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Old and New Testament.
Romans 2:7 to
those who by
Greek: tois men
kath hupomonen ergou agathou doxan kai timen kai aphtharsian zetousin
(PAPMPD) zoen aionion,
To those who by patient persistence in well-doing [springing from
piety] seek [unseen but sure] glory and honor and [the eternal
blessedness of] immortality, He will give eternal life.
Bible - Lockman)
Some people live for God's glory, for honor, and for life that has no
end. They live for those things by always continuing to do good. God
will give life forever to them. (ICB:
He will give eternal life to those who persist in doing what is good,
seeking after the glory and honor and immortality that God offers.
- Tyndale House)
and that means
eternal life to those who, in patiently doing good, aim at the unseen
(but real) glory and honour of the eternal world.
to those on the one hand who by steadfastness of a good work seek
glory and honor and incorruptibility, life eternal
Young's Literal: to
those, indeed, who in continuance of a good work, do seek glory, and
honour, and incorruptibility -- life age-during;
TO THOSE WHO
BY PERSEVERANCE IN DOING GOOD DEEDS: tois
men kath hupomonen ergou agathou:
8:24,25; Job 17:9; Ps 27:14; 37:3, 34; La 3:25, 26; Mt 24:12,13; Lk
8:15; Jn 6:66, 67, 68, 69; 1Co 15:58; Gal 6:9; 2Ti 4:7,8; Heb
6:12,15;10:35,36; Jas 5:7,8; Rev 2:10,11)
Perseverance of the saints,
doing good deeds - Note carefully that this phrase does not describe the way of salvation but the way the
saved conduct their lives. In other words, their good works give clear
evidence that they are genuinely saved.
from hupo = under + meno
= abide) means literally abiding under, as one would abide under a
heavy load. As an aside he who abides
in Christ will be enabled to
abide "under" any load (cp Php 4:13-note).
Hupomone describes steadfastness
and endurance when circumstances are difficult. "God...gives
and thus hupomone is not simply you by yourself "gritting
your teeth" nor is it a passive acceptance of the circumstances. To the
contrary, hupomone is manifest strong (Spirit enabled)
fortitude in the face of opposition or difficulty.
Hupomone is used 32 times in
the NT - Lk. 8:15; 21:19; Rom. 2:7; 5:3, 4; 8:25; 15:4, 5; 2 Co. 1:6;
6:4; 12:12; Col. 1:11; 1Th 1:3; 2Th 1:4; 3:5; 1 Tim. 6:11; 2 Tim. 3:10;
Titus 2:2; Heb. 10:36; 12:1; Jas. 1:3, 4; 5:11; 2 Pet. 1:6; Rev. 1:9;
2:2, 3, 19; 3:10; 13:10; 14:12
is that spirit which bears things not simply with resignation, but with
blazing hope (absolute assurance of future good not "I
hope so"). In other words, if something happens in your life that is
hard and painful and frustrating and disappointing, and, by grace, your
faith looks to Christ and to His power and His sufficiency and His
fellowship and His wisdom and His love, and you don't give in to
bitterness and resentment and complaining, then your faith endures and
perseveres. How did you do this past week? If you have slipped
backwards, don't be discouraged for God is your "very present help in
trouble" (Ps 46:1-Spurgeon's
note). Recall that
"The steps of a man are established by Jehovah and He delights in his
way. When he falls, he shall not be hurled headlong because Jehovah is
the One Who holds his hand." (Ps 37:23 24 cf Jude 1:24, 25;
Dearly beloved, be encouraged for by His promise and power you shall
persevere to the end.
Patient continuance in well doing does not mean that we are saved by
doing good. Although a superficial reading of this verse might suggest
that eternal life can be gained by doing good Romans clearly teaches
justification (declared in right standing before God) is only by faith
discussed, the subject of this verse is judgment, not
justification. Believers who continue in good works will receive
rewards in the life to come. Rewards will be based on works accomplished
here on earth. A person’s doing good shows that his heart is regenerate.
Such a person, redeemed by God, has eternal life. Conversely a person
who continually does evil and rejects the truth shows that he is
unregenerate, and therefore will be an object of God’s wrath.
Good deeds can not
even begin until one is born again! (Click for
discussion of what constitutes
Here Paul speaks of the reward that shall be given to those who
persevere in living holy lives. Living a holy life does not save us but
does prove we are saved, because the only one who can live a holy life
is the one who possesses the indwelling Holy Spirit. Paul is not
explaining how a man is saved in this section but is showing how a man
is judged. All men will be judged on the basis of deeds (see the
discussion in preceding verse).
Speaking of believers, Paul explains that
(ergon = deeds) will become evident (NIV = "shown for what it
is"), for the day will show it, because it is to be revealed with
fire; and the fire itself will test the quality of each man's
work. If any
which he has built upon it remains, he shall receive a reward. If
is burned up, he shall suffer loss; but he himself shall be saved, yet
so as through fire." (1Cor 3:11 12 13 14, 15). (See
Judgment Seat of Christ = bema)
By contrast (see
Table in preceding
section) unbelievers at the Great White Throne will be
from the things...written in the books, according to their
one of them according to their
20:11, 12, 13, 14, 15-see
to determine the degree of their everlasting punishment in "the lake
of fire" (See
Births, Deaths, and Resurrections).
sums up "patient continuance in well-doing" (KJV) as follows
The "patient continuance in
well-doing" is not at all set forth as the means of their procuring
eternal life, but as a description of those to whom God does render life
eternal. Well-doing is subjection to and obedience to the light God has
To Abel, "well-doing" meant
approaching God by a sacrifice, as a sinner, as he had been taught to
To Noah, "continuance in well-doing"
meant building an ark to save his house and preserve life upon the
earth, involving years of labor, and the ridicule of man.
To Abraham, it meant leaving his
country, his relatives, and his father's house, and becoming a stranger
and pilgrim on earth.
To Job, it meant his God-fearing,
evil-rejecting life; and afterwards, in the midst of his great
affliction, bowing before the presence of God in dust and ashes.
To Matthew the publican, it meant
rising from his business and following the Lord Jesus
To Cornelius the centurion, a life of
patient prayer and generosity, -and then believing the gospel at Peter's
To Lydia, it meant humble and
faithful attendance at "the place of prayer" till Paul came and "her
heart was opened" to give heed to the gospel of grace spoken by the
apostle, whence followed her "obedience of faith."
In every age since man sinned there
have been those like Jabez, who was "more honorable than his brethren,
and called upon God" (1Chr 4:9,10) ; and like Joseph, who was "separate
from his brethren."
There always have been choosers
of God and rejectors of God. (Romans 2)
FOR GLORY AND HONOR
AND IMMORTALITY ETERNAL LIFE: doxan kai timen kai aphtharsian
zetousin (PAPMPD) zoen aionion: (glory: Ro 8:18-note;
Jn 5:44; 2Co 4:16, 17, 18;
1Pe 4:14-note; Torrey's topic:
(immortality: 1Co 15:53,54; 2Ti 1:10-note ISBE topic
(eternal life: Ro 6:23-note;
1Jn 2:25) (Torrey's Topic
Reward of Saints)
(zeteo) implies giving attention and
priority to and deliberately pursuing after. The
habitual conduct or lifestyle, whether good or evil, both of which reveal the
true condition of
heart, whether it is regenerated or not by faith in Christ. Jesus taught (speaking of false teachers but applicable in
You will know them by their fruits. Grapes are not
gathered from thorn bushes, nor figs from thistles, are they?...So then,
you will know them by their fruits. (Mt 7:16-note,
Mt 7:20 -note)
from a = not + phthartós
= corruptible from the verb
phtheíro = to corrupt, shrivel, wither, spoil by any process, ruin ,
deprave, defile, destroy) is literally that which cannot decay or be corrupted
(deteriorated or lowered in quality, implying loss of soundness, purity
& integrity) and is that which experiences unending existence.
Aphtharsia is a state of not
being subject to decay or death - immortality, incorruptibility (state
of being free from physical decay), perpetuity. It speaks of an unending
existence, of that which is not capable of corruption. Aphtharsia
indicates immunity to the decay that infects all of creation.
- 7x in 7v
- Ro. 2:7; 1Co. 15:42, 50, 53, 54; Ep 6:24; 2Ti 1:10. NAS =
immortality(2), imperishable(4), incorruptible(1).
This incorruptible existence was made possible
by the appearing of our Savior Christ Jesus, Who abolished death, and
to light through the gospel.
The Latin Vulgate has incorruptio which in the context of
the New Testament refers in part to the glorified resurrection body
a perishable body, (but) raised an imperishable
body" (1Co 15:42) and described by Paul as when "DEATH IS SWALLOWED
UP in victory" (1Co 15:54)
Aphtharsia thus means more than simply duration, because even unbelievers will
live forever, but also refers to a new quality of life (Jn 17:3). Jesus
came that we
"may have life, and have it to the full"
(abundantly) (Jn 10:10NIV).
Vine writes that aphtharsia is used
the resurrection body, 1Cor 15:42, 50, 53, 54;
a condition associated with glory and honour and life, including perhaps
a moral significance, Ro 2:7; 2Ti 1:10; this is wrongly translated
“immortality” in the AV;
love to Christ, that which is sincere and undiminishing, Eph 6:24 (Vine,
W E: Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament
Words. 1996. Nelson
Eternal life is a
not just "quantitative" but probably even more is "qualitative". That is
eternal life is a kind of life, a holy
life of the eternal God given to (and now within) believers. As Paul so
beautiful put it...
"I have been crucified with Christ;
and it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me;
and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in
the Son of God, who loved me, and delivered Himself up for me."
Writing to the saints at Colossae who
were being "bombarded" with all manner of empty philosophy and false
teaching regarding their position in Christ, Paul assures them that eternal life is "Christ...our
life" (there is no verb "is" in the Greek text) (Col
3:4-note). We receive this present possession the moment we are converted
is also our future possession (Mk 10:30) and as Peter said represents
"inheritance which is
and undefiled and will not fade away, reserved in heaven" (see note
1 Peter 1:4)
Dictionary adds that
"perpetuity of existence. The doctrine of
is taught in the Old Testament. It is plainly implied in the writings of
Moses (Ge 5:22,24; 25:8; 37:35; 47:9; 49:29, Compare Heb 11:13, 14, 15,
16; Ex 3:6, Compare Mt 22:23). It is more clearly and fully taught in
the later books (Isa 14:9; Ps 17:15; 49:15; 73:24). It was thus a
doctrine obviously well known to the Jews. With the full revelation of
the gospel this doctrine was "brought to light" (2Ti 1:10; 1Co 15; 2Cor
5:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; 1Th 4:13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18).
Christ is -1 John 1:2; 5:20
Revealed by Christ -John 6:68; 2 Timothy 1:10
To know God and Christ is -John 17:3
By God -Psalms 133:3; Romans 6:23
By Christ -John 6:27; 10:28
In Christ -1 John 5:11
Through Christ -Romans 5:21; 6:23
To all given to Christ -John 17:2
To those who believe in God -John 5:24
To those who believe in Christ -John 3:15,16; 6:40,47
To those who hate life for Christ -John 12:25
In answer to prayer -Psalms 21:4
Revealed in the Scriptures -John 5:39
Drinking the water of life -John 4:14
Eating the bread of life -John 6:50-58
Eating of the tree of life -Revelation 2:7
They who are ordained to, believe the gospel -Acts 13:48
Have promises of -1 Timothy 4:8; 2 Timothy 1:1; Titus 1:2; 1 John 2:25
Have hope of -Titus 1:2; 3:7
May have assurance of -2 Corinthians 5:1; 1 John 5:13
Shall reap, through the Spirit -Galatians 6:8
Shall inherit -Matthew 19:29
Look for the mercy of God to -Jude 1:21
Should lay hold of -1 Timothy 6:12,19
Are preserved to -John 10:28,29
Shall rise to -Daniel 12:2; John 5:29
Shall go into -Matthew 25:46
Shall reign in -Daniel 7:18; Romans 5:17
The self-righteous think to inherit, by works -Mark 10:17
Cannot be inherited by works -Ro 2:7; 3:10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,
Have not -1John 3:15
Judge themselves unworthy of -Acts 13:46
Exhortation to seek -John 6:27
Romans 2:8 but to
those who are
ambitious and do not
Greek: tois de
ex eritheias kai apeithousi (PAPMPD) te aletheia peithomenois (PPPMPD)
de te adikia orge kai thumos
But for those who are self-seeking and self-willed and disobedient to
the Truth but responsive to wickedness, there will be indignation and
Bible - Lockman)
But he will pour out his anger and wrath on those who live for
themselves, who refuse to obey the truth and practice evil deeds.
- Tyndale House)
It also means
anger and wrath for those who rebel against God's plan of life, and
refuse to obey his rules, and who, in so doing, make themselves the
very servants of evil.
but to those on the other hand who out of a factious spirit are both
also non-persuadable with respect to the truth and persuadable with
respect to unrighteousness, wrath and anger.
Young's Literal: and to those contentious, and
disobedient, indeed, to the truth, and obeying the unrighteousness --
indignation and wrath,
BUT TO THOSE
ARE SELFISHLY AMBITIOUS: Tois de ek eritheias: (Pr 13:10; 1Co
11:16; 1Ti 6:3,4; Titus 3:9-note)
ambitious (2052) (eritheia)
means self seeking, strife, contentiousness, extreme
selfishness, rivalry and those who seek only their own. In a word,
eritheia is the desire to be number one no matter the cost!
Thayer adds that
it refers to
"a courting distinction, a desire to put oneself forward, a
partisan and factious spirit which does not disdain low arts;
Eritheia describes personal gratification and
self-fulfillment at any cost, which are the ultimate goals of all
fleshly endeavors. Eritheia has no room for others, much less
genuine humility. It is that ultimate self-elevation rampant in the
world today which is the antithesis of what the humble, selfless,
giving, loving, and obedient child of God is called to be in Christ and
only possible in the power of His Spirit.
below eritheia did not originally have such a negative connotation but
merely referred to a day laborer. It came to be used metaphorically, and
almost exclusively, of a person who persistently seeks personal
advantage and gain, regardless of the effect on others and by New
Testament times, it had come to mean unbridled, selfish ambition in any
field of endeavor. Eritheia was often associated with personal
and party rivalry, quarreling, infighting, and strife (as KJV renders it
five times). It usually conveys the idea of building oneself up by
tearing someone else down, as in gambling, where one person’s gain is
derived from others’ losses. The word accurately describes someone who
strives to advance himself by using flattery, deceit, false accusation,
contentiousness, and any other tactic that seems advantageous. It is
hardly surprising, then, that Paul lists eritheia (“disputes”) as one of
the works of the flesh (Gal. 5:20-note).
Eritheia is used 7 times in the NT (see
below) and is translated in the NAS as - disputes, 2; selfish ambition, 3; selfishly
ambitious, 1; selfishness, 1. It is not used in the
Romans 2:8 (note)
but to those who are selfishly ambitious and do not obey the
truth, but obey unrighteousness, wrath and indignation.
2 Corinthians 12:20 For I am afraid that perhaps when I come I may find
you to be not what I wish and may be found by you to be not what you
wish; that perhaps there may be strife, jealousy, angry tempers,
disputes, slanders, gossip, arrogance, disturbances;
Galatians 5:20 (note)
idolatry, sorcery, enmities, strife, jealousy, outbursts of
anger, disputes, dissensions, factions,
Philippians 1:17 (note)
the former proclaim Christ out of selfish ambition, rather
than from pure motives, thinking to cause me distress in my
Philippians 2:3 (note)
Do nothing from selfishness or empty conceit, but with humility
of mind let each of you regard one another as more important than
James 3:14 But if you have bitter jealousy and selfish ambition
in your heart, do not be arrogant and so lie against the truth.
James 3:16 For where jealousy and selfish ambition exist, there
is disorder and every evil thing.
Eritheia originally referred to spinning thread for
hire, then more broadly to sewing for hire, then more broadly still to
any sort of work or undertaking that was done for personal gain -- the
work of a hired laborer (root word erithos). So it came to
refer essentially to any work done for pay. Sadly eritheia degenerated
into a description of the work which is done
for no other motives than for pay. The one who works solely for pay
works from a low motive and is out solely to benefit self.
therefore evolved into a description of one who was out for an office as
a means of magnifying self and came to be connected with politics (wonder why?!) and to
mean canvassing for political or public office. And so it described a
wanted office, not from a motives of public service, but for what he
out of it. At it's base level eritheia came to describe the utterly selfish and
self-centered ambition which has no desire to serve another but
is only in something for what
it can get out of it for self. Furthermore, the person who is
eritheia does not care what level or method
it must stoop in order to attain its objective! Eritheia is more eager to display
self than to display the truth. It is interested more in the
victory of its own opinions than in the victory of the truth. Crooked
politicians, who serve in office only for what they can get out of it,
are a good example of this.
Eritheia is found before NT times only in Aristotle
where it denotes a self-seeking pursuit of political office by unfair
means. Thayer says it is "used of those who electioneer for office,
courting popular applause by trickery and low arts." (Times haven't
changed very much have they!) The
idea is that this person is like a mercenary, who does his work simply
for money, without regard for the issues or any harm he may be doing.
Everything he does is for the purpose of serving and pleasing SELF.
Certainly this fits the Bible’s emphasis that the basic problem of
unregenerate man is his being totally wrapped up in SELF and having no
place in his life for God.
adds his interesting analysis of eritheia writing that it...
"is a word whose meaning degenerated,
and the story of its degeneration is in itself a grim commentary on
human nature...the interesting thing about this word is that...we would
very naturally and almost inevitably derive it from eris, which
is the word for `strife'; but that is not its derivation at all.
Erithos originally meant 'a day labourer'; the word was
specially connected with `spinners' and 'weavers', and the popular
derivation was from erion, which means 'wool'. Eritheia
therefore began by being a perfectly respectable word with the meaning
'labour for wages'. It then begins to degenerate. It began to mean that
kind of work which is done for motives of pay and for nothing else; that
kind of work which has no motive of service whatever and which has only
one question—What do I get out of it? It therefore went on to mean
'canvassing and intriguing for public office'. It was the characteristic
of the man who sought public office, not for any service he could render
the State, but simply and solely for his own honour and glory and for
his own profit. It then acquired two other meanings.
First, it came to be used of 'party squabbles', of the jockeying for
position and the intriguing for place and power which is so often
characteristic of both secular and ecclesiastical politics. Second, it
ended up by meaning 'selfish ambition', the ambition which has no
conception of service and whose only aims are profit and power.
It is extremely interesting to see how the NT uses it. By far its
greater number of uses occur in Paul, and no one knew the inside of the
Early Church better than Paul did. It was the fault which could so
easily wreck a Church. It was the fault which nearly wrecked the Church
of God at Corinth by splitting it into sects and factions who were more
concerned with their own supremacy than the supremacy of Christ. In
Philippi it had actually become the moving motive of certain preachers.
They were eager rather to show their own greatness than the greatness of
Christ. Long ago Denney bitingly said that no preacher can show at one
and the same time that he is clever and that Christ is wonderful. It was
characteristic in Paul of the works of the flesh and in James of the
earthly and sensual wisdom. It is the characteristic of the man who
applies earthly and human standards to everything, and who assesses
things by the measuring rod of personal prestige and personal success.
It is an illuminating light on human nature that the word which began by
describing the work that a man does for an honest day's pay came in the
end to describe the work which is done for pay and pay alone. It is a
warning to our own generation, for most of our troubles today are not
basically economic troubles; they spring rather from the spirit which
asks, always, What can I get out of life? and, never, What can I put
into life?" (Barclay,
William: New Testament Words: page 99. Westminster John Know Press, 1964)
If there could be found one who genuinely was doing good at all times,
they could merit eternal life of their own accord - but there is none,
because all, in some way or another are or have been or will be
self-seeking and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness.
William Newell observes
Literally, it reads here, "those who
are of contention"; that is, whose hearts, instead of believing and
obeying, rise in opposition to the truth, contending inwardly against
the truth and outwardly with them that proclaim it. The word
"contentious" here evidently refers to the first conscious risings of
man's wicked heart against God's revealed will. 'Of contention' defines
unbelievers, as those who are 'of faith' defines believers" (Hodge).
We need only sketch in Scripture a
few of the contentious, the factious - a Cain who was angry, and
hateful at God's accepting Abel's sacrifice; an Esau who despised
his birthright and hated to the end the people of God; a Pharaoh
who said to Moses, "Who is Jehovah that I should hearken unto His
voice?" A Saul who despised the word of Jehovah and sought to
destroy His elect king, David; a Jehoiakim, apostate king of
Judah, who "cut with his penknife" and burned the prophecies of
Jeremiah; scribes and Pharisees, who rejected
John's baptism of repentance, -and, consequently, our Lord's loving
offer of eternal life for sinners through faith in Himself alone;
infidel Sadducees, who obeyed not the truth, by ridiculing it, as
Modernists do today. All about us we perceive them, -"the factious, "
those who oppose to Scripture their notions or arguments, and continue
to obey unrighteousness. The world is filled with them, and they will
fill hell shortly! (Romans 2)
AND DO NOT OBEY THE TRUTH: kai apeithousi (PAPMPD)
(Ro 1:18; 6:17; 10:16; 15:18; Job 24:13; Isa 50:10; 2Th 1:8; Heb 5:9;
11:8; 1Pe 3:1; 4:17)
from a = without + peítho = persuade) literally describes one who refuses to be persuaded and who
disbelieves willfully and perversely.
context in Romans means that these individuals possess an attitude of unbelief because
they deliberately disobey, consciously resist and rebel against authority
manifest an obstinate rejection of the will (truth) of God. The
present tense indicates
that this is their lifestyle (i.e., disobedience to the Divine will), the way the carry on their life is in
continual disobedience against God! To be sure, we all disobey from
time to time. That is not what Paul is referring to here. Instead he is
describing the individual with an unregenerate heart who habitually,
disobeys (as a lifestyle) what he or she knows to be the truth.
Apeitheo means not
to allow oneself to be persuaded; not to comply with and to refuse or
withhold belief (in the truth, but elsewhere in Christ, in the
Apeitheo speaks of a stubborn, stiff-necked attitude. It
speaks of disbelief manifesting itself in disobedience. It is opposed to
pisteuo, the verb translated "believe".
In studying apeitheo it is
important to understand that
the stem peith- (pith-, poith-) has
the basic meaning of trust (cf. Latin fido, fides). Trust can
refer to a statement, so that it has the meaning to put faith in, to let
oneself be convinced, or to a demand, so that it gets the meaning of
obey, be persuaded. The active meaning of the verb stem peith- then is
to convince and persuade and is especially characteristic of Greek
thought. In secular Greek it interesting to note that "Peitho" (art of
persuading) was even regarded as a goddess! (see
Brown, Colin, Editor. New International Dictionary
of NT Theology. 1986. Zondervan)
Marvin Vincent in discussing
apeitheo in John 3:36
Disbelief is regarded in its
active manifestation, disobedience. The verb
means to persuade, to cause belief,
to induce one to do something by persuading, and so runs into the
meaning of to obey, properly as the result of persuasion...Obedience,
however, includes faith. (Ed Note: See discussion of phrase "obedience
of faith" at
(Vincent, M. R. Word studies in the New Testament Vol. 2, Page 1-109)
From the above comments, it should
not surprise you to discover that in the New Testament the word group
translated disobey, disobedience, etc (apeitheo and
the related ) does not stand in contrast with obedience but in contrast
Other words in this word group...
(adjective) - 6x in 6v - Luke 1:17; Acts 26:19; Ro 1:30; 2Ti 3:2; Titus
1:16; 3:3. = one who will not be persuaded to obey authority
(noun) - 7x in 7v - Ro 11:30, 32; Eph 2:2; 5:6; Col 3:6; Heb 4:6, 11 =
disobedience, obstinate opposition to the Divine will
Apeitheo is used 34 times in the
(Ex 23:21; Lv 26:15; Nu 11:20; 14:43; Dt 1:26; 9:7, 23, 24; 21:20;
32:51; Josh 1:18; 5:6; 2Ki 5:16; Neh 9:29; Ps 67:19; Pr 1:25; 24:21; Hos
9:15; Zec 7:11; Is 1:23, 25; 3:8; 7:16; 8:11; 30:12; 33:2; 36:5; 50:5;
59:13; 63:10; 65:2; 66:14; Je 13:25; Ezek 3:27) where it often translates the Hebrew verb "marah"
a verb meaning to be rebellious and most often descriptive of rebellion
against God to such a degree that it provoked Him to action. For example
Moses warns Israel...
"Remember, do not forget how you provoked the LORD your God to wrath in
the wilderness; from the day that you
the land of Egypt until you arrived at this place, you have been
translates with apeitheo) against the LORD.
Below are the 14
uses of apeitheo. This verb makes a fascinating study. Go through
the passages and make a simple list asking
the questions who? what? why?, etc. You may need to examine the
context (study them in
context which you can do by clicking
the link) to get an accurate sense
is king ruling accurate
interpretation) of the meaning of
each use. Be sure and factor in the verb tenses remembering that
often conveys the sense that the action of the verb is as a lifestyle or
can refer to a definite completed action without specifying when this
took place ("timeless").
Apeitheo is translated in the KJV as believe not, 8;
disobedient, 4; obey not, 3; unbelieving, 1
Apeitheo is translated in the NAS as disbelieved, 1; disobedient, 10; do not obey, 1;
obey, 2. The NAS renders apeitheo - disbelieved(1), disobedient(10), do
not obey(1), obey(2).
John 3:36 "He who
believes in the Son has eternal life; but he who does not obey (present tense)
the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God abides on him."
Acts 14:2 But the Jews who disbelieved (aorist tense)
(NLT "spurned God's message", NIV "refused to believe")
stirred up the minds of the Gentiles, and embittered them against the
But when some were becoming hardened
(skleruno = hard, stubborn) and disobedient (imperfect tense
= over and over),
speaking evil of the Way before the multitude, he withdrew from them and
took away the disciples, reasoning daily in the school of Tyrannus.
Romans 2:8 (note) but to those who are selfishly ambitious and do not obey
the truth, but obey unrighteousness, wrath and indignation.
(note) But as for Israel He says, "All the day long I have
stretched out My hands to a disobedient (present tense) and obstinate
(anti-lego = speaking against, contradicting =
present tense) people."
For just as you
(Gentiles) once were disobedient (aorist tense) to God, but
now have been shown mercy because of their (the Jew's) disobedience
(noun form = apeitheia),
Romans 11:31 (note) so these also now have been disobedient (aorist tense), in order that because
of the mercy shown to you they also may now be shown mercy.
(Paul asked the Romans saints to pray...) "that I may be delivered from those who are disobedient (present tense)
in Judea, and that my service for Jerusalem may prove acceptable to the
(note) And to whom did He swear that they should not enter His
rest, but to those who were disobedient (aorist tense)?
19 And so we see that they were not able to enter because of unbelief
(apistia). (What equates with "disobedient" in this context? Clue: why
could Israel not enter the promised land?)
(note) By faith Rahab the harlot did not perish along with those
who were disobedient (aorist tense), after she had welcomed the spies in peace.
1 Peter 2:8
(note) and, "A stone of stumbling and a rock of offense"; for they
stumble because they are disobedient (present tense) to the word, and to this
doom they were also appointed.
1 Peter 3:1
(note) In the same way, you wives, be submissive to your own
husbands so that even if any of them are disobedient (present tense) to the word,
they may be won without a word by the behavior of their wives,
1 Peter 3:20
(note) who once were disobedient (aorist tense), when the patience of God
kept waiting in the days of Noah, during the construction of the ark, in
which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through the
1 Peter 4:17
(note) For it is time for judgment to begin with the household of
God; and if it begins with us first, what will be the outcome for those
who do not obey (present tense) the gospel of God?
What is the
essence of disobedience? Clearly unbelief, lack of faith, without which
no man can be saved.
The Truth (225)
(aletheia from alethes = true in turn from a +
lêthô = that which is hidden or lanthanô = conceal,
this combination meaning out in the open, containing nothing that is
hidden) describes the body of reality (facts, events, etc) or the
content which is true, or which is in accordance to what actually
the unveiled reality lying at the basis of and agreeing with an
appearance; the manifested, the veritable essence of matter.
the correspondence between a reality and a declaration which professes
to set it forth. Words are true when they correspond with objective
reality. Persons and things are true when they correspond with their
profession. Hence a truth is a declaration which has corresponding
reality, or a reality which is correctly set forth. Since God is Himself
the great reality, that which correctly sets forth His nature is
pre-eminently the Truth. Obviously whatever God says is "the truth",
and in fact "the Truth" is actually embodied in the Person of
So these men do not obey the truth and refuse to answer the gospel
invitation which continually holds out the gracious offer that
"whoever will call upon the name of the
Lord will be saved." (Romans
Instead, they have chosen
as the habitual practice of their life to obey unrighteousness as their master
And so it should not be surprising that their lives are characterized by strife, wrangling, and
disobedience, all indicators that they were never saved.
Here are the 109
uses of aletheia in the NT - Matt. 22:16; Mk. 5:33; 12:14, 32;
Lk. 4:25; 20:21; 22:59; Jn. 1:14, 17; 3:21; 4:23f; 5:33; 8:32, 40, 44ff;
14:6, 17; 15:26; 16:7, 13; 17:17, 19; 18:37f; Acts 4:27; 10:34; 26:25;
Rom. 1:18, 25; 2:2, 8, 20; 3:7; 9:1; 15:8; 1 Co. 5:8; 13:6; 2 Co. 4:2;
6:7; 7:14; 11:10; 12:6; 13:8; Gal. 2:5, 14; 5:7; Eph. 1:13; 4:21, 24f;
5:9; 6:14; Phil. 1:18; Col. 1:5f; 2 Thess. 2:10, 12f; 1 Tim. 2:4, 7;
3:15; 4:3; 6:5; 2 Tim. 2:15, 18, 25; 3:7f; 4:4; Tit. 1:1, 14; Heb.
10:26; Jas. 1:18; 3:14; 5:19; 1 Pet. 1:22; 2 Pet. 1:12; 2:2; 1 Jn. 1:6,
8; 2:4, 21; 3:18f; 4:6; 5:6; 2 Jn. 1:1ff; 3 Jn. 1:1, 3f, 8, 12
WRATH AND INDIGNATION: peithomenois (PPPMPD) de te adikia orge kai
(Jn 3:18, 19, 20, 21; 2Th 2:10, 11, 12; Heb 3:12,13)
Torrey's Topic, ISBE article
Wrath) (Ro 9:22; Ps 90:11; Nah 1:6; Heb
10:27; Rev 14:10; 16:19)
(3982) (peitho) means to be persuaded and to cause to come to a
particular point of view or course of action. In the New Testament peitho suggests an actual outward conduct as the result of the inward
persuasion. Obey is in the
which indicates that obedience is the general tendency of their
life. They manifest a lifestyle of obedience.
Peitho - 52x in 52v - Matt
27:20, 43; 28:14; Luke 11:22; 16:31; 18:9; 20:6; Acts 5:36f, 39; 12:20;
13:43; 14:19; 17:4; 18:4; 19:8, 26; 21:14; 23:21; 26:26, 28; 27:11;
28:23f; Rom 2:8, 19; 8:38; 14:14; 15:14; 2 Cor 1:9; 2:3; 5:11; 10:7; Gal
1:10; 5:7, 10; Phil 1:6, 14, 25; 2:24; 3:3f; 2 Thess 3:4; 2 Tim 1:5, 12;
Philemon 1:21; Heb 2:13; 6:9; 13:17f; Jas 3:3; 1 John 3:19. NAS =
assure(1), confident(3), convinced(7), followed(2), have confidence(2),
having confidence(2), listen(1), obey(3), obeying(1), persuade(4),
persuaded(8), persuading(1), put...trust(1), put confidence(1),
put...confidence(1), relied(1), seeking the favor(1), sure(2),
took...advice(1), trust(2), trusted(1), trusting(1), trusts(1),
urging(1), win...over(1), won over(2).
from a = without + dike
is a condition of not being right,
whether with God, according to the standard of His holiness and
righteousness or with man, according to the standard of what man knows
to be right by his conscience.
Adikia is a lack of right
conduct toward God and toward men, a conduct which is not conformable with God's standard
of what is right. These men are continuously listening to and obeying "adikia".
The result of their obedience is a conduct which may be observed. On the
other hand when a man obeys God he gives the only possible
evidence that in his heart he truly believes God.
In secular Greek adikia
referred to unjust acts, or to deeds which caused personal injury.
Rather than a general concept of injustice, this word was taken, in the
writings of Plato, to mean an unjust act which injures a specific
person. Such an act was not necessarily a violation of some specific
law, but rather an affront against the just order of society. Among the
acts which fell into this category were theft, fraud, and sexual crimes.
Later this word came to mean a neglect of duty toward the pagan gods.
used this word to describe social sins, those deeds which violated human
relations or the political order of society. Among these injustices were
deceit, fraud, and lying.
Adikia is used 25 times in the
NT - Lk. 13:27; 16:8f; 18:6; Jn. 7:18; Acts 1:18; 8:23; Rom. 1:18, 29;
2:8; 3:5; 6:13; 9:14; 1 Co. 13:6; 2 Co. 12:13; 2 Thess. 2:10, 12; 2 Tim.
2:19; Heb. 8:12; James. 3:6; 2 Pet. 2:13, 15; 1 Jn. 1:9; 5:17 and in the
NAS is translated "doing wrong, 1; evildoers, 1; iniquities, 1;
iniquity, 2; injustice, 1; unrighteous, 2; unrighteousness, 12;
wickedness, 4; wrong."
[word study]) is a
settled or abiding condition of mind, frequently with a view to taking
revenge. The word wrath comes from the idea
of something which teems or swells
until it becomes so swollen that it bursts forth which gives a perfect
picture of God's holy "orge" which is His
settled indignation and controlled passionate feeling against sin.
Orge applies not to a petulant outburst like humans are so
prone to but to an anger that proceeds from God's settled nature. Men
make themselves the object of God's orge when they sin
and become a part of the destructiveness of evil. The concept of
includes God’s present displeasure with evil as well as the ultimate
confinement and defeat of all evil in eternal hell (Mt 8:12).
Orge - 36x in 34v - Matt 3:7;
Mark 3:5; Luke 3:7; 21:23; John 3:36; Rom 1:18; 2:5, 8; 3:5; 4:15; 5:9;
9:22; 12:19; 13:4f; Eph 2:3; 4:31; 5:6; Col 3:6, 8; 1 Thess 1:10; 2:16;
5:9; 1 Tim 2:8; Heb 3:11; 4:3; Jas 1:19f; Rev 6:16f; 11:18; 14:10;
16:19; 19:15. NAS = anger(6), wrath(30)
Newell notes that...
And now we must faithfully read
and believe what God declares will befall these "factious" unbelievers:
Wrath-indignation-tribulation-anguish: thus is the fearful visitation of
The Great Day upon the impenitent described, with concise but sweeping
Wrath: this is "revealed
from heaven" as the state of God's mind toward the unbelieving
wicked-"the wrath of God abides upon him" (John 3:36).
Indignation: this is
vividly described in Nahum: "Who can stand before His indignation? and
who can abide in the fierceness of His anger?"
Or Ezekiel: "I have poured out
My indignation upon them; I have consumed them with the fire of My
wrath." It seems to be the outburst in visitation of wrath stored up.
C H Spurgeon writes that...
The wrath of God does
not end with death. This is a truth which the preacher cannot mention
without trembling, nor without wondering that he does not tremble more.
The eternity of punishment is a thought which crushes the heart. You
have buried the man, but you have not buried his sins. His sins live
and are immortal. They have gone before
him to judgment, or they will follow after him to bear their witness as
to the evil of his heart and the rebellion of his life. The Lord God is
slow to anger, but when He is once aroused to it, as He will be against
those who finally reject his Son, He will put forth all His omnipotence
to crush His enemies.
A W Pink adds that
His eternal detestation of all unrighteousness. It is the displeasure
and indignation of Divine equity against evil. It is the holiness of God
stirred into activity against sin” It is the moving cause of that just
sentence which He passes upon evil-doers. God is angry against sin
because it is a rebelling against His authority, a wrong done to His
inviolable sovereignty. Insurrectionists against God's government shall
be made to know that God is the Lord. They shall be made to feel how
great that Majesty is which they despise, and how dreadful is that
which they so little regarded. Not that God's anger is a malignant and
malicious retaliation, inflicting injury for the sake of it, or in
return for injury received. No; while God will vindicate His dominion as
the Governor of the universe, He will not be vindictive....The wrath of God is a perfection of the Divine
character upon which we need to frequently meditate.
that our hearts may be duly impressed by God's detestation of sin. We
are ever prone to regard sin lightly, to gloss over its hideousness, to
make excuses for it. But the more we study and ponder God's abhorrence
of sin and His frightful vengeance upon it, the more likely are we to
realize its heinousness.
to beget a true fear in our souls for God: Let us have grace whereby we
may serve God acceptably with reverence and godly fear: for our God is a
consuming fire (Heb 12:28, 29-note).
We cannot serve Him acceptably unless there is due reverence for His
awful Majesty and godly fear of His righteous anger, and these are best
promoted by frequently calling to mind that our God is a consuming fire.
Third, to draw out our souls in fervent praise for having
delivered us from the wrath to come
(1Th 1:10 -note)"
The Attributes of God). (Bolding added)
from thúo = move impetuously,
particularly as the air or wind, a violent motion or passion of the
mind; move violently, rush along) describes passion (as if
breathing hard) and so speaks of an agitated or "heated" anger that
rushes along (impulse toward a thing). Thumos describes a
tumultuous welling up of the whole spirit; a mighty emotion which seizes
and moves the whole inner man. Thumos (especially when
accompanied by breathing violently or hard) pictures a "panting rage".
We've all seen individuals in whom there was a sudden outburst of this
type of passionate anger. You can even see their nasal passages widening
to take in more air in the heat of their passion.
Thumos - 18x in 18v - Luke
4:28; Acts 19:28; Ro 2:8; 2Cor 12:20; Gal 5:20; Eph 4:31; Col 3:8; Heb
11:27; Re 12:12; 14:8, 10, 19; 15:1, 7; 16:1, 19; 18:3; 19:15. NAS
= angry tempers(1), fierce(2), indignation(1), outbursts of anger(1),
passion(2), rage(2), wrath(9).
In sum, thumos indicates a more
agitated condition of the feelings than "orge". Thumos describes an
outburst of anger from inward indignation that quickly blazes up and
Orge is less sudden in its rise than thumos but more
lasting in it nature.
Thumos expresses more the inward feeling,
more active emotion. 10/18 uses of thumos in are in
comes from the idea of "boiling up" and pictures a passionate outburst by
God. The day of His forbearance and patience (Ro 2:4) has come to an end.
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