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Old and New Testament
2:9 then the
Now if [all these things are true, then be sure] the Lord knows how to
rescue the godly out of temptations and trials, and how to keep the
ungodly under chastisement until the day of judgment and doom, (Amplified
Bible - Lockman)
—if so, then the Lord knows how to rescue the godly from their trials,
and to reserve the unrighteous for punishment at the day of judgment,
So you see, the Lord knows how to rescue godly people from their
trials, even while punishing the wicked right up until the day of
- Tyndale House)
then you may be absolutely certain that the Lord knows how to rescue a
good man surrounded by temptation, and how to reserve his punishment
for the wicked until his day comes. (Phillips:
The Lord knows how to be delivering the godly out of testing and
temptation but to be reserving the unrighteous for the day of judgment
to be punished. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: The Lord hath known to rescue pious
ones out of temptation, and unrighteous ones to a day of judgment,
being punished, to keep
THEN THE note KNOWS: oiden (3SRAI) kurios: (Job
5:19; Ps 34:15, 16, 17, 19-notes;
is added by the translators to help us see that Peter is now drawing a
The Amplified Version conveys the idea well
"Now if all
these things are true, then be sure..."
(eido) literally means perception by sight (perceive, see) as in
Mt 2:2 where the wise men "saw His star". Peter uses it here in the
sense what one knows absolutely and finally. The meaning of eido
is somewhat difficult to convey but in general this type of "knowing"
is distinguished from ginosko (and epiginosko, epignosis), the
other major New Testament word for knowing, because ginosko
refers to knowledge obtained by experience or "experiential knowledge"
whereas eido often refers to more intuitive knowledge, although the
distinction is not always crystal clear.
Eido is not
so much by experience as an intuitive insight that is "drilled into your
heart" so to speak. Eido is that perception, that being aware of, that
understanding, that intuitive knowledge that only the Holy Spirit of God
can give you. That is what Paul is pleading for God to unleash in the
heart of these saints.
As Peter has proven from the
Scriptures with the illustrations of Noah and Lot, God assuredly
(oida = absolute knowledge, without a doubt,
perfect tense = emphasizes the permanent state of His absolute knowing) how
to deliver the godly. The conditional sentence Peter began in 2:4 is now
brought to its logical conclusion of deliverance for the godly and
punishment for the unrighteous.
For the first time in this chapter Peter calls God "Lord"
(kurios) a word that specifically emphasizes His supreme
authority, absolute ownership and sovereign power. He has supreme
authority over both the godly and the unrighteous and the sovereign
power to fulfill His responses to both.
(kurios) relates to possession of power or authority. It is the
one who has absolute ownership and uncontested power. It is the one who
is in charge by virtue of possession (owner). There are over 6,000 uses
of kurios in the
the Greek version of the Old Testament, most being used to translate
YHWH the Hebrew word for Jehovah. In the New Testament there are
717 references to kurios. Of the New Testament references to
kurios, 275 occur in the writings of Paul. Luke used kurios
210 times in his Gospel and in Acts.
In the earliest
Greek kurios meant "to have power or authority." Later it came to
describe one who is in control. As classical Greek developed, it became
a title for men of importance. Since the gods of ancient Greece were
neither creators nor lords of their fate, pagan deities were not called
"lord" until much later.
By the time of Christ, kings had come to be called "lord." This was true
of the Roman Emperor Caligula (A.D. 37-41). It was also true of Candace,
the fabled queen of upper Egypt (see Acts 8:27). So too Herod the Great,
Herod Agrippa I, and Herod Agrippa II were called "lord."
used to describe human relationships. Jesus described the relationship
of slaves to their lords (Mt 10:24; 25:19). The Apostle Paul told slaves
to obey their masters or lords as a sign of the slaves' faith in Christ
(Ep 6:6, 9-see notes
The same relationship is discussed in Galatians 4:1.
HOW TO RESCUE
THE GODLY FROM TEMPTATION: eusebeis ek peirasmou rhuesthai
(PMN): (Ps 4:3; 12:1; 32:6; 2Ti 3:12; Titus 2:14)
or ruomai or
rhyomai is derived from rhúo = to draw, drag along the
ground) is the same word rhuomai discussed in verse 5 (click).
Click word study on
Rhuomai is used 17
times in the NT - Matt. 6:13; 27:43; Lk. 1:74; Rom. 7:24; 11:26; 15:31;
2 Co. 1:10; Col. 1:13; 1 Thess. 1:10; 2 Thess. 3:2; 2 Tim. 3:11; 4:17f;
2 Pet. 2:7, 9
Rhuomai means to draw or
snatch to oneself and invariably refers to a snatching from danger, evil
or an enemy. This basic idea of rescuing from danger is pictured by the
use describing a soldier’s going to a wounded comrade on the battlefield
and carrying him to safety (he runs to the cry of his comrade to rescue
him from the hands of the enemy).
Rhuomai emphasizes greatness
of peril from which deliverance is given by a mighty act of power
Rhuomai means to rescue,
deliver, as when we first became believers and the Lord...
"delivered (rhuomai) us from
the domain (exousia
= the right and the might = executive power, jurisdiction) of
darkness (skotos = spiritual darkness ruled by Satan), and
transferred (removed us from. one place to another, causing a change
in someone's official position) us to the kingdom (denoting
sovereignty, royal power, dominion) of His beloved Son" (Click
for in depth discussion of
Col 1:13) Since rhuomai
means to draw to oneself, here we see the great picture that God drew us
out of Satan’s kingdom to Himself. That
event was the new birth. We are not gradually, progressively delivered
from Satan’s power. When we placed our faith in Christ, we were
A great example is wading in a
rushing river and suddenly being caught in the current utterly helpless.
As you cry out someone hears you and holds out their hand as you go
rushing by. As you lie their beside the river safe in the presence of
the one who pulled you out, you still are in the presence of the
dangerous rushing current...you can hear it...you can see it...but
you've been DELIVERED FROM DANGER and you are now safe. How foolish to
walk right back into that current and let it sweep you away!
Peter assured his readers and us that God knows how to “be delivering
the godly out of testing and temptation” (Wuest) so that we may live
victoriously under whatever conditions we encounter.
indicates the continuous action and
truth that God initiates the deliverance Himself and participates in the
Spurgeon's note below on this point)! Suffering Christians
anywhere and at any time can find consolation in the fact that their
Lord knows all about their plight.
(eusebes) is related to "godliness" (see related
word studies of related words -
eusebos) and means to be profoundly reverent or respectful,
devout or pious. Peter used this word in (Acts 10:2, cp Ac 10:7)
describing Cornelius as "a devout
(eusebes) man and one who feared God" which helps
one understand the character of "the
godly" as those who
fear the Lord which is manifest in their daily conduct. God has the
ability and power to
tense = continually) them "out of" (ek)
not just "away from" (which would have been the
(peirasmos) (Click word study of
peirasmos) means a testing, a trial or a putting to the test.
It is a morally neutral word that can describe a test or trial for good
or for evil (Mt 26:41), the goal of the test depending on the intent of
the one giving the test. When the scriptural context clearly indicates the testing is an
enticement to evil, the word is most frequently translated as temptation
which carries a negative connotation.
Checkbook (July 12) writes
godly are tempted and tried. That is not true faith which is never put
to the test. But the godly are delivered out of their trials, and that
not by chance, nor by secondary agencies, but by the LORD Himself. He
personally undertakes the office of delivering those who trust Him. God
loves the godly or godlike, and He makes a point of knowing where they
are and how they fare. Sometimes their way seems to be a labyrinth, and
they cannot imagine how they are to escape from threatening danger. What
they do not know, their LORD knows. He knows whom to deliver, and when
to deliver, and how to deliver. He delivers in the way which is most
beneficial to the godly, most crushing to the tempter, and most
glorifying to Himself. We may leave the "how" with the LORD and be
content to rejoice in the fact that He will, in some way or other, bring
His own people through all the dangers, trials, and temptations for this
mortal life to His own right hand in glory. This day it is not for me to
pry into my LORD's secrets but patiently to wait His time, knowing this,
that though I know nothing, my heavenly Father knows.
AND TO KEEP
THE UNRIGHTEOUS UNDER PUNISHMENT FOR THE DAY OF JUDGMENT: adikous de eis hemeran kriseos kolazomenous
(PPPMPA) terein (PAN):
(2Pet 3:7; Ro 2:5; 2Cor 5:10 ,11)
used 4x in 2Pe) (Click word study of
observe attentively, guarding as one would a prisoner, awaiting the
sentencing (the "crisis" cf "krisis" below)
that will send them to their eternal prison (v4).
Remember that the
subject is still God Himself Who will continually (tereo
is in the present tense calling for continuous unbroken action) guard
the unrighteous. The present tense conveys the truth that God also has
the continuing knowledge and power to guard or reserve the wicked unto
the judgment. The point Peter is making very clearly is that you do not
need to be concerned that the wicked will ever get beyond God's judicial
control and will surely stand before Him in the final day when he will
consign them to the final eternal fate that they have "earned". The false teachers may
seem successful (for “many” follow them), but in the end, they will be
condemned. Their judgment is being prepared now (“lingereth
not,” see note
2 Peter 2:3)
and what is prepared will be reserved and applied on the last day. What a
contrast between the false teachers and the true children of God!
wicked are reserved for hell and hell is in turn reserved for the wicked (2Pe
By way of radical contrast believers
have an inheritance reserved (Peter uses same verb tereo)
for us (2Pe 1:4-note)
because Jesus Christ is preparing a home for us in heaven (Jn 14:1, 2,
We are not looking for judgment, but for the coming of the Lord to take
His people home to glory!
God has not
destined us for
wrath, but for
died for us,
whether we are
asleep, we will
with Him.” (1Th
(adikos from a = without + díke =justice) unjust, wicked, treacherous and worst of all
those men and women falling short of the righteousness required by God
because they lack the imputed (reckoned) righteousness that comes only
by faith in the "Righteous Branch" (Jer 23:5)
the Lord Jesus Christ.
(kolazo from kolos = abridged, shortened, dwarf,
"mutilated") means literally to cut short, to lop, to prune or to trim
(such as trees). The
figurative use conveys the idea of to impede, to curtail, to punish, to chastise or
keep in line.
The sense of
punishing probably comes by way of trimming, i.e., cutting off what is
superfluous. Punishment is designed to cut off what is bad or
disorderly. It may be, however, that the
idea of punishment is
originally identical with that of maiming. It is often used of the
punishment of slaves.
In Classical Greek writings kolazo
was used to do someone an injury, as described of polytheists who
penalize their cult images by locking them up (Dg 2:8). Kolazo was used
of an apocalyptic place of punishment. The verbal form was used as a
noun (kolazontes) to describe constables or police. Aristotle limited
the related word kolasis to disciplinary action but this limited meaning
is not reflected in general usage.
TDNT adds that
This means “to cut short,” “to
lop,” “to trim,” and figuratively a. “to impede,” “restrain,” and b.
“to punish,” and in the passive “to suffer loss.” A common use is for
divine chastisement. In inscriptions the deity punishes those who
violate cultic laws. Some classical authors regard evil as divine
retribution. Philo finds in beneficence and retribution the two
primary powers of being, though God would rather forgive than punish,
and punishes only those who are not amenable to reason. Punishment
brings blessing by freeing from a false frame of soul." (Kittel,
G., Friedrich, G., & Bromiley, G. W. Theological Dictionary of the
New Testament. Eerdmans)
present tense (continuously under punishment) and
passive voice (the
punishment being inflicted from an outside force or source, which of
course is God Himself).
Since Peter mentions this "punishment" in the
context of "the day of judgment" rather that for example the "day of
death" it seems that Peter means that this "punishment" refers to the
intermediate state between the death of the wicked (during which time
their "holding tank" is the "hot" or "punishment" side of Sheol
or Hades - see Lk 16:23, 24)
and the final day of judgment at the Great White Throne.
the only other NT use (one use in Lxx - Da 6:13) of kolazo...
Acts 4:21 And when they had
threatened them further, they let them go (finding no basis on which
they might punish them) on account of the people, because
they were all glorifying God for what had happened;
(2250) (hemera) is amplified by Luke
who teaches that God
"has fixed a day in which He will judge the world in righteousness
through a Man Whom He has appointed, having furnished proof to all men
by raising Him from the dead." (Acts 17:31)
(krisis from krino = to judge, to separate, pick
out, pronounce an opinion concerning right or wrong) is that event
which distinguishes, discriminates, divides, separates or decides,
especially distinguishing between good & evil, right & wrong in the
present context passing an adverse sentence.
The final judgment on the
wicked is the Great White Throne Judgment (Re 20:11, 12, 13, 14,
where all the ungodly of all the ages will be raised, judged and cast
into the lake of fire. It will indeed be a "crisis" from which their is
no escape for the wicked false teachers.
2Peter 2:10 and
flesh in its
self-willed, they do not
And particularly those who walk after the flesh and indulge in the
lust of polluting passion and scorn and despise authority.
Presumptuous [and] daring [self-willed and self-loving creatures]!
They scoff at and revile dignitaries (glorious ones) without
Bible - Lockman)
especially those who indulge their fleshly desires and who despise
authority. Brazen and insolent, they are not afraid to insult the
glorious ones, (NET
He is especially hard on those who follow their own evil, lustful
desires and who despise authority. These people are proud and
arrogant, daring even to scoff at the glorious ones without so much as
- Tyndale House)
Let me show you what these men are really like - His judgment is
chiefly reserved for those who have indulged all the foulness of their
lower natures, and have nothing but contempt for authority. These men
are arrogant and presumptuous - they think nothing of scoffing at the
glories of the unseen world. (Phillips:
Wuest: But [He knows how
to reserve for the day of judgment to be punished] especially those
who proceed on their way, hot in pursuit of the flesh [the totally
depraved nature] in the sphere of the passionate desire of that which
defiles, and who disdain authority. Presumptuous, arrogant, they do
not tremble when defaming those in exalted positions. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: and chiefly those
going behind the flesh in desire of uncleanness, and lordship
despising; presumptuous, self-complacent, dignities they are not
afraid to speak evil of,
AND ESPECIALLY THOSE WHO INDULGE THE FLESH: malista de
tous opiso sarkos en epithumia miasmou poreuomenous (PMPMPA):
(Ro 8:1; Ro 8:4,5 Ro 8:12,13 ; 2Cor 10:3; Heb 13:4)
(3122) (malista) means most of all, especially, particularly and
indicates that the assured punishment applies especially to the false
teachers. Alternatively it could signify that God's punishment will fall
upon them with "special" severity which is the sense the New Living
"He is especially hard on those who follow
their own evil, lustful desires".
In the following
discussion Peter explains why these men are guilty or as Phillip's
paraphrases it "Let me show you what these men are really like"
first addressing their conduct.
Wuest's paraphrase describes these men
"especially those who proceed on their way, hot in pursuit of
the flesh [the totally depraved nature] in the sphere of the passionate
desire of that which defiles"
those who indulge the flesh
is more literally rendered "especially
those who walk after the flesh"
where the word "after"
is (opiso) which describes a position behind something or
someone and in the present context refers to a position behind or in
back of "the
is in a sense personified as the "leader" of these evil men.
example, opiso is used several times in the NT describing
"following after" Jesus in (Mt 4:19).
Another good illustration of the meaning of opiso is
Paul's description of certain persons in (1Ti 5:15)
who "have already turned aside to follow
So you begin to get a clear picture
of the spiritual dynamic. The word for "walk" in "walk after" is poreuomai which pictures one going
from one place to another as if on a journey.
present tense which pictures these men continually, persistently
following the pathway described as "after the flesh".
from being true leaders, these false teachers to the contrary are eager
followers, here pictured as following after the lead of their flesh
rather than the leading of the Spirit of God. In Romans 8 Paul contrasts
those who walk according to the flesh not the Spirit:
those who are
according to the
minds on the things of the
those who are
according to the
Spirit, the things of the
Spirit. For the
set on the
death, but the
set on the
set on the
God; for it does not
subject itself to the
God, for it is not
able to do so, and
those who are in the
you are not in the
but in the
dwells in you. But
anyone does not
Christ, he does not
belong to Him....for
if you are
according to the
if by the
Spirit you are
deeds of the
body you will
8:13) (See related -
Chart contrasting in the flesh vs in the Spirit)
To walk after the
is to be given up to the flesh,
like brute animals, who are not led by reason and judgment, but have the
natural desire of their flesh
as their chief guide.
(sarx) is one of those terms that can be confusing if one
is not careful to note the context in which it is used. For example
can refer to literal physical
of a human being as in the description of the incarnation of Jesus: "The
Word became flesh..."
In contrast, in the present context sarx refers to the "totally
depraved nature" (Wuest
with its disposition to sin.
ethically refers to that part of man which, because of the fall, is
opposed to God and to holiness. The depraved nature of man does not want
to submit to any kind of authority. “Do your own thing!” is its
insistent message, and many people follow it. The important thing is to
take care of yourself—“number one”—and to use other people as tools for
the achievement of your own selfish goals. The flesh
is like an animal who smells out its prey stimulated on by its basic
drive of hunger with its only goal being to satisfy this basic urge with
neither thought nor care for consequences. Such animalistic behavior
certainly suggest that that person is not a Christian. Sadly, such
people pose as Christian teachers and their poison is deadly like Jim
Jones and Guiana. They lead others astray, promising freedom but leading
to addiction and slavery to sin.
John Piper defines flesh
"the old ego that is self-reliant and does not delight to yield to
any authority or depend on any mercy.
craves the sensation of self-generated power and loves the praise of
men....in its conservative form it produces legalism -- keeping rules by
its own power for its own glory.... (in its more liberal form) produces
grossly immoral attitudes and acts (Gal 5:19, 20, 21 - (see
is the proud and unsubmissive root of depravity in every human heart
which exalts itself subtly through proud, self-reliant morality, or
flaunts itself blatantly through self-assertive, authority-despising
Man’s fallen nature encourages pride. When the ego is at stake, these
apostates will stop at nothing in order to promote and protect
themselves. Their attitude is completely opposite that of our Lord who
willingly emptied Himself to become a servant, and then died as a
sacrifice for our sins (Php 2:7, 8-see notes
2:8). These men that Peter described
were presumptuous, which means they were “very daring and bold” in the
way they spoke about those in positions of dignity. There is a boldness
that is heroic, but there is also a boldness that is satanic.
Because of Christ’s
saving work on our behalf, the sinful flesh no longer reigns over us, to
debilitate us and drag us back into the pit of depravity into which we
were all born.
Matthew Henry has
a scathing description what it means that these men "walk after
"they follow the devices and desires
of their own hearts, they give up themselves to the conduct of their own
fleshly mind, refusing to make their reason stoop to divine revelation,
and to bring every thought to the obedience of Christ; they, in their
lives, act directly contrary to God’s righteous precepts, and comply
with the demands of corrupt nature. Evil opinions are often accompanied
with evil practices; and those who are for propagating error are for
improving in wickedness. They will not sit down contented in the measure
of iniquity to which they have attained, nor is it enough for them to
stand up, and maintain, and defend, what wickedness they have already
committed, but they walk after the flesh, they go on in their sinful
course, and increase unto more ungodliness and greater degrees of
impurity and uncleanness too; they also pour contempt on those whom God
has set in authority over them and requires them to honour.
IN ITS CORRUPT DESIRES: en epithumia miasmou: (Ro
1:24, 25, 26, 27; 1Co 6:9; Eph 4:19; 5:5; Col 3:5; 1Th 4:7; Jude 1:4,6,
from verb epithumeo =set heart
upon) (Click word study of
epithumia) defines a passionate craving or a strong impulse directed toward
an object (epi = toward). It is a craving or great desire to do or have
something. Although it can mean a good desire the present context epithumia is
to strongly desire to have what belongs to someone else (to covet)
and/or to engage in an activity which is morally wrong, unlawful or
(miasmos from miaino) means
stain, contamination, defilement, pollution, corruption. It is the state of being tainted or stained by
evil. The Greek can be taken one of two ways, either their defiling
desires or desires for defilement or corruption.
this note on the root verb miaino writing that it is...
a. Neutrally this word means “to
paint in color.” b. Censoriously it means “to stain,” first literally,
then in a cultic sense, i.e., with guilt or demonic processes. Washings
are designed to remove such stains. In the OT defilement is with alien
cults, dead bodies, etc., and unclean persons can stain others or holy
objects. The LXX uses miaino for “to declare unclean.” Since the NT no
longer thinks in cultic terms, the word is very rare....Miasmos.
This is “defilement” as an action or state, first cultic, then moral.
The one NT use is in 2Peter 2:10, in which it is licentious passion that
G., Friedrich, G., & Bromiley, G. W. Theological Dictionary of the
New Testament. Eerdmans)
vices the foulness of which contaminates one in his intercourse with the
ungodly mass of mankind.
J. Vernon McGee
adds that miasmos
"means in the defilements—the defilements of uncleanness. This is a
picture of those who are really lower than animals. They are those who
delight in that which is vulgar, vile, and vicious. They relish that
type of thing. (McGee,
J V: Thru the Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson
AND DESPISE AUTHORITY: kai kuriotetos kataphronountas (PAPMPA) kuriotetos: (Nu
16:12, 13, 14, 15; Dt 17:12,13; 21:20,21; 1Sa 10:27; 2Sa 20:1; 1Ki
12:16; Ps 2:1, 3, 4, 5-Spurgeon's
note; Ps 12:4-Spurgeon's
note; Jer 2:31; Lk 19:14;
Ro 13:1-5; 1Pe 2:13,14)
(2706) (Kataphroneo from katá = against
or denoting evil + phronéo = to think) means to think down
upon or against and so to despise, to think lightly of, neglect, not care for,
hold in contempt or feel contempt for someone or something because it is
thought to be bad or without value contempt felt in the mind which is
displayed in injurious action. What these men despise is authority or as
one has translated it "and lordship despising".
indicates this heart attitude is their lifestyle or their habitual
attitude of "thinking down on" or "against" something with the result
that it is ignored.
which comes from kurios
= Lord, owner, master) means lordship, ruling power, one who possesses dominion, civil power, authority or
magistracy. It can refer to supernatural beings that possess dominion
and authority (See notes Ephesians
found 4 times in the NT...
Ephesians 1:21 (note)
far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and
every name that is named, not only in this age, but also in the one to
Colossians 1:16 (note)
For by Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth,
visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or
authorities-- all things have been created by Him and for Him.
2 Peter 2:10 (note)
and especially those who indulge the flesh in its corrupt desires and
despise authority. Daring, self-willed, they do not tremble when
they revile angelic majesties,
Jude 1:8 Yet in the same
manner these men, also by dreaming, defile the flesh, and reject
authority, and revile angelic majesties.
MacArthur adds that
teachers identified with Christ outwardly, but they would not live under
His lordship. The two major characteristics of false teachers are
emphasized in this verse: 1) lust and 2) arrogance."
concurs adding that
we may conclude that by
‘despise government’ is meant a despising of the Lordship of
Christ, which was the central theme of the apostolic teaching and
(tolmetes related to tolmao = to deal boldly from
tolma = boldness) means bold, venturous, reckless, daring, audacious
(recklessly bold, fearless) and brazenly doing that which
defies what is right and
has no concern for the consequences for oneself or others. They are presumptuous
men who have contempt of law, religion, or decorum. There is a daring that
is heroic, but there is also a
that is satanic. Tolmetes can have a positive meaning (but of course
that is not Peter's intent) such as a bold, daring or enterprising
Tolmetes is found only here in
Barclay adds that
There are two kinds of daring.
There is the
which is a noble thing, the mark of true courage. There is the daring
which is an evil thing, the shameless performance of things which are an
affront to decency and right. As the character in Shakespeare had it:
do all becomes a man. Who dares
do more is none.” The bad man is he who has the audacity to defy the
will of God as it is known to him. (Barclay,
William: New Testament Words:. Westminster John Know Press, 1964)
(Ge 49:6; Titus 1:7-note)
(829) (authades from auto = himself +
hedone from hedone = sensual
pleasure, from handano = to please; English = hedonism = the
doctrine that pleasure or happiness is the sole or chief good in life;
doctrine that moral value can be defined in terms of pleasure or that
the pursuit of pleasure is the highest good) (Click word study on
authades) meaning bluntly that
these men lived to please themselves and includes an implication of
obstinacy so that they stubbornly insist on doing that which pleases
This is the attitude of being so obsessed with one’s own wishes that
nothing else can be taken into consideration. They were not
so much crowd pleasers as they were self pleasers. They
will allow nothing to stand in the way of their own self-gratification.
Their "motto" is "I do it my way."
Authades is an unusually strong adjective that
denotes an arrogant self-interest that asserts its own will with utter
disregard for how others might be affected. These men are so pleased with
themselves that nothing else pleases them and they
care to please nobody. They obstinately maintain their own opinion or
assert their own right but are reckless of the rights, feelings, and
interests of others. They regulate their life with no respect to others.
Clearly the man who is authades is an unpleasant
character. He is intolerant, condemning everything that he cannot
understand and thinking that there is no way of doing anything except
were so arrogant that they would even defy God to get what they wanted!
Proverbs 21:24 describes them perfectly:
While outwardly, they appeared to
serve God and minister to the people, inwardly they fed their own egos
and feathered their own nests.
Trench adds that the authades man
maintains his own opinion, or asserts his own rights, while he is
reckless of the rights,
opinions and interests of others."
"The man who is authades is stubbornly
and arrogantly and even brutally determined on his own way. The bad
is he who has no regard for either human appeal or divine guidance."
William: New Testament Words:. Westminster John Know Press, 1964)
THEY DO NOT
TREMBLE WHEN THEY REVILE ANGELIC MAJESTIES: doxas
ou tremousin (3PPAI) blasphemountes (PAPMPN): (Ex 22:28; Eccl
10:6,7; Eccl 10:20 Acts 23:5; Jude 1:8,10)
(tremo) means to
be afraid. The trembling spoken of in this word is predominantly
physical. These evil men are so brazen that they don't even experience a
quiver (the Greek negative here is ou and indicates the absolute absence of tremor) of fear
or awe even though railing at dignities.
from blapto = to hurt, harm or injure + pheme =
report from phemi = make known one's thoughts, declare)
(Click word study of
blasphemeo) denotes the utterance of speech which
defames and injures the reputation of another. When applied to men, the
verb means revile, slander or injure the reputation of another. When
applied to supernatural beings, blaspheme is an accurate translation. They continually (present tense) speak evil, ridiculing and blaspheming. This action is a clear
indicator of the arrogance of these men.
could refer to the slander of earthly dignitaries such as church
leaders, which might well be expected from such shameless peddlers of
error. On the other hand, it could refer to the blaspheming of angels,
as suggested by the NASB translation. This view has some support since
the parallel passage in Jude 8-10 is speaks of angels.
I like the more
literal and somewhat less dogmatic NET translation
"they are not
afraid to insult the glorious ones."
"they do not tremble when
defaming those in exalted positions."
They speak evil of
that which is sacred, that which is holy. As the respected Lutheran
commentator Lenski notes "doxa" could conceivably even include
brazen "attacks on the glories of our Lord & Savior Jesus Christ." It is
therefore prudent to keep in mind that although the NASB makes it sound
like there is no ambiguity, the other translations are more open minded
and less dogmatic.
sums up these men as described in this section:
"The picture here is of proud people who try to build themselves up
while they try to tear down everybody else. They show no respect for
authority and are not afraid to attack and defame
W: Bible Exposition Commentary. 1989. Victor)
power do not
Whereas [even] angels, though superior in might and power, do not
bring a defaming charge against them before the Lord (Amplified
Bible - Lockman)
yet even angels, who are much more powerful, do not bring a slanderous
judgment against them before the Lord. (NET
But the angels, even though they are far greater in power and strength
than these false teachers, never speak out disrespectfully against the
glorious ones. (NLT
- Tyndale House)
Yet even angels, who are their superiors in strength and power, do not
bring insulting criticisms of such things before the Lord. (Phillips:
Whereas angels, being greater in power and might, are not bringing
against them from the presence of the Lord reproachful judgment. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: whereas
messengers, in strength and power being greater, do not bear against
them before the Lord an evil speaking judgment;
WHEREAS ANGELS WHO ARE GREATER IN MIGHT AND POWER: hopou aggeloi ischui
kai dunamei meizones ontes (PAPMPN): (Ps 103:20-Spurgeon's
note; Ps 104:4-Spurgeon's
note; Da 6:22; 2Th 1:7;
(aggelos) means a messenger...who speaks and acts in place of one
who has sent him. Angels have considerable authority in this present
world (Da 10:13; Mt 18:10), and our present inhabited earth, is ruled by
angels (see notes on the prince of the power of the air in
The chief fallen angel is Satan, who is also prince of this world.
Although the Greek
word aggelos can refer to men, in this context Peter is referring
to transcendent (exceeding usual limits) beings with power
to carry out various missions or tasks.
are created supernatural beings that attend upon or serve as a
messengers of a superior supernatural entity. Peter's mention of "angels"
would doubtless have gotten the attention of his readers since those
with a Jewish background knew the high esteem Jews ascribed to angelic
TORREY'S TOPIC - ANGELS
by God and Christ -Nehemiah 9:6; Colossians 1:16
Worship God and Christ -Nehemiah 9:6; Philippians 2:9-11; Hebrews 1:6
Are ministering Spirits -1 Kings 19:5; Psalms 68:17; 104:4; Luke 16:22;
Acts 12:7-11; 27:23; Hebrews 1:7,14
Communicate the will of God and Christ -Daniel 8:16,17; 9:21-23; 10:11;
12:6,7; Matthew 2:13,20; Luke 1:19,28; Acts 5:20; 8:26; 10:5; 27:23;
Obey the will of God -Psalms 103:20; Matthew 6:10
Execute the purposes of God -Numbers 22:22; Psalms 103:21; Matthew
13:39-42; 28:2; John 5:4; Revelation 5:2
Execute the judgments of God -2 Samuel 24:16; 2 Kings 19:35; Psalms
35:5,6; Acts 12:23; Revelation 16:1
Celebrate the praises of God -Job 38:7; Psalms 148:2; Isaiah 6:3; Luke
2:13,14; Revelation 5:11,12; 7:11,12
The law given by the ministration of -Psalms 68:17; Acts 7:53; Hebrews
The conception of Christ -Matthew 1:20,21; Luke 1:31
The birth of Christ -Luke 2:10-12
The resurrection of Christ -Matthew 28:5-7; Luke 24:23
The ascension and second coming of Christ -Acts 1:11
The conception of John the Baptist -Luke 1:13,36 --
Minister to Christ -Matthew 4:11; Luke 22:43; John 1:51
Are subject to Christ -Ephesians 1:21; Colossians 1:16; 2:10; 1 Peter
Shall execute the purposes of Christ -Matthew 13:41; 24:31
Shall attend Christ at his second coming -Matthew 16:27; 25:31; Mark
8:38; 2 Thessalonians 1:7
Know and delight in the gospel of Christ -Ephesians 3:9,10; 1 Timothy
3:16; 1 Peter 1:12
Ministration of, obtained by prayer -Matthew 26:53; Acts 12:5,7
Rejoice over every repentant sinner -Luke 15:7,10
Have charge over the children of God -Psalms 34:7; 91:11,12; Daniel
6:22; Matthew 18:10
Are of different orders -Isaiah 6:2; 1 Thessalonians 4:16; 1 Peter 3:22;
Jude 1:9; Revelation 12:7
Not to be worshipped -Colossians 2:18; Revelation 19:10; 22:9
Are examples of meekness -2 Peter 2:11; Jude 1:9
Are wise -2 Samuel 14:20
Are mighty -Psalms 103:20
Are holy -Matthew 25:31
Are elect -1 Timothy 5:21
Are innumerable -Job 25:3; Hebrews 12:22
(3173) (meizon) greater, more, older
word study of
strength, especially as dwells in persons or things and gives them
influence or value. Ischus refers to “power as an
enduement.” Ischus is the inherent ability, power or force which
stresses the factuality of the ability, not necessarily the
accomplishment. A muscular man’s big muscles display his might, even if
he doesn’t use them. It is the reserve of strength. Ischus
therefore conveys the sense of endowed power or ability. The idea is
that it is the active efficacy of the might that is inherent in God, His
indwelling strength. Ischus is that strength which one has in possession
or ability. One might think of ischus as God's latent power. It is His
capability to function effectively. He is able!
Ischus is found 10 times in
the NT - Mk. 12:30, 33; Lk. 10:27; Eph. 1:19; 6:10; 2 Thess. 1:9; 1 Pet.
4:11; 2 Pet. 2:11; Rev. 5:12; 7:12
from dunamai = to be able, to
have power, English = dynamic, dynamo, dynamite) power especially achieving power. It refers to
intrinsic power or inherent ability, the power or ability to carry out
some function, the potential for functioning in some way (power, might,
strength, ability, capability), the power residing in a thing by virtue
of its nature. Dunamis is the implied ability or capacity to
perform. It conveys the idea of effective, productive energy, rather
than that which is raw and unbridled.
that words derived from the stem duna— all have the basic meaning
of “being able,” of “capacity” in virtue, of an ability.
Dunamis is the word generally used of divine energy.
Scripture uses dunamis to
describe deeds that exhibit the ability to function powerfully (deeds of
power, miracles, wonders) (eg, see Mt 11:20, 23, 13:54, 58, etc)
The angels are greater in might and power than the false teachers of
v10. These latter presume to speak evil of the holy angels. But, the
holy angels do not presume to speak reproachfully of fallen angels.
DO NOT BRING A REVILING JUDGMENT AGAINST THEM BEFORE THE LORD: ou
pherousin (3PPAI) kat auton para kuriou blasphemon krisin:
= a primary verb) carry or bear, literally as one would carry a
load, here figuratively of "bearing" a blasphemous
accusation, carrying it (present tense =
continually) into the presence (para = beside, alongside,
figuratively meaning before, in the sight of or the presence of the Lord
the Judge) of the Lord (kurios = absolute
authority and sovereign power). The angels are
reviled by the false teachers, but the false teachers are not reviled by
the angels for even the angels, though greater in strength and power,
know better than to intrude into a sphere that is not within their
authority. Undoubtedly the angels are cognizant of Satan's rebellion and
are fully convinced of the seriousness of revolting against God’s
authority. If God judged the rebellious angels, how much more will He
judge these rebellious false teachers! Woe!
from blapto = to hurt, harm or injure + pheme = report
from phemi = make known one's thoughts, declare) (Click word study of
blasphemeo) describes speech which
defames and injures the reputation of another - slandering or injuring the reputation.
This action is a clear indicator of the arrogance of these men.
(krisis from krino = to separate, pick out, pronounce an
opinion concerning right or wrong) (also used in 2Pe 2:4, 9, 11, 3:7)
decide a question of legal right or wrong, and thus determine the
innocence or guilt of the accused and assign appropriate punishment or
retribution. Angels as powerful as they are in the supernatural realm do
not possess this authority. How absurd that these false teachers presume
to exercise this authority in their rash and self-confident railings
against "the glorious ones" in verse 10.
John Calvin adds that the false teachers
rash arrogance, because they dared to assume more liberty than even
is variously translated as
speaking judgment" (Young's
"defaming charge" (Amplified)
"slanderous judgment" (NET
out disrespectfully" (NLT)
Just contemplate for a moment the audacity of these men who dare to do
what holy angels shrink from doing! And think too of the corresponding
judgment that will justifiably repay such defiance!
No believer should be so boldly foolish as to mock or command the power
of supernatural demons, especially Satan and yet we do hear this type of
thing in modern day Christendom!
is a close parallel and most observers feel this is the specific
occasion Peter is alluding to in less detail than Jude:
"Yet in the same way these men, also
by dreaming, defile the flesh, and reject authority, and revile angelic
majesties but Michael the archangel, when he disputed with the devil and
argued about the body of Moses, did not dare pronounce against him a
railing judgment, but said, "The Lord rebuke you!"
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