Ruth 1:14-18 Commentary

 

 

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Ruth 1:14-18 Commentary
Updated 12/21/13

Ruth 1:14 And they lifted up their voices and wept again; and Orpah kissed her mother-in-law, but Ruth clung to her.  (NASB: Lockman)

GWT: They began to cry loudly again. Then Orpah kissed her mother-in-law goodbye, but Ruth held on to her tightly.  (GWT)
KJV
: And they lifted up their voice, and wept again: and Orpah kissed her mother in law; but Ruth clave unto her.
NLT: And again they wept together, and Orpah kissed her mother-in-law good-bye. But Ruth insisted on staying with Naomi.  (
NLT - Tyndale House)
Young's Literal: And they lift up their voice, and weep again, and Orpah kisseth her mother-in-law, and Ruth hath cleaved to her.

Septuagint (LXX):  kai eperan (3PAAI)  ten phonen auton kai eklausan (3PAAI) eti kai katephilesen  (3SAAI: fervent or affectionate greeting = kiss tenderly)  Orpha ten pentheran autes kai epestrepsen (3SAAI) eis ton laon autes Routh de ekolouthesen (3SAAI  go along behind) aute
English of Septuagint: And they lifted up their voice, and wept again; and Orpha kissed her mother-in-law and returned to her people; but Ruth followed her


REFERENCES ON RUTH 1
Updated 12/21/13

Paul Apple
Kay Arthur
Kay Arthur
Baker Theological Dictionary
Albert Barnes
Art Related to Ruth
Brian Bell
Joseph Benson
Richard Bernard
Biblical Illustrator
Edward Boone
Edward Boone
Edward Boone
Alan Carr
Alan Carr
Alan Carr
Alan Carr
Rich Cathers
Century Bible
Adam Clarke
Gordon Churchyard
Thomas Constable
Ron Daniel
Bob Deffinbaugh
Warren Dodd
John Dummelow
Expositor's Bible
Don Fortner
Don Fortner
Don Fortner
Max Frazier
A C Gaebelein
John Gill
L M Grant
James Gray
David Guzik
Robert Hawker
Matthew Henry
William Heslop
William Heslop
William Heslop
Holman Study Bible
Jodi Hooper
Selwyn Hughes
Alfred Hunt
Alfred Hunt
John Angell James
John Angell James
Jamieson, F, B
S Lewis Johnson
Keil and Delitzsch
Keil and Delitzsch
John Kitto
Woodrow Kroll
Woodrow Kroll
Woodrow Kroll
Paul Kretzmann
Alexander Maclaren
J Vernon McGee
J Vernon McGee
J Vernon McGee
John MacArthur
F B Meyer
Middletown Bible
G Campbell Morgan
Henry Morris
Nicole Mullen
Robert Neighbour
Net Bible
Our Daily Bread
Joseph Parker
Joseph Parker
Joseph Parker
Peter Pett
John Piper
Matthew Poole
Preacher's Homiletical
Preacher's Homiletical
Preacher's Homiletical
Preacher's Homiletical
Preacher's Homiletical
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary
Pulpit Commentary
RBC Booklet
Grant Richison
Grant Richison
Don Robinson
Henri Rossier
Hamilton Smith
Speaker's Commentary
Speaker's Commentary
C H Spurgeon
C H Spurgeon
C H Spurgeon
Ray Stedman
Richard Strauss
John Stevenson
John Stevenson
John Stevenson
Joseph Sutcliffe
Joe Temple
Geoff Thomas
Geoff Thomas
Geoff Thomas
Today in the Word
Today in the Word
T H Toler
John Trapp
Daniel Whedon
W T P Wolston
Steve Zeisler
Steve Zeisler

Ruth 1 Commentary
Lecture 1 - Darkness, Followed by Light
Lecture 2 - Belonging to a Kinsman-Redeemer
Ruth, Theology of Ruth
Ruth 1 Commentary

Ruth Art
Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth 1 Commentary (homilies, illustrations, etc)
Ruth 1:1-5 The Distress and the Removal

Ruth 1:6-18 The Decision to Return

Ruth 1:19-21 The Damage and the Reception
Ruth 1:1-22 An Example Of A Steadfast Life
Ruth 1:1-7 Three Tombstones In A Washpot
Ruth 1:6-18 Three Widows In A Washpot
Ruth 1:19-22 Coming Home The Hard Way

Ruth 1-2; Ruth 1:1-18
Ruth 1 Commentary

Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth: Ruth Obeys God and Finds Love
Ruth 1 Commentary Notes
Ruth 1 Sermon Notes
Ruth 1 Return to Bethlehem
Ruth 1:6-10, Ruth 1:11-14
Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth 1:6-18 Three Women
Ruth 1:14 Ruth’s Choice
Ruth 1:16-18 The Resolute Consecration Of True Faith
Ruth 1: Devotional Commentary  
Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth 1 Commentary

Ruth Introduction
Ruth 1 Expositional Commentary
Rubies From Ruth
Holman Christian Study Bible - enter Ruth then "Study Bible Notes"
Ruth 1-4 Commentary
Ruth 1:9-13 Devotional
Ruth 1:1-5 Ruth 1:1-5 Hints for Lessons
Ruth 1:6-22 The Return Ruth 1:6-22 Hints for lessons

Benefits of affliction
Naomi, Ruth, and Orpah
Ruth 1 Commentary
Christ, Our Kinsman-Redeemer
On Levirate Marriage in Deuteronomy 25:5-10
Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth 1 Pictorial Bible

Ruth 1:14 Super-glued
Ruth 1:15 Follow Me
Ruth 1:16-17 Important Choices

Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth Exposition
Ruth Introduction - Mp3's; Ruth 1:1 Commentary Ru 1:2-7 Commentary
Ruth 1:8-13 Commentary
; Ruth 1:14 Commentary
Ruth 1:15-17 Commentary
Ruth 1:18-22 Commentary

Ruth The Kinsman Redeemer
Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth Study
Ruth 1 Exposition
Ruth 1 Commentary - scroll down page
I Know My Redeemer Lives - Recommended
Ruth 1 Commentary (Living Water Commentary)
Ruth 1: Net Bible Notes
Ruth 1   Always For Us
Ruth 1:1-18 Ruth's Election

Ruth 1 - Selected Note on Famine in the Land
Ruth 1 The Character of Naomi

Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth 1: Sweet and Bitter Providence
Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth 1:1 Critical and Exegetical Notes
Ruth 1:1 The Famine and Exile

Ruth 1:1 The Beginning of Sorrows
Ruth 1:1 The Departure from Home
Ruth 1:1 Family Changes

Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth 1:6-14 Longing for the Old Home
Ruth 1:6-7 Home Returning
Ruth 1:8 Benedictions
Ruth 1:8 As You Have Dealt With the Dead and Me
Ruth 1:8 Kindness

Ruth 1:15-22 Devoted Attachment

Ruth 1:16-18 Constancy
Ruth 1:16-17 Entreat Me Not to Leave Thee
Ruth 1:18 Moral Steadfastness

Ruth & Hannah: Learning To Walk By Faith
Ruth Introduction; Ruth 1:1; Ruth 1:2-5; Ruth 1:6-10
Ruth 1:11-18; Ruth 1:19-22

Ruth 1:1-5 Ruth 1:6-18 Ruth 1:19-22

Ruth Commentary
The Book of Ruth

Ruth 1:1-5 Commentary Ruth 1:6-14 Commentary

Ruth 1:15-21Commentary Ruth 1:22 Commentary

Ruth 1 Exposition
Ruth 1:16: Deciding for God
Ruth 1:16 Sermon Notes

Ruth: The Romance of Redemption
Two to Get Ready: The Story of Boaz & Ruth
Ruth - The Romance of Redemption
Ruth 1:1-18. The Exodus of Naomi: A Study in Leaving and Cleaving.
Ruth 1:19-22. Bitterness and the Dawn of Restoration.

Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth 1: Ruth Returning
Ruth 1:1-15  Blind unbelief is sure to err
Ruth 1:16-18 The great commitment of Ruth
Ruth 1:19-2:3 New problems bring new grace
Ruth 1-2 Devotionals;
Ruth 1:1-22; Ruth 1:1-18; 2:1-9; 3:1-11; 4:1-12

Ruth 1:15-22; Ruth 1:1-18; 2:1-9 Ruth 1:1-22 Ru 1:1-22; Ru 1:1-2:23

Ruth 1 Sermon 1
Ruth 1 Commentary
Ruth 1 Commentary
The Gospel from the book of Ruth.
Ruth 1:1-22: A Tale of Two Widows
Ruth 1:1-2:23 The Greatness of Gratitude

AND THEY LIFTED UP THEIR VOICES AND WEPT AGAIN:

"They started weeping loudly all over again" (NJB)

"then they renewed their audible weeping" (Berkley)

"they sobbed aloud and wept;" (NAB)

The Septuagint (LXX) uses a verb that means to cry with a loud voice. There comes a place in our following after God, where it comes down to doing. Ruth and Orpah were both feeling the same feelings but Ruth did differently than Orpah. Applying Ruth's decisive action for God's people and thus for God one notes that in Christianity some are content with feeling Christian feelings, with feeling a love for God, with feeling a love for His Word, with feeling a love for His people. But the decisive question is will you be doers of the word (Jas 1:23-note;, cp Jas 2:14f-note ;)? We are all thankful that God did not just feel His love for us? Instead

"God so loved the world, He gave His only begotten Son." (Jn 3:16)

Ruth showed her feeling of love by her willingness to make a "costly commitment" especially when one realizes that she had not yet "read" the next three chapters! Her action is an excellent OT example of faith which Hebrews "defines" as

the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen." (see note Hebrews 11:1) and goes on to add that "without faith it is impossible to please Him, for he who comes to God must believe that He is, and that He is a Rewarder of those who seek Him. (see note Hebrews 11:6)

AND ORPAH KISSED HER MOTHER IN LAW: (Ge 31:28,55 1Ki 19:20 Mt 10:37; 19:22 Mk 10:21,22 2Ti 4:10-see note on Demas)

"Orpah kissed her mother-in-law good-bye" (NLT, NET, NAB, AMP)

Kissed (5401) (nashaq) means to kiss mouth to mouth or  to be attached and the Greek Septuagint verb adds the interesting nuance of kissing one tenderly, with caressing and as a sign of special affection (the same verb was used by the Greek Septuagint in (Ruth 1:9).

Alexander Maclaren writes that...

Orpah as she goes back to her home and her gods. She is the first in the sad series of those, 'not far from the kingdom of God'' (Mark 12:34) who needed but a little more resolution at the critical moment, and, for want of it, shut themselves out from the covenant, and sank back to a world which they had half renounced. So these two lonely widows are left, each seeking to sacrifice herself for the other. Who shall decide which was the more noble and truly womanly in her self-forgetfulness,--the elder, sadder heart, which strove to secure for the other some joy and fellowship at the price of its own deepened solitude; or the younger, which steeled itself against entreaties, and cast away friends and country for love's sweet sake? We rightly praise Ruth's vow, but we should not forget Naomi's unselfish pleading to be left to tread her weary path alone (Ruth Exposition)

Matthew Henry referring to Orpah's apparent resolution to do but failure to follow her words with actions says

Strong passions, without a settled judgment, commonly produce weak resolutions

What is the application to saints today?  It is probably unfair to Orpah to be too critical of her action and to misjudge her motives for kissing Naomi goodbye. The Greek verb certainly suggests a tenderness and therefore a heartfelt sincerity in her action. Nevertheless, by way of application, it should be noted that a kiss of outward profession can be an an act that appears sincere (Mt 26:48, 49 Lk 22:47, 48), but the practical cleaving to the Lord, which must show itself in definitive decision for truth and holiness, is not so small a matter. Is your heart fixed upon Jesus (Col 3:1, 2, He 12:1, 2- see notes Col 3:1; 3:2; He 12:1;  2) and the sacrifice bound with cords to the horns of the altar (Ps 118:7- Spurgeon's Note)? Have you counted the cost, and are you solemnly ready to suffer all worldly loss for the Master’s sake (Lk 14:28; 14:33, Mk 8:34, 35, 36, 37)? The gain will be an abundant recompense, for Egypt’s treasures are not to be compared with the glory to be revealed (cf Moses - He 11:24, 25, 26, 27 - see notes He 11:24;  25, 26, 27).

What happened to Orpah? The Living Bible says she "returned to her childhood home" and the TEV says she "went back home," both of which are certainly plausible but neither of which is clearly stated in the Hebrew or Greek Septuagint texts (which is another reason paraphrases should be assiduously avoided as one's primary Bible when performing serious Bible study - see chart on Bible Versions). So the most reliable answer is that we don’t know what happened to Orpah and that is where the commentary should cease. Men however often concoct fantastic stories to explain what they don’t know. For example, Jewish tradition says this request of Naomi came four miles outside of Moab; and that Orpah shed only four tears and the thought of parting from her mother-in-law Naomi. The rabbis go on to say that in recompense for the four miles that she went with Naomi, Orpah gave birth to four sons - Goliath and his three brothers! Fruitless, foolish, unfounded speculation!

BUT RUTH CLEAVED ("clave" KJV): (De 4:4, 10:20, Pr 17:17, 18:24 Isa 14:1 Zec 8:23 Mt 16:24 Jn 6:66, 67, 68, 69 Acts 17:34 Heb 10:39 )

Ruth would not be parted from her (BBE)

Ruth held on to her (CEV)

Ruth insisted on staying with Naomi (NLT)

Ruth held on to her tightly (GWT)

Ruth hugged her tightly (NET)

Note the phrase "but Ruth", which draws a contrast (See value of observing for contrasts) so vivid that one can easily imagine themselves as a quiet observer standing nearby as this poignant, life-changing drama unfolds. As discussed elsewhere, a "but" always signifies a change of direction is occurring, in this case not just literally (Moab to Bethlehem) but spiritually (idolatry of Moab to the God of Naomi) and ultimately a change in Ruth's eternal destiny (from hell to heaven). Always stop when you encounter a "but" and ask what is being contrasted?

They both wept but only Orpah kissed her mother in law while Ruth clung to her.

Henri Rossi...

Naomi's daughters-in-law accompany her, moved by the thought of returning with her to her people (Ru 1:10). But this good intention is not enough, for nothing less than faith will do in order to enter into relationship with grace. The behavior of Orpah and of Ruth illustrates this principle. In appearance there is no difference at all between them. Both leave with Naomi and walk with her, thus demonstrating their attachment to her. Orpah's affection is real: she weeps at the mere thought of leaving her mother-in-law; and full of sympathy, sheds still more tears when she finally leaves her. Orpah, the Moabite, also loves Naomi's people: “They said to her, We will certainly return with thee to thy people.” But it is possible to have a very amiable character without having faith. Faith makes a gulf between these two women who are so similar in so many ways. Confronted with impossibilities, the natural heart draws back, whereas faith is nourished on impossibilities and so increases in strength. Orpah gives up a path which has no outcome. What could Naomi offer her? She was ruined, stricken by God, and filled with bitterness; did she yet have sons in her womb to give as husbands to her daughters-in-law? Orpah kisses her mother-in-law and returns to her people and to her gods (Ru 1:15).

Here at last the secret of the natural heart is unveiled. The natural heart may attach itself to God's people without actually belonging to this people. A woman like Naomi surely is worthy of awakening sympathy, but that is not the sign of faith in operation. In the first place faith separates us from idols, causes us to give up our gods, and turns us to the true God. This was the Thessalonians' first step in the path of faith, too (1Th 1:9-
note). Orpah on the contrary turns away from Naomi and the God of Israel in order to return to her people and her gods. Confronted by this difficulty, she shows that she is unable to endure the test. She indeed weeps as she leaves, but she does leave, just like that charming young man who went away sad, unable to decide to separate himself from his possessions in order to follow a poor and despised Master.

Ruth's case is quite different. What precious faith she displays: full of certainty, resolution, and decision! No objection can change her mind. How clearly faith sees its goal! She listens to Naomi's words but her decision has been made, for she knows only one path, which for her is the necessary path. What are nature's impossibilities before faith's necessities? Ruth neither allows herself to be deterred by the prospect of not finding another husband, nor even by the Lord's hand stretched out against her mother-in-law; in the obstacles that mount up she sees only so many new reasons for clinging to her decision. Naomi is everything to Ruth, and Ruth cleaves to Naomi.

Cleaved (1692) (dabaq) means to stick to, adhere to, cling to, join with, stay with, stay in close proximity to and which yields the noun form for "glue".  Dabaq describes something that sticks or clings to something else (Ezek 29:4 and Ezekiel’s tongue to roof of his mouth Ezek. 3:26).

It is interesting that one of the most concentrated uses of "dabaq" in the OT is found in this short story of Ruth (Ru 1:14, 2:8, 2:21, 23-see notes Ru 1:14; 2:8; 21; 23) --  Ruth 2:8 "stay here with my maids"; Ruth 2:21 "‘You should stay close to my servants"; Ruth 2:23 "So she stayed close by the maids of Boaz";

Dabaq - (See passages below) 53x in OT - Gen. 2:24; 19:19; 31:23; 34:3; Num. 36:7, 9; Deut. 10:20; 11:22; 13:4, 17; 28:21, 60; 30:20; Jos. 22:5; 23:8, 12; Jdg. 18:22; 20:42, 45; Ruth 1:14; 2:8, 21, 23; 1 Sam. 14:22; 31:2; 2 Sam. 1:6; 20:2; 23:10; 1 Ki. 11:2; 2 Ki. 3:3; 5:27; 18:6; 1 Chr. 10:2; Job 19:20; 29:10; 31:7; 38:38; 41:17, 23; Ps. 22:15; 44:25; 63:8; 101:3; 102:5; 119:25, 31; 137:6; Pr. 18:24; Jer. 13:11; 42:16; Lam. 4:4; Ezek. 3:26; 29:4

NAS translates dabaq as - (1), closer(1), clung(4), deeply attracted(1), fasten its grip(1), follow closely(1), held fast(1), hold(2), hold fast(2), holding fast(1), joined(2), joined together(1), overtake(1), overtook(5), pursued him closely(1), pursued them closely(1), remained steadfast(1), stay(1), stay close(1), stayed close(1), stick(1), stick together(1), stuck(2).

Dabaq often refers to physical things sticking to each other, especially parts of the body as described vividly by Job who said

"My bone clings to my skin and my flesh, and I have escaped only by the skin of my teeth" (Job 19:20, cf one's tongue "stuck to their palate" Job 29:10). 

God speaking through Moses warned Israel to

"choose life in order that you may live...by loving the LORD your God, by obeying His voice, and by holding fast (dabaq) to Him" going on to explain that one should cling to Jehovah because "this is your life and the length of your days, that you may live in the land which the LORD swore to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give them." (Dt 30:19, 20)

King Hezekiah heeded this instruction and

"clung to the LORD; he did not depart from following Him, but kept His commandments, which the LORD had commanded Moses." and the result of his clinging was that "Jehovah was with him; wherever he went he prospered." (2Ki 18:6 18:7, cf : Ps 63:8)

A vivid picture of the meaning of dabaq is found in David's declaration

"I will set no worthless thing before my eyes; I hate the work of those who fall away; It shall not fasten its grip on me." (Ps 101:3), picturing the power of sin to entrap the sinner. (Spurgeon on Ps 101:3)

Dabaq also conveys the ideas of loyalty and devotion as in the first use of dabaq where "a man shall leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave to his wife; and they shall become one flesh" (Ge 2:24) which also emphasizes the basic meaning of being intimately joined to another and of being identified with one another, even as Ruth was now committing to be "identified" no longer with the Moabites but primarily with Naomi, her people and her God.

As alluded to earlier, this idea of leaving former affections and loyalties and shifting them to Jehovah is found numerous times in Deuteronomy, as for example in (Dt 10:20) where Moses instructs Israel that they are to "fear the LORD your God; you shall serve Him and cling to Him, and you shall swear by His name". In this verse we also see that reverential awe (fear) of God is in part manifest by one cleaving closely to Him. This truth gives us some insight into Ruth's cleaving to Naomi and ultimately to Naomi's God. (cf Dt 11:22 23, 13:4 Josh 23::8 contrast Josh 23:12 Dt 13:17)

The Septuagint (LXX) translates "but Ruth cleaved to her" as "but Ruth followed her" where the  verb followed is the Greek verb akoloutheo (190) (from "a" = expressing union or likeness + keleuthos = way, road) which literally pictures one (in this case Ruth) going in the same way or walking the same road and so to follow or accompany someone (in this case Naomi) who takes the lead. The first use of akoloutheo in the NT is instructive, Matthew writing that Peter and Andrew, upon hearing Jesus' call

"Follow Me!" (Mt 4:19), "immediately left the nets, and followed (akoloutheo) Him." (Mt 4:20)

In a similar way Ruth left her friends, family, familiar culture and foreign gods and followed Naomi even in face of Naomi's discouragement to do so! What great faith "Ruth the Moabitess" manifested.

Do I have the faith and willingness to commit to follow Jesus Who taught that

"If anyone wishes to come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow (akoloutheo) Me. For whoever wishes to save his life shall lose it; but whoever loses his life for My sake and the gospel's shall save it."  (Mk 8:34, 35)

Naomi’s well-being was Ruth's first concern, though that involved emigration from her homeland, leaving her parents who were still living (Ru 2:11-note), and settling among strangers. From this point on Naomi’s people would be her people, though Ruth had no certainty that she would find acceptance.

MacDonald has nicely summarized this dramatic scene describing

the different attitudes of the three widows: Naomi was a grieving widow, stripped of the earthly joys of husband and family by divine judgment. Orpah , having soberly considered the words of her mother-in-law, proved to be a leaving widow, choosing the easiest and most convenient course. But Ruth was a cleaving widow, clinging to Naomi in spite of the latter’s discouragements. When Ruth chose a new life with Naomi, she knew that it wouldn’t be easy. There was hard work and poverty ahead since they were without a male provider. There was separation from home and loved ones, too. (MacDonald, W., & Farstad, A. Believer's Bible Commentary: Old and New Testaments. Nashville: Thomas Nelson)

Wiersbe succinctly describes the scene as...

"Naomi was trying to cover up; Orpah had given up, but Ruth was prepared to stand up!"

DABAQ IN
THE OLD TESTAMENT

Dabaq - 53x in OT -
 

Genesis 2:24 For this reason a man shall leave his father and his mother, and be joined to his wife; and they shall become one flesh.

 

Comment: The Lxx use the verb proskollao (from prós = to, toward, in compounds prós implies motion, direction + kollao = to glue) literally means to glue one thing to another so that it cleaves or adheres. To unite. To cleave. To be united with. To join oneself to closely. To stick to. It is used metaphorically in this verse to describe the marriage bond. To adhere to closely, be faithfully devoted to. Proskollao was a medical term used to describe the uniting of wounds. Here this compound verb denotes the most intimate union. This verb emphasizes not only permanence but also unity of the two who have been "glued" together. Take a picture of a husband and another of his wife and glue them together. Allow time for the glue to set. What happens when you try to take the two individual pictures apart? Do you see what God is saying about the dissolution of the marriage covenant between a husband and a wife?


Genesis 19:19 "Now behold, your servant has found favor in your sight, and you have magnified your lovingkindness, which you have shown me by saving my life; but I cannot escape to the mountains, for the disaster will overtake me and I will die;


Genesis 31:23 then he took his kinsmen with him and pursued him a distance of seven days' journey, and he overtook him in the hill country of Gilead.


Genesis 34:3 He was deeply attracted to Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the girl and spoke tenderly to her.


Numbers 36:7 "Thus no inheritance of the sons of Israel shall be transferred from tribe to tribe, for the sons of Israel shall each hold to the inheritance of the tribe of his fathers....9 "Thus no inheritance shall be transferred from one tribe to another tribe, for the tribes of the sons of Israel shall each hold to his own inheritance."


Deuteronomy 10:20 "You shall fear the LORD your God; you shall serve Him and cling to Him, and you shall swear by His name.

 

Comment: The Lxx uses the root verb kollao which means to join closely, to "glue together," to unite, to cling to, to adhere to, to cleave to, to come in close contact with. It was used in 1Cor 6:16 to describe the joining of oneself to a harlot. In Acts 9:26 it describes joining oneself to another as a disciple.


Deuteronomy 11:22 "For if you are careful to keep all this commandment which I am commanding you to do, to love the LORD your God, to walk in all His ways and hold fast (Lxx use the verb
proskollao) to Him,


Deuteronomy 13:4 "You shall follow the LORD your God and fear Him; and you shall keep His commandments, listen to His voice, serve Him, and cling to Him.

 

Comment: Lxx uses prostithemi meaning to add to something that is already in existence, of persons who are added to a group already existing, or who are attached to an individual, to whom they henceforth belong.


Deuteronomy 13:17 "Nothing from that which is put under the ban shall cling to (Lxx use the verb
proskollao)  your hand, in order that the LORD may turn from His burning anger and show mercy to you, and have compassion on you and make you increase, just as He has sworn to your fathers,


Deuteronomy 28:21 "The LORD will make the pestilence cling to (Lxx use the verb
proskollao) you until He has consumed you from the land where you are entering to possess it.


Deuteronomy 28:60 "He will bring back on you all the diseases of Egypt of which you were afraid, and they will cling to (Lxx uses the root verb
kollao) you.


Deuteronomy 30:20 by loving the LORD your God, by obeying His voice, and by holding fast to Him; for this is your life and the length of your days, that you may live in the land which the LORD swore to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give them."


Joshua 22:5 "Only be very careful to observe the commandment and the law which Moses the servant of the LORD commanded you, to love the LORD your God and walk in all His ways and keep His commandments and hold fast to (lxx = proskeimai = to lie near, adjacent to, joined to, abiding among) Him and serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul."


Joshua 23:8 "But you are to cling to  (Lxx use the verb
proskollao)  the LORD your God, as you have done to this day.


Joshua 23:12 "For if you ever go back and cling to (Lxx uses prostithemi meaning to add to something that is already in existence) the rest of these nations, these which remain among you, and intermarry with them, so that you associate with them and they with you,


Judges 18:22 When they had gone some distance from the house of Micah, the men who were in the houses near Micah's house assembled and overtook the sons of Dan.


Judges 20:42 Therefore, they turned their backs before the men of Israel toward the direction of the wilderness, but the battle overtook them while those who came out of the cities destroyed them in the midst of them.


45 The rest turned and fled toward the wilderness to the rock of Rimmon, but they caught 5,000 of them on the highways and overtook them at Gidom and killed 2,000 of them.


Ruth 1:14 And they lifted up their voices and wept again; and Orpah kissed her mother-in-law, but Ruth clung to her.
Ruth 2:8  Then Boaz said to Ruth, "Listen carefully, my daughter. Do not go to glean in another field; furthermore, do not go on from this one, but stay here with my maids.
21 Then Ruth the Moabitess said, "Furthermore, he said to me, 'You should stay close to my servants until they have finished all my harvest.'"
23 So she stayed close by the maids of Boaz in order to glean until the end of the barley harvest and the wheat harvest. And she lived with her mother-in-law.


1 Samuel 14:22 When all the men of Israel who had hidden themselves in the hill country of Ephraim heard that the Philistines had fled, even they also pursued them closely in the battle.


1 Samuel 31:2 The Philistines overtook Saul and his sons; and the Philistines killed Jonathan and Abinadab and Malchi-shua the sons of Saul.


2 Samuel 1:6 The young man who told him said, "By chance I happened to be on Mount Gilboa, and behold, Saul was leaning on his spear. And behold, the chariots and the horsemen pursued him closely.


2 Samuel 20:2 So all the men of Israel withdrew from following David and followed Sheba the son of Bichri; but the men of Judah remained steadfast to  (Lxx uses the root verb
kollao) their king, from the Jordan even to Jerusalem.


2 Samuel 23:10 He arose and struck the Philistines until his hand was weary and clung to  (Lxx use the verb
proskollao) the sword, and the LORD brought about a great victory that day; and the people returned after him only to strip the slain.


1 Kings 11:2 from the nations concerning which the LORD had said to the sons of Israel, "You shall not associate with them, nor shall they associate with you, for they will surely turn your heart away after their gods." Solomon held fast to these in love.

 

Comment: One of the saddest verses in the Bible in my opinion! The wisest man doing the most foolish thing! The Lxx uses the root verb kollao, indicating Solomon "stuck like glue" to these foreign women and their idolatrous gods turned his heart from the living God. Wow! If this could happen to Solomon, it could happen to any of us!  Remember 1Cor 10:12!


2 Kings 3:3 Nevertheless, he clung to (Lxx uses the root verb
kollao)  the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, which he made Israel sin; he did not depart from them.


2 Kings 5:27 "Therefore, the leprosy of Naaman shall cling to (Lxx uses the root verb
kollao) you and to your descendants forever." So he went out from his presence a leper as white as snow.


2 Kings 18:6 For he clung to (Lxx uses the root verb
kollao)  the LORD; he did not depart from following Him, but kept His commandments, which the LORD had commanded Moses.


1 Chronicles 10:2 The Philistines closely pursued Saul and his sons, and the Philistines struck down Jonathan, Abinadab and Malchi-shua, the sons of Saul.


Job 19:20 "My bone clings to my skin and my flesh, And I have escaped only by the skin of my teeth.


Job 29:10 The voice of the nobles was hushed, And their tongue stuck to their palate.


Job 31:7 "If my step has turned from the way, Or my heart followed my eyes, Or if any spot has stuck to (Lxx uses the root verb
kollao) my hands,


Job 38:38 When the dust hardens into a mass And the clods stick together?


Job 41:17 "They are joined (Lxx use the verb
proskollao) one to another; They clasp each other and cannot be separated.


Job 41:23 "The folds of his flesh are joined  (Lxx uses the root verb
kollao)  together, Firm on him and immovable.


Psalm 22:15 My strength is dried up like a potsherd, And my tongue cleaves to  (Lxx uses the root verb
kollao)  my jaws; And You lay me in the dust of death.


Psalm 44:25 For our soul has sunk down into the dust; Our body cleaves to  (Lxx uses the root verb
kollao) the earth.


Psalm 63:8 My soul clings to  (Lxx uses the root verb
kollao) You; Your right hand upholds me.


Psalm 101:3 I will set no worthless thing before my eyes; I hate the work of those who fall away; It shall not fasten its grip  (Lxx uses the root verb
kollao) on me.


Psalm 102:5 Because of the loudness of my groaning My bones cling to  (Lxx uses the root verb
kollao)  my flesh.


Psalm 119:25 My soul cleaves to  (Lxx uses the root verb
kollao) the dust; Revive me according to Your word.


Psalm 119:31 I cling to  (Lxx uses the root verb
kollao) Your testimonies; O LORD, do not put me to shame!


Psalm 137:6 May my tongue cling to  (Lxx uses the root verb
kollao)  the roof of my mouth If I do not remember you, If I do not exalt Jerusalem Above my chief joy.


Proverbs 18:24 A man of too many friends comes to ruin, But there is a friend who sticks closer than a brother.


Jeremiah 13:11 'For as the waistband clings to  (Lxx uses the root verb
kollao) the waist of a man, so I made the whole household of Israel and the whole household of Judah cling to  (Lxx uses the root verb kollao) Me,' declares the LORD, 'that they might be for Me a people, for renown, for praise and for glory; but they did not listen.'


Jeremiah 42:16 then the sword, which you are afraid of, will overtake you there in the land of Egypt; and the famine, about which you are anxious, will follow closely after you there in Egypt, and you will die there.


Lamentations 4:4 The tongue of the infant cleaves  (Lxx uses the root verb
kollao) To the roof of its mouth because of thirst; The little ones ask for bread, But no one breaks it for them.


Ezekiel 3:26 "Moreover, I will make your tongue stick (Lxx = sundeo = bind together) to the roof of your mouth so that you will be mute and cannot be a man who rebukes them, for they are a rebellious house.


Ezekiel 29:4 "I will put hooks in your jaws And make the fish of your rivers cling to(Lxx use the verb
proskollao) your scales. And I will bring you up out of the midst of your rivers, And all the fish of your rivers will cling to your scales.

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From Our Daily Bread...

THE first girl I ever kissed in public was named Ruth. Several hundred people watched as the Zeeland High School junior play reached the romantic moment between the leading man and woman. After the performance this comment filtered back to me from someone in the audience:

"That was rather a cool kiss."

The biblical book of Ruth, however, is anything but cool. The love and loyalty Ruth displayed for her mother-in-law, Naomi, bathes the story with warmth and tenderness. And the beauty of this Old Testament narrative is all the more striking set against the background of the time of the judges when moral debris clut­tered the landscape of Israel's early life in Canaan.

Ruth's love for her mother-in-law is only part of this love story, however. Boaz, Naomi's relative, exercises his right as kinsman-redeemer and takes Ruth to be his wife (Ruth 3-4). He brings into focus our Redeemer, Jesus, who purchases us with His blood, takes us into His family, and surrounds us with His unfailing love.

As objects of Christ's redeeming love, we sinners should never be reserved about expressing our love to Him. May it never be said of us in our relationship to Jesus that our love is cold and mechanical.- D J De Haan (Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved)

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Devotional from C H Spurgeon...

Orpah kissed her mother in law; but Ruth clave unto her

Both of them had an affection for Naomi, and therefore set out with her upon her return to the land of Judah. But the hour of test came; Naomi most unselfishly set before each of them the trials which awaited them, and bade them if they cared for ease and comfort to return to their Moabitish friends. At first both of them declared that they would cast in their lot with the Lord’s people; but upon still further consideration Orpah with much grief and a respectful kiss left her mother in law, and her people, and her God, and went back to her idolatrous friends, while Ruth with all her heart gave herself up to the God of her mother in law. It is one thing to love the ways of the Lord when all is fair, and quite another to cleave to them under all discouragements and difficulties. The kiss of outward profession is very cheap and easy, but the practical cleaving to the Lord, which must show itself in holy decision for truth and holiness, is not so small a matter.

How stands the case with us, is our heart fixed upon Jesus, is the sacrifice bound with cords to the horns of the altar? Have we counted the cost, and are we solemnly ready to suffer all worldly loss for the Master’s sake? The after gain will be an abundant recompense, for Egypt’s treasures are not to be compared with the glory to be revealed.

Orpah is heard of no more; in glorious ease and idolatrous pleasure her life melts into the gloom of death; but Ruth lives in history and in heaven, for grace has placed her in the noble line whence sprung the King of kings. Blessed among women shall those be who for Christ’s sake can renounce all; but forgotten and worse than forgotten shall those be who in the hour of temptation do violence to conscience and turn back unto the world. O that this morning we may not be content with the form of devotion, which may be no better than Orpah’s kiss, but may the Holy Spirit work in us a cleaving of our whole heart to our Lord Jesus. (Spurgeon, C. H.  Morning and evening) (See also Surgeon's sermon on Ruth 1:16: Deciding for God)

 

Ruth 1:15 Then she said, "Behold, your sister-in-law has gone back to her people and her gods; return after your sister-in-law." (NASB: Lockman)
KJV: And she said, Behold, thy sister in law is gone back unto her people, and unto her gods: return thou after thy sister in law.
NLT: "See," Naomi said to her, "your sister-in-law has gone back to her people and to her gods. You should do the same."  (
NLT - Tyndale House)
Young's Literal: And she saith, 'Lo, thy sister-in-law hath turned back unto her people, and unto her god, turn thou back after thy sister-in-law.'
Septuagint (LXX):  kai eipen (3SAAI) Noemin pros Routh idou anestrepsen e sunnumphos sou pros laon autes kai pros tous theous autes epistrapheti (APM) de kai su opiso ten sunnumphou sou 

English of Septuagint: And Noemin said to Ruth, Behold, thy sister-in-law has returned to her people and to her gods; turn now thou also after thy sister-in-law.

SHE SAID BEHOLD YOUR SISTER-IN-LAW HAS GONE BACK: (Ps 36:3; 125:5; Zeph 1:6; Mt 13:20;21 Heb 10:38; 1Jn 2:19)

Orpah may well be an OT example of

"the one on whom seed was sown on the rocky places, this is the man who hears the word, and immediately receives it with joy yet he has no firm root in himself, but is only temporary, and when affliction or persecution arises because of the word, immediately he falls away." (Mt 13:20;21)

The writer of Hebrews adds

MY RIGHTEOUS ONE SHALL LIVE BY FAITH; AND IF HE SHRINKS BACK, MY SOUL HAS NO PLEASURE IN HIM. (see note Hebrews 10:38)

And finally John writes

They went out from us, but they were not really of us; for if they had been of us, they would have remained with us; but they went out, in order that it might be shown that they all are not of us. (1Jn 2:19)

TO HER PEOPLE AND HER GODS: (Jdg 11:24)

Note not "god" but "gods" indicating the Orpah's polytheistic paganism practiced in Moab with the despicable idol Chemosh being the chief Moabite false "deity", one so vile that its "worship" was associated with child sacrifice (2Ki 3:27), which God says was tantamount to sacrificing one's children "to the demons." (Ps 106:37)

Up to this point in the narrative, one might have assumed that both daughters had forsaken idolatry and become Yahweh worshipers. Now however it seems clear that Oprah's choice of homeland is a choice for her "gods" and not the one true, living God. Set against the background of Orpah’s choice, the courage and beauty of Ruth’s declaration is all the more poignant. Naomi's assessment is that Orpah has returned to idolatry (cf Nu 21:29). As Orpah goes back, she walks off the pages of Scripture into silence and into oblivion, never to heard from again.

One ship sails East
And another West,
By the selfsame winds that blow;
'Tis the set of the sails,
And not the gales,
That tells them the way to go!

Like the winds of the sea
Are the waves of Time,
As we voyage along through life;
'Tis the set of the soul
That determines the goal,
And not the calm or the strife!

            McGee, Ruth and Esther: Women of faith

RETURN AFTER YOUR SISTER-IN-LAW: (Jos 24:15;19 2Sa 15:19;20 2Ki 2:2; Lk 14:26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33)

"You should do the same" (NLT)

"Go home, too; follow your sister–in–law" (NJB)

This is the third time Naomi commands Ruth to return to her people! This scene reminds one of the dying words of Joshua who called for a decision saying

"choose for yourselves today whom you will serve: whether the gods which your fathers served which were beyond the River, or the gods of the Amorites in whose land you are living; but as for me and my house, we will serve the LORD." (Jos 24:15)

Jesus call to discipleship echoes a similar demand

If anyone comes to Me, and does not hate his own father and mother and wife and children and brothers and sisters, yes, and even his own life, he cannot be My disciple." (Lk 14:26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33)

 

Ruth 1:16 But Ruth said, "Do not urge me to leave you or turn back from following you; for where * you go, I will go, and where you lodge, I will lodge. Your people shall be my people, and your God, my God (NASB: Lockman)

BBE: But Ruth said, Give up requesting me to go away from you, or to go back without you: for where you go I will go; and where you take your rest I will take my rest; your people will be my people, and your God my God.
GWT
: But Ruth answered, "Don't force me to leave you. Don't make me turn back from following you. Wherever you go, I will go, and wherever you stay, I will stay. Your people will be my people, and your God will be my God. (
GWT)
KJV
: And Ruth said, Entreat me not to leave thee, or to return from following after thee: for whither thou goest, I will go; and where thou lodgest, I will lodge: thy people shall be my people, and thy God my God:
NLT: But Ruth replied, "Don't ask me to leave you and turn back. I will go wherever you go and live wherever you live. Your people will be my people, and your God will be my God. (
NLT - Tyndale House)
Young's Literal: And Ruth saith, 'Urge me not to leave thee -- to turn back from after thee; for whither thou goest I go, and where thou lodgest I lodge; thy people is my people, and thy God my God.

Septuagint (LXX): eipen (3SAAI) de Routh me apantesai (2SAMM) emoi tou katalipein (AAN) se e apostrepsai opisthen sou hoti su opou ean poreuthes poreusomai kai ou ean aulisthes aulisthesomai o laos sou laos mou kai o theos sou theos mou 

English of Septuagint: And Ruth said, Intreat me not to leave thee, or to return from following thee; for whithersoever thou goest, I will go, and wheresoever thou lodgest, I will lodge; thy people shall be my people, and thy God my God

BUT RUTH SAID DO NOT URGE TO LEAVE OR TURN BACK: (2Ki 2:2, 3, 4, 5, 6; Lk 24:28;29 Acts 21:13)

"Do not ask me to abandon or forsake you!" (NAB)

"Stop urging me to abandon you and to leave you!" (NET)

"Do not urge me to desert you by turning away from you" (Berkley)

"Do not press me to leave you and to stop going with you" (NJB)

"Don't force me to leave you. Don't make me turn back from following you" (GWT).

But Ruth - A dramatic contrast marking a change in direction of her life from godless, hopeless, pagan Gentile to one grafted into Israel and eventually in the lineage of the Messiah. Whenever you observe a "but" (or other words associated with contrast, such as yet, nevertheless, on the other hand, etc) pause and ask what is the author contrasting? (See more discussion of contrasts) There are over 4000 uses of this little conjunction "but" in the Bible and all of them are important. Howard Hendricks adds that...

contrasts are always important in Scripture. They indicate a change of direction. ...What does the word but force me to do? To go back to the preceding context... The flip side of comparison is contrast—things that are unlike. We could say that in Bible study, as in love, opposites attract. At least, they attract the eye of the observant reader. There are several ways the biblical writers signify contrast. The word but is a clue that a change of direction is coming. (Living by the Book. Chicago: Moody Press)

Vance Havner quipped that

a good woman is the best thing on earth. Women were last at the cross and first at the open tomb. The church owes a debt to her faithful women which she can never estimate, to say nothing of the debt we owe in our homes to godly wives and mothers.

Examples of
OT Conversions

Individuals who were converted from an idolatrous Gentile background include such major figures as Abram (Genesis 12), Naaman the leper (2Kings 5:9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19), Rahab (Jos 2:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, See especially Scarlet Thread in Jos 2:18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24), Ruth (Ru 1:16, 17, 18), and the sailors on board the ship from Joppa to Tarshish (Jonah 1:16). Examples of national or corporate conversion include Judah in the time of Asa (2Chr 14:2, 3, 4; 15:12, 13, 14, 15) and the city of Nineveh (Jonah 3:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10).

ENTREAT ME NOT TO LEAVE THEE
by Fanny Crosby

Entreat me not to leave thee,
My heart goes with thee now;
Why turn my footsteps homeward?
No friend so dear as thou!
Thy heart has borne my sorrow,
And I have wept for thine;
And now how can I leave thee?
Oh, let thy lot be mine.

Refrain
Entreat me not to leave thee,
Entreat me not to leave thee,
Or to return from following after thee;
For where thou goest I will go,
And where thou lodgest I will lodge;
Thy people shall be my people,
And thy God my God,
Thy people shall be my people,
And thy God my God.


I’ll follow where thou leadest;
My love will cling to thee;
And where thy head is pillowed,
My nightly rest shall be;
Thy birthplace and thy kindred
I’ll cherish like my own;
Thy God shall be my refuge,
I’ll worship at His throne.
Refrain

Where death’s cold hand shall find thee,
There let my eyelids close,
And, in the grave beside thee,
This mortal frame repose:
Oh, do not now entreat me;
No friend so dear as thou;
My heart would break in anguish
If I should leave thee now.
Refrain

FOR WHERE YOU GO, I WILL GO (2Sa 15:21; Mt 8:19; Jn 13:37; Rev 14:4):

In effect, Ruth was forsaking all that she had ever known to follow the one true God. She was following in the footsteps of Abraham, who had forsaken his family and his homeland in response to God’s command (Ge 12:1, 2, 3, 4, He 11:8, 9 -see notes He 11:8; 9). 

Although not as famous, Scripture records the commitment of another foreigner named Ittai the Gittite a Philistine was in a group of 600 men from Gath who had come to the side of David in Jerusalem. As King David fled Jerusalem, this group of 600 marched by David who then addressed Ittai saying

"Why will you also go with us? Return and remain with the king, for you are a foreigner and also an exile; return to your own place. You came only yesterday, and shall I today make you wander with us, while I go where I will? Return and take back your brothers; mercy and truth be with you." And here although the context is not the same, we see Ittai's loyalty to David for he "answered the king and said, "As the LORD lives, and as my lord the king lives, surely wherever my lord the king may be, whether for death or for life, there also your servant will be." Therefore David said to Ittai, "Go and pass over." So Ittai the Gittite passed over with all his men and all the little ones (their families) who were with him." (2Sa 15:19, 20, 21, 22)

Later when David organized and numbered the army at Mahanaim, Ittai was given command of a third part of the force, and seems to have enjoyed equal rank with Joab and Abishai (2Sa 18:2,5,12).

Compare Ruth's famous commitment with Peter's profession -

"Lord, why can I not follow You right now? I will lay down my life for You." (Jn 13:37)

Peter however momentarily shrank back (Mt 26:75), but did eventually follow through, tradition teaching that he was crucified upside down (cf Lk 22:31,32).

WHERE YOU LODGE, I WILL LODGE:

Every place you go, I will go. Every place you live, I will live (ICB)

where you take your rest I will take my rest (BBE)

She did not know if she was going to a cottage or if she would even have a place to lay her head, so total was her sweet surrender. This is reminiscent of Jesus' reply to those professed a desire to follow Him.

A certain scribe came and said to Him "Teacher, I will follow You wherever You go." And Jesus said to him, "The foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have nests; but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay His head. (Mt 8:19, 20)

Ruth was willing to follow Naomi wherever it led!

YOUR PEOPLE SHALL BE MY PEOPLE: (Ruth 2:11; 12 Ps 45:10; Isa 14:1)

As Boaz reiterates in the next chapter, Ruth "left (her) father and (her) mother and the land of (her) birth, and came to a people that (she) did not previously know" (Ru 2:11-note) and sought refuge under the wings of "the LORD, the God of Israel" (Ru 2:12-note) Boaz's declaration implies that Ruth's parents were still alive, making her commitment to the "Chosen People" even more striking.

Ruth as a foreigner or “sojourner” was entitled to certain privileges such as the right to glean the harvest fields (Lv 19:10).

However, Ruth was not simply a foreigner, but a Moabite and the Law stated that no Moabite could “enter the assembly of the Lord...forever” (Dt 23:3) because of what the Moabites had done to Israel during the wilderness journey (Nu 22-25; Nu 31:15, 16).

Moabites were so abhorred that Jews were forbidden even to “seek their peace (or) their prosperity” (Dt. 23:6). Whether she was aware of this is unknown.

Henri Rossi...

her thoughts go farther than simple association with Israel; she identifies herself with the people, whatever their state might be, in order to belong to the God of Israel, the true God who does not change: “Thy people shall be my people, and thy God my God.”

YOUR GOD, MY GOD: (Jos 24:18; Da 2:47; 3:29; 4:37; Ho 13:4; 2Co 6:16;17, 18, 1Th 1:9-note)

Thy God, my God - Ruth makes this confession during the days of the judges when the majority of the "chosen people" chose to forsake the living God and cleave to dead idols.

Ruth's affirmation is similar to the picture of repentance among the Thessalonians who heard the gospel

For they themselves report about us (Paul, Silvanus, Timothy 1Th 1:1) what kind of a reception we had  with you and how you turned to God from idols to serve a living and true God (1Th 1:9-note)

Ruth's action of turning from the idols of Moab and unto Jehovah is an excellent illustration of the meaning of genuine Biblical repentance (click discussion)

It has been well said that faith is not only believing in spite of evidence but obeying in spite of the consequence. Ruth and Esther point the way to that kind of dynamic and exciting faith and all believers do well to emulate their excellent example. True faith is not based on empirical evidence but on divine assurance (He 11:1-note) and ''is the gift of God'' (Ep 2:8-note)

Alexander Maclaren characterize Ruth's words this way:

Put the sweet figure of the Moabitess beside the heroes of the Book of Judges, and we feel the contrast. But is there anything in its pages more truly heroic than her deed, as she turned her back on the blue hills of Moab, and chose the joyless lot of the widowed companion of a widow aged and poor, in a land of strangers, the enemies of her country and its gods? It is easier far to rush on the spears of the foe, amid the whirl and excitement of battle, than to choose with open eyes so dreary a lifelong path. The gentleness of a true woman covers a courage of the patient, silent sort, which, in its meek steadfastness, is nobler than the contempt of personal danger, which is vulgarly called bravery. It is harder to endure than to strike. The supreme type of heroic, as of all, virtue is Jesus Christ, whose gentleness was the velvet glove on the iron hand of an inflexible will. Of that best kind of heroes there are few brighter examples, even in the annals of the Church which numbers its virgin martyrs by the score, than this sweet figure of Ruth, as the eager vow comes from her young lips, which had already tasted sorrow, and were ready to drink its bitterest cup at the call of duty. She may well teach us to rectify our judgments, and to recognise the quiet heroism of many a modest life of uncomplaining suffering. Her example has a special message to women, and exhorts them to see to it that, in the cultivation of the so-called womanly excellence of gentleness, they do not let it run into weakness, nor, on the other hand, aim at strength, to the loss of meekness. The yielding birch tree, the 'lady of the woods,' bends in all its elastic branches and tossing ringlets of foliage to the wind; but it stands upright after storms that level oaks and pines. God's strength is gentle strength, and ours is like His when it is meek and lowly, like that of the 'strong Son of God.'...

How many hearts, since Ruth spoke her vow, have found in it the words that fitted their love best! How often they have been repeated by quivering lips, and heard as music by loving ears! How solemn, and even awful, is that perennial freshness of words which came hot and broken by tears, from lips that have long ago mouldered into dust! What has made them thus 'enduring for ever,' is that they express most purely the self-sacrifice which is essential to all noble love. The very inmost longing of love is to give itself away to the object beloved. It is not so much a desire to acquire as to bestow, or, rather, the antithesis of giving and receiving melts into one action which has a twofold motion,--one outwards, to give; one inwards, to receive. To love is to give one's self away, therefore all lesser givings are its food and delight; and, when Ruth threw herself on Naomi's withered breast, and sobbed out her passionate resolve, she was speaking the eternal language of love, and claiming Naomi for her own, in the very act of giving herself to Naomi, Human love should be the parent of all self-sacrificing as of all heroic virtues; and in our homes we do not live in love, as we ought, unless it leads us to the daily exercise of self-suppression and surrender, which is not felt to be loss but the natural expression of our love, which it would be a crime against it, and a pain to ourselves, to withhold. If Ruth's temper lived in our families, they would be true 'houses of God' and 'gates of heaven.' (Click)

How did Ruth know Naomi's God ("your God")? Clearly Naomi’s relationship with God had had an impact on Ruth. The application is clear -- Can people look at your life, as Ruth looked at Naomi’s, and say "I want your God to be my God!"?

Our trust in God, and turning towards Him in tough times (as exemplified by Naomi who still blesses/prays for them in the name of Jehovah - Ru 1:8, 9), will often be the very thing that draws others to the Lord. Let’s be the kind of persons who draw others to us, and through our friendship, to our God.

Spurgeon draws out this application

"This was a very brave, outspoken confession of faith. Please to notice that it was made by a woman, a young woman, a poor woman, a widow woman, and a foreigner. Remembering all that, I should think there is no condition of gentleness, or of obscurity, or of poverty, or of sorrow, which should prevent anybody from making an open confession of allegiance to God when faith in the Lord Jesus Christ has been exercised. If that is your experience, then whoever you may be, you will find an opportunity, somewhere or other, of declaring that you are on the Lord’s side." (Click Surgeon's sermon on Ruth 1:16: Deciding for God)

Looking at these events from a slightly different light, the events suggest that ten years of Naomi’s "compromise" in Moab was not accompanied by Ruth confessing the God of Israel. Yet as soon as Naomi says, "I’m going back to the God of Israel and put my fate in His hands" Ruth stands with her. Do you see an application to your own life? If we think we will persuade our friends or relatives to come to Jesus by our compromise, we are mistaken. We may be very sincere, albeit sincerely mistaken. Only a Spirit emboldened stand for Jesus is what we must exhibit.

Spurgeon said

"Ah! you will never win any soul to the right by a compromise with the wrong. It is decision for Christ and his truth that has the greatest power in the family, and the greatest power in the world, too."

Do you have unsaved family members? Most of us do.

The important lesson is to remember that you should not try to coerce or coax them into the kingdom by a watered down or compromised "Christian" message. Don't make the word of Christ, the word of the Cross void (empty) of its life giving power (1Cor 1:17, 18).

Maclaren adds that...

We hear in Ruth's words also that forsaking of all things which is an essential of all true religion. We have said that it was difficult to separate, in the words, the effects of love to Naomi from those of adoption of Naomi's faith. Apparently Ruth's adhesion to the worship of Jehovah was originally due to her love for her mother-in-law. It is in order to be one with her in all things that she says, 'Thy God shall be my God.' And it was because Jehovah was Naomi's God that Ruth chose Him for hers. But whatever the origin of her faith, it was genuine and robust enough to bear the strain of casting Chemosh and the gods of Moab behind her, and setting herself with full purpose of heart to seek the Lord. Abandoning them was digging an impassable gulf between herself and all her past, with its friendships, loves, and habits. She is one of the first, and not the least noble, of the long series of those who 'suffer the loss of all things, and count them but dung, that they may win' God for their dearest treasure. We have seen how, in her, human love wrought self-sacrifice. But it was not human love alone that did it. The cord that drew her was twisted of two strands, and her love to Naomi melted into her love of Naomi's God. Blessed they who are drawn to the knowledge and love of the fountain of all love in heaven by the sweetness of the characters of His representatives in their homes, and who feel that they have learned to know God by seeing Him in dear ones, whose tenderness has revealed His, and whose gracious words have spoken of His grace! If Ruth teaches us that we must give up all, in order truly to follow the Lord, the way by which she came to her religion may teach us how great are the possibilities, and consequently the duties, of Christians to the members of their own families. If we had more elder women like Naomi, we should have more younger women like Ruth. (Bolding added) (Click)

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Committed To Serve

Wherever you go, I will go; . . . your people shall be my people, and your God, my God. —Ruth 1:16

The best-known words of Ruth are most often heard at weddings, even though they were spoken by a grieving young widow to her mother-in-law, Naomi. Ruth said, "Wherever you go, I will go; and wherever you lodge, I will lodge; your people shall be my people, and your God, my God" (see  note Ruth 1:16).

Ruth had no legal or cultural responsibility to Naomi, who also was a widow and had no means of support. No one would have blamed Ruth for staying with her own people in Moab where the chances of remarriage were greater.

Naomi even urged Ruth to stay, but Ruth was determined to go with her to Judah, and to follow her God. Ruth's unselfish devotion was considered worthy of praise. Boaz, Ruth's future husband, told her, "It has been fully reported to me, all that you have done for your mother-in-law since the death of your husband . . . . The Lord repay your work" (Ru 2:11, 12-
Ru2:11; 12).

Promises spoken at a wedding are full of hope and meaning, but Ruth's words have survived the centuries because of her unwavering commitment to God and a person in need. She points us to the value of loving sacrifice for the Lord, and to His rich blessing on all who give themselves unselfishly to others. —David C. McCasland (Our Daily Bread - Committed To Serve)

Searching to know life's true meaning?
You'll find it in only one way:
Serving the Lord with commitment
And living for others each day. —Branon

A life filled with love for the Lord
and for others is a fulfilling life.

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Choices (Ruth 1:11-18) - A friend once told me: "Joe, I’ve come to realize that my life is not made by the dreams that I dream but by the choices that I make."

Count on it: You will have plenty of choices in life. And usually they boil down to a choice between "What do I want?" and "What’s best for others?"

After their husbands died, Ruth and Orpah were faced with a strategic choice (Ru 1:11-
note).
Their mother-in-law Naomi told them they should go home. She didn’t want them to feel any obligation to her, in spite of the fact that her loss was far greater. She had lost her own husband and both of her sons.

Orpah and Ruth could either go home and start a new life, or stay with Naomi to help her in a time of great need. They knew very well that the latter choice would probably mean living in a foreign land as widows for the rest of their lives, since few Jewish men would want to marry a foreign woman.

Ruth chose to serve the needs of Naomi rather than to serve herself. Orpah chose to leave Naomi for what she thought would be a better life. Ruth went on to play a significant role in Jewish history and became an ancestor of Jesus (Mt 1:5). (Our Daily Bread - Choices)

Make the best choice. Choose to serve others. —Joe Stowell

When we’re involved in serving
And meeting others’ needs,
We’re imitating Jesus
In thoughts and words and deeds. —Fitzhugh

Serve God by serving others.

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Thy people shall be my people, and thy God my God.

The Book of Ruth stands in striking contrast to the Book of Judges, and especially to the last five chapters thereof. The story which it tells illustrates the truth that God has never left Himself without witness. It is an idyll of faith-fulness amid infidelity. It has, moreover, the value of being a link in the chain of history, showing how God moved forward to the central things of His redeeming pur­pose through faithful souls. The choice of Ruth, here recorded, in its devotion and in the very manner in which she expressed it, has become enshrined in the heart of humanity. With constant recurrence her language has been employed to express the fidelity of love. The younger woman found her heart closely knit to the older one, and she declined to be severed from her in the pathway that lay before her, choosing to share whatever the future might have in store for the one upon whom her love was set. While all this is true, it does not touch the deepest note. It is patent that Ruth's love for Naomi was created by the new faith which she had learned from her.

The deepest note in her expression of devotion was: "Thy God, my God." It is a beautiful illustration of how a quiet, strong fidelity to God produces faith in Him on the part of others. Happy indeed are we, if our life is such as to compel some soul to say, "Thy God shall be my God."

This is what Naomi had done for Ruth. This result is never obtained by the witness of the lips, save as that is vindicated and reinforced by the witness of life. (Morgan, G. C. Life Applications from Every Chapter of the Bible)

 

Ruth 1:17 "Where you die, I will die, and there I will be buried. Thus may the LORD do to me, and worse, if anything but death parts you and me."  (NASB: Lockman)
GWT: Wherever you die, I will die, and I will be buried there with you. May the LORD strike me down if anything but death separates you and me!"  (GWT)
ICB
: And where you die, I will die. And there I will be buried. I ask the Lord to punish me terribly if I do not keep this promise: Only death will separate us. (
ICB: Nelson)
KJV: Where thou diest, will I die, and there will I be buried: the LORD do so to me, and more also, if ought but death part thee and me.
NLT: I will die where you die and will be buried there. May the LORD punish me severely if I allow anything but death to separate us!"  (
NLT - Tyndale House)
Young's Literal
: Where thou diest I die, and there I am buried; thus doth Jehovah to me, and thus doth He add -- for death itself doth part between me and thee.'
Septuagint (LXX):   kai ou ean apothanes (2SAAS) apothanoumai (1SFMI) kakei taphesomai (1SFMI) tade poiesai moi kurios kai tade prostheie  (3SAAO) hoti thanatos diastelei (3SFAI)  ana meson emou kai sou 

English of Septuagint: And wherever thou die, I will die, and there will I be buried: the Lord do so to me, and more also, if I leave thee, for death only shall divide between me and thee

WHERE YOU DIE I WILL DIE THERE I WILL BE BURIED:

Ruth is identifying totally with Naomi, which is a perfect picture of covenant wherein two become one and co-mingle their lives. But remember that commitment comes with a cost.

THUS MAY THE LORD DO TO ME AND WORSE IF ANYTHING BUT DEATH PARTS YOU AND ME:

“thus the Lord will do to me and thus he will add—certainly death will separate me and you.” (NET)

"I ask the Lord to punish me terribly if I do not keep this promise: Only death will separate us" (ICB)

LORD do to me and worse - This is a familiar oath formula  (1Sa 3:17; 25:22; 2Sa 3:9;35 19:13; 1Ki 2:23; 19:2; 20:10; 2Ki 6:31). The speaker calls for a terrible fate to befall someone if the oath is not fulfilled. Ruth therefore pronounces a curse upon herself, elevating the preceding promise to a formal, unconditional level. If she is not faithful to her promise, she agrees to become an object of divine judgment. (Acts 20:24)

Ruth invoked the covenant name of God, Jehovah, for the first and only time in this self-imprecation. Her commitment of no separation even by death may refer to the Israelite custom of burying members of the same family in a family tomb.

Ruth is a good Old Testament illustration of total surrender similar to that seen with the Apostle Paul who said

I count all things to be loss in view of the surpassing value of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord, for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and count them but rubbish in order that I may gain Christ (see notes Php 3:7; 3:8)

One lesson from this section is that the people of God are spiritually defined. Ruth is a daughter of Moab, an "unnatural branch" (Ro 11:20, 21-note, Ro 11:22, 23, 24 -note) and yet becomes an

heir of the righteousness which is according to faith. (He 11:7-note, cp Ga 3:7, 29, Ro 4:11-note, Ro 8:17-note)

Paul emphasized that

he is not a Jew who is one outwardly; neither is circumcision that which is outward in the flesh. But he is a Jew who is one inwardly; and circumcision is that which is of the heart, by the Spirit, not by the letter; and his praise is not from men, but from God. (Ro 2:28, 29-notes)

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Devotional from Today in the Word

One of the most delightful and endearing stories in the last decade is Driving Miss Daisy. It’s the story of a friendship that develops over a twenty-to thirty-year period between a man and a woman. What makes the story so touching is that this is a totally improbable relationship! Hoke Colburn is a chauffeur; Daisy Werthan is a woman who does not want a chauffeur. He is black; she is white. He is poor; she is wealthy. He is a Christian; she is Jewish. He is illiterate; she is educated and well-read. He is warm and friendly; she is cold and crotchety. He is “the hired help”; she is “the boss.” And yet by the end of the story, Miss Daisy says, “Hoke, you’re my best friend.”

We may be tempted to dismiss such an unlikely friendship as mere fantasy; yet the Scriptures show us that such relationships are possible. Consider the Old Testament book of Ruth. Despite cultural, religious and generational differences, despite economic hardship, tragedy, and the age-old “in-law” factor, these two women--Ruth and Naomi--developed a close relationship marked by genuine concern. A number of factors contribute to their closeness.

First, they spent a lot of time together (Ru 1:4-note). Good relationships always take time to develop.

Second, their relationship was marked by a vital spirituality (Ru 1:6, 8, 9, 13, 16, 17, 20, 21, see notes Ru 1:6, 1:8, 1:9, 13, 16, 17, 20, 21; Ru 2:20-note). It is even possible that Naomi led Ruth to faith in Yahweh! (Today in the Word)

 

Ruth 1:18 When she saw that she was determined to go with her, she said no more to her. (NASB: Lockman)
GWT: When Naomi saw that Ruth was determined to go with her, she ended the conversation.  (GWT)
KJV: When she saw that she was stedfastly minded to go with her, then she left speaking unto her.
Young's Literal: And she seeth that she is strengthening herself to go with her, and she ceaseth to speak unto her;
Septuagint (LXX):   idousa (AAPFSN) de Noemin hoti krataioutai (3SPPI) aute tou poreuesthai met' autes ekopasen (3SAAI)  tou lalesai (AAN)  pros auten eti 

English of Septuagint: And Noemin seeing that she was determined to go with her, ceased to speak to her any more

WHEN SHE SAW THAT SHE WAS DETERMINED: (Acts 21:14)

"She had made herself strong"

"she is strengthening herself to go with her" (Young's Literal)

"she persisted in,"

"strong in her purpose" (BBE)

"had made up her mind" (NLT)

"she was steadfastly minded" (KJV)

The Hebrew verb for determined means to stiffen one's self firmly upon a thing which pictures Ruth as strong in her resolve and steadfast in her determination not to go back to her own country, but to go forward with Naomi to the degree that nothing could move her from her firm purpose of mind.

Paul when he had counted

all things as loss in view of the surpassing value of knowing Christ Jesus" (see note Philippians 3:8), determined "one thing I do: forgetting what lies behind and reaching forward to what lies ahead, I press on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus. (see notes Philippians 3:13, 3:14)

Women and men of strength of character are people of determination and focus. May we all be challenged and motivated by their godly examples to be likewise.

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In a devotional from Our Daily Bread we read:

Oh, that men would give thanks to the Lord for His goodness --Psalm 107:8-note

One of the most beautiful confessions of love in all of literature is the one Ruth made to Naomi. In vowing to return to Israel with her, Ruth pledged, "Wherever you go, I will go; and wherever you lodge, I will lodge; your people shall be my people, and your God, my God. Where you die, I will die, and there will I be buried" (see note Ruth 1:16-17).

But suppose Naomi had said to herself, "Ruth's just a gold digger. What she really wants is to get into Israel to marry a wealthy Hebrew. I'm just her passport in."

If Naomi had doubted Ruth's good intentions and rejected her kindness, she would have lost out on blessings she never could have imagined.

But that's exactly what we do when we fail to trust God's goodness. We stop believing He will do what is best for us. And as the saying goes, once the well is poisoned, all the water is contaminated.

James 1:16, 17-
notes states, "Do not be deceived . . . . Every perfect gift is from above, and comes down from the Father." Once we doubt God's goodness, some of His best gifts--like trials that help us to mature--will seem like bad ones.

Don't doubt God's goodness and poison the wellspring of blessing He has for you. --H W Robinson
(Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved)

Drink deep of God's goodness, His faithfulness too,
Leave no room for doubting and fear;
His Word is the Water of Life pure and true,
Refreshing and cooling and clear. --Hess

We poison the well
when we don't think well of God's goodness.

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Johnstown Flood - Your people shall be my people, and your God, my God. —Ruth 1:16

On May 31, 1889, a massive rainstorm filled Lake Conemaugh in Pennsylvania until its dam finally gave way. A wall of water 40 feet high traveling at 40 mph rushed down the valley toward the town of Johnstown. The torrent picked up buildings, animals, and human beings and sent them crashing down the spillway. When the lake had emptied itself, debris covered 30 acres, and 2,209 people were dead.

At first, stunned by the loss of property and loved ones, survivors felt hopeless. But later, community leaders gave speeches about how local industry and homes could be rebuilt. This acted like a healing balm, and the survivors energetically got to work. Johnstown was rebuilt and today is a thriving town with a population of approximately 28,000.

The Bible tells us that when Naomi despaired over the loss of her husband and sons, her daughter-in-law Ruth refused to leave her. Instead, Ruth focused on God, her relationships, and the future. God rewarded her faith by providing for them and making Ruth an ancestor of Jesus Christ (Matt. 1:5-16).

After a tragic loss, we should look at the resources and relationships that remain and trust God to use them. This can inspire the hope of rebuilding a new life. — Dennis Fisher (Our Daily Bread - Johnstown Flood)

Beyond the losses of this life
That cause us to despair
New hope is born within our heart
Because our God is there. —D. De Haan

No one is hopeless whose hope is in God.

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Spurgeon applies these truths 

"O you dear young friends who want to be Christians, how glad we are when we see that you are steadfastly minded to go with the people of God! There are so many who are quickly hot and quickly cold,—soon excited towards good things, and almost as speedily their ardor cools, and they go back into the world. Do ask the Lord to make you steadfastly minded. This is one of the best frames of mind for any of us to be in."

TO GO WITH HER SHE SAID NO MORE TO HER:

"she ended the conversation." (GWT)

"she stopped urging her" (NIV)

The Hebrew means “she ceased speaking to her” not implying that Naomi was completely silent but that she stopped trying to convince her to go back to Moab.

Biblical Illustrator suggest an application regarding Naomi's actions:

"After proof and trial made of their fidelity we are to trust our brethren, without any further suspicion. Not to try before we trust is want of wisdom; not to trust after we have tried is want of charity. The goldsmith must purify the dross and ore from the gold, but he must be wary lest he makes waste of good metal if over-curious in too often refining. We may search and sound the sincerity of our brethren, but after good experience made of their uprightness we must take heed lest by continual sifting and proving them we offend a weak Christian."

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