AN OUTLINE OF EZEKIEL 16
|Ezekiel 16:1-14||The Lord's Loving kindnesses to Jerusalem|
|Ezekiel 16:15-34||Unfaithful Jerusalem's Harlotry|
|Ezekiel 16:35-50||God's Judgment on Jerusalem|
|Ezekiel 16:51-63||Sodom & Samaria Will be Restored (53-58) (GNB)
Jerusalem Will Be Ashamed (53-58) (CEV)
Covenant that Lasts Forever (59-63) (GNB)
Ezekiel 16:35-50 Commentary
Therefore, O harlot (Isa 1:21; 23:15,16; Jer 3:1,6-8; Ho 2:5; Nah 3:4; Jn 4:10,18; Rev 17:5)
Ezekiel's contemporary also described Judah as a harlot -
(Jer 3:1) God says, “If a husband divorces his wife, And she goes from him, And belongs to another man, Will he still return to her? Will not that land be completely polluted? But you are a harlot (Zanah - 02181) with many lovers; Yet you turn to Me,” declares the LORD.
(Jer 3:6-8) Then the LORD said to me in the days of Josiah the king, “Have you seen what faithless (KJV = backsliding) Israel did? She went up on every high hill and under every green tree, and she was a harlot (Zanah - 02181) there ("to prostitute herself there"). 7 “And I thought, ‘After she has done all these things, she will return to Me’; but she did not return, and her treacherous sister Judah saw it. 8 “And I saw that for all the adulteries of faithless Israel, I had sent her away and given her a writ of divorce, yet her treacherous sister Judah did not fear; but she went and was a harlot (Zanah - 02181) also ("prostituted herself").
Therefore - This is a frequent marker of a prophetic address in which God moves from a list of offenses to punishment stage (cp Ezek 11:17, Ezek 13:13, 20, Ezek 17:19)
Harlot (02185)(zonot) is a feminine noun referring to a prostitute.
hear the word of the LORD (Ezek 13:2; 20:47; 34:7; 1Ki 22:19; Isa 1:10; 28:14; Hos 4:1; Am 7:16)
This identical phrase (hear the Word of the LORD) is found 29 times in the OT - 1 Kgs 22:19; 2 Kgs 20:16; 2 Chr 18:18; Isa 1:10; 28:14; 39:5; 66:5; Jer 2:4; 7:2; 9:20; 19:3; 21:11; 22:2, 29; 29:20; 31:10; 34:4; 44:24, 26; Ezek 16:35; 20:47; 25:3; 34:7, 9; 36:1, 4; 37:4; Amos 7:16; Acts 13:44
Thoralf Gilbrant - The OT use of the clause “Hear the word of the Lord” is found in prophetic speeches announcing some divine word of accusation or judgment (e.g., 2 Chr. 18:18, to Ahab; Isa. 1:10, to the rulers of Jerusalem; Jer. 34:4, to King Zedekiah; Hos. 4:1, to Israel). The phrase is found here and elsewhere in Ezekiel with the usual negative context (Ezek 20:47; 34:7, 9), but Ezekiel also used the phrase when a positive message was forthcoming (Ezek 36:1; 37:4). (Complete Biblical Library Commentary)
And now God's prophet speaks forth the sentence on Judah's presumptuous sin and blatant unfaithfulness to her Husband, Jehovah. It is time for "accounts" to be settled and unfortunately the wages of sin is death.
|Ezekiel 16:36 Thus says the Lord GOD, "Because your lewdness was poured out and your nakedness uncovered through your harlotries with your lovers and with all your detestable idols, and because of the blood of your sons which you gave to idols, (NASB: Lockman)|
Because your lewdness was poured out (Ezek 16:15-22; 22:15; 23:8; 24:13; 36:25; La 1:9; Zeph 3:1)
Your nakedness uncovered through your harlotries with your lovers (Ezek 23:10,18,29; Ge 3:7,10,11; Ps 139:11,12; Jer 13:22-26; Rev 3:18)
Because of the blood of your sons which you gave to idols (Ezek 16:20,21; Jer 2:34) This undoubtedly refers to the practice of human (child) sacrifice to the horrid idol Molech for Judah "built the high places of Baal that are in the valley of Ben-Hinnom to cause their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire to Molech, which I had not commanded them nor had it entered My mind that they should do"
This represents a recapping of the previous charges against Judah, especially in Ezek 16:15-34.
Your lovers - Israel’s lovers were all the nations with which there was an alliance and from which there was a syncretistic appropriation of pagan religious ideals and practices.
Ezekiel 16:37 therefore, behold, I will gather all your lovers with whom you took pleasure, even all those whom you loved and all those whom you hated. So I will gather them against you from every direction and expose your nakedness to them that they may see all your nakedness. (NASB: Lockman)
|NIV: therefore I am going to gather all your lovers, with whom you found pleasure, those you loved as well as those you hated. I will gather them against you from all around and will strip you in front of them, and they will see all your nakedness.
NLT: this is what I am going to do. I will gather together all your allies—these lovers of yours with whom you have sinned, both those you loved and those you hated—and I will strip you naked in front of them so they can stare at you.
NJB: for all this, I shall assemble all the lovers to whom you have given pleasure, all the ones you liked and also all the ones you disliked; yes, I shall assemble them round you and strip you naked in front of them, and let them see you naked from head to foot.
Amplified making you, Israel, an object of loathing and of mockery, a spectacle among the nations
I will gather them against you - God in a twist of bitter irony would use the pagan nations with which Judah had prostituted herself to inflict His righteous wrath.
They shall see all your nakedness (Ezek 23:9,10,22-30; Jer 4:30; 13:22,26; 22:20; La 1:8,19; Hos 2:3,10; Hos 8:10; Nah 3:5,6; Rev 17:16)
Jeremiah 13:22 “And if you say in your heart, ‘Why have these things happened to me?’ Because of the magnitude of your iniquity Your skirts have been removed, And your heels have been exposed.
Jeremiah 13:26 “So I Myself have also stripped your skirts off over your face, That your shame may be seen.
Hosea 2:10 “And then I will uncover her lewdness In the sight of her lovers, And no one will rescue her out of My hand.
Net Bible Notes "Harlots suffered degradation when their nakedness was exposed (Jer 13:22, 26; Hos 2:12; Nah 3:5).
MacArthur - Public exposure of profligate women and the stoning of them were well-known customs in ancient Israel, making them a shameful spectacle.
|Ezekiel 16:38 Thus I will judge you like women who commit adultery or shed blood are judged; and I will bring on you the blood of wrath and jealousy. (NASB: Lockman)|
|NKJV: And I will judge you as women who break wedlock or shed blood are judged; I will bring blood upon you in fury and jealousy.
NJB: I shall pass on you the sentence that adulteresses and murderesses receive; I shall hand you over to their jealous fury
I shall judge you, like women who commit adultery (Ezek 16:40; 23:45-47; Ge 38:11,24; Lev 20:10; Dt 22:22-24; Mt 1:18,19; Jn 8:3-5)
Lev 20:10 ‘If there is a man who commits adultery with another man’s wife, one who commits adultery with his friend’s wife, the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death.
Deut 22:22 “If a man is found lying with a married woman, then both of them shall die, the man who lay with the woman, and the woman; thus you shall purge the evil from Israel.23 “If there is a girl who is a virgin engaged to a man, and another man finds her in the city and lies with her, 24 then you shall bring them both out to the gate of that city and you shall stone them to death; the girl, because she did not cry out in the city, and the man, because he has violated his neighbor’s wife. Thus you shall purge the evil from among you.
Adultery (05003)(נָאַף nāʾap̱) is a verb meaning to commit adultery and is used literally of the physical act (Ex. 20:14; Lev. 20:10; Prov. 6:32; Jer. 5:7; 7:9; 29:23; Hos. 4:2; Mal. 3:5). Na'ap is also often used of spiritual adultery as well and as such is often equated with idolatry (Isa. 57:3; Jer. 3:9; Ezek. 23:37). Lxx translates this with the noun moichalis.
Na'ap - 26v in the OT translated in NAS as - adulterer(3), adulterers(5), adulteress(3), adulteresses(2), adulteries(1), adulterous(1), adultery(1), commit adultery(6), commits adultery(3), committed adultery(5), committing of adultery(1).
Na'ap - Ex. 20:14; Lev. 20:10; Deut. 5:18; Job 24:15; Ps. 50:18; Prov. 6:32; 30:20; Isa. 57:3; Jer. 3:8, 9; 5:7; 7:9; 9:2; 23:10, 14; 29:23; Ezek. 16:32, 38; 23:37, 45; Hos. 3:1; 4:2, 13, 14; 7:4; Mal. 3:5
Brown - Driver - Briggs definition of Na'ap
†[נָאַף S5003 TWOT1273 GK5537] vb. commit adultery (NH id.; Aramaic נְאַף (rare));—Qal Impf. 3 ms. יִנְאַף Lv 20:10(); 3 mpl. וַיִּנְאָ֑פוּ Je 5:7 + 3 times Impf., Inf. abs. נָאוֹף 23:14; נָאֹף Ho 4:2 Je 7:9; Pt. נֹאֵף Pr 6:32 Jb 24:15; fs. נֹאָ֑פֶת Lv 20:10; fpl. נֹאֲפוֹת Ez 16:38 + 2 times;—
1. lit. commit adultery:
a. usually of man, always with wife of another; c. acc. woman, Lv 20:10() (H), Pr 6:32; elsewhere abs. Ex 20:14 = Dt 5:17 (Ten Words), Je 5:7; 7:9; 23:14 Ho 4:2; pt. m. Lv 20:10 (H), Jb 24:15.
b. of women, only pt. Lv 20:10 (H), Ez 16:38; 23:45().
2. fig. of idolatrous worship, את האבן ואת העץ Je 3:9.
Piel Pf. 3 fs. נִאֲפָה Je 3:8; 3 mpl. נִאֵ֑פוּ Ez 23:37(); Impf. 3 mpl. יְנַאֲפוּ Je 29:23; 3 fpl. תְּנָאַפְנָה Ho 4:13, 14; Pt. מְנָאֵף Is 57:3; pl. מְנָאֲפִים Je 9:1 + 4 times; f. מְנָאָ֑פֶת Pr 30:20 + 2 times;—
a. of man, c. acc. woman, Je 29:23; pt. pl. Je 9:2; 23:10 Ho 7:4 Mal 3:5 ψ 50:18.
b. of woman, abs. Ho 4:13, 14; pt. 3:1 Pr 30:20; pl. Ez 16:32; 23:37.
2. fig. of idolatrous worship, אֶת־גִּלּוּלֵיהֶן Ez 23:37; abs. Je 3:8, זֶרַע מְנָאֵף Is 57:3.
Spiritual adultery is worshiping false gods, while pretending to worship the true God.
Arthur Pink writes that spiritual adultery is "a giving unto the world that love and devotion, time and strength, which the Lord alone is entitled unto. As natural marriage is a solemn and sacred engagement which is not to be entered into lightly, constituting as it does a lifelong compact—much more should there be the most serious and self-searching deliberation before anyone openly professes to be united to the Lord."
John Witmer on adultery -
VOLUNTARY SEXUAL RELATIONS by either a man or a woman in violation of the marriage bond constitutes adultery, a specific form of fornication forbidden by the seventh commandment in the Mosaic Law (Exod. 20:14; Deut. 5:18; Luke 18:20). Adultery was punishable by death by stoning (Lev. 20:10-12; Deut. 22:20-27). The seriousness of the sin of adultery and the severity of its punishment spring from the sanctity of the marital relationship established by God with His creation of Eve as a “helper suitable” for Adam (Gen. 2:18, 20-23), and also from the intimacy of this union (2:23-24; Matt. 19:4-6; 1 Cor. 6:16). The sanctity and intimacy of the marital relationship also explain the seriousness of any form of illicit relations in God's sight, because in sexual union a man and a woman “become one flesh” (Gen. 2:24; Matt. 19:5; 1 Cor. 6:16). For this reason Jesus listed adultery as a sin as serious as murder, theft, or slander (Matt. 15:19). The unfaithfulness to the marriage vow displayed in adultery illustrates the spiritual unfaithfulness of Israel to God. Israel's covenantal relationship to God (Exod. 19:3-8; 24:3-8) is described as a marriage between God as the “husband” (Isa. 54:5; Jer. 31:32) and Israel as the “wife” (Isa. 54:6). Israel's unfaithfulness in forsaking the Lord to worship false gods was called adultery (Jer. 3:6, 8-9, 20), and Israel was called an “adulterous wife” (Ezek. 16:32). Because of Israel's spiritual adultery God will forsake and punish her (16:38), but only temporarily (Isa. 54:6-7; Ezek. 16:59-60). God's dealings with Israel in her spiritual adultery are illustrated by the prophet Hosea and his unfaithful wife Gomer (Hos. 1:2; 2:2; 3:1). Any forsaking of the Lord God is spiritual adultery (James 4:4). (Theological Wordbook)
Related Resources on Adultery:
How were adulterous women judged in the Old Testament? Moses writes...
Shed blood are judged and and I will bring on you the blood of wrath and jealousy (Ezek 16:20,21,36; Ge 9:6; Ex 21:12; Nu 35:31; Ps 79:3-5; Jer 18:21; Zeph 1:17; Nah 1:2; Rev 16:6)
Gen 9:6 “Whoever sheds man’s blood, By man his blood shall be shed, For in the image of God He made man.
Exod 21:12 “He who strikes a man so that he dies shall surely be put to death.
Num 35:31 ‘Moreover, you shall not take ransom for the life of a murderer who is guilty of death, but he shall surely be put to death.
Wrath (anger, fury, venom, hot-tempered) (02534)(chemah from yaham = to be hot) Delitzsch says it is related to an Arabic word hamiy = to glow) is a noun which can refer to physical heat, but more often is used figuratively to convey the picture of inner, emotional "heat" which rises and is fanned to varying degrees. And thus chemah can mean hot displeasure, indignation, anger, wrath, and even poison (figuratively speaking). This type of anger is anger at its fever pitch so to speak. Chemah is used most often to describe God's anger against His unfaithful wife Israel
Jealousy - This is a term between lovers. God had abundantly showered His love upon His chosen people. Instead of reciprocating, they rebelled, thus incurring His jealous anger.
Jealousy (07068)(qin'ah) (See another study on qin'ah) means ardor, zeal, jealousy. Zephaniah 1:18 uses this same word describing the time when "all the earth will be devoured In the fire of His jealousy." The Lxx translates qin'ah in this verse with the noun zelos which strictly speaking means fervent in spirit and when used of God as in this passage speaks of the intensity of His righteous judgment.
In Exodus 34:14 the related Hebrew noun qanna' (07067) is used as a Name of God, Moses recording "you shall not worship any other god, for the LORD, whose Name is Jealous (qanna'), is a jealous (qanna') God. This is strong statement which serves to emphasize God's utter hatred of idolatry in any shape, size or form! Jealousy then is a holy attribute of God and does not refer to our common concept of jealousy as a shallow, childish human emotion. The use of jealous is intended to emphasize that God will not tolerate a divided loyalty (cf Mt 6:24-note). He alone deserves honor as the one true God-not just lip service, but life submission! How are you doing? Are you destroying the idols in your life? They seem to have a way of rising from the dead so to speak and they take on forms and names that sound so acceptable (money, fame, etc). John ends his first great epistle with the words "Little children, guard (aorist imperative - do this now! Conveys a sense of urgency!) yourselves from idols." (1 Jn 5:21-note, cf Ex 20:3-4, 1 Cor 10:7, 14, 2 Cor 6:16-17).
What is God's Word of truth on capital punishment? What is the blood of wrath and jealousy? Moses records that...
|Ezekiel 16:39 I will also give you into the hands of your lovers, and they will tear down your shrines, demolish your high places, strip you of your clothing, take away your jewels * and will leave you naked and bare. (NASB: Lockman)|
They will tear down your shrines ("brothel")," (Ezek 16:24,25,31; Ezek 7:22-24; Is 27:9)
strip you of your clothing (Ezek 16:10-20; Ezek 23:26,29; Is 3:16-24; Hos 2:3,9-13) God declares that He will give His faithless wife Judah (Jerusalem) over to her lovers who would take from her everything she had leaving her naked and bare, her original condition (Ezek 16:7, 22)
Ezekiel 23:26 ‘They will also strip you of your clothes and take away your beautiful jewels.
Ezekiel 23:29 ‘And they will deal with you in hatred, take all your property, and leave you naked and bare. And the nakedness of your harlotries shall be uncovered, both your lewdness and your harlotries.
Hosea 2:3 Lest I strip her naked And expose her as on the day when she was born. I will also make her like a wilderness, Make her like desert land, And slay her with thirst.
|Ezekiel 16:40 They will incite a crowd against you and they will stone you and cut you to pieces with their swords. (NASB: Lockman)|
They will incite a crowd against you (Hab 1:6-10; Jn 8:5-7)
Crowd - in context pictures Judah's lovers inciting other nations to wage war against her.
cut you to pieces with their swords (Ezek 23:10,47; 24:21; Jer 25:9)
|Ezekiel 16:41 They will burn your houses with fire and execute judgments on you in the sight of many women. Then I will stop you from playing the harlot, and you will also no longer pay your lovers. (NASB: Lockman)|
they will burn your houses with fire (Dt 13:16; 2Ki 25:9; Jer 39:8; 52:13; Micah 3:12)
Jeremiah 39:8 The Chaldeans also burned with fire the king’s palace and the houses of the people, and they broke down the walls of Jerusalem.
Jeremiah 52:13 And he burned the house of the LORD, the king’s house, and all the houses of Jerusalem; even every large house he burned with fire.
execute judgments on you in the sight of many women (Amp "the nations")" (Ezek 5:8; 23:10,48; Dt 13:11; 22:21,24; Job 34:26)
Cooper comments that "The phrase “in the sight of many women” (v. 41) was a reminder that women were made to watch the judgment of an adulteress so her judgment might be an example and deterrent." (New American Commentary)
I shall stop you from playing the harlot (Ezek 23:27; 37:23; Isa 1:25,26; 2:18; 27:9; Hos 2:6-17; Mic 5:10-14; Zech 13:2; 1Ti 5:20)
|Ezekiel 16:42 So I will calm My fury against you and My jealousy will depart from you, and I will be pacified and angry no more. (NASB: Lockman)|
So I shall calm (rest) My fury against you (Ezek 5:13; 21:17; 2Sa21:14; Is1:24; Zech 6:8) - The point is that God's would not rest until He had punished unfaithful Israel
Ezekiel 5:8 therefore, thus says the Lord GOD, ‘Behold, I, even I, am against you, and I will execute judgments among you in the sight of the nations.
Ezekiel 23:10 “They uncovered her nakedness; they took her sons and her daughters, but they slew her with the sword. Thus she became a byword among women, and they executed judgments on her.
Ezekiel 23:48 ‘Thus I shall make lewdness cease from the land, that all women may be admonished and not commit lewdness as you have done.
I shall be pacified and angry no more (Ezek 39:29; Is 40:1,2; 54:9,10)
Ezek 39:29 (Prophecy of the day when Messiah returns and all Israel [all that believe in Him] will be saved - Ro 11:26-27-note) “And I will not hide My face from them any longer, for I shall have poured out My Spirit on the house of Israel,” declares the Lord GOD.
Although one might say this was in a sense fulfilled by the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem and 70 years of captivity, this fulfillment was only partial. History is clear testimony to the fact that the Jews have suffered many times over the centuries since this prophecy. And so God's anger against Israel will not fully rest or be fully satisfied until the end of the "time of Jacob's distress." (Jer 30:7) which describes the Great Tribulation, the horrible time in the last 3.5 years of Daniel's 70th year when the Devil will seek to destroy Israel (see Rev 12:12-17-see notes where "the woman" symbolizes Israel). (See notes on Daniel 9:27)
|Ezekiel 16:43 Because * you have not remembered the days of your youth but have enraged Me by all these things, behold, I in turn will bring your conduct down on your own head," declares the Lord GOD, "so that you will not commit this lewdness on top of all your other abominations (NASB: Lockman)|
Because you have not remembered the days of your youth (Ezek 16:22)
This verse recalls Ezek 16:22 “And besides all your abominations and harlotries you did not remember the days of your youth, when you were naked and bare and squirming in your blood.
Cooper writes that "The idea of Ezek 16:43 is repeated from Ezek 16:22 as a reminder that all these calamities came because they failed to remember their history and their covenant with Yahweh. Judah was unfaithful and ungrateful for all God had done for the nation. (Ibid)
Related Cross References
Ps 78:42 They did not remember His power, The day when He redeemed them from the adversary,
Ps 106:13 They quickly forgot His works; They did not wait for His counsel,
Jeremiah 2:32 “Can a virgin forget her ornaments, Or a bride her attire (Rhetorical - Of course not!)? Yet (Striking Contrast) My people have forgotten Me Days without number. (I never "forget Him" do I? How about every time I knowing sin?! Do I not experience "spiritual amnesia"!)
Have enraged Me by all these things (Ezek 6:9; Dt 32:21; Ps 8:40; 95:10; Isa 63:10; Am 2:13; Acts 7:51; Eph 4:30)
Enraged is an interesting verb as it means to shake, to tremble, to agitate, to disturb, to rouse up, to rage, to provoke. This term occurs forty-one times in the Old Testament and is utilized most often to express the idea of the physical moving or shaking of someone or something. So the picture is of the Holy God being so angry that He is shaking! Woe! The Septuagint translates ragaz with the verb lupeo, which means to grieve (cf what they did to His heart in Ezek 6:9-note! What do I do to His heart when I presumptuously sin? See what our sin does to the Holy Spirit in Eph 4:30-note) where Paul uses the same verb lupeo.)
I in turn will bring your conduct down on your own head (Ezek 7:3,4,8,9; 9:10; 11:21; 22:31; Ro 2:8,9) What goes around, comes around. This is the law of reaping and sowing - they sowed the wind but would reap the whirlwind! (Gal 6:7-note, Gal 6:8-note , Hos 8:7)
|Ezekiel 16:44 Behold, everyone who quotes proverbs will quote this proverb concerning you, saying, 'Like mother, like daughter.' (NASB: Lockman)|
Behold, everyone who quotes proverbs will quote this proverb concerning you, saying, 'Like mother, like daughter.' (Ezekiel 18:2,3; 1 Samuel 24:13) (Ezek 16:3,45; 1Ki 21:16; 2Ki17:11,15; 21:9; Ezra 9:1; Ps 106:35-38)
Dyer - The first parable of Jerusalem is the story of Jerusalem as an adulterous wife (vv. 1-43). The second parable is an analogy of Jerusalem and the wicked sisters Samaria, and Sodom (vv. 44-59). If Jerusalem’s depraved sisters were judged for their sin, how could Jerusalem, who was even more wicked, hope to escape? (Moody Bible Commentary)
Like mother like daughter - In this context mother refers to the Hittites (Ezek. 16:3 says to Judah/Jerusalem - your mother a Hittite). The point of the proverb is that Israel was as lewd and immoral as the original inhabitants of Canaan who were unspeakably debauched as discerned from archeological findings related to this time period (See interesting article - The Religion of the Canaanites and Baalism in Canaanite Religion and Its Relation to Selected Old Testament Texts). By way of practical application every mother should contemplate the far-reaching influence of her lips and her life before her children (fathers, this applies to your influence as well for generally "like father, like sons"! Be careful how you conduct yourself, not as unwise fathers but as wise fathers who are seeking to redeem the few short years of your life on earth for the days are evil.
Cooper writes that "The next stage in the judgment of the orphan who became a queen, a harlot, and finally a convicted criminal was the revelation that her story would become a proverb (cf. Ezekiel 14:8). The proverb was, Like mother, like daughter. The point was that if Jerusalem wanted a shocking look at her disgraceful character and her dismal future, she could look at her cultural ancestors the Hittites and Amorites, who had transmitted their heritage of wickedness to Sodom, Samaria, and Jerusalem. In depravity and idolatry Israel had followed the bad example of the Canaanites and thus would be judged like them (Cooper, L. E. Vol. 17: Ezekiel: The New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers)
The Disciple's Study Bible writes that "Sin is not inherited (Ed: Well, that is not exactly correct - while my father's literal sins do not go on my "account" the "sin virus" he possessed has been passed on to me). I am not guilty because mother was guilty. I do inherit a nature prone to sin from Adam (Ro 5:12, 17- see notes Romans 5:12; 5:17). I am sinful like my parents because all influences on my life give me the tendency to sin and I choose to let their influence outweigh God's on my life. I increase my guilt by condemning my neighbors for their sins when mine are worse than theirs.... Ezekiel described Jerusalem as more corrupt than Israel's favorite example of wicked people: Sodom (Ge 13:13; Genesis 18-19) and Samaria, the capital of the Northern Kingdom exiled and inhabited by a mixed race with a mixed religion (2Ki 17:24-41; Ezra; Nehemiah). Such corruption came because the people of Jerusalem chose to act more corruptly than the other nations ever imagined (Ezek 16:48-note). Their "depravity'' represented one generation's choices, not their inheritance from their ancestors. (Disciple's Study Bible)
|Ezekiel 16:45 You are the daughter of your mother, who loathed her husband and children. You are also the sister of your sisters, who loathed their husbands and children. Your mother was a Hittite and your father an Amorite. (NASB: Lockman)|
Gilbrant - The verse returns to the woman’s “lineage” mentioned earlier in v. 3. But in this new twist to the allegory, the whole family is revealed as being dysfunctional as the woman herself: the mother hated her husband and children, and the sisters acted like their mother.
loathed her husband and children (Ezek 16:8,15,20,21; 23:37-39; Dt 5:9; 12:31; Isa 1:4; Zech 11:8; Ro 1:30,31)\
Judah had followed in the idolatrous, pagan practice which the nation had practiced from their early days in the land of promise. They even burned their children like the pagans directly disobeying God's clear warning not to do this = “You shall not behave thus toward the LORD your God, for every abominable act which the LORD hates they have done for their gods; for they even burn their sons and daughters in the fire to their gods." (Dt 12:31).
One wonders what the Holy One thinks of America and the millions of babies who have been sacrificed on the altars of sexual immorality and selfishness? And will the Righteous Judge "wink" at America's sins against the unborn? Woe!
|Ezekiel 16:46 Now your older sister is Samaria, who lives north of you with her daughters; and your younger sister, who lives south of you, is Sodom with her daughters. (NASB: Lockman)|
|Young's Literal: And thine elder sister is Samaria, she and her daughters, Who is dwelling at thy left hand, And thy younger sister, who is dwelling on thy right hand, is Sodom and her daughters.|
Now your older sister is Samaria wh o lives north of you with her daughters (Ezek 16:51; 23:4,11,31-33; Jer 3:8-11; Mic 1:5)
Samaria who lives north - North is literally "at thy left hand". This is clearly a reference to the northern 10 tribes who had their capital in Samaria. The Northern Kingdom was not older chronologically but was larger and the first to be judged by God in 722BC when she was defeated and taken into exile by the Assyrians.
Your younger sister - Judah whose capital was Jerusalem. Notice they are all referred to in feminine terms. They all fell into spiritual adultery or harlotry. Anyone reading this description who has a daughter has to be gripped by the tragic description. How it must have grieved the Father's heart! We need to recall this to mind the next time we contemplate making provision to commit a sin (see note Romans 13:14). Peter speaks to this point in his first letter writing...
Pray Psalm 119:38...
your younger sister, who lives south of you, is Sodom (Ezek 16:48,49,53-56,61; Ge 13:11-13; 18:20-33; 19:24,25; Dt 29:23; 32:32; Isa 1:9,10; Jer 23:14; Lam 4:6; Lu 17:28-30; 2Pe 2:6; Jude 1:7; Rev 11:8)
Lives south - literally "dwelling on thy right hand"
Sodom - Used here to symbolize the southern kingdom and Jerusalem. This is the first of the 6 uses of the term Sodom by Ezekiel, all of them in Ezekiel 16. Sodom was the epitome of evil (Deut 29:23; 32:32; Isa 1:9–10; 3:9; Jer 23:14; Lam 4:6; Matt 10:15; 11:23–24; Jude 7).
In the book of the Revelation Jerusalem is again referred to as Sodom ...
with her daughters (Ezek 16:27; 26:6; Ge 14:8; 19:29; Hos 11:8)
Daughters - In context this term appears to be a figurative description of other cities in the Northern and Southern Kingdom who also went "whoring" after other gods that are really no gods at all.
|Ezekiel 16:47 Yet you have not merely walked in their ways or done according to their abominations; but, as if that were too little, you acted more corruptly in all your conduct than they. (NASB: Lockman)|
Yet you have not merely walked in their ways or done according to their abominations; but, as if that were too little, you acted more corruptly in all your conduct than they.
JUDAH'S CORRUPTION WORSE THAN
Jesus taught that there would be different "degrees" of punishment. Greater light brings greater judgment and greater condemnation. Matthew records for example that Jesus
"began to reproach the cities in which most of His miracles were done, because they did not repent. Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the miracles had occurred in Tyre and Sidon which occurred in you, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. Nevertheless I say to you, it shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon in the day of judgment, than for you. And you, Capernaum, will not be exalted to heaven, will you? You shall descend to Hades; for if the miracles had occurred in Sodom which occurred in you, it would have remained to this day. Nevertheless I say to you that it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom in the day of judgment, than for you." (Mt 11:20-24)
As if that were too little (Ezek 8:17; 1Ki 16:31)
You acted more corruptly in all your conduct than they (Ezek 16:48,51; 5:6,7; 2Ki 21:9,16; Jn 15:21,22; 1 Cor 5:1) The point is that Judah's moral depravity and idolatry exceeded that Israel and even of Sodom whose sin is described as "exceedingly grave." (Ge 18:20) After all Judah had "full disclosure" so to speak of how God had dealt with both literal Sodom and the Northern Kingdom of Israel (defeated by Assyrians in 722Bc and taken into exile).
The Amplified version says "for your sin, as those taught of God, is far blacker than theirs."
|Ezekiel 16:48 As I live," declares the Lord GOD, "Sodom, your sister and her daughters have not done as you and your daughters have done. (NASB: Lockman)|
As I live," declares the Lord GOD, "Sodom, your sister, and her daughters, have not done as you and your daughters have done. (Mt 10:15; 11:24; Mk 6:11; Lu 10:12; Acts 7:52)
As I live - Is the formula for introduction of an oath. This formula is used 26x in the OT with most of the uses in Ezekiel - Nu 14:21, 28; Deut 32:40; Ps 63:4; 104:33; 116:2; Isa 49:18; Jer 22:24; 46:18; Ezek 5:11; 14:16, 18, 20; 16:48; 17:16, 19; 18:3; 20:3, 31, 33; 33:11, 27; 34:8; 35:6, 11; Zeph 2:9
|Ezekiel 16:49 Behold, this was the guilt of your sister Sodom: she and her daughters had arrogance, abundant food and careless ease, but she did not help * the poor and needy. (NASB: Lockman)|
|Amplified: Behold, this was the iniquity of your sister Sodom: pride, overabundance of food, prosperous ease, and idleness were hers and her daughters’; neither did she strengthen the hand of the poor and needy. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)|
THE DANGER OF PRIDE
Behold, this was the guilt of your sister Sodom: she and her daughters had arrogance (Ezek 28:2,9,17; 29:3; Ge 19:9; Ps 138:6; Pr 16:5,18; 18:12; 21:4; Isa 3:9; Isa 16:6; Da 4:30,37; 5:23; Ob 1:3; 1Pe 5:5)
Ryrie explains that "Sodom's sin did not end with its sensuality and unnatural acts, but reached to the "pride" which had come with material prosperity. This "pride" had lifted them above moral law in their own eyes. Like Sodom, Israel in her wealth and pride forgot and neglected the poor. For Israel this crime was more serious because she had received specific commands concerning the poor (cf. Deut. 15:7, 11). This concern for the poor and needy is echoed in the N.T. (cf. Matt. 26:11; 1 John 3:17)
A bundant (overabundance of) food and careless (prosperous) ease (and idleness)" (Ge 13:10; 18:20; Dt 32:15; Isa 22:13,14; Am 6:3-6; Lu 12:16-20; Lu 16:19; 17:28; 21:34)
She did not help (strengthen the hand of) the poor and needy." (Ezek 18:12; Pr 21:13; Isa 3:14,15; Amos 5:11,12; 8:4-6; Micah 3:2-4; Lu 16:20,21)
Criswell - Sodom's sin did not end with its sensuality and unnatural acts, but reached to the "pride" which had come with material prosperity. This "pride" had lifted them above moral law in their own eyes. Like Sodom, Israel in her wealth and pride forgot and neglected the poor. For Israel this crime was more serious because she had received specific commands concerning the poor (cf. Deut. 15:7, 11). This concern for the poor and needy is echoed in the N.T. (cf. Matt. 26:11; 1 John 3:17).
|Ezekiel 16:50 Thus they were haughty and committed abominations before Me. Therefore I removed them when I saw it. (NASB: Lockman)|
Thus they were haughty and committed abominations before Me (Ge 13:13; 18:20; 19:5; Lev 18:22; Dt 23:17; 2Ki 23:7; Pr 16:18; Pr 18:12; Ro 1:26,27; Jude 1:7)
Baker notes that toebah "is primarily understood in the context of the Law. It identifies unclean food (Dt. 14:3); the activity of the idolater (Isa. 41:24); the practice of child sacrifice (Dt. 12:31); intermarriage by the Israelites (Mal. 2:11); the religious activities of the wicked (Pr 21:27); and homosexual behavior (Lev. 18:22). In a broader sense, the word is used to identify anything offensive (Pr 8:7)." (The Complete Word Study Dictionary: OT)
Therefore - term of conclusion
I removed them when I saw it. (Ge 19:24; Dt 29:23; Job 18:15; Isa 13:19; Jer 20:16; 49:18; 50:40; Lam 4:6; Amos 4:11; Zeph 2:9; 2Pe 2:6; Rev 18:9) The point is that Samaria and Sodom's sins did not escape the LORD's notice nor His hand of righteous judgment.