Amplified: And He has put all things under His feet and has appointed Him the universal and supreme Head of the church [a headship exercised throughout the church], (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
NLT: And God has put all things under the authority of Christ, and He gave Him this authority for the benefit of the church. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: God has placed everything under the power of Christ and has set Him up as head of everything for the Church. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: And all things He put in subjection under His feet, and Him He gave as Head over all things to the Church, (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: and all things He did put under his feet, and did give Him -- head over all things to the assembly
AND HE PUT ALL THINGS IN SUBJECTION UNDER HIS FEET: kai panta hupetaxen (3SAAI) hupo tous podas autou, : (Genesis 3:15; Psalms 8:6, 7, 8; 91:13; 1Corinthians 15:25, 26, 27; Hebrews 2:8)
God the Father put all things in subject under the feet of Jesus, the "idea of placing all created things under the sovereignty of Christ." (Salmond)
Wood - The verb hupotasso refers not only to the supremacy of Christ but also to the subjection of all things to him.
Put in subjection (5293) (hupotasso [word study] from hupo = under + tasso = arrange in orderly manner) means literally to place under in an orderly fashion. Appropriate to the present context hupotasso as used in secular Greek was a military figure meaning to line up under, place or rank under. The aorist tense speaks of an effective action in the past. When did this subjection occur? Paul says it is after Christ was resurrected and seated at the right hand of the Father. In the active voice (God is the subject and one produces the action) hupotasso means to subject, bring under firm control, or subordinate. The indicative mood simply means that this was an actual event. It really happened in time and eternity. God the Father subjected all things to the authority of God the Son.
Hupotasso meant that troop divisions were to be arranged in a military fashion under the command of the leader. In this state of subordination they were now subject to the orders of their commander. Thus, it speaks of the subjection of one individual under or to another. Hupotasso was also used to describe the arrangement of military implements on a battlefield in order that one might carry out effective warfare!
Hupotasso - 38x in 31v - Luke 2:51; 10:17, 20; Rom 8:7, 20; 10:3; 13:1, 5; 1 Cor 14:32, 34; 15:27f; 16:16; Eph 1:22; 5:21, 24; Phil 3:21; Col 3:18; Titus 2:5, 9; 3:1; Heb 2:5, 8; 12:9; Jas 4:7; 1 Pet 2:13, 18; 3:1, 5, 22; 5:5. NAS = put in subjection(5), subject(16), subjected(7), subjecting(1), subjection(4), submissive(3), submit(2).
All (3956) (pas) means all without exception.
The truth in this verse had its germination some two thousand years prior to the Crucifixion, Burial and Resurrection of Christ, Moses recording God's decree of defeat (and subjection) of Satan...
Under (5259) (hupo) means literally in or into a position below or beneath something. The common Greek term frequently meant not simply to be beneath but to be totally under the power, authority, and control of something or someone. Adam lost his headship over Creation when he sinned. Christ was made Head over all Creation
Feet (4228) (pous) To put or subdue under one's feet means to make subject to someone, an allusion to the ancient manner of treading down or putting the foot on the necks of vanquished enemies as Paul emphasizes the certainty of God's ultimate victory over Satan writing...
Writing to the Corinthians Paul explained that the Lord Jesus Christ...
AND GAVE HIM AS HEAD OVER ALL THINGS TO THE CHURCH: kai auton edoken (3SAAI) kephalen huper panta te ekklesia: (Eph 4:15,16; 1Corinthians 11:3; Colossians 1:8; 2:10,19) (Ep 3:21; Matthew 16:18; Acts 20:28; 1Timothy 3:15; Hebrews 12:22, 23, 24)
Gave Him - Jamieson writes "The Greek order is emphatic: “him He gave as Head over all things to the Church.” Had it been anyone save HIM, her Head, it would not have been the boon it is to the Church."
Wuest - Christ is therefore God’s gift to the Church. He as Head over all things and as Head of the Church is a love gift of God the Father to the Church.
Head (2776) (kephale) speaks of authority and was commonly applied to many people in authority, but to none without governing authority (king of Egypt called head, general of army = head, Roman emperor = head). Christ is over them all over the church.
Wiersbe - Because we are believers, we are in the church, which is Christ’s body—and He is the Head. This means that there is a living connection between you and Christ. Physically speaking, the head controls the body and keeps the body functioning properly. Injure certain parts of the brain and you handicap or paralyze corresponding parts of the body. Christ is our spiritual Head. Through the Spirit, we are united to Him as the members of His body. This means that we share His resurrection, ascension, and exaltation. (Paul will amplify this later.) We too are seated, in the heavenlies (Eph. 2:6), and all things are under our feet.
Over (5228) (huper) refers to a degree which is beyond that of a compared scale of extent. It means more than, to a greater degree than, beyond, over and above, beyond. Adam lost his headship over Creation when he sinned, Christ was made Head over all Creation
All (3956) (pas) all without exception. Paul refers to the cosmic rule of Christ and implies that Christ is sovereign Head over all things.
Church (1577) (ekklesia from ek = out + kaleo = call) means literally the called-out ones. It was used in secular Greek of the assembly of citizens called out to transact city business. “Body of called out individuals” refers to the invisible Church, composed of only saved individuals. There are many individuals sitting each Sunday morning in church (a building) who sadly have never received Christ as the Head of His body the mystical church (a living spiritually dynamic organism).
John Walvoord in his series in Bibliotheca Sacra on "The Present Work of Christ" writes the following summary regarding the church...
Moule on the church - This great word appears here in its highest reference, the Company of human beings “called out” (as the word Ecclesia implies) from the fallen world into vital union with the glorified Christ. The word occurs nine times in this Epistle (here, Eph 3:10, 21 5:23, 24, 25, 27, 29, 32) and always in the same high connection. Cp. for parallels Col. 1:18, 24; Heb. 12:23; and, in a measure, Acts 20:28; 1 Cor. 15:9. As it stands here, the word rises above the level of visibility and external organization, and has to do supremely with direct spiritual relations between the Lord and the believing Company. In is, in fact, (see Eph 5:32-33), “the Bride, the Lamb’s Wife,” of the Revelation, only not as yet manifested in bridal splendour. It is “the called, justified, and glorified,” of Ro 8:30; “the Church of the Firstborn,” of Heb. 12:23; “the royal priesthood, the people of possession,” of 1Peter 2:9. All other meanings of the word Church are derived and modified from this, but this must not be modified by them. “The Church of Christ, which we properly term His body mystical, can be but one … a body mystical, because the mystery of their conjunction is removed altogether from sense. Whatsoever we read in Scripture concerning the endless love and saving mercy which God shows to His Church, the only proper subject thereof is this Church. Concerning this flock it is that our Lord and Saviour hath promised, ‘I give unto them eternal life, and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand.’ They who are of this Society have such marks and notes of distinction from all others as are not objects unto our sense; only unto God who sees their hearts … they are clear and manifest” (Hooker, Eccles. Polity, III. 1.)
F B Meyer writes that...
Amplified: Which is His body, the fullness of Him Who fills all in all [for in that body lives the full measure of Him Who makes everything complete, and Who fills everything everywhere with Himself]. (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
NLT: And the church is his body; it is filled by Christ, Who fills everything everywhere with his presence. (NLT - Tyndale House)
Phillips: for the Church is his body, and in that body lives fully the one Who fills the whole wide universe. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: which is his body, the fulness of Him Who is filling the all in all,
WHICH IS HIS BODY: hetis estin (3SPAI) to soma autou: (Ep 2:16; 4:4,12; 5:23-32; Romans 13:5; 1Corinthians 12:12-27; Colossians 1:18,24; 3:15)
Which - Referring to the Church, Christ's mystical Body.
Body (4983) (soma) refers to an organized whole made up of parts and members. Christ’s mystical body, His church describes the relationship of Christians to Christ the Head, the head being the vital organic center of the whole body."
It is interesting to observe that Paul uses a variety of terms to describe the body of Christ, the church, each description providing a different facet of truth into who we are -- In the Book of Ephesians, Paul uses numerous terms to describe the church; each term gives us a different insight into who we are:
THE FULLNESS OF HIM WHO FILLS ALL IN ALL: to pleroma tou ta panta en pasin pleroumenou. (PPMSG): (Eph 3:19; 4:10; John 1:16; 1 Corinthians 12:6; 15:28; Colossians 1:19; 2:9,10; 3:11)
The fullness (4138) (pleroma) Total quantity w emphasis upon completeness. The church is the completeness or complement of Christ for as a head must have a body to manifest glory of the head, so the Lord has His body to manifest His glory."
Eadie says fullness in regard to the Church is “the filled-up receptacle.”
Jamieson adds - The Church is dwelt in and filled by Christ. She is the receptacle, not of His inherent, but of His communicated, plenitude of gifts and graces. As His is the “fulness” (Jn 1:16; Col 1:19; 2:9) inherently, so she is His “fulness” by His impartation of it to her, in virtue of her union to Him (Eph 5:18; Col 2:10).
Matthew Henry - Jesus Christ fills all in all; he supplies all defects in all his members, filling them with his Spirit, and even with the fulness of God, Eph 3:19.
Pleroma - 17x in 17v - Matt 9:16; Mark 2:21; 6:43; 8:20; John 1:16; Rom 11:12, 25; 13:10; 15:29; 1 Cor 10:26; Gal 4:4; Eph 1:10, 23; 3:19; 4:13; Col 1:19; 2:9. NAS = all...contains(1), fulfillment(2), full(2), fullness(10), patch(2).
Fills (4137) (pleroo [word study]) be completely filled (completed state ~ net or cup filled to brim) Carries idea of permeation such as salt’s permeating meat in order to flavor preserve it. Also gives idea of total control. The present tense means continuously fills.
Pleroo - 86x in 86v - Matt 1:22; 2:15, 17, 23; 3:15; 4:14; 5:17; 8:17; 12:17; 13:35, 48; 21:4; 23:32; 26:54, 56; 27:9; Mark 1:15; 14:49; Luke 1:20; 2:40; 3:5; 4:21; 7:1; 9:31; 21:24; 22:16; 24:44; John 3:29; 7:8; 12:3, 38; 13:18; 15:11, 25; 16:6, 24; 17:12f; 18:9, 32; 19:24, 36; Acts 1:16; 2:2, 28; 3:18; 5:3, 28; 7:23, 30; 9:23; 12:25; 13:25, 27, 52; 14:26; 19:21; 24:27; Rom 1:29; 8:4; 13:8; 15:13f, 19; 2 Cor 7:4; 10:6; Gal 5:14; Eph 1:23; 3:19; 4:10; 5:18; Phil 1:11; 2:2; 4:18f; Col 1:9, 25; 2:10; 4:17; 2 Thess 1:11; 2 Tim 1:4; Jas 2:23; 1 John 1:4; 2 John 1:12; Rev 3:2; 6:11. NAS = accomplish(1), accomplished(1), amply supplied(1), approaching(1), complete(1), completed(3), completing(1), elapsed(1), fill(3), filled(16), fills(1), finished(1), fulfill(20), fulfilled(20), fully carry(1), fully come(1), fully preached(1), increasing(1), made complete(2), made full(5), make...full(1), make...complete(1), passed(2), supply(1).
All in all All (3956) (ta panta en pasin) is the word "pas" which means all without exception. The Amplified adds this explanatory note "for in that body lives the full measure of Him Who makes everything complete, and Who fills everything everywhere with Himself."
Wuest - The word “fulness” is pleroma (). Thayer gives the following: “that which is or has been filled; used of a ship inasmuch as it is filled (i.e., manned) with sailors, rowers, and soldiers; in the NT, the body of believers, as that which is filled with the presence, power, agency, riches of God and of Christ.” Alford says, “the meaning being, that the Church, being the Body of Christ, is dwelt in and filled with God: it is His plērōma (fulness) in an especial manner—His fulness abides in it and is exemplified by it.” Expositors comments: “The idea is that the Church is not only Christ’s body but that which is filled by Him. In Col 1:19, 2:9, the whole plērōma or every plenitude of the Godhead, the very fulness of the Godhead, the totality of the divine powers and qualities, is said to be recognized as Framer and Governor of the world, and there is neither need nor place for any intermediate beings as agents in those works of creating, upholding and administering. Here the conception is that this plenitude of the divine powers and qualities which is in Christ is imparted by Him to His Church, so that the latter is pervaded by His presence, animated by His life, filled with His gifts and energies and graces. He is the sole Head of the universe, which is supplied by Him with all that is needed for its being and order. He is also the sole Head of the Church, which receives from Him what He Himself possesses, and is endowed by Him with all that it requires for the realization of its vocation.” “The all things” is “the whole system of things, made by Christ, and having in Him the ground of its being, its continuance, its order (Heb. 1:3, Col. 1:16, 17, I Cor. 8:6), ‘with all things,’… the universe itself and all the things that make its fulness” (Expositors).