Greek: on to stoma aras kai pikrias gemei (3SPAI)
Amplified: Their mouth is full of cursing and bitterness. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
NLT: "Their mouths are full of cursing and bitterness." (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness'. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: whose mouth is full of imprecations and bitterness;
Young's Literal: Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness.
|Romans 3:21-5:21||Romans 6:1-8:39||Romans 9:1-11:36||Romans 12:1-16:27|
Jew and Gentile
|Demonstration of Salvation|
|Power Given||Promises Fulfilled||Paths Pursued|
Restored to Israel
|Slaves to Sin||Slaves to God||Slaves Serving God|
|Life by Faith||Service by Faith|
THEIR FEET ARE SWIFT TO SHED BLOOD: oxeis oi podes auton ekcheai (AAN) haima:
In Romans 3:15-17 Paul is quoting from (Isa 59:7-8)
Whereas the preceding indictment was directed at men’s sinfulness as shown primarily by their words, in the next three verses Paul focuses his charges primarily against the conduct or actions of unredeemed men.
These three verses are almost like a condensed history of the world.
Every page of history attests the truth of this awful charge.
Their feet (4228)(pous = the part of the body used to stand and walk) Scripture frequently uses the path of one's feet as a picture for one’s approach to life.
Swift (3691) (oxús) had two basic meanings. Oxus refers to a keen edge for cutting, and thus meaning sharp, all of the NT uses with this meaning being in the book of the Revelation.
As used in the present verse, oxus pertains to that which is rapid in motion. Quick, meaning a very short period of time. Swift, nimble, probably since the idea of sharpness also implies eagerness. People apart from God are prone to violence. At the slightest provocation they commit murder.
Oxus is used 11 times in the Septuagint (LXX) (Job 16:10; 41:30; Ps 14:3; 57:4; Pr 22:29; 27:4; Isa 5:28; 49:2; Ezek 5:1; Amos 2:15; Hab 1:8)
In secular Greek oxus had several nuances depending on the context -- Of feeling, sharp, keen, Of the sight, to be keenest of sight, to notice a thing sharply, to be quick of hearing. When referring to things that affect the sight oxus meant dazzling, bright, Of sound, sharp, shrill, piercing. Of musical tones, sharp, high, Of taste, sharp, pungent, acid, Metaphorically of the mind, sharp, keen: quick to anger, hasty, passionate, sharp, quick, clever.
Shed (1632) (ekcheo from ek = out + chéo = pour) means literally to pour out causing something (in this case blood) to be emitted in quantity.
Blood (129) (haima) defines blood as the basis of life. Shedding of blood equates with committing murder.
Solomon writes that...
"Swift" denotes the readiness and eagerness of men to murder others, which in turn shows the dreadful malice and hatred that is in them.
Robert Haldane - The most savage animals do not destroy so many of their own species to appease their hunger, as man destroys of his fellows; to satiate his ambition, his revenge, or [greed]. (Romans 3 Commentary).
How swift are men to shed blood?
MacArthur writes that
Wayne Barber reminds us that
Kent Hughes explains that...
Ray Stedman -Someone has suggested that this would be a very remarkable verse to write above the doors of the United Nations building in New York: "Their feet are swift to shed blood, in their paths are ruin and misery, and the way of peace they do not know." Isn't it true? Here are the nations gathered together -- gathered to seek peace -- but the outcome of it is constant friction, and trouble, and disturbance, and heartache, and bloodshed, and misery, and they do not know the way of peace. (Read full text of sermon Romans 3:9-26: Peale or Paul?)
DESCRIBED AS KILLING
PERSONS GUILTY OF
DESTRUCTION AND MISERY ARE IN THEIR PATHS: suntrimma kai talaiporia en tais hodois auton:
The brevity of this statement belies its profundity. The truth is that man damages and destroys everything he touches, leaving a trail of pain and suffering in his wake! Mark it down. Wherever man goes, sin soon follows. Death and destruction follow his steps as night follows day.
Destruction (4938) (suntrimma from suntribo = break into pieces, crush completely) (only here in NT) literally describes that which is broken into pieces and shattered, resulting in total devastation. It was used to describe a fracture or broken limb (see LXX below).
Figuratively as used here in Romans 3 (the only NT use), suntrimma means destruction, decimation, calamity, ruin or that which is laid waste. A vivid word picture of what fallen man does to all he touches, whether it be "animal, vegetable or mineral"!
Suntrimma is used only once in the NT but 35 times in the Septuagint (LXX) most describing that which is broken, shattered or fractured.
Misery (5004) (talaiporia from talaiporos [Ro 7:24-note, Re 3:17-note] = afflicted, wretched, miserable, distressed condition in turn from tálas = suffering, wretched) is the general term that denotes the resulting harm that is always in the wake of man’s acts of destruction against his fellow man. His destructiveness inevitably leaves a trail of pain and despair. Talaiporia describes overwhelming hardship, trouble, suffering, calamity, misery or distress.
Talaiporia also describes the emotional condition that arises from inner or outer torment. In the present verse misery follows in the wake of man’s destructive acts against his fellow man.
Talaiporia is found 29 times in the Septuagint (LXX)
The only other NT use of talaiporia is by James who writes...
Path (3598)(hodos) when used literally describes any place along which one travels and moves from one place to another, and thus a way, a road, or a highway
Destruction and misery as Newell says is the "epitome (embodiment or summary of) of human history. It is said that the ancient Troy of which Homer sang was built upon the ruins of an earlier Troy, -and that seven other Troys, each constructed upon the ruins of a former, have been found! ...Those who so loudly proclaim that the human race is "improving, "" progressing, " are blind deceivers, -blind to history, blind to present day facts, blind to the rising tide of human violence. "As it was in the days of Noah, " our Lord said, "so shall be the coming of the Son of Man." In those days of Noah the earth became "full of violence" (Ge 6:11)." (Romans 3: Verse by Verse)
Denney - Wherever they go, you can trace them by the ruin and distress they leave behind.
Wayne Barber - Look back over human history and what do you have? You have the ruins of cities that have been destroyed by somebody else...Homer sang a song about the city of Troy, "The city of Troy is built on the ruins of an earlier city." Since the time Homer sang that song they have found seven more cities underneath the ruins. Now you say, "I haven’t killed anybody. I haven’t shot anybody. I am a pretty decent person." No...you have covered it over. It is like putting honey over the top of it, but underneath it is the same vengefulness. One of these days, the Lord Jesus is going to take the church out of this world and this world will for the first time see the hate that has been here, the depravity of man’s heart, wickedness like never before. Thank God we are not destined for His wrath. Thank God we have received the Lamb. (The full measure of man's destructiveness) is going to be seen one day. The only thing that is restraining it right now is the presence of the Holy Spirit in this world. (Barber, Wayne. Notes on Romans)
Mankind's tendency to destructiveness inevitably leaves a trail of deeply afflicted, dejected, and distressed men and women.
As Godet puts it man
Ray Stedman - Wherever man goes, ruin follows. Do we need any documentation of that today? Why do cities always develop ghettos and slums? Why do our beautiful mountains and streams become polluted? It is because of the heart of man. (Romans 3:1-20 Total Wipeout )
Robert Haldane - Men labor to destroy and to ruin one another; proceeding in their perverse ways, they cause destruction and misery. (Romans 3 Commentary).
Albert Barnes - The tendency of their conduct is to destroy the virtue, happiness, and peace of all with whom they come in contact. (Romans 3 Commentary)