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Charts from Jensen's Survey of the NT - used by permission
Another Chart from Swindoll
THE LIFE OF JESUS AS COVERED
BY MATTHEW (shaded area)
- Jesus summoned : Mt 19:28 26:20,47 Mk 3:13,14 Mk 6:7-13 Lu 6:13 Joh 6:70 Rev 12:1 Rev 21:12-14
- gave them authority: Mt 6:13 28:18,19 Mk 3:15 16:17,18 Lu 9:1-6 10:19 21:15 24:49 Joh 3:27,35 17:2 20:21-23 Ac 1:8 3:15,16 19:15
TWELVE CALLED AND
Jesus summoned His twelve disciples Guzik points out that "The main feature of this list is its diversity. Jesus chose His disciples from a variety of backgrounds and life experiences. About all they had in common was it seems that none of them were privileged or from backgrounds of high status. This is very much in the spirit of 1 Corinthians 1:26–29."
Disciples (3101)(mathetes from manthano = to learn which Vine says is "from a root math, indicating thought accompanied by endeavor". Gives us our English = "mathematics") describes a person who learns from another by instruction, whether formal or informal. Discipleship includes the idea of one who intentionally learns by inquiry and observation (cf inductive Bible study) and thus mathetes is more than a mere pupil. A mathetes describes an adherent of a teacher.
Mounce - Typically in the Jewish world, a disciple would voluntarily join a school or otherwise seek out a master rabbi; however, Jesus seeks out and chooses those whom he wants as his disciples (Mk 1:17; 2:14; Lk 5:1–11; cf. Mt 4:18–21). A dedicated disciple was generally expected someday to become a rabbi himself, yet Jesus teaches his disciples that he will always be their rabbi and they will have a lifetime of discipleship (Mt 23:8; cf. Mt 10:24–25, 37; Lk 14:26–27; Jn 11:16). Jesus’ disciples are bound to him and to God’s will (Mt 12:46–50; cf. Mk 3:31–45). They are called to a lifetime of work and service (Mt 16:15–19; Mk 1:17; Lk 5:10), (Mounce's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old & New Testament words: Zondervan)
Mark 3:14+ says "And He appointed twelve, so that they would be with Him and that He could send them out to preach"
And gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every kind of disease and every kind of sickness. - Jesus called them and then empowered them, which is ever the principle of our Lord Jesus. Whatever He has called you to do for the Kingdom, He will give you the power of the King to accomplish. The corollary is that apart from Him and His power and authority we can do absolutely nothing of eternal value (Jn 15:5, 15:16). One other point, if you are sure that He has called you and yet you don't sense His equipping, you may need to walk out "on the water" so speak and even like Peter cry "Lord, save me." (Mt 14:30).
Broadus says they are called unclean "because of their own wickedness, and perhaps because their presence was a pollution to the person possessed (comp. on 12:43 ff.); and this served to distinguish them from good or pure spirits."
Authority (1849)(exousia from éxesti = it is permitted, it is lawful) means the power to do something and was a technical term used in the law courts, of a legal right. "Authority or right is the dominant meaning (of exousia) in the New Testament." (Vincent) Exousía refers to delegated authority and combines the idea of the "right and the might", these attributes having been granted to someone. Broadus adds that exousia "signifies primarily, permission (license, privilege), then authority, (dominion, rule, etc.), and this sometimes suggests ability and power. The word very often conveys two of these ideas at once, as privilege and power (John: 1:12), authority and power (John 19:10.) Comp. on Mt 7:29; Mt 28:18."
Henry Morris - The Lord Jesus, as Creator, has the authority and ability to give supernatural power to specially called men. They did not seek such power, but it was given to them for a special time and purpose. It is dangerous for others to seek it for themselves (Acts 8:18-20).
John Broadus - Having led the disciples to feel interest in perishing throngs of men, and encouraged them to pray for laborers, Jesus now bids them go forth to labor themselves. We ought carefully to observe the slow and gradual process by which our Lord prepared the Twelve for their great and important life-work. First, he called various individuals to be his disciples, as, for example, those in John 1:35–51; these went with him for a time, but afterwards returned to their homes and their secular employments. Next, he called some to attach themselves permanently to him, as above in 4:18–22, stating at the time his intention to make them fishers of men. After a while, he selected from the general mass of his followers the Twelve, who were to be specially near to him, and to be trained for special duties; delivering to them, immediately after their selection (see on 5:1), a great discourse on the true nature of that Messianic reign which they were to aid in bringing about. And now, at a still later period, when they have been long hearing his discourses to the people, talking with him familiarly in private, and witnessing his multiplied miracles, he sends them forth, two and two, to preach and heal; but not yet to work independently of him, for they are only to go before and prepare the way for his coming. After a season spent in such personal labors, they will return, and remain long with him, receiving further instruction, which they will more earnestly desire and more fully appreciate, from their attempts at actual preaching. And finally, after his ascension, they will be ready, with the Holy Spirit as their abiding Instructor, to go and disciple all nations. After all this training they could do nothing without the Spirit; yet, though they were to have the Spirit, they must also have this training—doing what they could, meanwhile, to reap the great and perishing harvest, but devoting themselves mainly to preparation for wider usefulness in the coming years.
- apostles: Lu 6:13 Lk 9:10 11:49 22:14 Ac 1:26 Eph 4:11 Heb 3:1 Rev 18:20
- Simon: Mt 4:18 16:16-18 Mk 1:16,17 3:16 Lu 6:14 Joh 1:40-42 Ac 1:13 1Pe 1:1 2Pe 1:1
- Andrew: Mk 1:29 3:18 13:3 Joh 6:8 12:22
- James: Mt 4:21 17:1 20:20 26:37 Mk 3:17 Lu 5:10 Joh 21:2 Ac 12:2 1Co 15:7
- John: Lu 22:8 Joh 13:23 20:2 21:20,24 Ac 3:1 1Jn 1:3,4 2Jn 1:1 3Jn 1:1 Rev 1:1,9 22:8
Now the names of the twelve apostles are these: The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; and James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother - These 4 are those present at the Olivet Discourse (Mark 13:3). It is notable that this is the only place Matthew calls these men apostles., similar to Mark (Mk 6:30), but in contrast to Luke's repeated mention of them as apostles (Lk. 6:13; Lk. 9:10; Lk. 11:49; Lk. 17:5; Lk. 22:14; Lk. 24:10). Note that in Luke 6:13+ "when day came, He called His disciples to Him and chose twelve of them, whom He also named as apostles."
Apostles (652)(apostolos from apo = from + stello = send forth) means one sent forth from by another, often with a special commission to represent another and to accomplish his work. It can be a delegate, commissioner, ambassador sent out on a mission or orders or commission and with the authority of the one who sent him.
Broadus - Matthew has not mentioned the selection of the Twelve, which took place before this. (Mark 3:13; Luke 6:13, comp. on Mt 5:1.) At the time when he wrote, the twelve apostles were well known, and he speaks of them accordingly: ‘his twelve disciples,’ ‘the twelve apostles.’ The number twelve was probably chosen with reference to the number of tribes (see on 19:28).
Adam Clarke makes an interesting point that "“It is worthy of notice, that those who were Christ’s apostles were first his disciples; to intimate, that men must be first taught of God, before they be sent of God.”
The 12 were the foundation which were in turn on Jesus the Cornerstone, and were the men on which He would build his kingdom during the Church Age (Eph 2:20+). The 12 (minus Judas Iscariot) would have a future position of prominence in the coming Messianic Kingdom. In Mt 19:28 "Jesus said to them, “Truly I say to you, that you who have followed Me, in the regeneration when the Son of Man will sit on His glorious throne, you also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel." And even after the 1000 year Kingdom, the role of the apostles would be honored throughout eternity John recording "And the wall of the city had twelve foundation stones, and on them were the twelve names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb." (Rev 21:14+).
Spurgeon - The apostolic number fitly represents the twelve tribes of Israel; and for practical purposes the twelve form a workable band of leaders, a sufficient jury, and a competent company of witnesses.”
Henry Morris - Note that the twelve are called both "disciples" ("learners," or "followers") and "apostles" (sent ones, possibly equivalent in essence to missionaries). Although all believers should be disciples of Christ, these are called the twelve disciples because they were taught directly by Him. They were also specially sent out by Him into all the world and so were also called His twelve "apostles" (Mark 16:14,15; John 20:19-23; Acts 1:8). Later a few others (Paul), with similar special training and commissioning directly by Christ, were also recognized as apostles. This designation is not appropriate for other followers, especially anyone after the apostolic period. (Defender's Study Bible)
Criswell - In the early church an "apostle" (apostolos, Gk.) is a representative of the authority of the risen Lord. The term describes the function of the Twelve (cf. Mark 3:14-19; Luke 6:13-16; John 1:40-49) who are sent out by Jesus. The Twelve made up the body of authoritative leaders in the church. James, the brother of Jesus (Gal. 1:19), Silvanus (1 Thess. 1:1), Andronicus and Junia (Rom. 16:7), Barnabas and Paul (Acts 14:4, 14), and others are designated "apostles," though not in the same technical sense that the Twelve are. Peter specifies that an apostle must be an eyewitness of Jesus' life and activity from the time of His baptism to the resurrection/ascension (Acts 1:22).
Guzik - There are four different lists of the twelve in the New Testament. Here in Matthew 10:2–4, and also in Mark 3:16–19, Luke 6:13–16, and Acts 1:13. In these lists, Peter is always listed first and Judas is always last. The two pairs of brothers (Peter and Andrew; James and John) are always listed first. In the lists they are arranged in a way that suggests that they were arranged in three groups of four, each with a leader. In each list Peter is first mentioned, followed by Andrew, James, and John. In each list Philip is fifth mentioned, followed by Bartholomew, Thomas, and Matthew. In each list James the son of Alphaeus is ninth mentioned, followed by Thaddaeus/Judas brother of James, Simon the Zealot, and Judas.
- Philip: Mk 3:18 Lu 6:14 Joh 1:43-46 6:5-7 12:21,22 14:9
- Thomas: Lu 6:15 Joh 11:16 20:24-29 21:2
- Matthew: Mt 9:9 Mk 2:14 Lu 5:27, Levi, Lu 6:15 Ac 1:13
- James: Mt 27:56 Mk 3:18 Lu 6:15,16 Ac 1:13 12:17 15:13 21:18 Ga 1:19 2:9 Jas 1:1
- Lebbaeus: Mk 3:18 Lu 6:16, Judas the brother of James, Joh 14:22, Judas, not Iscariot, Ac 1:13 Jude 1:1
Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas and Matthew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus - Note that they are named in pairs and it may have been in these pairs that they were sent "out in pairs" (Mark 6:7) on their first missionary assignment. Thaddaeus is also called Judas (Luke 6:16), and Bartholomew is probably the same as Nathaniel (John 1:45-49) Spurgeon comments that "“Bartholomew is never mentioned without an and: he was a kind of man to work with other people.”
Simon the Canaanite is elsewhere called Simon the Zealot.
It is notable that Matthew still calls himself Matthew the tax collector which reflects his humility for tax collectors were greatly despised in his day.
- Simon: Mk 3:18 Lu 6:15, Ac 1:13
- and Judas Iscariot, the one who betrayed Him : Mt 26:14,47 27:3 Mk 3:19 14:10,43 Lu 6:16 22:3,47 Joh 6:71 Joh 13:2,26-30 18:2-5 Ac 1:16-20,25
and Judas Iscariot, the one who betrayed Him - This is often the way Judas is described, by what he did rather than "who" he was, because in fact what he did was a perfect reflection of who he was in his heart!
Betrayed (handed over) (3860)(paradidomi from para = alongside, beside, to the side of, over to + didomi = to give) conveys the basic meaning of to give over from one's hand to someone or something, especially to give over to the power of another. All uses of paradidomi in Matthew - Matt. 4:12; Matt. 5:25; Matt. 10:4; Matt. 10:17; Matt. 10:19; Matt. 10:21; Matt. 11:27; Matt. 17:22; Matt. 18:34; Matt. 20:18; Matt. 20:19; Matt. 24:9; Matt. 24:10; Matt. 25:14; Matt. 25:20; Matt. 25:22; Matt. 26:2; Matt. 26:15; Matt. 26:16; Matt. 26:21; Matt. 26:23; Matt. 26:24; Matt. 26:25; Matt. 26:45; Matt. 26:46; Matt. 26:48; Matt. 27:2; Matt. 27:3; Matt. 27:4; Matt. 27:18; Matt. 27:26;
- sent: Mt 22:3 Lu 9:2 10:1 Joh 20:21
- Go: Mt 4:15 Joh 7:35 Ac 10:45-48 11:1-18 22:21-23 Ro 15:8,9 1Th 2:16
- of the Samaritans: 2Ki 17:24-41 Lu 9:52-54 Joh 4:5,9,20,22-24 Ac 1:8 8:1,5-25
The remainder of Matthew 10 contains the charge given to the Twelve on sending them out.
Broadus adds - The earlier portion of this (Mt 10:5–15), is also briefly reported by Mark (Mk 6:8–11), and Luke (Lk 9:3–5). The rest (Mt 10:16–42) is found in Matthew only. A charge closely resembling the earlier part of this discourse was also given to the Seventy, when sent out some time later. (Luke 10:1–16.)
These twelve Jesus sent out after instructing them - Mk 6:7+ says He "began to send them out in pairs." The Seventy also were sent forth two and two. (Luke 10:1+) We do not know how long either the 12 or the 70 ministered in this manner. Instructing was a military term which represented the order of an officer to those under his command, an order that required unhesitating and unqualified obedience. Jesus gave his ''troops'' the ''military'' command bc He knew (from His first encounter in Mt 4:1ff with Satan) that they would being waging a life and death struggle for the souls of men and the wiles of the Adversary were not to be underestimated.
Sent out (649)(apostello from apo = from, away from + stello = to withdraw from, avoid) means to send off, to send forth, to send out. To commission as a representative, ambassador or envoy. The idea was "to send off on a commission to do something as one’s personal representative, with credentials furnished" (Wuest) Jesus was expanding the impact of His ministry.
Instructing (3853)(paraggello from para = beside, alongside, near by, at the side of + aggelos = messenger, aggello = to announce) means to hand on or pass on an announcement from one to another who is at one's side, such as to what must be done, usually with the idea of a command or charge. It is like a mandate (an authoritative command) or a call to obedience from one in authority. This word in Greek has four special usages. (i) It is the regular word of military command … (ii) It is the word used of calling one’s friends to one’s help … (iii) It is the word which is used of a teacher giving rules and precepts to his students … (iv) It is the word which is regularly used for an imperial command.”
See list of the Twelve Disciples/Apostles. found in 4 lists - Matthew 10:2f. Mark 3:16f. Luke 6:1 f. Acts 1:13f.
Broadus on the lists of twelve - We observe at once that, with all the variety in the order of succession, Simon Peter is always first, and Judas Iscariot last. Again, the first six names in Matthew, Mark, and Luke are the five earliest known converts. (John 1:35–51), together with James, the brother of one of them; and the first four in all the lists are the two pairs of brothers whose call to follow Jesus is the earliest mentioned. (4:18–22.) Furthermore we note in each of the lists three groups of four, headed respectively in every list by Peter, Philip, and James, which groups contain always the same four persons, though within the limits of each group the order greatly varies, except as to Judas Iscariot. It seems a natural and unavoidable inference that the Twelve were in some sense divided into three companies of four, each having a recognized leader. The foremost in the first company, and at the head of all the Twelve, is Simon Peter.
Do not go in the way of the Gentiles, and do not enter any city of the Samaritans - The way of the Gentiles was the road to Gentile countries. They’ were not at this time to proclaim the kingdom message of salvation to non-Jewish people. Yet at this particular time in Christ’s plan for proclaiming the gospel and for preparing the apostles. His objective was especially narrow and limited. In the way of and any city of represent to Greek possessive genitives. The apostles were not to go into any way, or area, belonging to Gentiles or into any city that belonged to Samaritans. This was a temporary command which is clear from call in the Great Commission and also from the fact that Jesus had already ministered both to Gentiles and to Samaritans. He had healed the Gentile centurion’s servant (Mt. 8:5-13) and had first revealed Himself publicly as the Messiah to the Samaritan woman of Sychar, who believed in Him herself and led other Samaritans to saving faith (Jn 4:7-42)
The point is that Jesus’ own earthly ministry was limited. He did not travel outside Palestine, and His ministry to Gentiles and Samaritans was incidental when compared to His ministry to the Jews. He did not have preaching missions in Gentile territory, and He ministered to Samaritans only as He passed through their land while traveling between the Jewish regions of Judea and Galilee. All of His public teaching and preaching and the vast majority of His miraculous works were done among the Jews. To the Canaanite woman from the district of Tyre and Sidon, Jesus said, “I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel” (Mt. 15:24). As already pointed out, His personal ministry to others besides Jews and His commands to take the gospel into all the world show that “only to ... Israel” referred to the primary objective of His work at that time. The gospel was not generally taken to non-Jews until it was first fully presented to God’s chosen people (cf. Ro 1:16). Jesus was now giving a limited command to His apostles that was valid only for that time and place in His divine plan of world redemption. But the command illustrates a principle that is valid for every ministry in every time and place-namely, that God gives His people clear, specific objectives for service and ministry.
D A Carson - “That Jesus felt it necessary to mention the Samaritans at all presupposes John 4. The disciples, happy in the exercise of their ability to perform miracles, might have been tempted to evangelize the Samaritans because they remembered Jesus’ success there.”
John Broadus on Samaritans - SAMARIA was the district lying between Judea and Galilee. The dislike between the Jews and the Samaritans had its beginnings as far back as the earliest times of Israel in the jealousy existing between the tribes of Judah and Ephraim, which finally led to the division into two kingdoms. When the people of the Northern Kingdom (who came to be called Samaritans from the capital city, Samaria, 1 Kings 16:24), were carried into captivity by the Assyrians, the country was partly occupied by Mesopotamian colonists, who were idolaters. These gradually coalesced with the dregs of the Israelites who had been left in the land, and with the fugitives who returned from surrounding countries, into a half-heathen nation, attempting to unite idolatry with the worship of Jehovah. When the people of the Southern Kingdom, the Jews, returned from their captivity in Babylon, and undertook to rebuild the temple at Jerusalem, the Samaritans proffered to help them; and being repulsed, as not of pure Israelitish descent, they then did all in their power to hinder the building of the temple, and the fortification of the city. A brother of the Jewish high-priest, having married a Samaritan woman, and being unwilling to put her away as required, went over to the Samaritans, and was made priest in a temple built for him on Mount Gerizim (Jos. “Ant.,” 11, 8, 2), which the Samaritans from that time began to contend was the proper place for the worship of Jehovah, rather than Jerusalem. (John 4:20.) These causes naturally led to bitter hatred between Jews and Samaritans, and they were constantly attempting to injure and insult each other, while under the dominion of the Greek kings of Syria. John Hyrcanus conquered the Samaritans, destroying their temple and capital (about B. C. 125). Pompey established their independence (B. C. 63). At the time of our Lord’s public ministry, Judea and Samaria were governed by the same Roman procurator, but as distinct administrative districts; and the hatred between the two nations, cherished through centuries, and combining all the elements of race jealousy, religious rivalry, political hostility, and numerous old grudges, had become so intense that the world has probably never seen its parallel. The theory of some writers that the Samaritans were of purely heathen origin, would suppose that the entire population of the Northern people was deported by the Assyrians—a thing extremely improbable; would render the frequent claim of the Samaritans to be Jews an absurdity; and would make it difficult to account for the Samaritan Pentateuch, and the Samaritan expectation of Messiah. Fur the Samaritans, like the Jews, expected the Messiah (John 4:25, 29), and something like a year before this mission of the Twelve our Lords preaching among them at Sychar was warmly received, and many believed on him. (John 4:39–42.) Some time after this mission he also went twice through Samaria, and spoke and acted kindly towards them. (Luke 9:51 ff.; 17:11 ff.) Why, then, might not the Twelve go into their cities? It is enough to reply that the Twelve had not then such feelings towards that people as would qualify them to do good there. The proposal of James and John to call down fire from heaven upon a Samaritan village (Luke 9:52 ff.) shows that there would have been bitter controversies, with the old national hate ever ready to burst out (Comp. Bruce, “Training of the Twelve.”) In Acts 1:8, Samaria is expressly included in the field of their appointed labors after the ascension. (Comp. Acts 8:5.)
- go: Mt 15:24-26 Lu 24:47 Ac 3:26 13:46 18:6 26:20 28:25-28 Ro 11:11-15
- lost: Mt 18:11 Ps 119:176 Isa 53:6 Jer 50:6,17 Eze 34:6,8,16 Lu 15:3-10 1Pe 2:25
THE FIRST PRIORITY
but rather go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel - As Paul said "For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek." (Ro 1:16+; see also Lk 24:47+; Acts 13:46+) In Mt 15:24 Jesus describing His mission said "“I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.” Of course this did not mean that Jesus came only to save Jews for John records our Lord saying "I have other sheep, which are not of this fold; I must bring them also, and they will hear My voice; and they will become one flock with one shepherd." (John. 10:16)
Notice also that Jesus frequently intimated that the exclusive privileges to the lost house of Israel would not last always. For example Jesus declared "I say to you that many will come from east and west, and recline at the table with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven;" (Mt 8:11+; see also Mt 10:18; Mt 21:43; Mt 22:9; Mt 24:14.)
Broadus explains part of the reason Jesus went to Israel first - By Confining his labors and those of the Twelve to them he avoided exciting their prejudices, and thus deprived them of even the poor excuse for rejecting him which they would have found in his preaching freely among the Gentiles and Samaritans."
John Trapp on sheep - “Like sheep, that silly creature, than the which as none is more apt to wander, so neither any more unable to return.” (Trapp)
Jesus description of the Jews recalls the famous passage in Isaiah where we see that we are ALL lost sheep in the eyes of God...
All of us like sheep have gone astray, Each of us has turned to his own way; But the LORD has caused the iniquity of us all To fall on Him. (Isaiah 53:6+).
Sheep have shepherds and the "shepherds" of Israel were the Scribes and Pharisees who misled and neglected the "sheep" under their care. Jeremiah's description would be apropos for the religious leaders and the people of Israel - “My people have become lost sheep; Their shepherds have led them astray. They have made them turn aside on the mountains; They have gone along from mountain to hill And have forgotten their resting place." (Jer 50:6). Similarly Ezekiel speaking of Israel's exile writes "“They were scattered for lack of a shepherd, and they became food for every beast of the field and were scattered." (Ezek 34:5) In Matthew 9:36+ we read "Seeing the people, He felt compassion for them, because they were distressed and dispirited like sheep without a shepherd." The point is crystal clear that men need shepherds to lead them in spiritual matters.
Guzik - Significantly, Jesus still called the Jewish people “the house of Israel” even though they had lost their Jewish state many decades before this time. God still saw them as “Israel,” even when there was not a political entity known as “Israel.”
Matthew Henry: The Gentiles must not have the gospel brought them, till the Jews have refused it. This restraint on the apostles was only in their first mission.
- preach: Mt 4:17 11:1 Isa 61:1 Joh 3:2 Mk 6:12 Lu 9:60 16:16 Ac 4:2
- Kingdom of Heaven: Mt 3:2 11:11,12 21:31,43 23:13 Lu 9:2,6 10:9-11 Ac 10:25 28:31
Preach (proclaim) (2784) kerusso from kerux/keryx = a herald - one who acts as the medium of the authority of one who proclamation he makes; kerugma = the thing preached or the message) means to proclaim (publicly) or to herald or act as a public crier - the town official who would make a proclamation in a public gathering. Kerusso was used of the official whose duty it was to proclaim loudly and extensively the coming of an earthly king, even as our gospel is to clearly announce the coming of the King of kings and Lord of lords (Rev 19:16+)! The Imperial Herald would enter a town in behalf of the Emperor, and make a public proclamation of the message which his Sovereign ordered him to give, doing so with such formality, gravity, and authority as to emphasize that the message must be heeded! (Think about this in regard to the Gospel of God instead of the decree of a man! cf 1Th 2:13+). He gave the people exactly what the Emperor bade him give, nothing more, nothing less. He did not dare add to the message or take away from it. Should this not be the example and pattern every preacher and teacher of the holy gospel of God seeks and strives to emulate, yea, even doing so with fear and trembling! ("not as pleasing men but God, who examines our hearts" see 1Th 2:4+)
Kerusso in Matthew - Mt. 3:1; Mt. 4:17; Mt. 4:23; Mt. 9:35; Mt. 10:7; Mt. 10:27; Mt. 11:1; Mt. 24:14; Mt. 26:13;
The kingdom of heaven is at hand - What are they to preach? The message is short and simple. Jewish people were acutely aware of the Kingdom and a message saying that the Kingdom is at hand would certainly get a Jewish person's attention! This message was virtually the same as that of Jesus Matthew writing that "From that time Jesus began to preach and say, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.” (Matthew 4:17+) John the Baptist also preached this message “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.” (Mt 3:2+)
The phrase is at hand is one word in Greek, the verb eggizo which means near in place, and in the present context, there is a sense in which the Kingdom is drawing near both in space and in time, in the sense that the King (Jesus) of the Kingdom is on the stage in this great drama of redemption. Is at hand is in the perfect tense which means it has drawn near and is now present. With the King now on the scene the day has arrived. Matthew's uses of eggizo - Matt. 3:2; Matt. 4:17; Matt. 10:7; Matt. 21:1; Matt. 21:34; Matt. 26:45; Matt. 26:46;
Kingdom of Heaven can be a somewhat complex subject but suffice it to say that it has a PRESENT REALITY which awaits a FUTURE REVELATION. The PRESENT REALITY is that the King is reigning in the hearts of those who have repented and believed in Him. The FUTURE REVELATION is the return of the King of kings to defeat His enemies and establish His Messianic rule on Earth (Millennium). It is predominantly this latter aspect of the Kingdom of God the nation was expecting and hoping for (cf (2 Sa 7:8-17; Isa. 11:1-9+; Isa 24:23; Jer. 23:5-6; Mic 4:6-7+; Zech 9:9-10; Zech 14:9+; cf. Mt. 20:21; Mk 10:37; Mk 11:10; Mk 12:35-37; Mk 15:43; Luke 1:31-33+; Lk 2:25+, Lk 2:38+; Acts 1:6+)
THOUGHT - All who live in the PRESENT REALITY are eagerly, expectantly looking for the FUTURE REVELATION, a mindset that motivates us to order our steps in a manner which is pleasing to the Lord. What (Who) you are looking for will (should) impact what (Who) you are living for beloved! That is why the Spirit inspired the writers of the NT to pen 1 in 30 verses either directly or indirectly describing the Second Coming o f the King! The first century church is said to have greeted one another with the watch word Maranatha. God grant that the church in these last days would do the same, and live accordingly. In Jesus' Name. Amen
- In Depth Discussion on the Kingdom in commentary on Luke 17:20
- Heal: Mt 10:1 Mk 16:18 Lu 10:9 Ac 4:9,10,30 5:12-15
- freely: 2Ki 5:15,16,20-27 Ac 3:6 8:18-23 20:33-35
Gratis describes the quality of an action where the action is willingly provided without any requirement by the provider for compensation or monetary remuneration. It's often referred to in English as free of charge, complimentary, or on the house.
Heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse the lepers, cast out demons - All four commands are in present imperative calling for continual reliance upon the Holy Spirit to obey. The ability of the disciples to carry out any one of these things would have served to authenticate their ministry, even as these items authenticated Jesus' ministry as from God. Each of these things speaks of the miraculous, but did not save the hearers, a miracle that could only be achieved by believing the message of the Gospel. Sadly, most of the Jews in Israel, while astonished by the miracles, did not receive the message!
Morris - The disciples were even given the power to raise the dead (BUT SEE THE TECHNICAL NOTE BELOW), although no instances of this are recorded until Peter's raising of Tabitha much later (Acts 9:40+). The testimony of Jesus heard by John the Baptist in prison (Matthew 11:5) may indicate that a number of such miracles did occur. (Defender's Study Bible) (ED: See also the resurrection of Eutychus by the Apostle Paul in Acts 20:7-9, 10+)
Freely you received, freely give - NLT = "Give as freely as you have received!" ESV = "You received without paying; give without pay." CSB = "You have received free of charge; give free of charge." It might be tempting to charge people for these miracles (televangelists have made an evil art of this in our day!), but this would discourage receiving any payment for these miracles. God's Spirit performed them. Men were simply the human instruments. God Alone should be the recipient of all praise and adulation, never finite men.
Broadus on freely you received, freely give - The Jewish exorcists who pretended to cast out demons were no doubt accustomed to have pay; and physicians of course took pay for healing the sick. The Twelve could easily have obtained money, in large sums, for the cures they were empowered to perform (SEE Why are there so many televangelist scandals?). We might think it strange that they should need to be told not to do so; but they had as yet very imperfect conceptions of the nature of Christ’s work, and not merely might Judas Iscariot have been glad enough to drive a brisk trade in miraculous healing for pay, but others of them might have seen no impropriety in receiving compensation for conferring such important benefits. Jesus tells them they received gratis, and must give gratis. They had not purchased the power of miraculous healing—as Simon Magus wished to do, (Acts: 8:18)—nor obtained it by long and expensive study, and laborious practice; it was received as a gift, and must be exercised in like manner. The miracles were really credentials for their teaching, as well as indications of divine benevolence, and should be used accordingly. As to teaching, we find Micah (3:11) making it a reproach that the heads of Israel “judge for reward, priests teach for hire, and prophets divine for money.” Some of the later Jewish writers maintained very earnestly, though often on fanciful grounds, and though many rabbis acted quite otherwise, that a man ought not to teach the law for pay, but gratuitously—just as Socrates and Plato held with reference to philosophy.
Technical Note on Raise the Dead - The majority of Byzantine minuscules, along with a few other witnesses (C(3 )K L G Q 700* al), lack nekrous egeirete, "raise the dead", most likely because of oversight due to a string of similar endings (-ete in the second person imperatives, occurring five times in v. 8). The longer version of this verse is found in several diverse and ancient witnesses such as a B C* (D) N 0281(vid )¦(1, 13 )33 565 al lat; P W D 348 have a word-order variation, but nevertheless include nekrous egeirete. Although some Byzantine-text proponents charge the Alexandrian witnesses with theologically-motivated alterations toward heterodoxy, it is interesting to find a variant such as this in which the charge could be reversed (do the Byzantine scribes have something against the miracle of resurrection?). In reality, such charges of wholesale theologically-motivated changes toward heterodoxy are immediately suspect due to lack of evidence of intentional changes (here the change is evidently due to accidental omission) (NET Note)
- What is divine healing? | GotQuestions.org
- What is the spiritual gift of healing? | GotQuestions.org
- Why is leprosy talked about so much in the Bible? | GotQuestions.org
- How many people were raised from the dead in the Bible? | GotQuestions.org
- Can a Christian today perform an exorcism? What does the Bible say about casting out demons? | GotQuestions.org
- What does the Bible say about demon possession / demonic possession?
- Mk 6:8 Lu 9:3 Lk 10:4 22:35 1Co 9:7-27
YOU ARE NOT TO GET RICH
PREACHING THE GOSPEL!
Do not acquire gold, or silver, or copper for your money belts - The verb acquire (ktaomai) means to procure for oneself. They were not to charge for miracles! How can the Health and Wealth preachers read this and not repent and weep? (Why are there so many televangelist scandals?) In Mark 6:8 the disciples were instructed to take "no money in the belt, the Greek noun zone which was a belt or girdle used as article of clothing for men and was bound around the waist (cf John the Baptist Mk 1:6+). This belt served another function if one was in a hurry or wanted to run. The long robes worn by the men in that day could be tucked into this belt and free up leg movement.
- What does the Bible say about prosperity? | GotQuestions.org
- Is “name it claim it” teaching biblical? | GotQuestions.org
Adam Clarke - “What a scandal is it for a man to traffic with gifts which he pretends, at least, to have received from the Holy Ghost, of which he is not the master, but the dispenser. He who preaches to get a living, or to make a fortune, is guilty of the most infamous sacrilege.” (Read about Simon the Magician in Acts 8:9-24+ - Who was Simon the Sorcerer?)
- bag : 1Sa 9:7 17:40
- two: Lu 3:11 2Ti 4:13
- for the: Lu 10:7-12 1Co 9:4-14 Ga 6:6,7 1Ti 5:17,18
Mark 6:8 and He instructed them that they should take nothing for their journey, except a mere staff–no bread, no bag, no money in their belt–
Or a bag for your journey, or even two coats, or sandals, or a staff; for the worker is worthy of his support. - This list continues the items that they were not to acquire and therefore seems to be at variance with what Jesus said in Mark 6:8 (see above).
NET Note - "Mark 6:8 allows one staff. It might be that Matthew's summary (cf. Luke 9:3) means not taking an extra staff or that the expression is merely rhetorical for "traveling light" which has been rendered in two slightly different ways." (NET Note)
Morris - The parallel account of these instructions says that Jesus told "them that they should take nothing for their journey, save a staff only" (Mark 6:8). Since "stave" and "staff" are from the same Greek word, there seems to be a slight contradiction as to what Jesus actually said. However, "provide" (Matthew 10:9) comes from a different Greek word than "take" in Mark 6:8. That is, the disciples were told to take only what they already had, namely, the ordinary walking stick which they normally carried as they walked from place to place. But they were not to make other special preparations, nor to acquire an extra staff or new shoes or an additional coat, but to rely entirely on the Lord, through His people, to provide their needs.
Barclay - “He was once again speaking words which were very familiar to a Jew. The Talmud tells us that: ‘No one is to go to the Temple Mount with staff, shoes, girdle of money, or dusty feet.’ The idea was that when a man entered the temple, he must make it quite clear that he had left everything which had to do with trade and business and worldly affairs behind.”
Spurgeon - They were neither to be beggars nor feasters; but, being refreshed at one hospitable table, they were to go on with their work.
for the worker is worthy of his support. This statement is quoted by Paul in 1 Timothy 5:18, the only place where a New Testament writer quotes another New Testament passage as "Scripture." This gives incidental confirmation of the New Testament--Luke in particular--as being on a par with the Old Testament Scriptures. (Morris) Jesus is saying that the worker was to be cared for and compensated regarding the necessities (housing, food, drink).
1 Ti 5:18 - For the Scripture says, “YOU SHALL NOT MUZZLE THE OX WHILE HE IS THRESHING,” and “The laborer is worthy of his wages.”
Paul quotes this passage from the Gospels in the same way as he used the Old Testament Scriptures, viewing both as divinely inspired (Lk 10:7).
Matthew Poole - “Our Saviour designed to give them an experience of the providence of God, and to teach them to trust in it.”
This passage is similar to Paul's instructions
(1 Cor. 9:14) So also the Lord directed those who proclaim the gospel to get their living from the gospel.
(Galatians 6:6) The one who is taught the word is to share all good things with the one who teaches him.
(1 Tim. 6:17-18) Instruct those who are rich in this present world not to be conceited or to fix their hope on the uncertainty of riches, but on God, who richly supplies us with all things to enjoy. 18 Instruct them to do good, to be rich in good works, to be generous and ready to share,
John touched on this issue of support of those who minister the Gospel in his Third Epistle explaining how the early Church obeyed this principle by providing for its evangelists and teachers so they in turn would not be dependent on those to whom they ministered
Beloved, you are acting faithfully in whatever you accomplish for the brethren, and especially when they are strangers; and they have testified to your love before the church. You will do well to send them on their way in a manner worthy of God. For they went out for the sake of the Name, accepting nothing from the Gentiles. Therefore we ought to support such men, so that we may be fellow workers with the truth. (3 John 5-8).
- inquire: Ge 19:1-3 Jud 19:16-21 1Ki 17:9-24 Job 31:32 Lu 10:38-42 Lu 19:7 Ac 16:15 18:1-3 3Jn 1:7,8
- and there: Mk 6:10 Lu 9:4 10:7,8
And whatever city or village you enter, inquire who is worthy in it, and stay at his house until you leave that city.
- greeting.it: Lu 10:5,6 Ac 10:36 2Co 5:20 3Jn 1:14
As you enter the house, give it your greeting.
Guzik makes an interesting observation that "There is no mention of them preaching in the synagogues, only being scourged in them (Matthew 10:17). This was a house-to-house, open field, street preaching ministry."
- Ps 35:13 Lu 10:6 2Co 2:16
If the house is worthy, give it your blessing of peace. But if it is not worthy, take back your blessing of peace
BSB - Those who genuinely welcome the gospel message of the Twelve are accorded special peace, while "unworthy" households forfeit the peace which accompanies the gospel.
- whosoever: Mt 10:40,41 18:5 Mk 6:11 9:37 Lu 9:5,48 10:10,11 Joh 13:20 1Th 4:8
- shake: Ne 5:13 Ac 13:51 18:6 20:26,27
Whoever does not receive you, nor heed your words, as you go out of that house or that city, shake the dust off your feet.
shake the dust off your feet. - It was common for Jews to shake the dust violently off their feet—as an expression of disdain, a violent gesture of disfavour—when returning from Gentile regions. Paul and Barnabas also did this when expelled from Antioch (Ac 13:51). This was a visible protest, signifying that they regarded the place as no better than a pagan land. The Jews had violent prejudices against the smallest particles of Gentile dust, not as a purveyor of disease of which they did not know, but because it was regarded as the putrescence of death. If the apostles were mistreated by a host or hostess, they were to be treated as if they were Gentiles Mt 18:17; Ac 18:6
Morris - Once the saving gospel has been clearly presented, and is rejected by the hearers, then the witnessing believer should not argue further for a conversion. There are multitudes of others still waiting to hear, and the Christian should go on to present the gospel to them. The Holy Spirit must convict those he leaves.
- verily: Mt 5:18 24:34,35
- It: Mt 11:22-24 Eze 16:48-56 Mk 6:11 Lu 10:11,12 Joh 15:22-24
- in the: Mt 12:36 2Pe 2:9 3:7 1Jn 4:17
PRINCIPLE OF DEGREES
it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for that city (See also Mt 10:15, 11:20-24, 12:41,42 Jn 19:11, Lu 10:12-16, 11:31,32, 12:47,48, 20:45,46,47, Mk 12:38,39,40, Heb 10:29) - Jesus is clearly teaching that there will be degrees of punishment in Gehenna (Lake of fire, Hell, but not "hades") corresponding to that of degrees of reward in heaven (Rev 22:12). In other words Hell will be "hotter" (in some way) for some them others! Sodom and Gomorrah were indescribably wicked (Jude 1:7) and yet less overtly evil cities of Israel would be more culpable because they rejected greater light of the Gospel presented by the Savior Himself! The principle is rejection of greater spiritual light results in greater eternal punishment! The writer of Hebrews rightly says "It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God." (Heb 10:31+)
- as sheep: Lu 10:3 Ac 20:29
- wise: Ge 3:1,13 Lu 21:15 Ro 16:19 1Co 14:20 2Co 11:3,14 Eph 5:15-17 Col 1:9 4:5
- harmless: or, simple, Ro 16:18,19 2Co 1:12 8:20 11:3 Php 2:15 1Th 2:10 5:22
Behold (2400)(idou) is the second person singular aorist middle imperative of eidon which means to see, perceive, look at. In the NT idou is used as a demonstrative particle that draws attention to what follows. Idou in the middle voice means "you yourself look, see, perceive!" The aorist imperative is a command emphasizing "Do it now! Don't delay!" Spurgeon reminds us that "Behold is a word of wonder; it is intended to excite admiration. Wherever you see it hung out in Scripture, it is like an ancient sign-board, signifying that there are rich wares within, or like the hands which solid readers have observed in the margin of the older Puritanic books, drawing attention to something particularly worthy of observation." I would add, behold is like a divine highlighter, a divine underlining of an especially striking or important text. It says in effect "Listen up, all ye who would be wise in the ways of Jehovah!"
I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves - In Palestine, wolves were the most common natural enemy of sheep. They roamed the hills and valleys, looking for a sheep that strayed away from the flock or lagged behind. Beloved, can you see here the inherent importance of being in community, of being an active (not passive) member of a Bible believing church? You are less likely to be mangled by the "wolves" (which include the world, the flesh and the devil). When a wolf found such a sheep it quickly attacked and tore it to pieces. Even a grown, healthy sheep was utterly defenseless against a wolf.
So - A term of conclusion based on the previous truth that wolves are out there looking to devour Christian sheep!
Be shrewd as serpents and innocent as doves - Shrewd means astute and penetrating. Jesus commands this to be the disciple's continual mindset, for be is in the present imperative, which necessitates continuing dependence on the Holy Spirit in order to obey this command!
Shrewd (5429)(phronimos from phronéo = think, have a mindset related to phren = diaphragm, regarded by ancients as seat of mental and spiritual activity, came to mean mind or understanding) is an adjective which describes one who is thoughtful, sagacious or discreet. It describes the quality of one's thinking which is the result of insight and stands in opposition to moros which means foolish. The idea is that there is understanding combined with wisdom and insight. Phronimos implies a cautious, sensible, prudent character and in Mt 10:16 refers to one as "shrewd" as a serpent. One who is shrewd has clever discerning awareness, acute perception and sharp powers of judgment. Phronimos also includes the ideas of one who is prudent, sensible and practically wise in relationships with others. There is a type of phronimos that is desirable (eg, here in Mt 7:24, 10:16, et al) and a type that is not desirable (Ro 11:26, 12:16) this latter describing the person who relies on their own innate wisdom.
- beware: Mic 7:5 Mk 13:9,12 Ac 14:5,6 17:14 23:12-22 2Co 11:24-26 Php 3:2 2Ti 4:15
- for: Mt 24:9,10 Mk 13:9 Lu 12:11 21:12,13 Joh 16:2 Ac 4:6-22 5:26-42 Ac 23:1-11
- courts: Mt 5:22 26:59 Joh 11:47
- scourge: Mt 20:19 23:34 De 25:2,3 Ac 5:40 22:19 26:11 2Co 11:24,25 Heb 11:36
There is a similar warning in Lk 21:12-19+
But before all these things, they will lay their hands on you and will persecute you, delivering you to the synagogues and prisons, bringing you before kings and governors for My name’s sake. 13 “It will lead to an opportunity for your testimony. 14“So make up your minds not to prepare beforehand to defend yourselves; 15 for I will give you utterance and wisdom which none of your opponents will be able to resist or refute. 16 “But you will be betrayed even by parents and brothers and relatives and friends, and they will put some of you to death, 17 and you will be hated by all because of My name. 18“Yet not a hair of your head will perish. 19 “By your endurance you will gain your lives.
Beware (pay or give attention) (4337)(prosecho from pros = before, toward + echo = hold) means literally to hold to, toward or before. Originally it was followed by the word "the mind" (nous) but at times "the mind" was omitted but still the idea of "the mind" was implied. To apply one’s self to. To attach one’s self to. Prosecho means to moor a ship, to tie it up. Prosecho was also used to mean “to remain on course”. Figuratively (see also below) the idea is to hold one's mind before then to take heed, to pay attention, to give heed, be in a state of alert, to watch out for or to be on guard. The word implies the giving one’s consent, as well as one’s attention. When used in this manner prosecho always warns of some type of danger (usually spiritual danger but occasionally physical)! Prosecho is not a call simply to notice or sense something, but to be on guard against it because it is so harmful (eg, the danger of practicing your righteousness for others to see, the danger of false prophets, false teachers and false teaching, the danger of the Pharisees and Sadducees). The idea is to turn one’s mind or attention to a thing by being on one’s guard against it.
for they will hand you over to the courts and scourge you in their synagogues - Jesus warns that persecution will be accompanied by painful punishment. Forewarned is forearmed! They would be flogged with a bastinado, which is a stick or club, which inflicted painful punishment. It would be at times like this that would need to remember the promise of future reward (Mt 5:10-12+). Future hope (not hope so, but hope sure) motivates present perseverance!
Scourge (3146)(mastigoo from mástix = plague, whip, scourge) means literally to flog or scourge. The scourge was first a whip used as an instrument of punishment and then figuratively came to mean to punish severely or to drive as if by blows of a whip. It was the normal and legal preliminary to crucifixion. In the case of Jesus (Luke 23:22+) it was inflicted before the sentence of crucifixion was pronounced. Pilate hoped to avert the extreme punishment and satisfy the Jews at the same time. The Jewish method of scourging, as described in the Mishnah, was by the use of 3 thongs of leather, the offender receiving 13 stripes on the bare breast and 13 on each shoulder (cf. the “forty stripes save one,” as administered to Paul 5 times [2 Corinthians 11:24]).
- be: Ps 2:1-6 Ac 5:25-27 12:1-4 23:33,34 24:1-26:32 2Ti 4:16,17
- for a: Mt 8:4 Mk 13:9 2Ti 1:8 Rev 1:9 6:9 11:7
Morris - This would not happen during the disciples' first missionary journey around Israel but was fulfilled in intense measure later. Jesus was giving instructions to His disciples not only for their immediate assignment, but for the future worldwide evangelization ministry He would give them and all subsequent disciples. The instructions from Matthew 10:16 to the end of the chapter apply to all believers from then until "the Son of man be come" (Matthew 10:23). (Defender's Study Bible)
- when: Mk 13:11-13 Lu 12:11 21:14,15
- take: Mt 6:25,31,34 Php 4:6 Jas 1:5
- it shall: Ex 4:12,15 Jer 1:7,9 Da 3:16-18 Ac 4:8-14 5:29-33 6:10 Ac 26:2-11 2Ti 4:17
But when they hand you over, do not worry about how or what you are to say; for it will be given you in that hour what you are to say
- but: 2Sa 23:2 Mk 12:36 Lu 11:13 21:15 Ac 2:4 4:8 6:10 7:55,56 Ac 28:25 1Pe 1:12 2Pe 1:21
- your: Mt 6:32 Lu 12:30-32
For it is not you who speak, but it is the Spirit of your Father who speaks in you
- brother: Mt 10:34-36 24:10 Mic 7:5,6 Zec 13:3 Mk 13:12,13 Lu 12:51-53 Lu 21:16,17
- children: 2Sa 16:11 17:1-4 Job 19:19
Brother will betray brother to death, and a father his child; and children will rise up against parents and cause them to be put to death
- will be hated: Mt 24:9 Isa 66:5,6 Lu 6:22 Joh 7:7 15:18,19 17:14 1Jn 3:13
- because of My name: Mt 10:39 5:11 Joh 15:21 Ac 9:16 2Co 4:11 Rev 2:3
- but: Mt 24:13 Da 12:12,13 Mk 13:13 Lu 8:15 Ro 2:7 Ga 6:9 Heb 3:14 Heb 6:11 Jas 1:12 Jude 1:20,21 Rev 2:7,10,17,26 3:21
You will be hated by all because of My name - Notice the by all, not a popular teaching! Not very encouraging. Why? Romans 1:30 explains that one trait of men who refuse the truth about God and refuse to give Him thanks is that they are given over to their depraved nature and one of the manifestations of that nature is hatred of God! (Ro 1:30+). The term of explanation because clearly explain why lost men hate saved men! So because they hate God, they hate Jesus the God-Man and they hate disciples, God's men and women!
THOUGHT - Needless to say when we are presenting the Good News of the Gospel, it is probably not wise to tell them if you believe in the Name above all names, you will be hated by all men! On the other hand as we are discipling new believers, we need to be careful NOT to avoid the truth of this teaching lest the disciple is caught unawares by a "surprise attack" from some godless individual! I was not discipled, despite asking many men in a local Bible church to disciple me after I was first born again, and learned painfully of the truth Jesus taught in this passage. And it almost destroyed my faith, except that God in His grace held me fast when I was falling fast into despair and disillusionment. The upshot is we must teach true disciples that they must count the cost (Lk 14:28KJV+ and see Luke 14:25-35+ for cost of being a disciple)
but it is the one who has endured to the end who will be saved - Do not misinterpret this teaching. Jesus is NOT saying our endurance will merit or earn salvation. What He is saying is that the one who endures to the end will demonstrated by that endurance that he or she is a genuine disciple. A parallel truth is seen in the parable of the sower/soils in Jesus' description of the fourth soil declaring "But the seed in the good soil, these are the ones who have heard the word in an honest and good heart, and hold it fast, and bear fruit with perseverance." (Lk 8:15+). How does a soil prove it is good soil in farming? It bears fruit. How does an individual prove they are good soil in the spiritual sense? They bear fruit. And how do they bear fruit? Just like a farmer does, with perseverance (hupomone, noun related to hupomeno "endured"). And how do we persevere? One way is by continually taking in the Word, including the Old Testament (see Ro 15:4+ where perseverance = hupomone). The ultimate way we persevere is because God gives us the supernatural power to persevere (Ro 15:5+). His Spirit within us gives us the desire (to persevere) and the power (to persevere) which is pleasing to Him (Php 2:13NLT+).
Endured (persevered) (5278)(hupomeno from hupó = under, as in under the rule of someone + méno = to abide or remain - see study of noun hupomone) means literally to remain under but not simply with resignation, but with a vibrant hope, a hope enlivened by the Spirit and the Word. The idea of enduring then is not just to "grin and bear it" but to remain under trials in a such a way that we glorify God as we learn the lessons the trials are meant to teach us, instead of seeking ways to get out from under (cf the prefix preposition "hupo" = under) the trials and be relieved of the pressure.
"True Christian perseverance is not tied to tenacity. It is rather the work of God the Holy Spirit in a believer's life. The starch in a saint's spine is shown by Scripture to be nothing less than the sanctifying work of the Holy Spirit. Only in this way can one explain the work of Gladys Aylward, a London parlor maid. Societies scorned her missionary application. She seemed too dull to master Chinese and fulfill her vision of serving in China. Realizing this, she scoured up her own fare to China and sailed in 1930. After slogging her way across Siberia she reached her field in remote Yangcheng. When the Japanese invaded in 1940 she led 100 children on an epic journey that caught the imagination of Hollywood (Ed: Watch the movie about her life - The Inn of the Sixth Happiness or DVD). In 1947 failing health forced her back to England where she crusaded for missions until her death in 1970. That was tenacity, not just British grit. It is God's persevering grace. (Detzler, Wayne E: New Testament Words in Today's Language. Victor. 1986)
- whenever: Mt 2:13 4:12 12:14,15 Lu 4:29-31 Joh 7:1 10:39-42 11:53,54 Ac 8:1 9:24,25 13:50,51 14:6,7,19,20 17:10,14 20:1
- Until: Mt 16:28 24:27,30,48 25:13 26:64 Mk 13:26 Lu 18:8 21:27
But whenever they persecute you in one city - Not if but when! Persecution is promised to followers of Jesus. Persecute is present tense speaking of habitual action.
THOUGHT - So certain is persecution, that if one says that they have never been persecuted by the Name of Jesus, then either they are not genuine believers in Jesus or they absolutely never tell anyone about their belief. While the latter is possible, it seems unlikely, but a genuine believer who has the Holy Spirit will to some degree live a holy (not perfection but direction) life that usually contrast significantly with the lifestyle of a lost person. And so they will give evidence of the fact that they are genuine believers and will likely experience persecution. Have you ever been persecuted for being a follower of Jesus?
Persecute (1377)(dioko from dío = pursue, prosecute, persecute) means literally to pursue as one does a fleeing enemy. It means to chase, harass, vex and pressure and was used for chasing down criminals. In this context it means to go after with the desire to harm. It gives us the picture of hounds on the hunt, pursuing after the fox and implies a continuing chase.
Flee to the next - Flee is a command in present imperative calling for one to continually flee.
For truly I say to you, you will not finish going through the cities of Israel - This is a passage that has divided commentators. Phil Newton writes that "Interpreters debate whether Christ meant (1) the immediate setting of carrying the gospel into Galilee prior to the Ascension, or (2) Christ delivering judgment upon reprobate Israel at the time of Jerusalem's fall in A.D. 70, or (3) Christ sending the Holy Spirit to comfort them, or (4) the return of Christ to judge the world. Strong cases can be built for both the second and fourth of these, Christ judging Israel toward the end of the Apostolic era as they had gone through the cities of Israel and Christ coming in global judgment. Perhaps the duplicity is intended, maybe even employing all of these to some degree in prophetic language (cf. Broadus, Selected Works, III, 228). Whichever it might be, the purpose is to encourage Christ's followers to stay at the work of spreading the gospel until Christ comes."
Until (See until) is an expression of time and means something will continue to happen up to a point and then it will not happen. In this case when Jesus returns one thing this "until" means is that persecution of disciples will end.
Believer's Study Bible - Some have incorrectly interpreted this verse to mean that Jesus was convinced that the mission of the Twelve would create a great repentance among Israel. Consequently, the kingdom of God in the form of its final, glorious manifestation would come, bringing the end of this age and ushering in the age to come. This would in fact happen before they had completed their mission. This verse, however, looks beyond the mission of the Twelve to a future mission to the world which will last until the coming in glory of the Son of Man, and will include Israel despite her blindness.
- 2Sa 11:11 Lu 6:40 Joh 13:16 15:20 Heb 12:2-4
A disciple is not above his teacher, nor a slave above his master - Christ is our Teacher and our Master, our Lord. Disciples do not "Make Jesus Lord" as we sometimes here people say! He is Lord! The issue is not to make Him Lord, but to bow to Him as Lord of our lives, submitting our will to His good and acceptable and perfect will (Ro 12:2b+).
Disciple (3101)(mathetes from manthano = to learn which Vine says is "from a root math, indicating thought accompanied by endeavor". Gives us our English = "mathematics") describes a person who learns from another by instruction, whether formal or informal. Discipleship includes the idea of one who intentionally learns by inquiry and observation (cf inductive Bible study) and thus mathetes is more than a mere pupil. A mathetes describes an adherent of a teacher.
THOUGHT - As as aside BE WARY of anyone who teaches that the terms “believer” and “disciple” are not synonymous. This is preposterous and gives people an "out" to be professors in Jesus, but failing to genuinely follow His teachings and His steps. This is a "slippery slope" teaching and "their foot shall slide in due time: for the day of their calamity is at hand, and the things that shall come upon them make haste." (Dt 32:35 - used by Jonathan Edwards in "Sinners in the Hand of an Angry God" a truth which resulted in "believers' awakening to the truth that they were called to be disciples and brought revival to many previously dead hearts.) They are clearly synonymous. Luke called the first believers in the church in Acts disciples far more often than believers!
Disciple in Acts - Acts 6:1; Acts 6:2; Acts 6:7; Acts 9:1; Acts 9:10; Acts 9:19; Acts 9:25; Acts 9:26; Acts 9:36; Acts 9:38; Acts 11:26; Acts 11:29; Acts 13:52; Acts 14:20; Acts 14:21; Acts 14:22; Acts 14:28; Acts 15:10; Acts 16:1; Acts 18:23; Acts 18:27; Acts 19:1; Acts 19:9; Acts 19:30; Acts 20:1; Acts 20:30; Acts 21:4; Acts 21:16
Believer in Acts - Acts 5:14, Acts 10:45, Acts 16:1
Matthew 10:25 “It is enough for the disciple that he become like his teacher, and the slave like his master. If they have called the head of the house Beelzebul, how much more will they malign the members of his household!
- If: Mt 9:34 12:24 Mk 3:22 Lu 11:15 Joh 7:20 8:48,52 10:20
BLASPHEMY - CALLING JESUS
LORD OF THE FLIES!
It is enough for the disciple that he become like his teacher, and the slave like his master. If they have called the head of the house Beelzebul, how much more will they malign the members of his household - Jesus' enemies accused Him of being possessed by Beelzebul. "The scribes (THE "SUPER" RELIGIOUS OF THE DAY!) who came down from Jerusalem were saying, “He is possessed by Beelzebul,” and “He casts out the demons by the ruler of the demons.” (Mark 3:22+).
Beelzebul (sometimes "Beelzebub")(954)(beelzeboul, variant reading Beelzebub after an error in the Latin Vulgate. Transliterated from Hebrew Ba'al Zebub) originally referred to a Philistine deity (a guardian deity of the Ekronites) which in Hebrew meant "Baal (lord) of flies" (2 Ki 1:2, 6), the "fly-baal," or "fly-god," whose office was to protect his worshippers from the torment of the gnats and flies with which that region was infested. In Jesus' day this so-called false god is derisively called Beel-zebul (NIV Beelzebub), "lord of dung." In Jesus' reply to the accusation of the Jews in Mt 12:24 that He cast out demons by Beelzebul, He answers in Mt 12:26 substituting the name Satan which clearly identifies the Jewish references to Beelzebul as another name for Satan."The Jews seem to have applied this appellation to Satan, as being the author of all the pollutions and abominations of idol-worship." (Am Tract Society) Used 7x all in the Gospels - Matt. 10:25; Matt. 12:24; Matt. 12:27; Mk. 3:22; Lk. 11:15; LGA. 11:18; Lk. 11:19
- Fear: Mt 10:28 Pr 28:1 29:25 Isa 41:10,14 43:1,2 51:7,8,12,13 Jer 1:8,17,18 Eze 2:6 Ac 4:13,19 1Pe 3:14
- for: Mk 4:22 Lu 8:17 12:2,3 24:47 Ac 1:8 1Co 4:5
Mk 4:22 “For nothing is hidden, except to be revealed; nor has anything been secret, but that it would come to light.
Luke 8:17 “For nothing is hidden that will not become evident, nor anything secret that will not be known and come to light.
Therefore do not fear them - Do not fear is present imperative with a negative which means either stop fearing or do not begin fearing them. Either way such courage is not natural but is supernaturally enabled by the Holy Spirit that they might obey Jesus' command!
There is nothing concealed that will not be revealed, or hidden that will not be known - So while much of Jesus' teaching was "concealed" and/or "hidden" from the Jews because they failed to belief and respond to His easier to understand teaching, such as "“The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent and believe in the gospel.” (Mark 1:15). To refuse to repent and believe in the gospel would result in Jesus' teaching taking on a punitive aspect, punitive because they refused to accept the plain truth. The result was that the plain truth would become non-revealed truth and hidden truth to their stubborn and rebellious hearts and minds. This same principle is operative today, so the warning for you if you are not a believer, is take care how you listen (cf Mk 4:23+, Lk 8:18+), for if you continue to reject Jesus' clear teaching of truth, you will progressively become less and less able to understand any of His truth! The ultimate end is you will be damned to Hell, but not because that was God's desire or wish for you! No, it would be because you made a conscious, willful choice to reject the light offered to you again and again, until one day the "light bulb" burns out so to speak. Dear unbelieving reader, listen up, "Behold (idou - command to pay attention!) now is “THE ACCEPTABLE TIME,” behold (idou), now is “THE DAY OF SALVATION!" (2 Cor 6:2) Benjamin Franklin was correct in secular matters when he advised "Don't put off until tomorrow what you can do today!" How much more true in spiritual matters! Don't put off until tomorrow to receive God's gracious gift of salvation by grace through faith in Christ, but accept His kind, mercy filled offer today!
- I tell: Mt 13:1-17,34,35 Lu 8:10 Joh 16:1,13,25,29 2Co 3:12
- Proclaim: Pr 1:20-23 8:1-5 Ac 5:20,28 17:17
What I tell you in the darkness - To what is Jesus referring? This is a reference to the transition in His teaching from open proclamation to the masses to parabolic proclamation to the masses. In Matthew 13:34-35+ Jesus said " All these things Jesus spoke to the crowds in parables, and He did not speak to them without a parable.) This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophet: “I WILL OPEN MY MOUTH IN PARABLES; I WILL UTTER THINGS HIDDEN SINCE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD.”
Speak in the light- To speak in the light meant the disciples were to speak to people not in parables that they could not understand but with truth that could be understood, just as one can see things better in the light than in the darkness.
B B Warfield has a very insightful comment on why Jesus spoke in darkness (in parables) but at the same time was instructing His disciples to speak in the light - The strength of our Lord’s emphasis on this important declaration just on this occasion finds its explanation of course in the need that had arisen to guard from misapprehension His own methods of teaching. For a change had just been introduced into His modes of instruction, from which His disciples might be tempted to infer that Christianity was a double system, with an esoteric and an exoteric aspect. Our Lord, who had hitherto spoken plainly, had suddenly begun to speak in parables; and He had not concealed from His disciples that His object was to veil His meaning. Was there not introduced thus the full-blown system of esoterism? It is to correct this not unnatural inference that our Lord declares so emphatically that the truth He is teaching—even in parabolic form—is a lamp, and has for its one end to shine; that what is now hid and made secret under this parabolic veil, is hid and made secret not that it may not be made known, but just that it may be made known. The impulse to use parables thus arises from wisdom and prudence in teaching, not from a desire to conceal. He teaches in parables in order that He may teach; not in order that He may not teach (ED: RECALL THE TIME HE TAUGHT OPENLY IN NAZARETH AND IT AROUSED SUCH OPPOSITION THAT THEY TRIED TO KILL HIM - Lk 4:24-29+). This method of veiled teaching, in a word, is forced on Him by the conditions under which He is teaching and arises from the state of mind of His hearers (ED: MOST OF WHOM REJECTED HIS TRUTH); it is not chosen by Him in order to conceal His meaning, but in order to convey it to those for whom it is intended (ED: GOOD SOILS - THOSE WHO HAVE EARS TO HEAR). It is with Him either to teach thus or not to teach at all; and He consequently teaches thus. This is the fundamental doctrine of parabolic teaching. I do not say it is the whole account to be given of it....the adoption of parabolic teaching has a punitive side—as, indeed, it could not fail to have—with reference to those who could and would not endure sound doctrine; whom it puzzled, therefore, rather than instructed. But this is the fundamental account of it (parabolic teaching).
and what you hear whispered in your ear, proclaim upon the housetops.
- Do not fear: Mt 10:26 Isa 8:12,13 51:7,12 Da 3:10-18 Lu 12:4,5 Ac 20:23,24 Ac 21:13 Ro 8:35-39 2Ti 4:6-8 Heb 11:35 1Pe 3:14 Rev 2:10
- Him: Ps 119:120 Ec 5:7 8:12,13 Isa 66:2 Jer 5:22 Heb 12:28,29
- Who is able: Mt 25:46 Mk 9:43-48 Lu 16:22-26 Joh 5:29 2Th 1:8-10 Rev 20:10-15
Do not fear those who kill the body but are unable to kill the soul - Do not fear is present imperative with a negative which means either stop fearing or do not begin fearing them. Either way such courage is not natural but is supernaturally enabled by the Holy Spirit that they might obey Jesus' command! Though Satan may have great power (Mt 6:13; Mt 24:22 1 Jn :19), only God can destroy soul and body in hell.
"But even if you should suffer for the sake of righteousness, you are blessed. AND DO NOT FEAR THEIR INTIMIDATION, AND DO NOT BE TROUBLED. but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you, yet with gentleness and reverence (HOLY FEAR);" (1 Pe 3:14-15+)
Do not fear death, a defeated foe for as Paul wrote
“O DEATH, WHERE IS YOUR VICTORY? O DEATH, WHERE IS YOUR STING?” 56The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law; 57 but thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ. 58 Therefore, my beloved brethren, be steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your toil is not in vain in the Lord. (1 Co 15:55-58+).
But rather fear Him Who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell - Fear Him or fear God is in the present imperative which also calls for dependence on the Holy Spirit to obey! Do you fear men or do you fear God? (cf Pr 29:25) How does one fear God in practical terms? Here's a simple test to determine whether you really fear God -- Ask yourself this question: "Do the words, thoughts and deeds of the last 24 hours of my life truly reflect a reverence (reverential fear) of the Lord, Who alone is "Holy, Holy, Holy"? (And by the way, none of us are perfect, which is why 1 Jn 1:9+ is such a gift to cleanse us each new day.) If you find your "fear factor" is diminishing, and to sin willfully no longer grieves you, then you need to beg that the Spirit would enable in you a strong desire to choose the fear of the Lord (Pr 1:29+, cf Lk 10:42+, Heb 11:25+, Pr 23:17).
Destroy (622)(apollumi from apo = away from or wholly + olethros = state of utter ruin <> ollumi = to destroy <> root of apollyon [Re 9:11] = destroyer) means to destroy utterly but not to cause one to cease to exist. Apollumi as it relates to men, is not the loss of being per se, but is more the loss of well-being. It means to ruin so that the person ruined can no longer serve the use for which he or she was designed. The gospel promises everlasting life for the one who believes. The failure to possess this life will result in utter ruin and eternal uselessness (but not a cessation of existence) In summary, apollumi then has the basic meaning of describing that which is ruined and is no longer usable for its intended purpose. Woe!
- two: Lu 12:6,7
- Cent Mt 18:28."
- and one: Ps 104:27-30
Are not two sparrows sold for a cent? Henry Morris - Jesus also said that "five sparrows [are] sold for two farthings" (Luke 12:6). Evidently the sparrow merchants of that day had already introduced the sales method of quantity discounts!
And yet not one of them will fall to the ground apart from your Father. "God cares deeply about every creature in His creation. Man has been given dominion over all of them but as a steward, not a spoiler (Genesis 1:26-28; Job 38,39)." (Morris)
- 1Sa 14:45 2Sa 14:11 1Ki 1:52 Lu 12:7 21:18 Ac 27:34
But the very hairs of your head are all numbered.
- Mt 6:26 12:11,12 Ps 8:5 Lu 12:24 1Co 9:9,10
So do not fear - Third time - Mt 10:26, 28, 31! Remember that this calls for a lifestyle attitude - Do not fear is present imperative with a negative which means either stop fearing or do not begin fearing them. Either way such courage is not natural but is supernaturally enabled by the Holy Spirit that they might obey Jesus' command!
you are more valuable than many sparrows
- confesses: Ps 119:46 Lu 12:8,9 Joh 9:22 Ro 10:9,10 1Ti 6:12,13 2Ti 1:8 1Jn 4:15 Rev 2:13
- him: Mt 25:34 1Sa 2:30 Rev 3:5
Therefore everyone who confesses Me before men, I will also confess him before My Father who is in heaven.
Ryrie says " To openly confess Christ in the face of extreme persecution would prove the reality of one's faith and result in His owning us before the Father." (RSB)
- Denies Me: Mt 26:70-75 Mk 14:30,72 Lu 9:26 12:9 2Ti 2:12 2Pe 2:1 1Jn 2:23
But whoever denies Me before men - To be sure every time we sin (willfully or ignorantly) we are in a sense denying Jesus is Lord of our life. But here Jesus is speaking of a hardhearted, stubborn, continual denial of Jesus. To deny Jesus simply leaves no other avenue for salvation and by default will result in eternal death!
Bible Knowledge Commentary "Instead they were faithfully to confess (acknowledge, homologsei) Jesus before men (v. 32). This would result in the Lords acknowledging His servants before His Father; but failure to confess Him would result in His denial of them. Of the original 12 Apostles, only one, Judas Iscariot, fell into the latter category.
I will also deny him before My Father who is in heaven - This frightening statement could not be much clearer! Jesus is NOT saying "I will tell My Father not to give this person rewards," as some falsely teach!
MacDonald "Denial of Christ on earth will be repaid with denial before God in heaven. To deny Christ in this sense means to refuse to recognize His claims over one’s life. Those whose lives say, in effect, “I never knew You” will hear Him say at last, “I never knew you.” (cf Mt 7:23+) The Lord is not referring to a temporary denial of Him under pressure, as in Peter’s case, but to that kind of denial that is habitual and final." (BBC)
Not everyone who says to Me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of My Father who is in heaven will enter. “Many will say to Me on that day, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in Your name, and in Your name cast out demons, and in Your name perform many miracles?’ “And then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you; DEPART FROM ME, YOU WHO PRACTICE LAWLESSNESS.’ (cf Mt 7:21-23+)
A T Robertson writes "Note accusative here (case of extension), saying “no” to Christ, complete breach. This is a solemn law, not a mere social breach, this cleavage by Christ of the man who repudiates him, public and final." (Word Pictures in the NT)
Paul writes that
"If we endure, we will also reign with Him; If we deny Him, He also will deny us." (2Ti 2:12)
Comment - Sadly, some well known teachers falsely teach that what Paul is saying is that this person is a believer who departs from following Jesus for the rest of their life after making a profession of faith. Think about this a moment. Would such a person who loves unholiness down here REALLY all of a sudden "love holiness" in Heaven? It is neither logical nor theologically sound! Beware of this genre of teaching, which is a form of EASY BELIEVISM! Others teach that Jesus is not speaking of salvation but of rewards, so to deny Him on earth is to lose rewards in Heaven. I think this is a dangerous teaching that can take a man straight to hell if he professes Jesus but lives like the devil all of his days.
NET Note - "renounce," "disown," "repudiate." It is important to note that the object of Christ's denial is "us." The text does not contain an implied object complement ("he will deny us [x]"), which would mean that Christ was withholding something from us (for example, "The owner denied his pets water"), since the verb avrne,omai (arneomai) is not one of the category of verbs that normally occurs in these constructions (see ExSyn 182–89).
- that I: Jer 15:10 Lu 12:49-53 Joh 7:40-52 Ac 13:45-50 14:2,4
Do not think that I came to bring peace on the earth; I did not come to bring peace, but a sword.
- Mt 10:21 24:10 Mic 7:5 Mk 13:12 Lu 21:16
- Ge 3:15 4:8-10 37:17-28 1Sa 17:28 2Sa 16:11 Job 19:13-19 Ps 41:9 55:13 Jer 12:6 20:10 Mic 7:6 Joh 13:8
and A MAN’S ENEMIES WILL BE THE MEMBERS OF HIS HOUSEHOLD.
- loves: Mt 22:37 De 33:9 Lu 14:26 Joh 5:23 21:15-17 2Co 5:14,15 Php 3:7-9
- not: Mt 22:8 Lu 20:35 21:36 2Th 1:5-7 Rev 3:4
He who loves father or mother more than Me is not worthy of Me; and he who loves son or daughter more than Me is not worthy of Me.
- Mt 16:24 27:32 Mk 8:34 10:21 Lu 9:23,24 14:27 Joh 19:17
And he who does not take his cross and follow after Me is not worthy of Me. - This reference to a cross needed no explanation, for the Jews had seen thousands of their countrymen crucified by the Romans. Allegiance even to death is demanded of Christ's followers.
- Mt 16:25,26 Mk 8:35,36 Lu 17:33 Joh 12:25 Php 1:20,21 2Ti 4:6-8 Rev 2:10
He who has found his life will lose it, and he who has lost his life for My sake will find it.
Henry Morris - This apparently paradoxical principle was emphasized by the Lord Jesus more often than any other. The same truth is also stressed by Paul (Ro 12:1,2 2Co5:14,15 6:9,10 Gal 2:20 Php 1:20,21 2:5-11 2Ti 2:11,12 4:6-8).This divine paradox of dying to self and living unto God is the very essence of a truly happy and fulfilling life in this world and eternal life in the world to come. (Defender's Study Bible)
- He who: Mt 18:5 25:40,45 Lu 9:48 10:16 Joh 13:20 20:21 2Co 5:20 Ga 4:14 1Th 4:8
- he who receives: Joh 5:23 12:44-49 Php 2:10,11 1Jn 2:22,23 2Jn 1:9
He who receives you receives Me, and he who receives Me receives Him who sent Me.
Matthew 10:41 “He who receives a prophet in the name of a prophet shall receive a prophet’s reward; and he who receives a righteous man in the name of a righteous man shall receive a righteous man’s reward.
- receives a prophet: Ge 20:7 1Ki 17:9-15,20-24 18:3,4 2Ki 4:8-10,16,17,32-37 Ac 16:15 Ro 16:1-4,23 2Ti 1:16-18 Heb 6:10 3Jn 1:5-8
- a righteous man: Mt 6:1,4,6,18 16:27 25:34-40 Isa 3:10 Lu 14:13,14 1Co 9:17 2Th 1:6,7 2Jn 1:8
- one: Mt 8:5,6 18:3-6,10,14 25:40 Zec 13:7 Mk 9:42 Lu 17:2 1Co 8:10-13
- a cup: Mk 9:41 12:42,43 14:7,8 2Co 8:12
- he shall: Pr 24:14 Lu 6:35 2Co 9:6-15 Php 4:15-19 Heb 6:10
The key word is "COLD" = entails going back to well & drawing new aliquot of water...instead of taking water from that which had been setting all day from the AM trip to the well...this water would have become tepid or warm...so ''cold'' speaks of extra effort above and beyond the call of duty) to drink, truly I say to you he shall not lose his