. It will be life for those who were dead!
Phillips: For if their exclusion from the pale of salvation has meant the reconciliation of the rest of mankind to God, what would their inclusion mean? It would be nothing less than life from the dead!
Wuest: For, in view of the fact that their repudiation results in the world’s reconciliation, what will the receiving of them result in if not in life from among the dead?
Young's Literal: for if the casting away of them is a reconciliation of the world, what the reception -- if not life out of the dead?
|FOR IF THEIR REJECTION BE THE RECONCILIATION OF THE WORLD: ei gar e apobole auton katallage kosmou: (Ro 11:1,2,11,12) (5:10; Daniel 9:24; 2Corinthians 5:18-20; Ephesians 1:10; Colossians 1:20,21)
For - always pause and ponder this term of explanation.
The word “if” which Paul uses throughout his argument here is not ean the “if” of a hypothetical condition, but ei the “if” of a fulfilled condition. Paul is not arguing upon the basis of an hypothesis, but upon the basis of facts. The translation should read, “since,” or “in view of the fact.”
Rejection (580) (apobole from apó = from + bállo = cast as casting away a garment) describes literally a casting off and thus a rejection.
Reconciliation (2643) (katallage from katallasso = change mutually; reconcile in turn from katá = an intensifying preposition + allásso = to make otherwise, to change the form or nature of a thing) means a change or reconciliation from a state of enmity between persons to one of friendship. In the NT, this word describes restoration to divine favor by bringing about a change in man, i.e., a conversion, the means or occasion of reconciling the world to God. Reconciliation is the removal of enmity that stands between people and God. Reconciliation is the basis of restored fellowship between people and God
The Greek verb katallasso basically means “change” or “exchange.” In the context of relationships between people, the term implies a change in attitude on the part of both individuals, a change from enmity to friendship. When used to describe the relationship existing between God and a person, the term implies the change of attitude on the part of both a person and God. The need to change the sinful ways of a human being is obvious. It should be noted that some argue that no change is needed on the part of God. On the other hand, inherent in the doctrine of justification is the changed attitude of God toward the sinner. God declares a person who was formerly His enemy to be righteous before Him.
WHAT WILL THEIR ACCEPTANCE BE BUT LIFE FROM THE DEAD: tis e proslempsis ei me zoe ek nekron: (Ezekiel 37:1-14; Revelation 11:11; 20:4-6)
The reconciling of Israel back to God is, indeed, associated with the "resurrection" of Israel as a nation (See Ezekiel 37:1-14-notes) and also with the bodily resurrection of all who have died in faith, Isaiah prophesying to Israel that…
The receiving of Israel refers to that wonderful moment when, as the Messiah returns to the Mt. of Olives (Zechariah 14) all Israel shall be saved (Ro 11:26-note). This will be “life from among the dead” in that the nation will be saved by the sovereign grace of God out from a spiritually dead state and from among those who remain spiritually dead. (See related discussion beginning in Ezekiel 37:14-see notes)
In speaking of life from the dead, Paul was not referring to bodily resurrection. Regarding individual Jews, he was speaking of receiving spiritual life as a gracious gift to displace spiritual death, the wage of unbelief. Regarding Israel, he was speaking of its rebirth and the rebirth of the whole world in the glorified millennial kingdom of God (Isa11:1-9-note; Rev 20). In that glorious day, even “the creation itself also will be set free from its slavery to corruption into the freedom of the glory of the children of God” (Ro 8:21-note).