WHO SAVED US: tou sosantos (AAPMSG)
hemas: (Mt 1:21. Ac
2:47. Ro 13:11 1Co 1:18. Ep 2:5, 8. 1 Ti 1:1. Ti 3:4, 5)
In the Greek text, note that
verses 8-11 are a single sentence.
Note that this next section is an expansion of the last word in the
previous verse "God" and His infinite power.
Paul simply cannot resist the opportunity to enlarge upon the gospel of
God and what He did in providing the way (Note: Not "a way" but "the"
only way, Jn 14:6 where the definite article "the" precedes way, truth,
and life, cp Acts 4:12) of escape from the divine wrath to come, a wrath
which was otherwise justly deserved by sinners such as he (and we).
Steven Cole has a poignant
introduction in his exposition of this passage observing that...
Most evangelistic appeals today pitch
the gospel as the way to have an abundant life. “Jesus came to offer you
abundant life. Trust in Him and He will give you peace, joy, and a truly
happy life.” While all of those claims are true if properly defined,
what the salesman hasn’t told the potential customer is that your
problems may grow much worse after you have trusted in Christ.
When we pitch Jesus as a better way
to self-fulfillment, we’re promoting an Americanized message that is not
identical with the biblical gospel. What if the potential convert is
from a Muslim background? Will his life be one of trouble-free happiness
if he trusts in Christ? His family will disown him and possibly kill him
because he converted to Christianity. What if he is from China? He may
lose his job or be sent to a labor camp on account of his Christian
faith. In 2Ti 3:12
“Indeed, all who desire to live godly
in Christ Jesus will be persecuted.”
We had better present a gospel that
is worth suffering for!
In the Greek text, 2Ti 1:8-11 are a
single sentence. In 2Ti 1:8, Paul exhorts Timothy not to
“be ashamed of the testimony of our
Lord, or of me His prisoner, but join with me in suffering for the
gospel according to the power of God.”
Then in 2Ti 1:12, Paul states,
“For this reason, I also suffer these
things, but I am not ashamed.”
So our text is sandwiched between an
exhortation to embrace suffering for the gospel without shame and an
example of one who had done so. The motive that Paul uses to urge
Timothy to embrace suffering is the glorious gospel of God’s sovereign
grace. He is saying that…
Because God has saved us by His
sovereign grace, we should be willing to suffer for the gospel.
Getting a grasp of the glorious truth
that God saved us according to His own purpose and grace, which was
granted to us in Christ Jesus from all eternity, will give us the
strength to endure suffering for the sake of the gospel. Remember, these
words are coming to us from the Holy Spirit through the mouth of a man
who is facing imminent execution on account of the gospel. So these
truths are powerfully practical, but we must understand and submit to
them in order to benefit from them. (Why
Suffer for the Gospel? By Steven Cole)
[word study]) has the basic meanings of to rescue from peril,
danger or destruction (ultimately the "second death" in the
Lake Of Fire - See also Garland's
Births, Deaths, and Resurrections), to protect, to keep alive in either a physical or spiritual sense
(the latter of course being the most important in eternal terms).
Sozo occurs 54x in the Gospels, 14 uses relating to deliverance from disease
or demon possession (Mt 9:21, 22, Lk 8:36), 20x to the rescue of
physical life from some impending peril or death (Mt 8:25; 14:30) and
the remaining 20x referring to spiritual salvation (Mt 1:21; 10:22; Lk
Sozo - 106x in 99v in
NAS - Matt 1:21; 8:25; 9:21f; 10:22; 14:30; 16:25; 19:25; 24:13, 22;
27:40, 42, 49; Mark 3:4; 5:23, 28, 34; 6:56; 8:35; 10:26, 52; 13:13, 20;
15:30f; 16:16; Luke 6:9; 7:50; 8:12, 36, 48, 50; 9:24; 13:23; 17:19;
18:26, 42; 19:10; 23:35, 37, 39; John 3:17; 5:34; 10:9; 11:12; 12:27,
47; Acts 2:21, 40, 47; 4:9, 12; 11:14; 14:9; 15:1, 11; 16:30f; 27:20,
31; Rom 5:9f; 8:24; 9:27; 10:9, 13; 11:14, 26; 1 Cor 1:18, 21; 3:15;
5:5; 7:16; 9:22; 10:33; 15:2; 2 Cor 2:15; Eph 2:5, 8; 1 Thess 2:16; 2
Thess 2:10; 1 Tim 1:15; 2:4, 15; 4:16; 2 Tim 1:9; 4:18; Titus 3:5; Heb
5:7; 7:25; Jas 1:21; 2:14; 4:12; 5:15, 20; 1 Pet 3:21; 4:18; Jude 1:5,
23. NAS = bring...safely(1), cured(1), ensure salvation(1),
get(1), get well(2), made...well(6), made well(5), preserved(1),
recover(1), restore(1), save(36), saved(50), saves(1), saving(1).
in this verse is in the
aorist tense (as
is the following verb "called") which
signifies that God's act of saving (and calling)
the believer was at a point in time. In other words in this context, the
aorist tense speaks of a specific historical event.
Edwards points out that...
This is one of the few times in the
NT where the word "save" (sozo) refers only to justification
(salvation from the penalty of sin). In each case when save is used only
for justification, it is used in a past tense (either aorist or
perfect). Ep 2:8, Titus 3:5, Lk 8:12. It is interesting to note the
contrast in the use of "save" here with 1Ti 4:16. In 1Ti 4:16, Timothy's
salvation is still future and is conditional. Here Timothy's salvation
is past and unconditional. Is there a contradiction? No, 1Ti 4:16 is
talking about SANCTIFICATION (salvation from the power and
effects of sin) while 2Ti 1:9 is in reference to JUSTIFICATION.
Untold confusion has arisen by men forcing "justification" upon the word
"save" whenever they see it in the NT.
We ought to note that it is God Who
reached down and saved us. He initiated the process from before time
eternal, He wooed us and won us by the convicting ministry of His
Spirit, and He will consummate the process in His good time. Truly there
can be no boasting on man's part for all we ever did was turn farther
away from the One Who created and redeemed us. Inseparably linked to our
salvation, is our calling. ". . . and called us with a holy calling." (2
Timothy Call to Completion)
Do you remember the day you were saved? (I only know the season myself
My Testimony to God's Grace). Paul’s is saying that
since God has saved us and called us at a definite point of time, this
glorious truth ought to strengthen our faith to be willing to suffer unashamedly.
He has reminded Timothy that he (and we) have God's gifts (2Ti 1:7-note) and
God's power (Recall
to mind God's power = omnipotent) to overcome
opposition (cp "overcomers" 1Jn 5:4, 5, Ro 8:35, 36-note,
Ro 8:37, 38, 39-note).
Beloved, as we suffer, let us be sure that we are suffering for doing
good and not evil! (cp 1Pe 2:20-note,
cleansing blood of the dying Lamb,
Through the pow’r of grace and the precious Name,
Through the light that beams from the Morning Star,
More than conquerors, conquerors we are.
Spurgeon writes that
The apostle uses the perfect tense
and says, "Who hath saved us." Believers in Christ Jesus are saved.
They are not looked upon as persons who are in a hopeful state, and may
ultimately be saved, but they are already saved. Salvation is not a
blessing to be enjoyed upon the dying bed, and to be sung of in a future
state above, but a matter to be obtained, received, promised, and
enjoyed now. The Christian is perfectly saved in God’s purpose; God has
ordained him unto salvation, and that purpose is complete. He is saved
also as to the price which has been paid for him: “It is finished” was
the cry of the Saviour ere he died. The believer is also perfectly saved
in his covenant head, for as he fell in Adam, so he lives in Christ.
This complete salvation is accompanied by a holy calling. Those whom the
Saviour saved upon the cross are in due time effectually called by the
power of God the Holy Spirit unto holiness: they leave their sins; they
endeavour to be like Christ; they choose holiness, not out of any
compulsion, but from the stress of a new nature, which leads them to
rejoice in holiness just as naturally as aforetime they delighted in
sin. God neither chose them nor called them because they were holy, but
he called them that they might be holy, and holiness is the beauty
produced by his workmanship in them. The excellencies which we see in a
believer are as much the work of God as the atonement itself. Thus is
brought out very sweetly the fulness of the grace of God. Salvation must
be of grace, because the Lord is the author of it: and what motive but
grace could move him to save the guilty? Salvation must be of grace,
because the Lord works in such a manner that our righteousness is for
ever excluded. Such is the believer’s privilege—a present salvation;
such is the evidence that he is called to it—a holy life. (Morning and
Steven Cole has a
good discussion on salvation writing...
As I’ve often said, salvation is a
radical word. You don’t need saving if you’re in pretty good shape. All
you need then is a little help. You need saving when you’re perishing
and are helpless to save yourself. The Bible uses a number of metaphors
to show that we are desperately helpless and unable to save ourselves.
It says that we were dead in our sins (Eph. 2:1; John 11). It pictures
us as blind (John 9; 2 Cor. 4:4), lost (Luke 15), leprous (Luke
5:12-14), crippled (Luke 5:18-25), deaf (Mark 7:31-35), and hardened in
our hearts (Eph. 4:18). Salvation means that God came to us while we
were His sinful enemies (Rom. 5:8, 10), rescued us from our helpless
condition, and gave us new life as His free gift. As William Hendriksen
put it (New Testament Commentary, 1 & 2 Timothy, Titus [Baker], p. 232),
“God has delivered us from the greatest of all evils and he has placed
us in possession of the greatest of all blessings.”
But here is where much controversy
arises. Many will say, “It’s true that God saves us, but the sinner has
to exercise his free will in order to accept God’s gift.” In other
words, God has done His part by sending Christ to die for our sins, but
now it’s up to us to accept Him. Implicit in this teaching is that
everyone has the ability to believe in Christ. Without such ability,
they say, God’s offer of salvation is a sham. What good is it to tell a
sinner to trust in Christ if he is not able to trust in Christ?
Several things need to be said here.
First, sinners must repent and trust in Christ to be saved. Christ
commands sinners to repent and believe the gospel (Mark 1:15). But the
command does not imply ability. Jesus plainly said (John 6:44, 65), “No
one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him; and I will
raise him up on the last day…. For this reason I have said to you, that
no one can come to Me unless it has been granted him from the Father.”
Clearly, the Father does not draw everyone to Christ, because Jesus
promises to raise up on the last day all who come to Him through the
Father’s drawing. But not all will be saved. Jesus said (Luke 10:22),
“All things have been handed over to Me by My Father, and no one knows
who the Son is except the Father, and who the Father is except the Son,
and anyone to whom the Son wills to reveal Him.” Clearly, Jesus does not
will to reveal the Father to everyone. When the disciples asked Jesus
why He spoke to the multitudes in parables, He replied (Matt. 13:11),
“To you it has been granted to know the mysteries of the kingdom of
heaven, but to them it has not been granted.”
In John 8:43, 44, Jesus asked the
unbelieving Jews, “Why do you not understand what I am saying? It is
because you cannot hear My word. You are of your father the devil, and
you want to do the desires of your father….” Jesus did not say, “It is
because you chose by your free will not to hear My word,” but rather,
“because you cannot hear My word.” Because they were not born again,
they were of their father the devil, and they acted in accordance with
If we had time, I could multiply
verses that say the same thing (e.g., Ro 8:7, 8; 1Cor. 2:14; 2Co
4:4; Ep 2:1, 2, 3; 4:17, 18). So to speak of “free will” is really
misleading. As Martin Luther correctly argued against Erasmus (The
Bondage of the Will), the fallen human will (before conversion) is in
bondage to sin. Or, as Charles Wesley put it (“And Can it Be?”), “Long
my imprisoned spirit lay, fast bound in sin and nature’s night….” God
has to send that quickening (life-giving) ray to awaken us from our
darkness, death, and bondage. At that instant, we respond in faith and
repentance, which also come from God. It is God who saves us. (Why
Suffer for the Gospel?)
AND CALLED US: kai kalesantos
(AAPMSG): (Ro 8:28,
30. 9:24. 1Th 1:4. 4:7. 2Th 2:13, 14. He 3:1. 1Pe 1:15, 16, 2:9, 20, 21.
[word study]) has several nuances including (1) to
identify by name or attribute, call, call by name, name (Lk 1:59, Jn
(2) to request the presence of someone at a social gathering,
invite (Mt 22:9)
(3) to use authority to have a person or group appear or to
summon (Mt 2:7)
and (4) from the meanings ‘summon’ & ‘invite’ there
develops the extended sense of to choose for receipt of a special
benefit or experience which is the meaning in the context of the present
verse (Heb 5:4 of God
calling one to be priest, 1Pe 5:10
called to eternal glory).
Vincent comments that called
It is Paul’s technical term for God’s
summoning men to salvation.
Jamieson rightly says
The call comes wholly from God and
claims us wholly for God. (and adds that) “Holy” implies the separation
of believers from the rest of the world unto God.
John Gill says
The calling here spoken of is not to an office, nor a mere call
by the external ministry of the word, but a call by special grace, to
special privileges, to grace and glory; and is an high and heavenly one,
and is here called holy.
WITH A HOLY CALLING: klesei
hagia: (Ro 8:28,
29, 30; 9:24; 1Th 4:7; 2Th 2:13,14; Heb 3:1; 1Pet 2:9; 2:21)
Edwards comments on the four
aspects of our calling
1) It is a HOLY CALLING: The
word "holy" (hagios) means "set apart." God has always desired His
people to be set apart" people. Dt. 7:6, Isa. 52:11, 1 Pet. 1:15,16. We
are to be "set apart" from sin and "set apart" to the Savior. Holiness
is not an option for the believer, it is a family obligation for all
those who are joined together in Christ. "Let everyone who names the
name of the Lord depart from iniquity." II Tim. 2:19.
(2) It is an UNMERITED CALLING: "not according to our works but
according to his own . . . grace." Our salvation and calling are utterly
unmerited by US. Our righteous deeds are but "filthy rags" (Is. 64:6)
and the only thing our lives truly merit is the wrath of Almighty God.
Yet because of God's unfathomable love, He reached out to us who were
dead in trespasses and sin and has made us alive together in Christ.
(Eph 2:1-5). Isaac Watts put it well:
Alas and did my Savior bleed? and did
my Sovereign die?
Would He devote that sacred head for such as worm as I?
Was it for crimes that I have done He groaned upon the tree?
Amazing pity! grace unknown! and love beyond degree!
Click to play
the full hymn @ Cyberhymnal
(3) It is a PURPOSEFUL CALLING:
"but according to His own purpose . . . " One of the greatest pursuits
of our day is the pursuit for purpose in life. I remember reading a few
years back about a man named Isaac Singer, Nobel Peace Prize winner for
literature. In the article his very successful life was described in
some detail and it appeared that he had lived a very full and rewarding
life. But at the end of the article, Isaac Singer made a statement which
I've never forgotten. He said, "But you know the same questions bother
me today which bothered me fifty years ago." And number one among these
questions was, "Why was I born?" No doubt Mr. Singer is not alone in his
unfulfilled quest for purpose and meaning in life. In fact Dr. Karl
Jung, the famous psychologist made the statement not long ago that
"Purposelessness is the neurosis of our day." Yet God has provided a
totally satisfying answer to the question of purpose. But it is
important to note that this answer is "according to HIS OWN purpose."
Until we are willing to live life for HIS purpose then we will chafe at
His answer for it cuts across the grain of our natural desire for
personal HAPPINESS. God's purpose (prothesis) for our lives is
not personal HAPPINESS but personal HOLINESS (Christ-likeness) Ro
God's great goal for our lives is to "conform us to the image of His
Son" Ro 8:29. He will stop at nothing to bring about this holy task.
Thus, the great purpose "set before" us is to be consumed with the
calling of Christ-likeness and to unrelentlessly pursue this great goal,
no matter what the cost. Like the apostle Paul, we should set as our
primary purpose in life "to know Him, and the power of His resurrection,
and the fellowship of His sufferings, being conformed to His death, if
by any means I may attain to the resurrection from the dead." (Php
(4) It is an ETERNAL CALLING. "which was given to us in Christ
Jesus before time began." The pronoun "which" is probably referring back
to both "purpose and grace." Here we catch a glimpse of the majestic
sovereignty of God Who "works all things according to the counsel of His
will" (Ep 1:11). God's purpose and grace were given to us in the person
of Christ Jesus. But look when we received them: "before times eternal"
(pro chronon aionion).
The human mind is simply incapable of fully grasping the immensity of
truths such as these; yet it should not frustrate us that we are not
able to pigeonhole God's eternal workings by our frail, finite
intellects. Rather, truths such as these should stir our hearts to
deeper appreciation and fuller worship of the great God we serve. "Oh
the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How
unsearchable are His judgments and His ways past finding out!" (Ro
11:33) What may appear to us to be taking place in the here and now,
took place in the mind of God even before He set time in motion. Thus it
is no accident that you and I are come upon the stage of human history
at this particular point in time. We are simply playing a part God
designed and decreed for us long, long ago even before the genesis of
time itself. (2
Timothy Call to Completion)
In another letter Paul reminds the
God has not called us for the purpose
of impurity (uncleanness, word used of graves), but in sanctification
(holiness, "to dedicate ourselves to the most thorough purity" [Amp]).
describes what God's will is for His people...
For I am the LORD your God.
Consecrate yourselves therefore, and be holy; for I am holy. And you
shall not make yourselves unclean with any of the swarming things that
swarm on the earth. (Leviticus 11:44)
Matthew Poole comments on a
holy calling noting that...
in order to our obtaining it, hath
effectually called, renewed, and sanctified us.
defines a believer's calling as not profane, but separate from the
corrupt, contaminated world. Believers are set apart (hagios)
from sin and set apart for the Master's (kurios)
use (cp 2Ti 2:21-note).
discussion of Be holy and holiness)
calling is from God
and is often referred to as His effectual call of a sinner to salvation in which the sinner called,
willingly accepts the salvation God offers him. This is God’s
invitation to man to accept the benefits of salvation. In short, in the
epistles, God's calling always denotes an effective and
Why is it
referred to as a holy calling? Gill has this succinct answer:
The Author of it is holy; it is a call to holiness, and the means of it
are holy; and in it persons have principles of grace and holiness
implanted in them; and are influenced to live holy lives and
conversations." Stated another way this calling is holy because it is
not only the invitation to a holy life, but also to the holy life which
the one called is expected to live. God has always desired His people to
be a "set apart" people (Dt 7:6, Isa 52:11).
Holiness is not an option
for the believer, it is a family obligation (see
how His "children" are to act - 1Pe 1:15,16-notes)
for all those who are joined together in Christ and all "who name the
name of the Lord (are to)
imperative - do it
now, sense of urgency) from wickedness." (2Ti 2:19-note, see Torrey's Topic "Character
The Christian’s holy
is described in some detail in Ephesians 1–3, especially Eph 1:3-14 where
we see the truths that saints are chosen (Ep 1:4-note),
predestined (Ep 1:5-1:11-see notes
11), adopted as
sons (Ep 1:5-note),
accepted in the Beloved (Ep 1:6-note),
redeemed through His blood (Ep 1:7-note),
forgiven (Ep 1:7-note),
sealed with the Holy Spirit (Ep 1:13-note)
and given the earnest of our inheritance (Ep 1:14-note).
In addition to a holy calling,
saints also have a high ("upward") calling (Php
a heavenly calling (He 3:1-note)
called are those
are benefactors of the calling of God. Ponder (and then Praise God for)
the Scriptural associations (benefits/responsibilities) of the saint's
by grace (Kaleo -
through the "gospel" that
we "may gain the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ" (Kaleo - 2Th
to salvation (Kaleo
- Ro 8:30-note)
saints by calling (Kletos - 1Co 1:2)
brought "into fellowship
with His Son, Jesus Christ our Lord" (Kaleo - 1Co 1:9)
both Jews and Greeks (Kletos - 1Co 1:24)
not from among Jews only,
but also from among Gentiles (Kaleo - Ro 9:24-note)
according to His purpose (Kletos
- Ro 8:28-note)
to walk worthy (Kaleo
- Ep 4:1-
(to proclaim His
excellencies) out of darkness into His marvelous light (Kaleo -
for this purpose (to suffer...follow
in His steps) - (Kaleo - 1Pe 2:21-note)
heavenly calling (klesis)
(a holy calling) having been
called (kaleo) "with a holy" calling (klesis) (2Ti 1:9-note)
to be holy yourselves in all your
behavior - (Kaleo - 1Pe 1:15-note)
to inherit a blessing (following
Christ's example) - (Kaleo -1Pe 3:9-note)
to His eternal glory in Christ (Kaleo
- 1Pe 5:10-note)
and return in triumph "with Him" at the end of this age (Kletos -
magnificent truths on "called" should cause all the "called of
Jesus Christ" to cry out "Glory!"
Hiebert comments on the two
words saved and called writing that...
The order of the two terms, united
under one article, is interesting. Boise observes 'As the order now
stands, it presents the picture of one who is wandering away from God.
He is stopped in his course. This first divine act saves him. He is then
called, invited, with a holy calling-holy in contrast with the
invitations to sin such as he had previously listened to. The calling is
the work of God's holiness and it leads to holiness in the called.'" (2
Timothy by D. Edmond Hiebert).
Steven Cole notes that...
One common objection to the view that
salvation is totally by God’s grace is that such teaching will lead to
licentiousness. The charge was leveled against Paul (Ro 3:8,6-see notes
6:1). But he always made it clear that God calls us to live
holy lives. If someone claims to be saved but continues living in sin,
he had better examine whether he was truly saved at all. Salvation that
does not result in a life of progressive holiness is not genuine
salvation. It dishonors the name of God when someone claims to be saved,
especially someone in public ministry, but he lives in sin. While no one
can be totally free from sin in this life, those whom God has saved will
sin less as they grow in holiness in thought, word, and deed. God’s call
to holiness is effectual, which is to say, it is something that He
purposes and promises to accomplish in us. Yet at the same time, we must
actively strive for holiness according to the means that God has
Suffer for the Gospel?
NOT ACCORDING TO OUR WORKS:
ou kata ta erga hemon: (Titus
3:5, Eph 2:8, 9,10, Ro 3:20, 4:5, 9:11, 11:5, 6; Gal 2:16) (Click discussion of
good deeds Torrey's
Not according to - Fittingly
Paul uses the strongest Greek word for "not" (ou) to convey that
there is absolutely no way works of a man can merit salvation. This
false belief is so important to refute that he reiterates this same idea
many times in his epistles...
Romans 3:20 (note)
because by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified in His sight;
for through the Law comes the knowledge of sin.
Romans 4:4 (note)
Now to the
one who works, his wage is not reckoned as a favor, but as what is due.
But to the one who does not work, but believes in Him who justifies the
ungodly, his faith is reckoned as righteousness,
Romans 11:6 (note)
But if it is by grace, it is no longer on the basis of works, otherwise
grace is no longer grace.
Galatians 2:16 nevertheless
knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the Law but through
faith in Christ Jesus, even we have believed in Christ Jesus, that we
may be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works of the Law;
since by the works of the Law shall no flesh be justified.
Ephesians 2:8 (note)
For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of
yourselves, it is the gift of God;
not as a result of works, that no one should boast.
For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works,
which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them.
Titus 3:4 (note)
But when the kindness of God our Savior and His love for mankind
He saved us, not on the basis of deeds which we have done in
righteousness, but according to His mercy, by the washing of
regeneration and renewing by the Holy Spirit,
whom He poured out upon us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior,
Our works have not the
least trace of holiness to merit God's holy calling. As
Spurgeon once said...
The first link between my soul and
Christ is not my goodness but my badness, not my merit but my misery,
not my riches but my need.
Saints were saved not according to their "good" works (none are good, no
not one) but for or unto good works (Ep 2:10-note;
cf Acts 9:36 ,1Ti 6:18)
the "ultimate" work being to bring glory to our Father in heaven.
Our righteous deeds are but "filthy rags" (Isa 64:6) and the only
thing our lives truly merit is the wrath of Almighty God. Thus Paul always
emphasizes that men are saved despite what they deserve, not because of
what they deserve!
Gill explains man's "works" as "not properly good works
2Ti 3:17-note), being destitute of faith in Christ, and proceeding
neither from a right principle, nor to a right end"...no matter how
"good" they may appear to other men. (Jer 17:9,10) Salvation
is not earned nor merited by anything that the sinner does.
Calvin astutely observes
If God chose us before the creation of the world He could not have
considered the question of our works, which could have had no existence
at a period when we ourselves were not.
John Blanchard's quip puts
our works in their proper place...
We are saved not by merit but by
William Wickham being appointed by
King Edward to build a stately church, wrote in the windows, "This work
made William Wickham." When charged by the king for assuming the honour
of that work to himself as the author, whereas he was only the overseer,
he answered that he meant not that he made the work, but that the work
made him, having before been very poor, and then in great credit.
Lord, when we read in thy Word that
we must work out our own salvation, thy meaning is not that our
salvation should be the effect of our work, but our work the evidence of
our salvation.— Feathers for Arrows
BUT ACCORDING TO HIS OWN
PURPOSE: alla kata idian prothesin: (Dt
7:7, 7:8; Isa 14:26,27; Mt 11:25,26; Lk 10:21; Jn 15:16, Ro 8:28; 9:11,
12, 13, 16, 10:20, 1Co 1:27, 28, 29, Ep 1:3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 3:11)
But according to - This is a
humbling contrast of which we would be wise to never lose sight. He did
not save us because of how famous we were, of how great we were, on the
basis of what great things we had done, etc, but because it was His holy
purpose! This is humbling and should stimulate great gratitude.
Jamieson adds that..
The origination of salvation was of
His own purpose, flowing from His own goodness, not for works of ours
coming first, but wholly because of His own gratuitous, electing love
His own - This phrase is emphatic
in the Greek sentence. God was self-moved, impelled by motives, not from
without, but from within Himself and "His own private purpose"
Hiebert adds that...
Only God's sovereign and wise
purpose is the norm for our salvation. If our salvation depended on our
own deserving, we might well despair, but it has its ground in God's
eternal and unshakable purpose. And that purpose expressed itself in
"grace," the unmerited favor of God toward us guilty sinners." (2
Timothy by D. Edmond Hiebert).
(prothesis from protithemai = set before oneself to be looked at or exposed to view
and then to purpose or plan) is literally placing before or setting
before and so means the setting forth of a thing or placing of
it in view, a putting forward openly -- a presentation, setting forth, plan, design, purpose,
Prothesis has a secular
Greek use meaning setting forth of something in public and in a similar
NT use refers to the name give to the
("loaves of presentation") in the Temple which is
"exposed before God". The bread before the Presence of the
Lord consisted of twelve loaves of wheat bread offered every Sabbath (12
= number of the tribes of Israel) and arranged in two rows on the table
before the Holy of Holies and to remain there for seven days. (See
Vincent's note below,
table of shewbread or showbread).
The 11 non-apocryphal uses in the
apply prothesis only to the shewbread (see Ex. 39:36; 40:4, 23; 1 Sa
21:6; 1 Chr. 9:32; 23:29; 28:16; 2 Chr. 2:4; 4:19; 13:11; 29:18).
Prothesis meaning intention, purpose, plan, is found only in the
apocryphal books of 2 Macc 3:8; 3 Macc. 1:22; 2:26; 5:12, 29.
The other major NT meaning of
prothesis is purpose, which is something set up as an object or end to
be attained. Purpose describes fixed intention in doing something or
the reason for which something is done or for which something exists. It
describes what one intends to accomplish or attain and suggests a
settled determination (this is going to happen - see uses below that
especially relate to God's purpose).
Richards observes that...
God's sovereignty is affirmed in both
OT and NT. An important NT aspect of this affirmation is found in the
repeated emphasis on that which God has purposed, planned, and decreed.
Two Greek words, prothesis and boule, are particularly
significant. Prothesis means "a plan" or "a resolve," denoting a
decision that has been made. The NIV renders this word "purpose" in four
of the twelve places where it appears in the NT (Ro 8:28; 9:11; Eph
1:11; 3:11). Boule is a strong term, indicating God's fixed intention.
That which is his purpose stands utterly fixed and cannot be changed by
any action of others. (Richards,
L O: Expository Dictionary of Bible Words: Regency)
Prothesis speaks of the
action of an individual setting before himself a proposed action. Thus,
it presupposes deliberation upon a course of conduct, and then the
determination to carry it through.
Prothesis was also used to denote
the public lying in state of the dead (Plato, Leg., 12, 947b), public
announcements (Aristot., Pol., 6, 8, p. 1322a 9), and later an intention
(Polyb., 5, 35, 2). From Aristotle on prothesis was used to express purpose and as shown below Paul uses it of
'the Divine purpose of God for the salvation of mankind,' the 'purpose
of the ages' determined in the Divine mind before the creation of the
world". (Adapted in part from
Brown, Colin, Editor. New
International Dictionary of NT Theology. 1986. Zondervan)
Vincent writes that prothesis
originally referred to...
a placing in public or setting
before. Hence of the shew-bread, the loaves set forth before the Lord
(see Mark 2:26). Something set before one as an object of attainment: a
Here in 2 Timothy God's purpose
refers to His plan and
is the means of accomplishing His plan (cf
similar truth in 2Ti 1:1 "according to the will of God"). Note
that several other passages also refer to God's purpose (cp Ro 8:28-
Clearly one thing we learn from these "divine" uses of prothesis is that
God is a very "purposeful" God, which should be a source of great
comfort to our soul. He is not haphazard, hit or miss, but always on
target and on time.
is used 12 times in the NT...
12:4 how he entered the house of God, and they ate the
consecrated bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, nor for
those with him, but for the priests alone?
Mark 2:26 how he entered the house of God in the time of Abiathar
the high priest, and ate the consecrated bread, which is not
lawful for anyone to eat except the priests, and he gave it also to
those who were with him?"
Note on prothesis in this passage: The shewbread (tous artous tes
protheseos). Literally, the loaves of proposition, i.e., the loaves
which were set forth before the Lord. The Jews called them the loaves of
the face, i.e., of the presence of God. The bread was made of the finest
wheaten flour that had been passed through eleven sieves. There were
twelve loaves, or cakes, according to the number of tribes, ranged in
two piles of six each. Each cake was made of about five pints of wheat.
They were anointed in the middle with oil, in the form of a cross.
According to tradition, each cake was five hand-breadths broad and ten
long, but turned up at either end, two hand-breadths on each side, to
resemble in outline the ark of the covenant. The shewbread was prepared
on Friday, unless that day happened to be a feast-day that required
sabbatical rest; in which case it was prepared on Thursday afternoon.
The renewal of the shewbread was the first of the priestly functions on
the commencement of the Sabbath. The bread which was taken off was
deposited on the golden table in the porch of the sanctuary, and
distributed among the outgoing and incoming courses of priests (compare
save for the priests). It was eaten during the Sabbath, and in the
temple itself, but only by such priests as were Levitically pure. This
old bread, removed on the Sabbath morning, was that which David ate.
(Word Studies in the New Testament 1:173-174)
Luke 6:4 how he entered the house of God, and took and ate the
consecrated bread which is not lawful for any to eat except the
priests alone, and gave it to his companions?"
Acts 11:23 Then when he had come and witnessed the grace of God,
he rejoiced and began to encourage them all with resolute heart
(Literally = with purpose of heart) to remain true to the Lord; (Here
prothesis means purpose of heart, that is, with determination and/or
devotion - compare to the Stoic use of this word)
And when a moderate south wind came up, supposing that they had gained
their purpose, they weighed anchor and began sailing along Crete,
Romans 8:28 (note)
And we know that God causes all things to work together for good to
those who love God, to those who are called according to His purpose.
Romans 9:11 (note)
for though the twins were not yet born, and had not done anything good
or bad, in order that God's purpose according to His choice might
stand (God's purpose which operates by selection), not because of works,
but because of Him Who calls (Here purpose speaks of God's doctrine of
- see passage in Ephesians. Cp notes
Ephesians 1:11 (note)
also we have obtained an inheritance, having been predestined according
to His purpose (God's "grand design") Who works all things after
the counsel of His will,
Ephesians 3:11 (note)
This was in accordance with the eternal purpose which He carried
out in Christ Jesus our Lord,
2 Timothy 1:9 (note)
who has saved us, and called us with a holy calling, not according to
our works, but according to His own purpose and grace which was
granted us in Christ Jesus from all eternity,
2 Timothy 3:10 (note)
But you followed my teaching, conduct, purpose (the guiding
motive of Paul's life and work), faith, patience, love, perseverance,
Hebrews 9:2 (note)
For there was a tabernacle prepared, the outer one, in which were the
lampstand and the table and the sacred bread; this is called the
MacDonald adds this thought worth
"Why should God have so loved ungodly sinners that He was
willing to send His only Son to die for them? Why should He go to such a
cost to save them from hell and to bring them to heaven so that they
could spend eternity with Him? The only possible answer is: according
to His own purpose and grace. The reason for His action did not lie
in us. Rather, it lay in His own great heart of love. He loved us
because He loved us!"
Along this same line of reasoning note that
the word “own”
warrants special attention, signifying that God’s purpose sprang solely
from His good will and love and not from anything external to Himself.
Wuest adds that salvation
"is dominated by God’s purpose...that of glorifying Himself in the
bestowal of salvation and in the life of the person who is the recipient
of that salvation. Salvation, therefore, can never be earned. If it
could, the sinner would be glorified. Salvation must be a free gift with
no strings tied to it. And that is grace, the act of God giving
salvation as a free gift to one who does not only not deserve it, but
who deserves punishment for his sins. This grace is given us in Christ
Jesus in the sense that He made the gift of salvation possible through
His death on the Cross by which He satisfied the just requirements of
the law which sinners broke, thus making it possible for a righteous God
to show mercy to a hell-deserving sinner on the basis of justice
satisfied. This grace was given us before the world began."
K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans
has some excellent thoughts regarding God's
One of the greatest pursuits of our day is the
purpose in life. I remember reading a few years back about a
man named Isaac Singer, Nobel Peace Prize winner for literature.
In the article his very successful life was described in some
detail and it appeared that he had lived a very full and rewarding
life. But at the end of the article, Isaac Singer made a statement
which I've never forgotten. He said, "But you know the same
questions bother me today which bothered me fifty years ago." And
number one among these questions was, "Why was I born?"
doubt Mr. Singer is not alone in his unfulfilled quest for
purpose and meaning in life...Yet God has provided a totally
satisfying answer to the question of purpose. But it is
important to note that this answer is "according to HIS OWN purpose." Until we are willing to live life for
HIS purpose then we will chafe at His answer for it cuts across
the grain of our natural desire for personal HAPPINESS. God's
purpose for our lives is not personal HAPPINESS but
personal HOLINESS (Christ-likeness) (Ro 8:28ff-note)
God's great goal for our lives is to "conform us to the image
of His Son" (Ro 8:29-note). He will stop at nothing to bring about
this holy task. Thus, the great purpose "set before" us is
to be consumed with the calling of Christ-likeness and to
unrelentlessly pursue this great goal, no matter what the cost.
Like the apostle Paul, we should set as our primary purpose
"that I may know Him and the power of His resurrection
and the fellowship of His sufferings, being conformed to His
death; in order that I may attain to the resurrection from the
dead." (Php 3:10,11-note)
AND GRACE WHICH WAS GRANTED
US: kai charin ten dotheisan (APPFSA) hemin: (Grace -
Acts 15:11) (Which was granted us - Jn 6:37;
10:28,29; 17:9; 1Cor 1:4, 3:21,22; Eph 1:3)
[word study]) is the beneficent disposition of God toward
mankind. God's Riches At Christ's Expense.
Unmerited favor from God to man.
My God, how
excellent Thy grace,
Whence all our hope and comfort spring!
The sons of Adam in distress
Fly to the shadow of thy wing.
Grace is God's unmerited favor and
supernatural enablement and empowerment for salvation and for daily
sanctification (cp empowering/strengthening aspect of grace in 1Cor
15:10, 2Co 12:9-note,
2Ti 2:1-note). Grace is everything for nothing to those who don't
deserve anything. Justice is getting what you deserve; mercy is not
getting what you deserve; grace is getting what you do not deserve.
J. H. Jowett defined grace as holy
love on the move.
Grace is needed for every service,
mercy for every failure and peace for every circumstance.
Accept God's grace through faith,
then prove his grace through works, for God does not save us by grace so
that we might then live in disgrace (to His holy Name).
The grace of God does not find men
fit for salvation, but makes them so. - Augustine
The only limits to God's grace are
the limits we put on it.
Grace is as large in renewing us as
sin was in defacing. - Stephen Charnock
Grace in the heart of man is an
exotic. It is a new principle from without, sent down from heaven and
implanted in his soul. - J. C. Ryle
As heat is opposed to cold, and light
to darkness, so grace is opposed to sin. Fire and water may as well
agree in the same vessel as grace and sin in the same heart. - Thomas
The law tells me how crooked I am.
Grace comes along and straightens me out. - D. L. Moody
Grace is what all need, what none can
merit and what God alone can give. - George Barlow
Saving grace makes a man as willing
to leave his lusts as a slave is willing to leave his galley, or a
prisoner his dungeon, or a thief his bolts, or a beggar his rags. -
"He gives more
grace when the burdens grow greater.
He sends more strength when the labors increase,
To added affliction He addeth His mercy,
To multiplied trials, His multiplied peace.
When we have
exhausted our store of endurance,
When our strength has failed 'ere the day is half done;
When we reach the end of our hoarded resources
Our Father's full giving is only begun.
His love has no limit, His grace has no measure.
His power no boundary known unto men;
For out of His infinite riches in Jesus
He giveth and giveth and giveth again."
-- Annie Flint Johnson
Spurgeon writes that...
Many are like that Indian who,
passing up the mountain side pursuing game, grasped a shrub to prevent
his slipping, and as its roots gave way they uncovered masses of pure
silver, and thus the richest silver mine was discovered by a happy
accident by one who looked not for it. These Gentiles discovered in
Christ the righteousness which they needed, but which they had never
dreamed of finding. This reminds us of our Lord's own parable: the man
was ploughing with oxen, and on a sudden the ploughshare struck upon an
unusual obstacle. He stopped the plough and turned up the soil, and lo!
he found a crock of gold! This "treasure hid in a field" at once won his
heart, and for joy thereof he sold all that he had, and bought the
field. Grace finds men who else would never have found grace.— Barbed
Arrows from the Quiver of C. H. Spurgeon
means to give
of one’s own accord and with good will and is
aorist tense which denotes the giving is a past completed action and in
passive voice signifies that the action proceeds from
an outside source, i.e., from God in Christ Jesus.
Note when this was
granted to us. As
meaning...of this phrase (pro chronon aionion) is rightly given in A. V.: before the world
began, that is, before time was reckoned by aeons or cycles. Then,
in that timeless present, grace was given to us in God’s decree...The
gift planned and ordered in the eternal counsels is here treated as an
IN CHRIST JESUS FROM ALL ETERNITY: en Christo Iesou pro chronon aionion: (Jn
17:24; Acts 15:18; Ro 16:25; Eph 1:4; 3:11; 2Th 2:13, Titus 1:2; 1Pe 1:20; Rev
is the Greek preposition pro which is a marker
of a point of time prior to another point of time, earlier than, before
would allow a translation such as "before the ages" and
more literally "before eternal times". Try to comprehend that
Truth! But don't try too hard...just fall down in worship & thanksgiving for
the truth of your calling (election) and your predestination before time
As discussed, calling here is an effectual call to
salvation and as used by Paul (and Peter) equates with the
elect or chosen of God. And also note that here as elsewhere Paul’s reference to
predestination ("from all
eternity") is designed to strengthen and
comfort saints, not to confuse and confound us.
What is a practical application?
When one knows that God purposed his or her salvation from all eternity,
it will give one the firm assurance that God will finish what He began
(Php 1:6). In other words, we did not do anything to gain salvation
before we were even born and by analogy we cannot do anything to lose
salvation once we are saved.
Vincent notes that the Greek
before eternal times. If it is
insisted that aionios means everlasting, this statement is
absurd. It is impossible that anything should take place before
everlasting times. That would be to say that there was a beginning of
times which are from everlasting. Paul puts the beginnings of salvation
in God’s purpose before the time of the world (1Cor. 2:7; 1Pe 1:20-note);
and Christ’s participation in the saving counsels of God prior to time,
goes with the Pauline doctrine of Christ’s preexistence. The meaning,
therefore, of this phrase is rightly given in A. V.: before the world
began, that is, before time was reckoned by aeons or cycles. Then, in
that timeless present, grace was given to us in God’s decree, not
actually, since we did not exist. The gift planned and ordered in the
eternal counsels is here treated as an actual bestowment. (Word Studies
in the New Testament 4:291)
God sovereignly designed salvation, and He sovereignly initiates,
sustains, and completes salvation. He has forgiven us, justified us, and
delivered us from sin and Satan, from death and hell. In every sense and
in every tense—past, present, and future—God is our Savior. (MacArthur,
J. 2 Timothy. Chicago: Moody Press
Note 2 truths about Christ - His preexistence (from all eternity) and
His role as Mediator in Whom divine grace is made available from God to
before the beginning of time
before the world began
before time began
before the times of the ages
Morris comments on this
remarkable revelation incomprehensible to our finite mind...
We who are
"in Christ Jesus" were saved and called (past tense), not only
before we consciously accepted Christ, but even before we were born and
before He created the world (Ep 1:4-note;
Re 17:8-note)! While we cannot understand this with our minds, we can apprehend it
with our hearts, and thank the Lord. (Morris,
Henry: Defenders Study Bible Notes Online - Conservative and
literalistic interpretation = Recommended!)
John Gill nicely summarizes this section on salvation commenting
It is a gift, and a free gift, not at all depending upon any conditions
in the creature, and entirely proceeding from the sovereign will of God;
and it was a gift from eternity; there was not only a purpose of grace
in God's heart, and a promise of it so early, but there was a real
donation of it in eternity: and though those to whom it was given did
not then personally exist, yet Christ did, and he existed as a covenant
head and representative of His people; and they were in Him, as members
of Him, as represented by Him, being united to Him; and this grace was
given to Him for them, and to them in Him; in Whom they were chosen, and
in Whom they were blessed with all spiritual blessings."
Guy King says that Paul...
makes it quite clear that its
blessing (of the Gospel) comes "not according to our works, but
according to His own purpose and grace". There is still a multitude
of people, even many church people, who think that acceptance with GOD
is secured by their own merit, that entrance to Heaven is gained by
their own good works. How insistently does the New Testament combat that
self-flattering idea! Although salvation is "unto good works" -
that is, it commits its recipients to a subsequent practical
Christianity yet - it is not "of works" - that is, our works
cannot win it. His finished Work for us must first be accepted "by
faith," and then our continual works for Him must follow, as the
mark of our gratitude and the fruit of our love. Such is the teaching,
not of this present poor scribe, but of the inspired writer of Ep 2:8,
All comes of "His own purpose and grace": because of His infinite
grace, He conceived the loving purpose of our salvation. When did He
come by that purpose? Let us dare to take just a few steps into that
realm of mystery, and note
How the Gospel is prepared. "Before
the world began," says our verse 9. It was not a sudden whim of the
Almighty: it was "prepared before the face (perhaps here = the
existence) of all people", sang old Simeon, in Luke 2:31. Before the sin
happened, before the sinner came, before the sinner's world was - the
salvation plan was drawn up ready. The Lamb, Who is the Plan, "was
foreordained before the foundation of the world," Peter was allowed
to reveal to us, in 1Pe 1:20-note.
That word "foundation" means "the architect's plan". He has the
conception of his house in his mind; then he sets about drawing his
plans. With his thoughts upon what will be the needs of those who will
come to inhabit it, he puts in this and that - kitchen, bedrooms, coal
cellar, bathroom, study, lounge, and so on. Our word suggests to us the
Architect of the Universe, first conceiving, and then planning, this
World - House for the habitation of men. All the while, His mind will be
dwelling upon what will be their need. He sees them in His mind, as if
they were already here in occupation of the house. "According to the
foreknowledge," as 1Peter 1:2-note
has it. The Architect knows that the chief need will be for the
provision of a way of dealing with sin - so it is put down in the Plan.
Even before the emergency of sin, there is the emergence of grace. In
the course of time the Plan was put into effect and, as our passage (2Ti
says, "is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus
Christ." Hebrews 9:24ff speaks of three appearances of Him - "He
[hath] appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself"; He has
gone back into Heaven "now to appear in the presence of God for us";
and "He [shall] appear the second time . . . unto salvation". (Reference)
Caught And Cleaned - There's a
little church in the mountains west of Boise, Idaho, that recently
celebrated its centennial. One part of the celebration was an enactment
of the history of their church. Townspeople dressed in period costume
portrayed the pastors who served their church over the years.
One of the former ministers was played by an old logger who had lived
through much of the history of the church. The logger had come to faith
in Christ as a result of that pastor's ministry.
He told of the efforts of the pastor to reach him—a hard-drinking,
hard-living man with no interest in the gospel, a man who once said he
"had never met a preacher he liked."
The minister was praying one day and complaining that he'd never win the
logger to Christ, and that even if he did he wouldn't know what to do
with him. The Lord's answer came to him in a way he could understand:
"Don't worry about a thing. You 'catch' him, I'll 'clean' him."
It's a privilege to tell people about Christ. Salvation is "a holy
calling, not according to our works, but according to His own purpose
and grace" (2Timothy 1:9).
If we just keep fishing, we'll "catch" some, and God will make the
foulest clean—just as He has done for us. —David H. Roper (Our
Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by
permission. All rights reserved)
You've fished for men's souls for
Yet little success you can claim;
Keep casting the net where God leads—
Your faithfulness honors His name. —Egner
You can never speak to the wrong person about Christ.